HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models

Version E-2010.12, December 2010

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ii

HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12

Contents
Inside This Manual. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The HSPICE Documentation Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Customer Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi xii xiii xiv xv

1.

Overview of Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Models to Define Netlist Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supported Models for Specific Simulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subcircuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safe Operating Area Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Model LEVEL Parameter Must be a Constant Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use of Example Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 2 3 3 3 5 6 6

2.

Passive Device Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resistor Device Model and Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wire RC Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resistor and Wire RC Model Parameter Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resistor Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resistor Model Selector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resistor Model Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wire Resistance Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wire Capacitance Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resistor Noise Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resistor Temperature Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noise Parameter for Resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evaluating Flicker Noise of Resistors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL2 CMC R2 Resistor Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 8 8 10 11 12 12 12 13 15 15 16 16 20

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LEVEL 2 Model Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL 5 CMC R3 Resistor Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Level 5 Instance and Model Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CMC R3 Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacitor Device Model and Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacitance Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parameter Limit Checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacitor Device Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effective Capacitance Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacitance Voltage Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacitance Temperature Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inductor Device Model and Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inductor Core Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inductor Device Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Checking Parameter Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inductor Temperature Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jiles-Atherton Ferromagnetic Core Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Discontinuities in Inductance Due to Hysteresis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Optimizing the Extraction of Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20 24 25 32 32 32 34 34 34 35 35 36 37 40 40 40 41 45 46

3.

Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diode Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Diode Model Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Control Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bypassing Latent Devices (HSPICE only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Scaling Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Capacitor Equation Selector Option — DCAP . . . . . . . . . Using Control Options for Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specifying Junction Diode Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Junction Model Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Junction Model Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geometric Scaling for Diode Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL=1 Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL=3 Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defining Diode Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diode Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Diode Equivalent Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determining Temperature Effects on Junction Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Junction Diode Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49 49 50 50 51 51 51 52 52 53 54 61 61 62 63 63 64 66 69

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Using Junction DC Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Diode Capacitance Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Noise Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature Compensation Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the JUNCAP Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUNCAP1 Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Model Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUNCAP Model Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON/OFF Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DC Operating Point Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature, Geometry and Voltage Dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUNCAP Capacitor and Leakage Current Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUNCAP2 Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUNCAP2 Model Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Usage in HSPICE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Model Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Fowler-Nordheim Diode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fowler-Nordheim Diode Model Parameters LEVEL=2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Fowler-Nordheim Diode Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fowler-Nordheim Diode Capacitances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Philips D500 Model (Advanced Diode Model), Level 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Philips D-500 Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equivalent Circuits and Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Converting National Semiconductor Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Scaled Diode Subcircuit Definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DC Operating Point Output of Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70 73 74 75 78 79 80 82 83 83 85 85 85 87 90 90 91 92 95 95 96 97 97 97 98 105 106 107

4.

JFET and MESFET Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of JFETs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specifying a Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bypassing Latent Devices (HSPICE Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of Capacitor Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Model Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacitor Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JFET and MESFET Equivalent Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

109 109 110 110 112 113 113 114 114

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Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JFET Current Conventions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JFET Equivalent Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transconductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Output Conductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JFET and MESFET Model Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JFET and MESFET Model Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACM (Area Calculation Method) Parameter Equations . . . . . . . . . . JFET and MESFET Capacitances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gate Capacitance CAPOP=0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gate Capacitance CAPOP=1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gate Capacitance CAPOP=2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacitance Comparison (CAPOP=1 and CAPOP=2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JFET and MESFET DC Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DC Model LEVEL=1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DC Model LEVEL=2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DC Model LEVEL=3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JFET and MESFET Noise Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noise Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JFET and MESFET Temperature Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature Compensation Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy Gap Temperature Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturation Current Temperature Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gate Capacitance Temperature Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Threshold Voltage Temperature Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mobility Temperature Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parasitic Resistor Temperature Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TriQuint (TOM) Extensions to LEVEL=3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL=7 TOM3 (TriQuint’s Own Model III) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the TOM3 Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Model Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DC Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacitance Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL=8 Materka Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Materka Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DC Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gate Capacitance Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noise Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

114 114 115 115 115 119 120 128 130 130 132 133 134 135 135 136 136 138 138 140 142 142 143 143 144 145 145 145 147 147 148 148 149 152 153 153 154 155 157

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5.

BJT Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of BJT Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BJT Control Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BJT Model Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BJT Basic Model Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bypassing Latent Devices (HSPICE Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BJT Model Temperature Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BJT Device Equivalent Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BJT Current Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BJT Equivalent Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BJT Model Equations (NPN and PNP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transistor Geometry in Substrate Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DC Model Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Substrate Current Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Base Charge Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variable Base Resistance Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BJT Capacitance Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Base-Emitter Capacitance Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determining Base-Emitter Diffusion Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determining Base-Emitter Depletion Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determining Base Collector Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determining Base Collector Diffusion Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . Determining Base Collector Depletion Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . External Base — Internal Collector Junction Capacitance . . . . . . . Substrate Capacitance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Substrate Capacitance Equation: Lateral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Substrate Capacitance Equation: Vertical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Excess Phase Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defining BJT Noise Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defining Noise Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BJT Temperature Compensation Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy Gap Temperature Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturation/Beta Temperature Equations, TLEV=0 or 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

159 160 160 161 161 161 162 163 163 171 176 177 177 178 188 188 189 190 191 192 193 193 193 194 195 195 195 196 197 197 197 197 198 198 199 199 200

vii

. . . . Converting National Semiconductor Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effects of VBIC99. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Self-heating and Excess Phase . . Usage Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mextram 504 Update Releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Internal Transistors . . LEVEL=6 Model Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . External Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL=8 HICUM Model . . . . . . . Epitaxial Current Source Iepi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noise Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TLEV=1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TLEV=3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL=9 Element Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturation Temperature Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 202 203 205 205 206 208 209 211 212 214 214 214 220 220 221 222 223 224 228 230 231 242 243 243 245 246 247 248 249 251 255 256 263 264 264 265 viii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parasitic Resistor Temperature Equations . . . . . . . . LEVEL=9 VBIC99 Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peripheral Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Epitaxial Charge Storage Elements Ci and Cx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VBIC Bipolar Transistor Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacitance Temperature Equations . . . . . . Notes on Using VBIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL=8 Element Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public HICUM Model . . . . . . . . . . VBIC Parameters . . . . . . . . LEVEL=8 Model Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defining Scaled BJT Subcircuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL=6 Model Parameters (504) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL=6 Element Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HICUM Model Advantages. . . . .Contents Saturation and Temperature Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BJT Quasi-Saturation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Input Netlist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BJT LEVEL=2 Temperature Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 503) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notes on Using MEXTRAM 503 or 504 Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HSPICE HICUM Model vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HICUM LEVEL=2 Circuit Diagram . . . . . History of VBIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 504) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . DC Operating Point Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL=9 Model Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HICUM0 Model vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equivalent Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL=13 Model Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature Dependence of Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HICUM LEVEL=2 Model . . Equivalent Circuit . LEVEL=13 HICUM0 Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Model Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analog Device Models . . . Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Series Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL=13 Element Syntax . . . Usage Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example Model Statement for BJT LEVEL=11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depletion Capacitances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HICUM0 Model Advantages. . Charge Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noise Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noise . . . . . Base Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL=11 Element Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bipolar Transistor Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Model Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of Library Listings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature Dependence of Other Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 266 272 277 278 280 280 281 282 283 284 287 287 288 289 289 289 291 291 292 298 298 300 306 307 309 309 309 310 310 311 316 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 317 318 322 323 ix . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Early Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finding Device Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Behavioral Device Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Series Resistances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Substrate current . . . . . Model Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Diode Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 x . . . . . JFET and MESFET Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 327 329 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmission Line Models . . . . . . . . .

For descriptions of the other manuals in the HSPICE documentation set. Passive Device Models Describes the elements and models you can use to create a netlist in HSPICE. inductor. Describes passive devices you can include in an HSPICE netlist. and capacitor models. Chapter Description Chapter 1.About This Manual This manual describes standard models that you can use when simulating your circuit designs in HSPICE or HSPICE RF: ■ ■ ■ ■ Passive devices Diodes JFET and MESFET devices BJT devices Inside This Manual This manual contains the chapters described below. Describes how to use BJT models in HSPICE circuit simulations. see the next section. The HSPICE Documentation Set. Chapter 3. Diodes Chapter 4. Finding Device Libraries HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. BJT Models Appendix A. including resistor. Overview of Models Chapter 2. Describes model parameters and scaling effects for geometric and nongeometric junction diodes.12 xi . Describes how to use JFET and MESFET models in HSPICE circuit simulations. JFET and MESFET Models Chapter 5. Lists device libraries you can use in HSPICE.

12 . Describes use of the HSPICE simulator integration to the Cadence tool. Describes the AvanWaves tool. Describes use of the Simulation Interface with other EDA tools for HSPICE.The HSPICE Documentation Set The HSPICE Documentation Set This manual is a part of the HSPICE documentation set. This is the main HSPICE user guide. which you can use to display waveforms generated during HSPICE circuit design simulation. Describes how to use special set of analysis and design capabilities added to HSPICE to support RF and high-speed circuit design. xii HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Describes how to use HSPICE to maintain signal integrity in your chip design. which includes the following manuals: Manual Description HSPICE User Guide: Simulation and Analysis Describes how to use HSPICE to simulate and analyze your circuit designs. HSPICE User Guide: Signal Integrity HSPICE User Guide: RF Analysis HSPICE Reference Manual: Commands and Control Options HSPICE Reference Manual: MOSFET Models HSPICE Integration to CadenceTM Virtuoso® Analog Design Environment User Guide AMS Discovery Simulation Interface Guide for HSPICE AvanWaves User Guide Describes available MOSFET models you can use when simulating your circuit designs in HSPICE. and includes simulation applications. Provides reference information for HSPICE and HSPICE RF commands and options.

the Index directory. Indicates a user-defined value. the HSPICE documentation files.. Indicates user input — text you type verbatim — in syntax and examples. Conventions The following typographical conventions are used in Synopsys HSPICE documentation. (This is the default installation for Synopsys documentation. pinN HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Conventions Searching Across the HSPICE Documentation Set Synopsys includes an index with your HSPICE documentation that lets you search the entire HSPICE documentation set for a particular topic or keyword. such as object_name.12 xiii . Bold indicates a GUI element.pdx file must reside in the same directory. For information on how to perform searches across multiple PDF documents. and the index. Note: To use this feature. Convention Courier Italic Bold Description Indicates command syntax. You can also invoke HSPICE and RF documentation in a browser-based help system by entering-help on your terminal command line when the HSPICE tool is open.. such as: write_file [-f filename] . you can generate a list of hits that are hyper-linked to the occurrences of your search term. see the HSPICE release notes. Adobe Acrobat must be invoked as a standalone application rather than as a plug-in to your web browser. [ ] Denotes optional parameters. In a single operation. Indicates that parameters can be repeated as many times as necessary: pin1 pin2 ..) Also.. This provides access to all the HSPICE manuals with the exception of the AvanWaves User Guide which is available in PDF format only.

click Help on the SolvNet menu bar. 2. The link to any recorded training is https://solvnet. Indicates a path to a menu command. and entering a call to the Support Center. such as opening the Edit menu and choosing Copy. (If you do not have a Synopsys user name and password. SolvNet also gives you access to a wide range of Synopsys online services. such as low | medium | high + / Edit > Copy Indicates a continuation of a command line.com/trainingcenter/view.synopsys. which include downloading software. follow the instructions to register with SolvNet. To access SolvNet: 1.com.Customer Support Convention Description | Indicates a choice among alternatives. enter your user name and password. Indicates a keyboard combination. Indicates levels of directory structure.12 . Accessing SolvNet SolvNet includes an electronic knowledge base of technical articles and answers to frequently asked questions about Synopsys tools.synopsys.) If you need help using SolvNet. If prompted. Control-c Customer Support Customer support is available through SolvNet online customer support and through contacting the Synopsys Technical Support Center.faces xiv HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Go to the SolvNet Web page at http://solvnet. such as holding down the Control key and pressing c. viewing Documentation on the Web.

Acknowledgments Access recent release update training by going to https://solvnet. Send an e-mail message to your local support center. Call (650) 584-4200 from Canada.faces Contacting the Synopsys Technical Support Center If you have problems.synopsys. questions.synopsys.12 xv .com/support/support_ctr. ■ ■ Telephone your local support center.synopsys. • • E-mail support_center@synopsys. Find other local support center e-mail addresses at http://www. you can contact the Synopsys Technical Support Center in the following ways: ■ Open a call to your local support center from the Web by going to http://solvnet. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Kundert and the University of California. Find other local support center telephone numbers at http://www.com/search/advanced_search.com from within North America.synopsys. • • • Acknowledgments Portions Copyright (c) 1985-90 by Kenneth S.com/EnterACall (Synopsys user name and password required).com/support/support_ctr. or suggestions. Portions Copyright (c) 1988-90 Regents of the University of California. Call (800) 245-8005 from within the continental United States.

Acknowledgments xvi HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 .

You can use your HSPICE-format netlist to simulate your circuit to help you verify. Diodes Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs). JFET and MESFET Models Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MESFETs).12 . Your netlist can include several types of elements: ■ Passive elements. see Listing of Demonstration Input Files for paths to demo files. JFET and MESFET Models Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs). see Chapter 2. see Chapter 4. and debug your design. see Chapter 5. HSPICE ships hundreds of examples for your use. before you turn that design into an actual electronic circuit. see Chapter 3. a netlist consists of a series of elements that define the individual components of the overall circuit. BJT Models S element 1 ■ Active elements: • • • • ■ Transmission lines (see the HSPICE Signal Integrity Guide): • HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. A circuit netlist describes the basic functionality of an electronic circuit that you are designing. see Chapter 4. analyze. In HSPICE format.1 1 Overview of Models Describes the elements and models you can use to create a netlist in HSPICE and HSPICE RF. Passive Device Models • • • • Resistors Capacitors Inductors Mutual Inductors Diodes.

When you use these models. An individual JFET or MESFET element in your netlist can refer to one of these models for its definition. Eight different versions (or levels) of JFET and MESFET models for use with HSPICE are supplied. see the HSPICE MOSFET Models Manual. Referring to standard models in this way reduces the amount of time required to: ■ ■ ■ Create the netlist. Using Models to Define Netlist Elements Supported Models for Specific Simulators Subcircuits Safe Operating Area Warnings Model LEVEL Parameter Must be a Constant Value Use of Example Syntax This chapter discusses these topics: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Using Models to Define Netlist Elements A series of standard models have been provided with the software. Each model is like a template that defines various versions of each supported element type used in an HSPICE-format netlist.12 . Simulate and debug your circuit design. Individual elements in your netlist can refer to these standard models for their basic definitions. 2 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. you do not need to define all of the characteristics (called parameters) of each JFET or MESFET element within your netlist. Turn your circuit design into actual circuit hardware. That is.Chapter 1: Overview of Models Using Models to Define Netlist Elements • • • ■ T element U element W element Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs). you can quickly and efficiently create a netlist and simulate your circuit design.

You must already have defined that subcircuit in your netlist by using a . Subcircuits X<subcircuit_name> adds an instance of a subcircuit to your netlist.MODEL MOD1 NPN <parameters> You can specify parameters in both element and model statements. You can include these models in HSPICE-format netlists. the device type might be NPN or PNP. When your netlist refers to predefined device models. Q3 3 2 5 MOD1 <parameters> . use both an element and a model statement. If you specify the same parameter in both an element and a model. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.SUBCKT command. if you do not define the parameter locally). and the risk of errors. a BJT. The model statement specifies the type of device — for example. Supported Models for Specific Simulators This manual describes individual models that have been provided. The element statement uses the simulation device model name to reference the model statement. HSPICE supports a specific subset of the available models. The following example uses the MOD1 name to refer to a BJT model. compared to fully defining each element within your netlist.MACRO or . Selecting Models To specify a device in your netlist. each element that refers to a model is known as an instance of that model. then the element parameter (local to the specific instance of the model) always overrides the model parameter (global default for all instances of the model.12 3 . you reduce both the time required to create and simulate a netlist. This manual describes the Synopsys device models for passive and active elements. The example uses an NPN model type to describe an NPN transistor.Chapter 1: Overview of Models Supported Models for Specific Simulators Within your netlist.

HSPICE or HSPICE RF does not need additional calculation time to evaluate multiple subcircuits. This argument sets a different temperature in subcircuits than the global temperature. Multiplier.OPTION XDTEMP. followed by up to 15 alphanumeric characters. Do not assign a negative value or zero as the M value. HSPICE or HSPICE RF generates a warning message.OPTION HIER_SCALE. This keyword works only when the you set . X1 2 4 17 31 MULTI WN = 100 LN = 5 4 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Default=0. but is overridden by a value set in a . Example 1 The following example calls a subcircuit model named MULTI.SUBCKT statement (not shown). Syntax X [subcircuit_name] n1 [n2 n3 …] subnam [parnam = val &] [M = val] [S=val] [DTEMP=val] Argument Definition X subcircuit_name Subcircuit element name. A parameter name set to a value (val) for use only in the subcircuit. This can occur if you use an existing . Must begin with an X.12 . Subcircuit model reference name. The subcircuit name is X1. Makes the subcircuit appear as M subcircuits in parallel. n1 … subnam parnam M S DTEMP Element temperature difference with respect to the circuit temperature in Celsius.PARAM statement.ic file (initial conditions) to initialize a circuit that you modified since you created the . It overrides a parameter value in the subcircuit definition.0. Scales a subcircuit. see S (Scale) Parameter in the HSPICE User Guide: Simulation and Analysis. This keyword works only if you set . For more information about the S parameter. Node names for external reference.ic file.Chapter 1: Overview of Models Subcircuits If you initialize a non-existent subcircuit node. You can use this multiplier to characterize circuit loading. All subcircuit names must begin with X. It assigns the WN = 100 and LN = 5 parameters in the .

etc.option WARN=0 See the following control options for details: ■ ■ . The subcircuit consists of two 1 ohm resistors in series.EOM XYYY 5 6 YYY VCC = 3V Safe Operating Area Warnings The following warning message is issued when terminal voltages of a device (MOSFET.) exceed their safe operating area (SOA): **warning**(filename:line number) resulted during SOA check <node voltage name> (=val) of <device/element name> has exceeded <node voltage name>_max (=val) To turn it off use .OPTION WARN .12 5 . Resistor. Capacitor. BJT.IC NODEX = VCC R1 NODE1 NODEX 1 R2 NODEX NODE2 1 .Chapter 1: Overview of Models Safe Operating Area Warnings Example 2 This example defines a subcircuit named YYY.IC statement uses the VCC passed parameter to initialize the NODEX subcircuit node.OPTION MAXWARN HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. The .SUBCKT YYY NODE1 NODE2 VCC = 5V . . Diode.

sp:31) level should be defined as a constant value and it cannot be an expression or in single quotes. Use of Example Syntax To copy and paste proven syntax use the demonstration files shipped with your installation of HSPICE (see Listing of Demonstration Input Files). Attempting to copy and paste from the book or help documentation may present unexpected results. etc. white space.12 . for visual clarity. as text used in formatting may include hidden characters. 6 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 1: Overview of Models Model LEVEL Parameter Must be a Constant Value Model LEVEL Parameter Must be a Constant Value The LEVEL parameter may not be entered as an expression or by using single quotation marks. Such action results in the following error message: **error** (inv.

You can use the set of passive model definitions in conjunction with element definitions to construct a wide range of board and integrated circuit-level designs. and several other magnetic circuits. Passive device models let you include the following in any analysis: ■ ■ ■ ■ Transformers PC board trace interconnects Coaxial cables Transmission lines The wire element model is specifically designed to model the RC delay and RC transmission line effects of interconnects. including a magnetic-core model and element. at both the IC level and the PC board level. inductor. To specify precision modeling of passive elements. including resistor. a mutual-inductor model includes switching regulators.2 2 Passive Device Models Describes passive devices you can include in an HSPICE or HSPICE RF netlist. HSPICE ships hundreds of examples for your use. you can use the following types of model parameters: ■ ■ ■ Geometric Temperature Parasitic Resistor Device Model and Equations Resistor Temperature Equations These topics are covered in the following sections: ■ ■ HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 7 . see Listing of Input Demonstration Files for paths to demo files. To aid in designing power supplies. and capacitor models.

Syntax . see .12 .MODEL statement to include a Wire RC model in your HSPICE netlist and evaluate both thermal noise and flicker noise in HSPICE. 8 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.MODEL statement.MODEL in the HSPICE and RF Command Reference. Any model parameter name. such as buses. Use the CRATIO wire model parameter to allocate the parasitic capacitance of the wire element (between the input capacitor and the output capacitor of the model). For a general description of the . Wire RC Model You can use the . Elements use this name to reference the model.MODEL MNAME R KEYWORD=value [CRATIO=val] The wire element RC model is a CRC (pi) model. This allows for symmetric node impedance for bidirectional circuits. Specifies a wire model. Parameter Description mname R keyword Model name.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Resistor Device Model and Equations ■ ■ ■ ■ LEVEL2 CMC R2 Resistor Model LEVEL 5 CMC R3 Resistor Model Capacitor Device Model and Equations Inductor Device Model and Equations Resistor Device Model and Equations The following section describes equations for Wire RC and Resistor models.

CRATIO) Figure 1 Wire Model Example A wire-model resistor behaves like an elementary transmission line (see Telement (Ideal Transmission Lines) in the HSPICE User Guide: Simulation and Analysis.5. and continues the analysis. sets CRATIO to 0. multiplied by RSH. Values greater than 0. in out C=CAPeff⋅ CRATIO C=CAPeff ⋅ (1. The resistance of the wire is the effective length. You can assign a value between 0 and 1 to CRATIO.0 range. then divided by the effective width.5 Assigns half of the parasitic capacitance to the input node.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Resistor Device Model and Equations Parameter Description CRATIO Ratio to allocate the total wire element parasitic capacitance. then the simulation uses the model HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. and half to the output node. 1 Assigns all of the parasitic capacitance to the input node. simulation shows a warning. Default=0. A wire has a drawn length and a drawn width.5 assign more of the capacitance to the output node than to the input node.5 assign more of the capacitance to the input node than to the output node.5 0 Assigns all of the parasitic capacitance (CAPeff) to the output node. To avoid syntactic conflicts. if a resistor model uses the same name as a parameter for rval in the element statement.MODEL statement specifies an optional capacitor (from the n2 node to a bulk or ground node). if the . The bulk node functions as a ground plane for the wire capacitance. If you set a CRATIO value outside the 0 to 1. and the capacitor connected to the output node of the wire element pi model. This is the capacitance between the capacitor connected to the input node. 0.12 9 . ■ ■ CRATIO values smaller than 0.

Relative dielectric constant. DLReff=DLR ⋅ SCALM Difference between the drawn width and the actual width. The capacitance calculation uses DW.PARAMETER REXX=1 R1 1 2 REXX . and not to the parameter. Difference between the drawn length and the actual length (for resistance calculation only). Lscaled=L ⋅ SHRINK ⋅ SCALM Model selector (not used). In the following example. DW m 0 L m 0 LEVEL 10 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Default capacitance.12 .Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Resistor Device Model and Equations name. R1 assumes that REXX refers to the model. DWeff=DW ⋅ SCALM Default length of the wire. Bottomwall capacitance.MODEL REXX R RES=1 Wire RC Model Parameter Syntax Rxxx n1 n2 [mname Rval] [TC1 TC2 TC] [SCALE=val] [M=val] + [AC=val] [DTEMP=val] [L=val] [W=val] [C=val] + [NOISE=val] Rxxx n1 n2 [mname] [R=]resistance [TC1=val] + [TC2=val] [TC=val] [SCALE=val] [M=val] + [AC=val] [DTEMP=val] [L=val] [W=val] [C=val] + [NOISE=val] Table 1 Wire Model Parameters Units Default Description Name (Alias) BULK CAP CAPSW COX DI DLR gnd F F/m F/m2 0 0 0 0 m 0 Default reference node for capacitance. Sidewall fringing capacitance. Resistor and Wire RC Model Parameter Example .

Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Resistor Device Model and Equations Table 1 Wire Model Parameters (Continued) Units Default Description Name (Alias) RAC ohm Default AC resistance (the RACeff default is Reff). Second-order voltage-bias coefficient for resistance.12 11 . First-order temperature coefficient for capacitance. Default width of the wire. Dielectric thickness. First-order voltage-bias coefficient for resistance. Shrink factor. 0 0 1 Default resistance. Second-order temperature coefficient for resistance. First-order temperature coefficient for resistance. Temperature reference for model parameters. Wscaled=W ⋅ SHRINK ⋅ SCALM RES RSH SHRINK TC1C ohm 1/deg 0 TC2C 1/deg2 0 TC1R 1/deg 0 TC2R 1/deg2 0 VC1R 1/volt 0 VC2R 1/volt^2 0 THICK TREF W m deg C m 0 TNOM 0 Resistor Syntax Rxxx n1 n2 mname [R=]resistance [TC1=val] + [TC2=val] [VC1=val] [VC2=val] [SCALE=val] [M=val] [AC=val] + [DTEMP=val] [L=val] [W=val] [C=val] [NOISE=val] HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Sheet resistance/square. Second-order temperature coefficient for capacitance.

Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Resistor Device Model and Equations Supported instance parameters above include: R. AC. W.5 LMAX=0. ■ To scale the element width and length.model REXX. you can use the automatic model selector in HSPICE to find the proper model for each resistor.OPTION SCALE and the SHRINK model parameter.2 . TC2. TC1 and TC2 are aliases for TC1R and TC2R.7 LMAX=0. The model selector syntax is based on a common model root name with a unique extension for each model. SCALE. Example . DTEMP.5 RES=1. TC1.5 The resistor model selector uses the following criteria: LMIN <= L < LMAX WMIN <= W < WMAX Resistor Model Equations This section contains equations for different characteristics of resistors.5 RES=1.1 R LMIN=0. use .9 WMIN=0. use .12 . and NOISE. L.2 R LMIN=0. The element values override the model values.1 WMAX=0.OPTION SCALM and the SHRINK model parameter. M.6 W=0. C.model REXX.7 WMIN=0.3 You can then use the standard resistor model call to map the models to an element declaration: R1 1 2 REXX L=0.1 WMAX=0. ■ The following equations calculate the effective width and length: 12 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Resistor syntax is described in Resistor Elements in a HSPICE or HSPICE RF Netlist in the HSPICE User Guide: Simulation and Analysis. Wire Resistance Calculation You can specify the wire width and length in both the element and model statements. To scale the model width and length. Resistor Model Selector For multiple resistor models.

then the RACeff equation resets it to the RESMIN value.12 13 . if the model specifies RAC. less (2 ⋅ DLeff). then: RES ⋅ SCALE ( element ) Reff = -------------------------------------------------------------M If you specify AC resistance in the element. if ( Weff ⋅ Leff ⋅ RSH ) is greater than zero. then: Leff ⋅ RSH ⋅ SCALE ( element ) Reff = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------M ⋅ Weff If ( Weff ⋅ Leff ⋅ RSH ) is zero. 1 RESMIN = -----------------------------------------------GMAX ⋅ 1000 ⋅ M Wire Capacitance Calculation The effective length is the scaled drawn length. the RACeff equation uses RAC: RAC ⋅ SCALE ( element ) RACeff = --------------------------------------------------------------M If the model does not specify either AC resistance or RAC. then the equation defaults to: RACeff = Reff If the resistance is less than the RESMIN option. and issues a warning message. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Resistor Device Model and Equations Weff = Wscaled – 2 ⋅ DWeff Leff = Lscaled – 2 ⋅ DLReff If you specify element resistance: R ⋅ SCALE ( element ) Reff = ------------------------------------------------------M Otherwise. then: AC ⋅ SCALE ( element ) RACeff = ----------------------------------------------------------M Otherwise.

■ The effective width is the same as the width used in the resistor calculation. then the equation uses the value. DWeff is the distance from the drawn edge of the resistor to the physical edge of the resistor. but you do specify a value other than zero for THICK (the dielectric thickness): • If you specify a non-zero value for DI=value. C: CAPeff = C ⋅ SCALE ( element ) ⋅ M Otherwise. the equation calculates the capacitance from the Leff. then: Whether you specify a COX value affects how HSPICE uses the equation: ■ ■ DI ⋅ ε o COX = ------------------THICK • If you do not specify a DI value or if the value is zero. If you do not specify COX. from physical edge to physical edge. and COX values: CAPeff = M ⋅ SCALE ( element ) ⋅ [ Leff ⋅ Weff ⋅ COX ] + 2 ⋅ ( Leff + Weff ) ⋅ CAPSW ] Computing the bottom-wall capacitance.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Resistor Device Model and Equations ■ Leff represents the effective length of the resistor. Weff. Leff = Lscaled – 2 ⇒DLeff Weff = Wscaled – 2 ⇒DWeff If you specify the element capacitance.8542149 e -12 F/meter ε ox = 3. involving: ■ ■ dielectric thickness (THICK) relative dielectric constant (DI) If you specify COX=value. is based on a hierarchy of defaults and specified values.12 . COX. then: ε ox COX = -----------------THICK The following values apply to the preceding equation: ε o = 8.453148 e -11 F/meter 14 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

therefore we call it transimpedance. specify the NOISE parameter in a resistor model. Parameter Description RX Transfers the function of thermal noise to the output. but is a transfer coefficient. I(local) is the local noise current in the specific noise element. • If you specify only the model capacitance (CAP). This is not noise. then: CAPeff = CAP ⋅ SCALE ( element ) ⋅ M • If you specify the capacitance. and THICK = 0. which reflects the contribution of thermal noise to the output. To eliminate the contribution of resistor noise. By summarizing all the contributions (power) from each independent noisy element. It is clear that rx should have an unit of impedance.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Resistor Temperature Equations ■ If you do not specify COX. this is an error. then the resistor model does not evaluate the capacitance. NOISE is a model parameter (default=1). V2/Hz Total output noise: TOT = RX 2 ⋅ inr 2 Resistor Temperature Equations You can use temperature values to set resistor and capacitor values: HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. but you do not specify the bulk node. we can get the total noise contribution(power) at the output port. For example: V(output) = I(local)*rx(from local to output) Where V(output) is the noise voltage at the output port. TOT. Resistor Noise Equation The following equation models the thermal noise of a resistor: 4 kT ⎞ 1 / 2 ----------inr = ⎛ NOISE ⋅ ⎝ Rval⎠ In the preceding equation. and issues a warning message.12 15 .

■ Example This example is located in the following directory: $installdir/demo/hspice/apps/noise.tnom Element temperature in ° K: t = circuit temp + DTEMP + 273.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Noise Parameter for Resistors R ( t ) = R ⋅ ( 1. The following equation supports the flicker noise model for resistors: 16 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. rd is a 1-ohm noiseless resistor that connects between node 1 and node 6. Evaluating Flicker Noise of Resistors The following section describes the flicker noise equation and parameters. such as macro modeling. set noise=0 in the instance statement (noiseless resistor model). HSPICE models a resistor that generates noise. However. If you do not want the resistor model to generate thermal noise. ■ If you set noise=1 (default) or if you do not specify the noise parameter.0 + TC 1 ⋅ Δ t + TC 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) RAC ( t ) = RAC ⋅ ( 1. and how to test for flicker noise in HSPICE.15 Nominal temperature in ° K: tnom = 273.0 + TC 1 ⋅ Δ t + TC 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) Parameter Description Δt t tnom t .15 + TNOM Noise Parameter for Resistors Resistor models generate electrical thermal noise. require noiseless resistor models.12 .0 + TC 1 ⋅ Δ t + TC 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) C ( t ) = C ⋅ ( 1. some tasks.sp In this example.

dL) Effective width (Wdrawn .dw) Frequency A2 Hz A m m HZ The following lists the parameters and descriptions for the flicker noise model Parameter Description Unit Default Bin KF flicker noise coefficient( ≥ 0 ) exponent of current (>0) exponent of effective length (>0) exponent of effective width(>0) exponent of frequency(>0) A ( 2 – AF ) × m ( LF + WF ) × Hz ( EF – 1 ) 0 no AF none 2 no LF none 1 no WF none 1 no EF none 1 no HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 17 .Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Evaluating Flicker Noise of Resistors AF KF × ⎛ I ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ Noise ( sid ) = ---------------------------------------------------------------------Wf Ef Lf ⎛ Leff ⎞ × ⎛ Weff ⎞ × ⎛ f ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Where Parameter Description Unit Noise(sid) I Leff Weff f Noise spectrum density Current Effective length (Ldrawn .

For example: . Instance of Parameter NOISE: Noiseless Resistor Sometimes a noiseless resistor is required.01u R1 1 2 Res1 50 R2 2 3 Res2 50 l=1u l=1u In the above example. LF. For example: . HSPICE uses their default values. This is because the parameter NOISE can be both an instance parameter and a model parameter. HSPICE will issue warning messages. If these parameters are not specified. so the effective length and width are 0. Observe that these parameters all have limitations: KF ≥ 0 . resistor R1 uses model Res1 which specifies noise=1. R1 has noise and R2 is noise-free. Its value is 0 or 1.model Res1 R noise=1 kf=6.01u . Controlling the Evaluation of Noise HSPICE uses the NOISE parameter in a model as a switch to control evaluation of thermal and flicker noise.01u w=10u dw=0.01u w=10u dw=0.model Res2 R noise=0 kf=6.0e-28 af=2 lf=1 wf=1 ef=1 l=1u dlr=0. dlr. For example: 18 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. AF. and resistor R2 uses model Res2 which specifies noise=0. w. HSPICE will abort and issue an error message.0e-28 af=2 lf=1 wf=1 ef=1 dlr=0. WF and EF) in the resistor model card. The resistor can be noiseless even if there are noise parameters set in the model. The noise analysis. and there will be a divide-by-zero error in the evaluation of the flicker noise equation. AF. their default value is 0. and the flicker noise will be 0.12 . the instance parameter will override the model parameter. The default value of model parameter NOISE is 1. specify the flicker noise parameters (KF.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Evaluating Flicker Noise of Resistors Example of Using Flicker Noise Parameters To use the flicker noise parameters in a resister model. dw must also be specified in the model card for HSPICE to evaluate the effective length and width. LF. WF and EF >0. If their values exceed the limitations.01u If these parameters are not specified.0e-28 af=2 lf=1 wf=1 ef=1 dlr=0.model Res1 R noise=1 kf=6.01u w=10u dw=0. If NOISE is set in both the instance and the model. The parameters l.

0.107e-19 12.01u w=10u dw=0. total 1.01u .model Res1 R noise=1 kf=6.noise v(2.01u w=10u dw=0.924e-20 1. Test Case for Both Thermal and Flicker Noise The following example uses the . resistors R1 and R3 use model Res1 and resistors R2 and R4 use model Res2.print noise inoise onoise .model Res3 R $noise=1 . 1/f 5.model Res4 R $noise=1 . v1 1 0 10 ac=1 R1 1 2 Res1 50 $noise=1 R2 2 3 Res2 50 $noise=1 R3 3 4 Res1 50 noise=0 R4 4 0 Res2 50 noise=1 .145e-20 5.3) v1 10 .01u . Resistor R3 is noiseless and R4 will have the noise because the noise instance parameter is specified for each.0e-28 af=2 lf=1 wf=1 ef=1 + l=1u dlr=0.0e-28 af=2 lf=1 wf=1 ef=1 l=1u dlr=0.end In the . 1/f is flicker noise: **** resistor squared noise voltages (sq v/hz) element 0:r1 0:r2 0:r3 rs 5.5000 12.model Res2 R noise=0 kf=6.01u w=10u dw=0.5000 0:r4 5. rx 12.01u .0e-28 af=2 lf=1 wf=1 ef=1 + l=1u dlr=0.107e-19 0.01u w=10u dw=0.noise analysis syntax to test for both thermal and flicker noise in a resistor.0e-28 af=2 lf=1 wf=1 ef=1 l=1u dlr=0.01u R1 1 2 Res1 50 R2 2 3 Res2 50 R3 3 4 Res1 50 noise=0 R4 4 5 Res2 50 noise=1 In the example.5000 37.145e-20 0.ac dec 10 10k 100k .list file below.12 19 .model Res1 R noise=1 kf=6.5000 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.model Res2 R noise=0 kf=6. 0.options post list . R1 will have noise and R2 will be noiseless since these resistors will use the noise parameter defined in the model.924e-20 0.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Evaluating Flicker Noise of Resistors . 0. the output shows rs is thermal noise.op .

Chapter 2: Passive Device Models LEVEL2 CMC R2 Resistor Model LEVEL2 CMC R2 Resistor Model R2_CMC is a nonlinear 2-terminal resistor model. Table 2 Name Default Min. LEVEL=2 Element Syntax Rxxx n1 n2 mname [M=val] instanceParameters . The CMC_R2 model is implemented as LEVEL=2 in the RESISTOR models. R2_CMC is well behaved and does not have the numerical problems that can arise in polynomial models.12 .. Instance Parameters Max. Figure 2 R2_CMC Model Equivalent Network (thermal sub-network is optional) LEVEL 2 Model Parameters Table 2 and Table 3 on page 21 describe instance and model parameters. Units Description m 1 0 ∞ Multiplicity factor (number in parallel) 20 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. respectively. Although empirical.. especially for velocity saturation effects which are important in short resistors. The model does not include parasitic capacitances. the form of the nonlinearity can model data reasonably well. Optionally. the model can include self-heating.MODEL mname r LEVEL = 2 [keyword = val] .

0 % Scale factor for instance geometries Shrink percentage for instance geometries Minimum ambient temperature Maximum ambient temperature Threshold to switch to resistance form -250. Units Description w l r c1 c2 trise 1. total resistance is r/m) Contact at terminal 1: 0=no 1=yes Contact at terminal 2: 0=no 1=yes Ω °C 1 1 Model Parameters Min.0 -100.0 1.0 °C 0.0 0.0 0. Local temperature delta to ambient (before self-heating) Switch for noise: 0=no 1=yes Switch for turning off self-heating: 0=exclude 1=include isnoisy 1 sw_et 1 Name Default Units Description level version revision scale shrink tmin tmax rthresh gmin tnom 2 Model level Model version Model revision (sub-version) 1.0 0 0 ∞ ∞ ∞ 1 1 m m Design width of resistor body Design length of resistor body Resistance (per segment. Instance Parameters (Continued) Max.0 -250 ∞ ∞ Ω 1000.0 0 0 Table 3 0.0 1 1 0.0 100.12 21 .0 1.0 0.0 100.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models LEVEL2 CMC R2 Resistor Model Table 2 Name Default Min.0e-12 27.0 1.0e-6 0.0 27.0e-6 0.0e-3 1.0 500. Max.0 0.0 °C Nominal (reference) temperature HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 °C 27.0 1000.

0 0.0 1.0 ∞ ∞ ∞ sw_fngeo 0 jmax 100.0 0.0 0. Units Description rsh lmin lmax wmin wmax xw xl dxle 100.0 2.0 0.0 9.12 .0 0. Max.0 ∞ 1.0 μm ⁄ V 1/field at which the linear field coefficient activates Linear field coefficient factor: E c 2 = p 2* p 3 ⁄ q 3 p3 q2 0.0 0.0-p3 μm ⁄ V 1/field at which the quadratic field coefficient activates Quadratic field coefficient factor: Ec 2 = p 2* p 3 ⁄ q 3 Flicker noise coefficient (unit depends on afn) Flicker noise current exponent Flicker noise 1/f exponent Switch for flicker noise geometry calculation: 0=design 1=effective p2 kfn afn bfn 0.0 0.0 0.0 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ Ω⁄ μm μm μm μm μm μm μm Sheet resistance Minimum allowed drawn length Maximum allowed drawn length Minimum allowed drawn width Maximum allowed drawn width Width offset (total) Length offset (total) Length delta for field calculation Switch for electric field geometry calculation: 0=design 1=effective sw_efgeo 0 0 1 q3 0.0 ∞ 1.0 9.0 0.9e99 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9e99 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models LEVEL2 CMC R2 Resistor Model Table 3 Name Default Model Parameters Min.0 0.0 0.0 A ⁄ μm Maximum current density 22 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 0.

0 27.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 °C /K /K2 μm ⁄ K μm ⁄ K μm ⁄ K μm ⁄ K 2 Resistance quadratic TC length coefficient Resistance linear TC width coefficient Resistance quadratic TC width coefficient Flicker noise coefficient linear TC 0.0 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ W⁄ K W ⁄ K μm W ⁄ K μm sW ⁄ K ( sW ) ⁄ K μm ( sW ) ⁄ K μm 2 2 Thermal capacitance fixed component Thermal capacitance perimeter component Thermal capacitance area component Thermal capacitance fixed component Thermal capacitance perimeter component Thermal capacitance area component Usage With Model Card: rinstanceName (node1 node2) modelName instanceParameters .0 0.0 0.0 °C Clip minimum temperature Clip maximum temperature Resistance linear TC Resistance quadratic TC Resistance linear TC length coefficient 2 1000.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -250.0 0. Max.12 23 .0e+6 0.0 500.0 27.0 1.0 0.0 0. Units Description tminclip tmaxclip tc1 tc2 tc1l tc2l tc1w tc2w tc1kfn gth0 gthp gtha cth0 cthp ctha -100.0 0.0 0.0 0.model modelName r2_cmc modelParameters Without Model Card: r<name> (<node1> <node2>) r=<resistanceValue> [tc1=<tc1Value>] [tc2=<tc2Value>] HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 0.0 0.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models LEVEL2 CMC R2 Resistor Model Table 3 Name Default Model Parameters Min.

velocity saturation.12 q3=1. and parasitic capacitance and currents.MODEL mname r LEVEL=5 [keyword = val] … 24 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.014 q2=3. the R3_CMC model is also applicable to JFETs.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models LEVEL 5 CMC R3 Resistor Model Example r137 (n1 n2) rnpoly1 w=1u l=10u .2u xw=-0.model rnpoly1 r2_cmc + rsh=100.0e-3 LEVEL 5 CMC R3 Resistor Model R3_CMC model is a nonlinear 3-terminal resistor model that includes selfheating.05u + p3=0. statistical variations. LEVEL=5 Element Syntax Rxxx n1 nc n2 mname [M=val] instanceParameters . but is also applicable for MOS behavior of polysilicon resistors. The core depletion pinching model formulations is for p-n junctions of diffused resistors. Since p-n junction pinching controls JFET device behavior.0 xl=0. The CMC_R3 model is implemented as LEVEL=5 in the RESISTOR models.63 p2=0.79 r138 (n2 n3) r=110.12 .0 tc1=1.

Table 5 on page 26.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models LEVEL 5 CMC R3 Resistor Model n1 Re1 i1 i2 Re2 n2 i2 n Ip1 Cp1 Cp2 Ip2 dt nc R TH ITH=VI CTH Figure 3 R3_CMC Model Equivalent Network (thermal sub-network is optional) Level 5 Instance and Model Parameters Table 4 on page 25.0e-6 0. CMC R3 Instance Parameters Max.12 25 .0 1. and Table 6 on page 27 describe instance. Units Description m w l 1 0 ∞ ∞ ∞ m m Multiplicity factor (number in parallel) Design width of resistor body Design length of resistor body 1. Table 4 Name Default Min. special model parameters.0 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0e-6 0. and model parameters respectively.

0 0.0 0. Units Description version subversion revision level 5 Model version (major model change) Model subversion (minor model change) Model revision (implementation update) Model level 26 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 0.0 1 1 0.0 0.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models LEVEL 5 CMC R3 Resistor Model Table 4 Name Default Min.12 . CMC R3 Instance Parameters (Continued) Max. not per side) Area of node n1 partition Perimeter of node n1 partition # contacts at n1 terminal m2 m Area of node n2 partition Perimeter of node n2 partition # contacts at n2 terminal °C 0 0 0 1 1 1 Local temperature delta to ambient (before self-heating) Switch for noise: 0=no 1=yes Switch for turning off self-heating: 0=exclude 1=include Switch for mismatch analysis: 0=no and 1=yes Number of standard deviations of local variation for rsh Number of standard deviations of local variation for w Number of standard deviations of local variation for l sw_mman 0 nsmm_rsh 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ m m2 m Dogbone width (total.0 0 0.0 nsmm_w nsmm_l 0.0 0 0.0 0. CMC R3 Special Model Parameters Max.0 Table 5 Name Default Min. Units Description wd a1 p1 c1 a2 p2 c2 trise swnoise sw_et 0.

9e99 0.0 27.0 -250 0.0 9.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 lmin 0.r.0 0.0 1000.0 -250.0 9.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models LEVEL 5 CMC R3 Resistor Model Table 5 Name Default Min.0 V °C °C Table 6 Name Default Min.001 -1 0.0 1.0 27. control node nc Clip minimum temperature Clip maximum temperature ∞ 27.0 1000.0 0.0 500.0 °C Ω⁄ Nominal (reference) temperature Sheet resistance ∞ HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 % Resistor type: -1=n-body and +1=p-body Scale factor for instance geometries Shrink percentage for instance geometries Minimum ambient temperature Maximum ambient temperature Threshold to switch end resistance to V=I*R form Minimum conductance (for parasitic branches) Current at which to linearize diode currents °C °C Ω S ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 1. CMC R3 Special Model Parameters Max.t.0 0.0 500.0 +1 1.0 μm μm μm μm A ⁄ μm Minimum allowed drawn length Maximum allowed drawn length Minimum allowed drawn length Maximum allowed drawn length Maximum current density Maximum voltage w. Units Description tnom rsh 27.0 -250.0 0. Units Description type scale shrink tmin tmax rthresh gmin imax lmin lmax wmin wmax jmax vmax tminclip tmaxclip -1 1.0 -100.0 wmin 0.0 1000.9e99 -100.0 0.12 27 .0 0.0 27.0e-12 0.0 9. CMC R3 Special Model Parameters Max.0 100.9e99 100.

0 1 2.0 1000.4 0 0.02 0.0 4.1 5.0 0.12 . Units μm Description xw nwxw wexw fdrw fdxwinf xl xlw dxlsat nst ats dfinf dfw dfl dfwl sw_dfgeo dp ecrit ecorn 0.0 0.0 0.01 1 1000.0 1. CMC R3 Special Model Parameters Max.0 0.0 ecrit V V/ μm V/ μm 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Width offset (total) 2 μm μm Narrow width offset correction coefficient Webbing effect width offset correction coefficient (for dog-boned devices) Finite doping width offset reference width Finite doping width offset width value for wide devices Length offset (total) Width dependence of length offset ∞ μm μm μm μm Additional length offset for velocity saturation calculation Subthreshold slope parameter Saturation smoothing parameter ∞ 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0001 10.0 0.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models LEVEL 5 CMC R3 Resistor Model Table 6 Name Default Min.0 ⁄ V μm ⁄ V μm ⁄ V μm ⁄ V 2 Depletion factor for wide/long device Depletion factor 1/w coefficient Depletion factor 1/l coefficient Depletion factor 1/(w*l) coefficient Switch for depletion factor geometry dependence: 0=drawn and 1=effective Depletion potential Velocity saturation critical field Velocity saturation corner field 28 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 0.01 0.

0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. CMC R3 Special Model Parameters Max.0 0.0 Mobility reduction at ecorn ∞ ∞ 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 1000.02 0.0 0.0 0.0 A ⁄ μm 2 Diode saturation current per unit area Ideality factor for isa F ⁄ μm F ⁄ μm V 2 Fixed capacitance per unit area Depletion capacitance per unit area Built-in potential for cja Grading coefficient for cja 2 ∞ 0.33 -0.0 0.12 29 .0 0.33 -0.75 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.75 0.0 0.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models LEVEL 5 CMC R3 Resistor Model Table 6 Name Default Min.0 1.99 Ω Ωμm Resistance per contact Width adjustment for contact resistance Depletion capacitance linearization factor ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 1.0 A ⁄ μm F ⁄ μm F ⁄ μm V Fixed capacitance per unit perimeter Depletion capacitance per unit perimeter Built-in potential for cjp Grading coefficient for cjp V 0. Units Description du rc rcw fc isa na ca cja pa ma aja isp np cp cjp pp mp ajp vbv 0.0 V Smoothing parameter for cja Diode saturation current per unit perimeter Ideality factor for isp ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 1.0 0.0 0.0 Smoothing parameter for cjp Breakdown voltage ∞ V HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 0.

0 0.12 3.0 0.0 0 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 1 A Current at breakdown Ideality factor for breakdown current Flicker noise coefficient (unit depends on afn) Flicker noise current exponent Flicker noise 1/f exponent Switch for flicker noise geometry calculation: 0=design 1=effective V Activation voltage for diode temperature dependence Exponent for diode temperature dependence /K /K2 μm ⁄ K μm ⁄ K 2 Resistance linear TC Resistance quadratic TC Resistance linear TC length coefficient Resistance quadratic TC length coefficient Resistance linear TC width coefficient Resistance quadratic TC width coefficient Contact resistance linear TC Contact resistance quadratic TC Flicker noise coefficient linear TC Breakdown voltage linear 2 μm ⁄ K μm ⁄ K 2 μm ⁄ K μm ⁄ K ⁄K ⁄K ⁄K 2 Breakdown voltage quadratic TC 30 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0e-6 1.0 0.0 0.0 0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models LEVEL 5 CMC R3 Resistor Model Table 6 Name Default Min.12 .0 0.0 2.0 0. CMC R3 Special Model Parameters Max.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0. Units Description ibv nbv kfn afn bfn sw_fngeo ea xis tc1 tc2 tc1l tc2l tc1w tc2w tc1rc tc2rc tc1kfn tc1vbv tc2vbv 1.0 0.0 0.

0 0.0 0.0 0. Units ⁄K Description tc1nbv gth0 gthp gtha cth0 cthp ctha cthc nsig_rsh nsig_w nsig_l sig_rsh sig_w sig_l smm_rsh smm_w smm_l 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.12 31 .0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. CMC R3 Special Model Parameters Max.0 0.5 μm 1.0 0.0 Breakdown ideality factor linear TC Thermal capacitance fixed component Thermal capacitance perimeter component 2 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ W⁄ K W ⁄ K μm W ⁄ K μm sW ⁄ K ( sW ) ⁄ K μm ( sW ) ⁄ K μm ( sW ) ⁄ K μm 2 Thermal capacitance area component Thermal capacitance fixed component Thermal capacitance perimeter component Thermal capacitance area component Thermal capacitance contact component Number of standard deviations of global variation for rsh Number of standard deviations of global variation for w Number of standard deviations of global variation for l ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ % μm Local variation standard deviation for rsh (relative) Local variation standard deviation for w (absolute) Global variation standard deviation for l (absolute) local variation standard deviation for rsh (relative) Local variation standard deviation for rsh (relative) Local variation standard deviation for l (absolute) μm % μm μm 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models LEVEL 5 CMC R3 Resistor Model Table 6 Name Default Min.0 0.0e+6 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.

MODEL in the HSPICE Reference Manual: Commands and Control Options. Syntax .0 r138 n2 n3 r=110.model rnpoly1 r + level=5 rsh=100. see . For a general description of the . Units Description sw_mmgeo 0 0 1 Switch for flicker noise geometry calculation: 0=drawnand 1=effective CMC R3 Usage With Model card: rinstanceName ([node1 node2 node3) [mname] instanceParameters .MODEL modelName r modelParameters Without Model card rname (node1 node2) r=resistanceValue [tc1=tc1Value] [tc2=tc2Value] Example r137 n1 n2 n3 rnpoly1 w=1u l=10u . CMC R3 Special Model Parameters Max.12 .MODEL statement.MODEL mname C parameter=value 32 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.MODEL statement to include a capacitance model in your HSPICE netlist.0e-3 Capacitor Device Model and Equations This section describes capacitor models and their equations.0 tc1=1. Capacitance Model You can use the .Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Capacitor Device Model and Equations Table 6 Name Default Min.

First-order voltage-bias coefficient for capacitance. Second-order voltage-bias coefficient for capacitance.12 33 . DI L m 0 0 SHRINK TC1 1/deg 1 0 TC2 1/deg2 1/volt 0 VC1 0 VC2 1/volt2 0 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Bottomwall capacitance. Sidewall fringing capacitance. DELeff = DEL ⋅ SCALM Relative dielectric constant. Difference between the drawn width and the actual width or length. Lscaled = L ⋅ SHRINK ⋅ SCALM Shrink factor.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Capacitor Device Model and Equations Parameter Description mname C parameter Model name Specifies a capacitance model Any model parameter name Table 7 Capacitance Parameters Units Default Description Name (Alias) CAP CAPSW COX DEL F F/m F/m2 m 0 0 0 0 Default capacitance value. Default length of the capacitor. First temperature coefficient for capacitance. Second temperature coefficient for capacitance.

Default width of the capacitor. ■ To scale the element width and length. Effective Capacitance Calculation You can associate a model with a capacitor. To scale the model width and length.1 F. Reference temperature. Capacitor Device Equations Capacitor equations include effective capacitance and capacitance temperature. Wscaled = W ⋅ SHRINK ⋅ SCALM Parameter Limit Checking If a capacitive element value exceeds 0. ■ The following equations calculate the effective width and length: Weff = Wscaled – 2 ⇒DELeff Leff = Lscaled – 2 ⇒DELeff If you specify the element capacitance: CAPeff = C ⋅ SCALE ( element ) ⋅ M 34 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 . The element values override the model values. use .Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Capacitor Device Model and Equations Table 7 Capacitance Parameters (Continued) Units Default Description Name (Alias) THICK TREF W m deg C m 0 TNOM 0 Insulator thickness. then the output listing file receives a warning message.OPTION SCALM and the SHRINK model parameter.OPTION SCALE and the SHRINK model parameter. You can specify some of the parameters in both the element and the model descriptions. use . particularly if the elements are in automatically-produced netlists. This feature helps you to identify elements that are missing units or have incorrect values.

Weff. and COX values: CAPeff = M ⋅ SCALE ( element ) ⋅ [ Leff ⋅ Weff ⋅ COX + 2 ⋅ ( Leff + Weff ) ⋅ CAPSW ] If you do not specify COX.tnom HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Capacitor Device Model and Equations Otherwise.0 + TC 1 ⋅ Δ t + TC 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) Parameter Description Δt t .12 35 . then: CAPeff = CAP ⋅ SCALE ( element ) ⋅ M Capacitance Voltage Equation The following equation calculates the capacitance as a function of voltage across a given capacitor: C ( v ) = C ⋅ ( 1 + V ⋅ VC 1 + V ⋅ VC 2 ) 2 Capacitance Temperature Equation The following equation calculates the capacitance as a function of temperature: C ( t ) = C ⋅ ( 1.if DI not zero COX = ------------------THICK ε ox COX = -----------------if DI=0 THICK The following values apply to the preceding equation: ε o = 8.8542149 e -12 F -------------meter ε ox = 3.453148 e -11 F -------------meter If you specify only the model capacitance (CAP). then: DI ⋅ ε o . the equation calculates the capacitance from the Leff. but THICK is not zero.

2. tnom+273.MODEL statement to specify the core parameters. 3. t=circuit_temp + DTEMP + 273. you must: 1.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Inductor Device Model and Equations Parameter Description t Element temperature in degrees Kelvin. Use a magnetic winding element statement to specify the windings around each core element.12 .15 + TNOM Inductor Device Model and Equations You can use several elements and models to analyze: ■ ■ ■ Switching regulators Transformers Mutual inductive circuits Magnetic winding elements Mutual cores Magnetic core models Chokes Saturable transformers Linear transformers These elements include: ■ ■ ■ You can use the saturable core model for: ■ ■ ■ To use the model. 36 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Provide a mutual core statement.15 tnom Nominal temperature in degrees Kelvin. Use a .

Figure 4 on page 38 illustrates the required b-h loop parameters for the model. The model includes: ■ ■ ■ ■ Core area Length Gap size Core growth time constant Example 2 This example is located in the following directory: $installdir/demo/hspice/mag/bhloop.MODEL mname CORE (LEVEL=1 <pname1 = val1>…) LEVEL=3 Resistor Model .3 AC=1.sp Table 8 Magnetic Core Model Parameters Units Default Description Name (Alias) AC BS BR HC cm ⋅ 2 Gauss Gauss Oersted 1.0 13000 12000 0. at saturation. LC=3.12 37 .Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Inductor Device Model and Equations Inductor Core Models Syntax Magnetic Core .MODEL mname L LEVEL=3 <SCALE=val> <TNOM=val> Example 1 . Coercive magnetizing force.) To use this example. Magnetic flux density. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.MODEL CHOKE L(BS=12K BR=10K HS=1 HCR=.2 HC=. obtain the core model parameters from the manufacturer’s data.MODEL mname L (<pname1 = val1>…) Jiles-Atherton Ferromagnetic Core . Residual magnetization.8 Core area.

Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Inductor Device Model and Equations Table 8 Magnetic Core Model Parameters (Continued) Units Default Description Name (Alias) HCR HS LC LG TC Oersted Oersted cm cm s 0. Magnetizing force.6 1.0 0. Core length.0 0. at saturation.0 Critical magnetizing force. Figure 4 Magnetic Saturable Core Model 38 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.5 3. Gap length. Core growth time constant.12 .

LEVEL=2 (default) selects the Pheno model.2 500 Table 10 Magnetic Core Element Outputs Description Output Variable LX1 LX2 LX3 Magnetic field. AREA. (LC) cm 3 MS A amp/meter amp/meter 1e6 1e3 ALPHA C K amp/meter 1e-3 0. Domain flexing parameter. h (oersted) Magnetic flux density. Characterizes the shape of anhysteretic magnetization. LEVEL=1. AC is an alias of AREA. Mean of the path length for the magnetic core.12 39 . Coupling between the magnetic domains.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Inductor Device Model and Equations Table 9 Jiles-Atherton Core Model Parameters Units Default Description Name (Alias) LEVEL 2 Model selector. Domain of an isotropy parameter. LC is an alias of PATH. dm dh LX4 Bulk magnetization. (AC) cm2 1 Mean of the cross section for the magnetic core. ■ ■ For the Jiles-Atherton model. m (amp/meter) HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. which is the original model. b (gauss) Slope of the magnetization curve. Magnetization saturation. PATH.

Checking Parameter Limits If an inductive element value exceeds 0.15 tnom Nominal temperature in degrees Kelvin. man (amp/meter) Effective magnetic field.12 .0 + TC 1 ⋅ Δ t + TC 2 ⋅ Δ t ) Parameter Description 2 Δt t t . t=circuit_temp + DTEMP + 273.1 Henry. Inductor Temperature Equation The following equation provides the effective inductance as a function of temperature: L ( t ) = L ⋅ ( 1.tnom Element temperature in degrees Kelvin.15 + TNOM 40 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Inductor Device Model and Equations Table 10 Magnetic Core Element Outputs Description Output Variable LX5 Slope of the anhysteretic magnetization curve. tnom=273. particularly if the elements are in automatically-produced netlists. the output listing file receives a warning message. This feature helps you identify elements that are missing units or that have incorrect values. he (amp/meter) dm an dh Inductor Device Equations This section contains equations for inductors. LX6 LX7 Anhysteretic magnetization.

kvalue.+ M ⋅ -----v 1 = L 1 ⋅ -----dt dt di 1 di 2 . This leads to: h e⎞ A ⎞ · ⎛ ---.12 41 . The following equation defines kvalue: M K = -----------------------------( L1 ⋅ L2 )1 / 2 Parameter Description L1. between the inductors. is: V1 = ( j ⋅ ω ⋅ L1 ) ⋅ I1 + ( j ⋅ ω ⋅ M ) ⋅ I2 V2 = ( j ⋅ ω ⋅ M ) ⋅ I1 + ( j ⋅ ω ⋅ L2 ) ⋅ I2 Note: If you do not use a mutual inductor statement to define an inductor reference. use the coefficient of coupling. is: di 1 di 2 . Jiles-Atherton Ferromagnetic Core Model The Jiles-Atherton ferromagnetic core model is based on domain wall motion. and simulation terminates.+ L 2 ⋅ -----v 2 = M ⋅ -----dt dt The linear branch relation for AC analysis.– ---coth m an = MS ⋅ ⎛ ⎝ ⎝ A ⎠ h e⎠ HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Inductor Device Model and Equations To create coupling between inductors. including both bending and translation. The linear branch relation for transient analysis. L2 M Inductances of the two coupled inductors. then an error message appears. A modified Langevin expression describes the hysteresis-free (anhysteretic) magnetization curve. Mutual inductance. use a separate coupling element. To specify mutual inductance between two inductors.

12 . the denominator of the above equation must be positive. If you express the bulk magnetization (m) as the sum of an irreversible component (due to wall displacement). therefore. the equation generates some elementary forms of hysteresis loops. and a reversible component (due to domain wall bending). which is not a desirable result. Magnetic field. If the slope becomes negative. Otherwise. The following equation calculates the slope of the curve.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Inductor Device Model and Equations h e = h + ALPHA ⋅ m an Parameter Description m an he h MS A Magnetization level.– ALPHA 3 ⋅ ------MS The slope must be positive. This model parameter represents the saturation magnetization. an error message appears. if the ALPHA model parameter has a small value. ALPHA The preceding equation generates anhysteretic curves. This model parameter characterizes the shape of anhysteretic magnetization. This model parameter represents the coupling between the magnetic domains. Anhysteretic magnetization represents the global energy state of the material. if the domain walls could move freely. Effective magnetic field. at zero (0): dm an 1 = -------------------------------------------dh A . then: ( m an – m ) dm dm dm . but the walls are displaced and bent in the material. if the domain walls could move freely.+ C ⋅ ⎛ an – ⎞ = ----------------------⎝dh dh dh ⎠ K -or- 42 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

Figure 6 on page 44 shows b-h curves for three values of A.+ -----------= ---------------------------⋅ dh (1 + C) ⋅ K 1 + C dh Solving the above differential equation obtains the bulk magnetization value.sp HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Input File This input file is located in the following directory: $installdir/demo/hspice/mag/jiles. The units of b are in Tesla (Wb/meter2). ■ ■ ■ Figure 5 on page 44 shows b-h curves for three values of ALPHA. Example This example demonstrates the effects of varying the ALPHA. Figure 7 on page 45 shows b-h curves for three values of K.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Inductor Device Model and Equations ( m an – m ) C .dm an dm .12 43 . The following equation uses m to compute the flux density (b): b = μ0 ⋅ ( h + m ) The following values apply to the preceding equation: ■ ■ ■ μ0 The permeability of free space. A. is 4 π ⋅ 10 –7 The units of h and m are in amp/meter. and K model parameters. m. on the b-h curve.

12 . A Increases 44 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Inductor Device Model and Equations Figure 5 Anhysteretic b-h Curve Variation: Slope and ALPHA Increase Figure 6 Anhysteretic b-h Curve Variation: Slope Decreases.

This input file is located in the following directory: $installdir/demo/hspice/mag/tj2b. which are proportional to the slope of the b-h curve. Discontinuities in the inductance.sp Figure 7 Inductance Curve HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 45 . can cause convergence problems. Figure 7 and Figure 8 on page 46 demonstrates the effects of hysteresis on the inductance of the core.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Inductor Device Model and Equations Discontinuities in Inductance Due to Hysteresis This example creates multi-loop hysteresis b-h curves for a magnetic core.

Input File This input file is located in the following directory: $installdir/demo/hspice/mag/tj_opt.spThe tj_opt. 46 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 .sp file also contains the analysis results listing. before and after optimization.Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Inductor Device Model and Equations Figure 8 Hysteresis Curve Optimizing the Extraction of Parameters This example demonstrates how to optimize the process of extracting parameters from the Jiles-Atherton model. Figure 9 shows the plots of the core output.

and After Optimization (bottom) HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Before Optimization (top).Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Inductor Device Model and Equations Figure 9 Output Curves.12 47 .

12 .Chapter 2: Passive Device Models Inductor Device Model and Equations 48 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

Diode Types Use the geometric junction diode to model: HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.3 3 Diodes Describes model parameters and scaling effects for geometric and nongeometric junction diodes. Diode model types include the junction diode model. You can use four types of models (as well as a wide range of parameters) to model standard junction diodes: ■ ■ ■ ■ Zener diodes Silicon diffused junction diodes Schottky barrier diodes Nonvolatile memory diodes (tunneling current) Note: See the MOSFET Diode Models in the HSPICE Reference Manual: MOSFET Models for other MOSFET and standard discrete diodes. and the Fowler-Nordheim model. Junction diode models have two variations: geometric and nongeometric. You use diode models to describe pn junction diodes within MOS and bipolar integrated circuit environments and discrete devices.12 49 . see Listing of Demonstration Input Files for paths to demo files. HSPICE ships hundreds of examples for your use.

12 . Use the LEVEL parameter (in model statements) to select the type of diode model: ■ ■ ■ LEVEL=1 selects the non-geometric. the model defaults to the non-geometric. junction diode model LEVEL=2 selects the Fowler-Nordheim diode model LEVEL=3 selects the geometric. and capacitances by using dimensionless area parameters. LEVEL=2 does not permit modeling of these effects. Use the non-geometric junction diode to model discrete diode devices. The model simulates diode effects in nonvolatile EEPROM memory. through insulators. resistances. to: ■ ■ ■ Scale model units Select diffusion capacitance equations Change model parameters. Setting Control Options To set control options. Schottky barrier. The Fowler-Nordheim diode defines a tunneling current-flow. 50 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.MODEL statement. Use control options with the diode model. junction diode model. Using Diode Model Statements Use model and element statements to select the diode models.Chapter 3: Diodes Diode Types ■ ■ ■ IC-based. use the . To design Zener.OPTION statement. You can use the non-geometric model to scale currents. such as standard and Zener diodes. LEVEL=1. set the BV parameter for an appropriate Zener breakdown voltage. junction diode model. If you do not specify the LEVEL parameter in the . Use the geometric parameter to specify dimensions for pn junction poly and metal capacitance for a particular IC process technology. and silicon diffused diodes. alter the model parameters for both LEVEL=1 and LEVEL=3. standard silicon-diffused diodes Schottky barrier diodes Zener diodes. For Zener diodes.

12 51 . capacitances. ■ HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. and so on. Use . MESFETs.OPTION MBYPASS MBYPASS to set MBYPASS to a smaller value for more accurate results. ■ LEVEL=1 does not use SCALE or SCALM. this option does not recalculate currents. if the voltages at the terminal device nodes have not changed.OPTION SCALM=<val> statement. include: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ DCAP DCCAP GMIN GMINDC SCALE SCALM Bypassing Latent Devices (HSPICE only) Use . Setting Scaling Options ■ Use the SCALE element option to scale LEVEL=2 and LEVEL=3 diode element parameters. Use .MODEL statement (in a diode model) to override global scaling that uses the . and diodes.OPTION BYPASS to set BYPASS. Include SCALM=<val> in the . BYPASS might reduce simulation accuracy for tightly-coupled circuits such as op-amps. BJTs. related to the analysis of diode circuits and other models. JFETs. .OPTION BYPASS applies to MOSFETs.OPTION BYPASS (latency) to decrease simulation time in large designs.Chapter 3: Diodes Diode Types Control options. To speed simulation time. Use the SCALM (scale model) option to scale LEVEL=2 and LEVEL=3 diode model parameters. Use the DCCAP option to calculate capacitances in DC analysis. and conductances. high gain ring oscillators. Using the Capacitor Equation Selector Option — DCAP ■ Use the DCAP option to select the equations used in calculating the depletion capacitance (LEVEL=1 and LEVEL=3).

Chapter 3: Diodes Specifying Junction Diode Models

Include DCAP=<val> in the .MODEL statement for the diode to override the global depletion capacitance equation that the .OPTION DCAP=<val> statement selects.

Using Control Options for Convergence
Diode convergence problems often occur at the breakdown voltage region when the diode is either overdriven or in the OFF condition. To achieve convergence in such cases, do either of the following:
■ ■

Include a non-zero value in the model for the RS (series resistor) parameter. Increase GMIN (the parallel conductance that HSPICE automatically places in the circuit). You can specify GMIN and GMINDC in the .OPTION statement.
Diode Control Options
Control Options

Table 11 shows the diode control options:
Table 11
Function

Capacitance Conductance Geometry

DCAP, DCCAP GMIN, GMINDC SCALM, SCALE

Specifying Junction Diode Models
Use the diode element statement to specify the two types of junction diodes: geometric or non-geometric. Use a different element type format for the FowlerNordheim model. Use the parameter fields in the diode element statement to define the following parameters of the diode model, specified in the .MODEL statement for the diode:
■ ■ ■

Connecting nodes Initialization Temperature

52

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Chapter 3: Diodes Specifying Junction Diode Models
■ ■

Geometric junction Capacitance parameters

Both LEVEL=1 and LEVEL=3 junction diode models share the same element parameter set. Poly and metal capacitor parameters of LM, LP, WM and WP, do not share the same element parameter. Element parameters have precedence over model parameters, if you repeat them as model parameters in the .MODEL statement. Parameters common to both element and model statements are: AREA, PJ, M, LM, LP, WM, WP, W, and L.
Table 12
Function

Junction Diode Element Parameters
Parameters

Netlist Initialization Temperature Geometric junction Geometric capacitance (LEVEL=3 only)

Dxxx, n+, n-, mname IC, OFF DTEMP AREA, L, M, PJ, W LM, LP, WM, WP

Using the Junction Model Statement
You can use the .MODEL statement to include a junction model in your HSPICE netlist. For a general description of the .MODEL statement, see the HSPICE and HSPICE RF Command Reference. Syntax .MODEL mname D <LEVEL = val> <keyword = val> ...

Parameter

Description

mname

Model name. The diode element uses this name to refer to the model. Symbol that identifies a diode model.

D

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Chapter 3: Diodes Specifying Junction Diode Models

Parameter

Description

LEVEL

Symbol that identifies a diode model. LEVEL=1 =junction diode. LEVEL=2 =Fowler-Nordheim diode. LEVEL=3 =geometric processing for junction diode.

keyword

Model parameter keyword, such as CJO or IS.

Example
.MODEL D D (CO=2PF, RS=1, IS=1P) .MODEL DFOWLER D (LEVEL=2, TOX=100, JF=1E-10, EF=1E8) .MODEL DGEO D (LEVEL=3, JS=1E-4, JSW=1E-8) .MODEL d1n750a D + LEVEL=1 XP =0.0 EG =1.1 + XOI =0.0 XOM =0.0 XM =0.0 + WP =0.0 WM =0.0 LP =0.0 + LM =0.0 AF =1.0 JSW =0.0 + PB =0.65 PHP =0.8 M =0.2994 + FC =0.95 FCS =0.4 MJSW=0.5 + TT =2.446e-9 BV =4.65 RS =19 + IS =1.485e-11 CJO =1.09e-9 CJP =0.0 + PJ =0.0 N =1.615 IK =0.0 + IKR =1.100e-2 IBV =2.00e-2

Using Junction Model Parameters
The diode element statement references the .MODEL statement. The .MODEL statement contains parameters that specify:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Type of diode model (LEVEL=1, 2, or 3) DC Capacitance Temperature Resistance Geometry Noise

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Chapter 3: Diodes Specifying Junction Diode Models

Table 13
Function

Junction Diode Model Parameters (LEVEL=1 and 3)
Parameters

model type DC parameters geometric junction geometric capacitance (LEVEL=3 only) capacitance noise

LEVEL IBV, IK, IKR, IS, ISW, N, RS, VB, RS AREA, M, PJ L, LM, LP, SHRINK, W, WM, WP, XM, XOJ, XOM, XP, XW

CJ, CJP, FC, FCS, M, MJSW, PB, PHP, TT AK, KF

Table 14
Name (Alias)

Junction DC Parameters in LEVEL=1 and 3
Units Default Description

AREA

1.0

Junction area.

■ ■

For LEVEL=1 AREAeff = AREA⋅ M, unitless For LEVEL=3 AREAeff=AREA⋅ SCALM2 ⋅ SHRINK2 ⋅ M unit = meter2 If you specify W and L: AREAeff = Weff ⋅ Leff ⋅ M unit = meter2

EXPLI

amp/ AREAeff

0

Current-explosion model parameter. The PN junction characteristics (above the explosion current) are linear with the slope at the explosion point. This speeds up the simulation and improves convergence. EXPLIeff = EXPLI⋅ AREAeff

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Table 14
Name (Alias)

Junction DC Parameters in LEVEL=1 and 3 (Continued)
Units Default Description

EXPLIR

amp/ AREAeff

EXPLI

Reverse mode current explosion model parameter. EXPLIReff = EXPLIR⋅ AREAeff

IB

amp/ AREAeff

1.0e-3

Current, at breakdown voltage. For LEVEL=3: IBVeff = IBV ⋅ AREAeff / SCALM2

IBV

amp/ AREAeff

1.0e-3

Current, at breakdown voltage: For LEVEL=3: IBVeff = IBV⋅ AREAeff / SCALM2

IK (IKF, JBF)

amp/ AREAeff

0.0

Forward-knee current (intersection of the highand low-current asymptotes). IKeff = IK⋅ AREAeff

IKR (JBR)

amp/ AREAeff

0.0

Reverse-knee current (intersection of the highand low-current asymptotes). IKReff = IKR⋅ AREAeff Sidewall saturation current, per unit junction periphery.

JSW (ISP)

amp/ PJeff

0.0

For LEVEL=1: JSWeff = PJeff⋅ JSW For LEVEL=3: JSWeff = PJeff⋅ JSW/SCALM

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Table 14
Name (Alias)

Junction DC Parameters in LEVEL=1 and 3 (Continued)
Units Default Description

IS (JS)

amp/ AREAeff

LEVEL 1= 1.0e14 LEVEL 3= 0.0

Saturation current per unit area. If the IS value is less than EPSMIN, the program resets the value of IS to EPSMIN, and shows a warning message. EPSMIN default=1.0e-28 If the value of IS is too large, the program displays a warning.

For LEVEL=1: ISeff = AREAeff⋅ IS For LEVEL=3: ISeff = AREAeff ⋅ IS/SCALM2

L

Default length of the diode. Leff = L⋅ SHRINK⋅ SCALM + XWeff

LEVEL

1

Diode model selector.

LEVEL=1 or LEVEL=3 selects the junction diode model. LEVEL=2 selects the Fowler-Nordheim model.

N RS

1.0 ohms 0.0 or ohms/m2 (see note below) 0.0

Emission coefficient. Ohmic series resistance.

For LEVEL=1: RSeff = RS/AREAeff For LEVEL=3: RSeff= RS ⋅ SCALM2/AREAeff

PJ

Junction periphery.

For LEVEL=1: PJeff = PJ⋅ M, unitless For LEVEL=3: PJeff = PJ⋅ SCALM⋅ M⋅ SHRINK, meter If you specify W and L: PJeff = (2⋅ Weff + 2⋅ Leff)⋅ M, meter

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Table 14
Name (Alias)

Junction DC Parameters in LEVEL=1 and 3 (Continued)
Units Default Description

SHRINK VB (BV, VAR, VRB) V

1.0 0.0

Shrink factor. Reverse breakdown voltage. 0.0 indicates an infinite breakdown voltage. N Breakdown emission coefficient (If not specified, NBV is set to N). Accounts for masking and etching effects. XWeff = XW⋅ SCALM

NBV

XW

JTUN

amp/ AREAeff

0.0

Tunneling saturation current per area.

For LEVEL=1: JTUNeff = AREAeff⋅ JTUN For LEVEL=3: JTUNeff = AREAeff⋅ JTUN/SCALM2

JTUNSW

amp/ PJeff

0.0

Sidewall tunneling saturation current per unit junction periphery.

For LEVEL=1: JTUNSWeff = PJeff⋅ JTUNSW For LEVEL=3: JTUNSWeff = PJeff⋅ JTUNSW/SCALM

NTUN

30

Tunneling emission coefficient.

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Note:

If you use a diode model than does not specify an AREA, then AREA defaults to 1, and RS is in units of ohms. If you specify the AREA in square meters (m2) in the netlist, then the units of RS are ohms/m2.
Junction Capacitance Parameters
Units Default Description

Table 15

Name (Alias)

CJ (CJA, CJO)

F/ AREAeff 0.0

Zero-bias junction capacitance, per unitjunction bottomwall area.

For LEVEL=1: CJOeff = CJO⋅ AREAeff For LEVEL=3: CJeff = CJ ⋅ AREAeff/SCALM2

CJP (CJSW)

F/PJeff

0.0

Zero-bias junction capacitance, per unitjunction periphery (PJ).

For LEVEL=1: CJPeff = CJP⋅ PJeff For LEVEL=3: CJPeff = CJP⋅ PJeff/SCALM

FC

0.5

Coefficient for the formula that calculates the capacitance for the forward-bias depletion area Coefficient for the formula that calculates the capacitance for the forward-bias depletion periphery. Grading coefficient at area junction. Grading coefficient at periphery junction. Contact potential at area junction.

FCS

0,5

M (EXA, MJ) MJSW (EXP) PB (PHI, VJ, PHA) PHP TT V

0.5 0.33 0.8

V s

PB 0.0

Contact potential at periphery junction. Transit time.

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Table 16

Metal and Poly Capacitor Parameters, LEVEL=3
Units Default Description

Name (Alias)

LM

m

0.0

Default length of metal. Use this parameter if the element statement does not specify LM. LMeff = LM⋅ SCALM⋅ SHRINK

LP

m

0.0

Default length of polysilicon. Use this parameter if the element statement does not specify LP. LPeff = LP⋅ SCALM⋅ SHRINK

WM

m

0.0

Default width of metal. Use this parameter if the element statement does not specify WM. WMeff = WM⋅ SCALM⋅ SHRINK

WP

m

0.0

Default width of polysilicon. Use this parameter if the element statement does not specify WP. WPeff = WP⋅ SCALM⋅ SHRINK

XM

m

0.0

Accounts for masking and etching effects in metal layer: XMeff = XM⋅ SCALM Thickness of the poly to bulk oxide. Thickness of the metal to bulk oxide. Accounts for masking and etching effects in poly layer: XPeff = XP⋅ SCALM

XOI XOM XP Å m

10k 10k 0.0

Table 17

Noise Parameters for LEVEL=1 and 3
Units Default Description

Name (Alias)

AF

1.0

Flicker noise exponent.

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Table 17

Noise Parameters for LEVEL=1 and 3 (Continued)
Units Default Description

Name (Alias)

KF

0.0

Flicker noise coefficient.

Geometric Scaling for Diode Models
LEVEL=1 Scaling
LEVEL=1 uses the AREA and M Element parameters to scale the following element and model parameters: IK, IKR, JS, CJO, and RS. For AREA and M, default=1. This element is not geometric, because it uses dimensionless values to measure both the area (AREA) and the periphery (PJ). The .OPTION SCALE and .OPTION SCALM statements do not affect these parameters. Here is the process: • Diode models multiply the periphery junction parameter by M (the multiplier parameter) to scale a dimensionless periphery junction: PJeff = PJ ⋅ M The diode models then use PJeff to scale CJP (the zero-bias junction capacitance), and the sidewall saturation current (JSW). CJPeff = PJeff ⋅ CJP JSWeff = PJeff ⋅ JSW JTUNSWeff = PJeff ⋅ JTUNSW The models use the AREA and M values to obtain AREAeff. AREAeff = AREA ⋅ M Models multiply CJO, IK, IKR, IBV, and IS by AREAeff to obtain their effective scaled values. However, diode models divide RS by AREAeff.

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IKeff = AREAeff ⋅ IK IKReff = AREAeff ⋅ IKR ISeff = AREAeff ⋅ IS RSeff = RS/AREAeff CJOeff = CJO ⋅ AREAeff JTUNeff = JTUN ⋅ AREAeff

LEVEL=3 Scaling
The SCALM, SCALE, SHRINK, and M parameters affect LEVEL=3 scaling.

SCALE affects the following LEVEL=3 element parameters:
AREA, LM, LP, PJ, WM, WP, W, L

SCALM affects the following model parameters:
AREA, IBV, IK, IKR, IS, PJ, JSW, RS, CJO, CJP, LM, LP, WP, XM, XP, W, L, XW, JTUN, JTUNSW

If you include AREA as either an element parameter or a model parameter, then the program uses SCALE or SCALM. The following equations use the AREA element parameter, instead of the AREA model parameter. If you specified the AREA and PJ model parameters, but not the element, then use SCALM as the scaling factor, instead of SCALE. The following equations determine the parameters of the scaled effective area, and of the periphery junction element: AREAeff = AREA ⋅ M ⋅ SCALE2 ⋅ SHRINK2 PJeff = PJ ⋅ SCALE ⋅ M ⋅ SHRINK If you specified W and L: AREAeff = Weff ⋅ Leff ⋅ M PJeff = (2 ⋅ Weff + 2 ⋅ Leff) ⋅ M The following values apply to the preceding equations: Weff = W ⋅ SCALE ⋅ SHRINK + XWeff Leff = L ⋅ SCALE ⋅ SHRINK + XWeff To find the value of JSWeff and CJPeff, use the following formula: JSWeff = PJeff ⋅ (JSW/SCALM) CJPeff = PJeff ⋅ (CJP/SCALM)
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JTUNSWeff = PJeff ⋅ JTUNSW/SCALM To determine the polysilicon and metal capacitor dimensions, multiply each by SCALE or by SCALM if you used model parameters to specify these dimensions. LMeff = LM ⋅ SCALE ⋅ SHRINK WMeff = WM ⋅ SCALE ⋅ SHRINK LPeff = LP ⋅ SCALE ⋅ SHRINK WPeff = WP ⋅ SCALE ⋅ SHRINK XPeff = XP ⋅ SCALM XMeff = XM ⋅ SCALM Use the following formulas to determine the effective scaled model parameters (IBeff, IKeff, IKReff, IBVeff, RSeff, and CJO): IKeff = AREAeff ⋅ IK IKReff = AREAeff ⋅ IKR IBVeff = IBV/SCALM2 ISeff = IS ⋅ (AREAeff/SCALM2) RSeff = RS/(AREAeff ⋅ SCALM2) CJOeff = AREAeff ⋅ (CJO/SCALM2) JTUNeff = AREAeff ⋅ (JTUN/SCALM2) Note: IBVeff is not scaled with AREAeff

Defining Diode Models
This section describes diode current, and diode-equivalent circuits.

Diode Current
Figure 10 shows the direction of current flow through the diode. Use either I(D1) or I1(D1) syntax to print the diode current. If the voltage on node1 is 0.6V greater than the voltage on node2, then the diode is forward biased or turned on. The anode is the p-doped side of a diode, and the cathode is the n-doped side.

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I1 (D1)

node1 (anode, P-type, + node)

I2 (D2)

node2 (cathode, N-type, - node)

Figure 10

Diode Current Convention

Using Diode Equivalent Circuits
Synopsys diode device models provide three equivalent circuits for diode analysis: transient, AC, and noise circuits. Components of these circuits form the basis for all element and model equations. The fundamental component in the DC-equivalent circuit is the DC diode current (id). Noise and AC analyses do not use the actual id current; instead, these analyses use the partial derivative of id with respect to the vd terminal voltage. The conductance equation for this partial derivative is: ∂id gd = -------∂vd The drain current (id) equation accounts for all basic DC effects of the diodes. The diode device models assume that capacitance effects are separate from the id equations.

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12 65 .Chapter 3: Diodes Specifying Junction Diode Models Anode rs + vd - id cd Cathode Figure 11 Equivalent Circuit for Diode in Transient Analysis Anode rs gd cd Cathode Figure 12 Equivalent Circuit for Diode in AC Analysis HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

TLEV and TLEVC select different temperature equation to calculate temperature effects on: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Energy gap Leakage current Breakdown voltage Contact potential Junction capacitance Grading Junction Diode Temperature Parameters (LEVEL=1 and 3) Parameter Table 18 Variable Resistance coefficient Capacitance coefficient (area) TRS CTA 66 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 .Chapter 3: Diodes Specifying Junction Diode Models Anode Inrs rs Inrd id cd Cathode Figure 13 Equivalent Circuit for Diode in AC Noise Analysis Determining Temperature Effects on Junction Diodes LEVEL=1 and LEVEL=3 model statements contain parameters that calculate temperature effects.

default=1. TTT2 TREF TLEV. TM2.silicon 0.16 1. If you set the TLEVC parameter to 1. LEVEL=1 and 3 Default Description Name (Alias) Units CTA (CTC) 1/× 0.germanium 1. ■ ■ CTP 1/× 0. default=1. 1. TLEVC TM1. Energy gap for pn junction diode.Schottky barrier diode 0.67 . Temperature coefficient for periphery junction capacitance (CJP).Chapter 3: Diodes Specifying Junction Diode Models Table 18 Variable Junction Diode Temperature Parameters (LEVEL=1 and 3) (Continued) Parameter Capacitance coefficient (periphery) Energy gap (pn junction) Energy gap (bandgap corrections) Transit time coefficient Reference temperature Temperature selectors Miscellaneous Saturation current temperature CTP EG GAP1. TPHP XTI Table 19 Junction Diode Temperature Effects. TPB. CTAl overrides the default temperature coefficient. GAP2 TTT1. If you set TLEVC to 1.52 .69 .0 EG eV For TLEV=0.17 . For TLEV=2.gallium arsenide KEG - 1 EG correction factor for tunneling HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 Temperature coefficient for area junction capacitance (CJ).12 67 .11. CTP overrides the default temperature coefficient.

If you set the TLEVC parameter to 1 or 2. beta term.41e-4 . alpha term. 7.0 0. Interacts with TLEVC.0 TM1 TM2 TPB (TVJ) 1/× 1/° 2 V/× 0.0 0.silicon 210 . Interacts with TLEV. From Sze.gallium arsenide PT TCV TLEV 1/× 3.0 0.02e-4 First bandgap correction factor.02e-4 .Chapter 3: Diodes Specifying Junction Diode Models Table 19 Junction Diode Temperature Effects. LEVEL=1 and 3 (Continued) Default Description Name (Alias) Units GAP1 eV/× 7.gallium arsenide GAP2 × 1108 Second bandgap correction factor. Model reference temperature (LEVEL=1 or 3 only).silicon 4. First-order temperature coefficient for MJ.56e-4 . TPB overrides default temperature compensation. Diode temperature equation selector.0 0. junction capacitances. Second-order temperature coefficient for MJ.0 TPHP V/× 0. TLEVC 0.0 PT is an alias for XTI. PB temperature coefficient. and contact potentials.germanium 204 . If you set the TLEVC parameter to 1 or 2. From Sze.0 TREF ×c 25. PHP temperature coefficient.12 . Level selector for diode temperature.silicon (old value) 636 .73e-4 .0 68 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Temperature coefficient of breakdown voltage. TPHP overrides default temperature compensation.germanium 5.silicon (old value) 4. 1108 .

Table 20 Variable Equation Variable Definitions Definition cd f gd id id1 ind inrs vd total diode capacitance frequency diode conductance diode DC current current.0 for a silicon-diffused junction. without high-level injection equivalent noise current for a diode equivalent noise current for a series resistor voltage.12 69 . First-order temperature coefficient for TT.0 3.0 0.0 Exponent for the tunneling current temperature. Set XTI=2.0 0. PT is an alias for XTI. XTITUN 3. Second-order temperature coefficient for TT.0 Resistance temperature coefficient.0 for a Schottky barrier diode. across the diode HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. ■ ■ Set XTI=3. Using Junction Diode Equations Table 20 shows the definitions of variables in diode equations. LEVEL=1 and 3 (Continued) Default Description Name (Alias) Units TRS TTT1 TTT2 XTI 1/× 1/× 1/° 2 0. Exponent for the saturation-current temperature.Chapter 3: Diodes Specifying Junction Diode Models Table 19 Junction Diode Temperature Effects.

As the forward-bias voltage increases past 0. the anode is more positive than the cathode. the limiting resistor prevents the value of the diode current from becoming too high.Chapter 3: Diodes Specifying Junction Diode Models Table 21 shows the definitions of equation quantities. and conducts above 0.tnom nominal temperature of parameter measurements in °Kelvin k ⋅ t/q: thermal voltage k ⋅ tnom/q: thermal voltage Using Junction DC Equations A basic diode device model contains three regions: ■ ■ ■ Forward bias Reverse bias Breakdown regions For a forward-bias diode. Forward Bias: vd ≥ – 10 ⋅ vt --------------N ⋅ vt – 1⎞ id = ISeff ⋅ ⎛ e ⎝ ⎠ vd vd = v node 1 – v node 2 70 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.453143e-11 F/m 1.12 .6 V. The diode is turned on.6 V.3806226e-23 (Boltzmann’s constant) 1. Set the RS model parameter to limit conduction current. and prevents the solution from converging. Table 21 Quantity Equation Quantity Definition Definition tox k q t Δt tnom vt(t) vt(tnom) 3.6021918e-19 (electron charge) temperature in °Kelvin t .

the anode (node1) is more negative than the cathode.⎞ id = – ISeff – JTUNeff ⋅ ⎜ e NTUN ⋅ vt – 1⎟ ⎝ ⎠ For breakdown. It occurs when anodecathode voltage is less than the breakdown voltage (BV). The diode is turned off and conducts a small leakage current. They tend to limit the exponential increase in current. You can see this effect in Zener diodes. at the reverse-knee or at the onset of avalanche.12 71 . Reverse Bias: BVeff < vd < – 10 ⋅ vt ⎛ ---------------------------. measure the voltage (BV) and the current (IBV). HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. which induces reverse-breakdown (or avalanche). then: IBVeff -⎞ BVeff = BV – NBV ⇒ vt ⇒ ln ⎛ ---------------⎝ ibreak⎠ Otherwise: IBVeff = ibreak Most diodes do not behave as ideal diodes. Note: BV must be a positive number.Chapter 3: Diodes Specifying Junction Diode Models In reverse-bias. set the BV (VB) parameter. Note: Diode models use the exponential equation in both the forward and reverse regions. The IK and IKR parameters are called high-level injection parameters. – vd Breakdown: vd < – BV id = – ISeff ⋅ e vd + BVeff --------------------------⎞ –⎛ ⎝ N ⋅ vt ⎠ ⎛ --------------------------NTUN ⋅ vt ⎞ – JTUNeff ⋅ ⎜ e – 1⎟ ⎝ ⎠ – vd The device model adjusts the BV parameter to obtain BVeff : --------------ibreak = – ISeff ⋅ ⎛ e N ⋅ vt – 1⎞ ⎝ ⎠ – BV If IBVeff > ibreak . To model this action.

In practice.Chapter 3: Diodes Specifying Junction Diode Models Forward Bias id 1 id = ---------------------------------1/2 id 1 ⎛ ⎞ 1 + -----------⎝ IKeff⎠ Reverse Bias id 1 id = -------------------------------------1/2 id 1 -⎞ 1 + ⎛ ---------------⎝ IKReff⎠ For vd ≥ – BVeff : ⎛ --------------⎛ --------------------------N ⋅ vt ⎞ NTUN ⋅ vt ⎞ id 1 = ISeff ⋅ ⎜ e – 1⎟ – JTUNeff ⋅ ⎜ e – 1⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ vd – vd Otherwise: – ⎝ -------------------------⎛ --------------⎛ --------------------------NBV ⋅ vt ⎠ N ⋅ vt ⎞ NTUN ⋅ vt ⎞ id 1 = – ISeff ⋅ ⎜ e – 1⎟ – ISeff ⋅ e – JTUNeff ⋅ ⎜ e – 1⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ vd ⎛ vd + BVeff⎞ – vd From DC measurements of the forward-biased diode characteristics. determines the value of RS. In most cases. and averages them. you can estimate: ■ ■ ■ Reverse-saturation current (IS) Emission coefficient (N) Model parameter (RS) You can determine N from the slope of the diode characteristic in the ideal region. the diode current deviates from the ideal exponential characteristic. at a specific current. At higher bias levels. because the value of RS depends upon diode current. but is closer to 2 for MOS diodes.12 . and the effects of high-level injection. due to ohmic resistance in the diode. The deviation of the actual diode voltage (from the ideal exponential characteristic). simulation of diode device models estimates RS at several values of id. the emission coefficient is the value of the unit. 72 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

OPTION DCAP. cd = cdiff + cdep + cmetal + cpoly Using Diffusion Capacitance Equations The transit time (TT) models the diffusion capacitance. The cd capacitance is a combination of diffusion (cdiff). metal (cmetal). The formula for both bottom area and periphery capacitances is similar. To select either of the two equations for forward-bias junction capacitance. caused by injected minority carriers. ∂id cdiff = TT ⋅ ------∂vd Using Depletion Capacitance Equations To model depletion capacitance. cd models the diode capacitance. diode device models use the junction bottom and junction periphery capacitances. but each has its own model parameters. DCAP = 1 The capacitance formula for the junction bottom area is: vd < FC ⋅ PB vd-⎞ – MJ cdepa = CJeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 – -----⎝ PB⎠ vd ≥ FC ⋅ PB vd1 – FC ⇒ ( 1 + MJ ) + MJ ⋅ -----PB cdepa = CJeff ⋅ -------------------------------------------------------------------------( 1 – FC ) ( 1 + MJ ) The capacitance formula for the junction periphery is: vd < FCS ⋅ PHP vd -⎞ – MJSW cdepp = CJPeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 – ----------⎝ PHP⎠ vd ≥ FCS ⋅ PHP HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 73 . In practice. simulation of diode models estimates TT. use . from pulsed time-delay measurements. depletion (cdep).Chapter 3: Diodes Specifying Junction Diode Models Using Diode Capacitance Equations In Figure 11 on page 65. and poly (cpoly) capacitances.

⋅ ( WMeff + XMeff ) ⋅ ( LMeff + XMeff ) ⋅ M cpoly = ⎛ -----------⎝ XOM⎠ Using Noise Equations Figure 13 on page 66 shows the noise model for a diode. use: 4 ⋅ k ⋅ t 1/2 inrs = ⎛ ---------------------⎞ ⎝ RSeff ⎠ The unit of inrs is Amp/(Hz)1/2. Metal and Poly Capacitance Equations (LEVEL=3 Only) To determine the metal and poly capacitances. use the following equations: ε ox ⎞ --------cmetal = ⎛ ⎝ XOI⎠ ⋅ ( WPeff + XPeff ) ⋅ ( LPeff + XPeff ) ⋅ M ε ox ⎞ .12 . models the thermal noise that a resistor generates. To determine the value of inrs. An independent current source (inrs) in parallel with the resistor.Chapter 3: Diodes Specifying Junction Diode Models vd 1 – FCS Þ ( 1 + MJSW ) + MJSW ⋅ ----------PHP cdepp = CJPeff ⋅ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------( 1 – FCS ) ( 1 + MJSW ) cdep = cdepa + cdepp DCAP = 2 (default) The capacitance formula for the total depletion is: vd < 0 vd-⎞ – MJ vd -⎞ – MJSW cdep = CJeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 – -----+ CJPeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 – ----------⎝ ⎝ PB⎠ PHP⎠ vd ≥ 0 vd vd -⎞ -⎞ + CJPeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 + MJSW ⋅ ----------cdep = CJeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 + MJ ⋅ -----⎝ ⎝ PB⎠ PHP⎠ DCAP = 3 Limits peak depletion capacitance to FC ⋅ CGSeff or FC ⋅ CGSeff with proper fall-off when the forward bias exceeds PB (FC> 1). 74 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

– -----------.0 TLEV = 2 tnom 2 ---------------------------------egnom = EG – GAP 1 ⇒ tnom + GAP 2 t2 ----------------------eg ( t ) = EG – GAP 1 ⇒ t + GAP 2 Leakage Current Temperature Equations JS ( t ) = JS ⋅ facln -----------e N facln -----------N JSW ( t ) = JSW ⋅ e TLEV = 0 or 1 t -⎞ EG EGfacln = ---------------------.12 75 .16 – 7.02 e -4 ⇒ t + 1108.0 t2 ----------------------eg ( t ) = 1.Chapter 3: Diodes Specifying Junction Diode Models The ind current source models the shot and flicker noise of the diode.16 – 7. TLEV = 0 or 1 tnom 2 ----------------------------------egnom = 1.+ XTI ⋅ ln ⎛ -----------⎝ tnom⎠ vt ( tnom ) vt ( t ) HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.02 e -4 ⇒ tnom + 1108. Energy Gap Temperature Equations The equations below determine the energy gap for temperature compensation.– ---------+ XTI ⋅ ln ⎛ -----------⎝ tnom⎠ vt ( tnom ) vt ( t ) TLEV = 2 t -⎞ egnom eg ( t ) facln = ---------------------. The following equation defines ind: 1/2 ⋅ id AF KF -------------------------⎞ ⋅ ⋅ + ind = ⎛ 2 q id ⎝ ⎠ f Temperature Compensation Equations This section describes the temperature-compensation equations.

⎞ t -⎞ ---------------------faclnt = KEG ⋅ ⎛ – ---------+ XTITUN ⋅ ln ⎛ -----------⎝vt ( tnom ) vt ( t ) ⎠ ⎝ tnom⎠ TLEV = 2 egnom eg ( t ) t -⎞ ---------------------faclnt = KEG ⋅ ⎛ – -----------.⎞ + XTITUN ⋅ ln ⎛ -----------⎝ vt ( tnom ) vt ( t ) ⎠ ⎝ tnom⎠ Breakdown-Voltage Temperature Equations TLEV = 0 BV ( t ) = BV – TCV ⇒ Δt TLEV = 1 or 2 BV ( t ) = BV ⋅ ( 1 – TCV ⇒ Δt) JTUN ( t ) = JTUN ⋅ e facInt facInt JTUNSW ( t ) = JTUNSW ⋅ e Transit-Time Temperature Equations TT ( t ) = TT ⋅ ( 1 + TTT 1 ⋅ Δ t + TTT 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) Junction Built-in Potential Temperature Equations TLEVC = 0 t -⎞ t -⎞ egnom eg ( t ) PB ( t ) = PB ⋅ ⎛ -----------– vt ( t ) ⇒ 3 ⋅ ln ⎛ -----------+ ---------------------.– -----------⎝ ⎠ tnom tnom vt ( tnom ) vt ( t ) TLEVC = 1 or 2 PB ( t ) = PB – TPB ⇒ Δt PHP ( t ) = PHP – TPHP ⇒ Δt TLEVC = 3 PB ( t ) = PB + dpbdt ⋅ Δ t PHP ( t ) = PHP + dphpdt ⋅ Δ t 76 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 3: Diodes Specifying Junction Diode Models Tunneling Current Temperature Equations TLEV = 0 or 1 EG EG.12 .– -----------⎝ tnom⎠ ⎝ tnom⎠ vt ( tnom ) vt ( t ) t t -⎞ egnom eg ( t ) PHP ( t ) = PHP ⋅ -----------– vt ( t ) ⇒ 3 ⋅ ln ⎛ -----------+ ---------------------.

0 e -4 ⇒ ⎠ PB PHP ( t ) .16 – egnom ) ⋅ ⎛ 2 – – PHB ⎝ tnom + 1108⎠ dphbdt = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tnom If TLEV = 2: tnom ----------------------------------⎞ – egnom + 3 ⋅ vt ( tnom ) + ( EG – egnom ) ⋅ ⎛ ⎝ 2 – tnom + GAP 2⎠ – PB dpbdt = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tnom tnom -⎞ – PHP – egnom + 3 ⋅ vt ( tnom ) + ( EG – egnom ) ⋅ ⎛ 2 – ---------------------------------⎝ tnom + GAP 2⎠ dphpdt = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tnom Junction Capacitance Temperature Equations TLEVC = 0 CJ ( t ) = CJ ⋅ PB ( t ) 1 + MJ ⋅ ⎛ Δ t – ------------+ 1⎞ ⎝ 4.16 – egnom ) ⋅ ⎛ 2 – -----------------------------– PB ⎝ tnom + 1108⎠ dpbdt = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tnom tnom -⎞ -----------------------------– egnom + 3 ⋅ vt ( tnom ) + ( 1.Chapter 3: Diodes Specifying Junction Diode Models If TLEVC = 3 and TLEV = 0 or 1. then: tnom -⎞ – egnom + 3 ⋅ vt ( tnom ) + ( 1.12 77 .0 e -4 ⇒ Δ t – -----------------⎝ ⎠ PHP CJSW ( t ) = CJSW ⋅ TLEVC = 1 CJ ( t ) = CJ ⋅ ( 1 + CTA ⋅ Δ t ) CJSW ( t ) = CJSW ⋅ ( 1 + CTP ⋅ Δ t ) TLEVC = 2 PB -⎞ MJ CJ ( t ) = CJ ⋅ ⎛ ------------⎝ PB ( t )⎠ PHP -⎞ MJSW CJSW ( t ) = CJSW ⋅ ⎛ -----------------⎝ PHP ( t )⎠ TLEVC = 3 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.+ 1⎞ 1 + MJSW ⋅ ⎛ 4.

Chapter 3: Diodes Using the JUNCAP Models Δ t-⎞ CJ ( t ) = CJ ⋅ ⎛ 1 – 0.semiconductors. followed by up to 1023 alphanumeric characters. Must begin with D.philips. 78 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.OPTION list Parameter Description Dxxx Diode element name. For a general description.MODEL statement to include a JUNCAP (junction capacitance) model in your HSPICE netlist.5 ⋅ dphpdt ⋅ ----------⎝ PHP⎠ Grading Coefficient Temperature Equation MJ ( t ) = MJ ⋅ ( 1 + TM 1 ⋅ Δ t + TM 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) Resistance Temperature Equations RS ( t ) = RS ⋅ ( 1 + TRS ⋅ Δ t ) Using the JUNCAP Models This section describes the JUNCAP (junction capacitance) diode models: JUNCAP1 and JUNCAP2. see http://www. You can use the .12 .com/Philips_Models/. These diodes models have been implemented in HSPICE as ■ ■ Level 4 = JUNCAP1 Level 6 = JUNCAP2 For a full description of the JUNCAP models. Input Syntax Dxxx na nb modelname [area=val] [pj=val] [pgate=val] + [m=>val] [dtemp=val] [off=val] [IC=val] . see the .MODEL statement in the HSPICE Reference Manual: Commands and Control Options. see the .5 ⇒ dpbdt Þ -----⎝ PB⎠ Δ t -⎞ CJSW ( t ) = CJSW ⋅ ⎛ 1 – 0.

Default=ON. nb mname area pj pgate m dtemp off ic . The M setting affects all currents. The diode element uses this name to refer to the model. In the model card. Negative terminal (cathode) node name. Length of the side-wall in the AB diffusion area. The series resistor for the equivalent circuit is attached to this terminal. Multiplier to simulate multiple diodes in parallel. which is not under the gate. Length of the side-wall in the AB diffusion area. The difference between the element temperature and the circuit temperature in degrees celsius. specify: .Chapter 3: Diodes Using the JUNCAP Models Parameter Description na Positive terminal (anode) node name. The . Diode model name reference.IC statement overrides this value. The default is DTA. LS uses this value. and resistances.OPTION list JUNCAP1 Model To use this model. Initial voltage across a diode element. capacitances. which is under the gate. The default is 1. In the model card. AB can use this value. In the model card.MODEL mname D LEVEL=4 [keyword=val] Parameter Description mname Model name. LG uses this value. Diode area.TRAN statement. Sets initial conditions for this element to OFF in DC analysis. Prints the updated temperature parameters for the JUNCAP diode model.12 79 . HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Use this value when you specify the UIC option in the .

due to generating electron holes at V=VR. Model parameter keywords.0 0.0 0. Example .9 CJBR=1. 80 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0e-8).1e-3 JSDSR=1. Temperature offset of Juncap element with respect to TA.3E-6 DTA=0 TR=30 VR=0.4e-3 NB=1. which is not under the gate.5 + PS=0. Length of the side-wall for the AB diffusion area. Symbol that identifies a diode model.2e-3 + JSDBR=1.2 PB=0.0 1. Voltage at which simulation finds parameter values.15 Temperature at which simulation finds parameter values.0 DTA °C 0. LG m 0.6 NS=1.3 VGDR=1.3e-3 JSGSR=1.4 Model Parameters The JUNCAP1 model parameters are listed in Table 22.3 NG=1. VR JSGBR V Am-2 0.0e-3 0.3 VB=0.4e-3 + JSDGR=1.0 Bottom saturation-current density. which is under the gate.0 0.2e-12 + CJSR=1.3e-3 JSGGR=1.2e-12 CJGR=1.Chapter 3: Diodes Using the JUNCAP Models Parameter Description D LEVEL keywords Symbol that identifies a diode model.0e-6).3 JSGBR=1. (Default deviates from Philips JUNCAP =1. (Default deviates from Philips JUNCAP =1.6 VDSR=1.0 Diffusion area.12 .6 PG=0. Table 22 Name Unit JUNCAP1 Model Parameters Default Min. Description AB LS m2 m 1e-12 0.model MD D LEVEL=4 + AB=2E-12 LS=2E-6 LG=1.3e-12 VDBR=1. Length of the side-wall for the AB diffusion area.0 TR °C 25 -273.

0 0.0E-12 1. at T=TR. due to diffusion from back-contact.05 Bottom junction capacitance. Diffusion voltage of the gate-edge junction.0 0.1 0.00 1.0 NB NS NG 1. Grading coefficient of the sidewall junction.0 JSDGR Am-2 1.12 81 .0 1. Emission coefficient of the bottom forward current.1 VB CJBR CJSR CJGR VDBR VDSR VDGR PB PS PG V Fm-2 Fm-2 Fm-2 V V V 0. Grading coefficient of the gate-edge junction. Gate-edge junction capacitance. due to generating electron holes at V=VR Sidewall saturation-current density.0 Bottom saturation-current density. due to diffusion from back-contact. Emission coefficient of the sidewall forward current.0e-3 0. Diffusion voltage of the bottom junction. at T=TR.0 JSGGR Am-2 1. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.05 0. Reverse breakdown voltage.40 0. Grading coefficient of the bottom junction.0e-3 0.9 1.0e-3 0.0 0.00 1.00 0.0 0.0e-3 0.Chapter 3: Diodes Using the JUNCAP Models Table 22 Name Unit JUNCAP1 Model Parameters (Continued) Default Min. due to generating electron holes at V=VR. JSGSR Am-2 1. Diffusion voltage of the sidewall junction. Sidewall junction capacitance. at V=VR. Description JSDBR Am-2 1. Gate-edge saturation-current density. due to diffusion from back-contact.0E-12 1. Sidewall saturation-current density.1 0.05 0.0 JSDSR Am-2 1.0 1.05 0.05 0.0e-3 0.40 0. Gate-edge saturation-current density.0E-12 1. Emission coefficient of the gate-edge forward current.40 0. at V=VR.05 0. at V=VR.

For V<VD. at built-in voltage. across the diode. V ) ) }⋅ – E g⎞ ni T ⋅ exp ⎛ -------⎝ 2 kT⎠ Quantity Units Description 3 -2 2 qv -⎞ – 1 exp ⎛ ----⎝ kT⎠ J Jd Jg ni V Eg k T Am-2 Am-2 Am-2 m-3 V J JK-1 K Total reverse-current density. Refer to semiconductor textbooks for additional information. 82 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 . Boltzmann constant. Energy gap. this equation describes the charge of the junction capacitance: V-⎞ 1 – P Q = Q j 1 – ⎛ 1 – -----⎝ V D⎠ Quantity Units Description Q Qj V C C V Total diode-junction charge. You can represent the current voltage characteristics as follows: J = { J d ( n i + ( J g ( n i. Generation-current density. across the diode. Intrinsic carrier concentration. Voltage. Diffusion saturation-current density. Temperature. Junction charge. Voltage.Chapter 3: Diodes Using the JUNCAP Models Theory This section summarizes the elementary physics of a junction diode.

Potential. this results in only a very minor error. The MOS model charge equations also includes this charge so simulation counts it twice. JUNCAP also models both the diffusion and the generation currents. applied to the cathode.Chapter 3: Diodes Using the JUNCAP Models Quantity Units Description Vd P V Diffusion voltage at the junction. drain or well-to-bulk junction devices. bottom. Variable JUNCAP Model Electrical Variable Parameters Program Name Units Description 1 2 Va Vk VA VK V V Potential. You must include any fixed capacitance that is present on a node (such as metal-1-to-substrate capacitance) in either a fixed capacitor statement or INTCAP. The next section shows the model equations. Nomenclature Table 23 lists the electrical variable parameters: Table 23 No. each with individual temperature and voltage dependence.12 83 . applied to the anode. In the JUNCAP model. Grading coefficient for the junction. you must specify some numerical additions (see the Nomenclature section). the JUNCAP model calculates these three contributions separately. However. the gate-edge junction (very close to the surface) provides a part of the total charge. To include the effects from differences in the sidewall. JUNCAP Model Equations The JUNCAP model describes reverse-biasing of source. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. and gate-edge junction profiles. Similar to the MOS model. These capacitances are not part of the JUNCAP model as they were in the old NODCAP model. this model uses quasi-static approximations (in charge equations) to formulate current equations and to model AC effects. For the model to operate correctly in a circuit simulator environment.

Capacitance of the LS Locos-edge. Charge in a device. attributed to the anode. Table 24 lists internal variables and parameters: Table 24 No. Charge in a device. Capacitance of the LG gate-edge. Diffusion voltage of the LS Locos-edge. Generation saturation current of LS Locos-edge. Diffusion saturation current of LG gate-edge. Capacitance of the AB bottom area. Variable JUNCAP Model Electrical Variable Parameters (Continued) Program Name Units Description 3 4 5 6 Ia Ik Qa Qk IA IK QA QK A A C C DC current.Chapter 3: Diodes Using the JUNCAP Models Table 23 No. Variable or Parameter JUNCAP Model Internal Variables and Parameters Program Name Units Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Vdb Vds Vdg Cjb Cjs Cjg Isdb Isds Isdg Isgb Isgs Isgg VDB VDS VDG CJB CJS CJG ISDB ISDS ISDG ISGB ISGS ISGG V V V F F F A A A A A A Diffusion voltage of the AB bottom area. Note: The model card lists the parameters. Diffusion saturation current of AB bottom area. into the cathode. attributed to the cathode. DC current.12 . See JUNCAP model syntax earlier in this chapter. Diffusion saturation current of LS Locos-edge. Diffusion voltage of the LG gate-edge. Generation saturation current of AB bottom area. into the anode. 84 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Generation saturation current of LG gate-edge.

Diode bias voltage (V=VA . Total DC current. are: T KR = T 0 + T R T KD = T 0 + T A + DT A T KR V TR = k ⋅ -------q HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Temperature. Note: G min conductance connects in parallel to the G conductance. The calculations start from a set of initial guesses for the electrical quantities of the non-linear elements. at its operation point. which apply to all three components of the JUNCAP model.12 85 . Variable or Parameter JUNCAP Model Internal Variables and Parameters (Continued) Program Name Units Description 13 14 15 16 Ta Tkd V I TA TKD V I C K V A Ambient circuit temperature. from anode to cathode: (I = IA = -IK) 17 Q Q C Total junction charge: (Q = QA = .QK) ON/OFF Condition Solving a circuit involves successive calculations.VK). DC Operating Point Output The output of a DC operating point calculation contains information about the state of a device. The devices start in the default state. Geometry and Voltage Dependence The general scaling rules.Chapter 3: Diodes Using the JUNCAP Models Table 24 No. Absolute temperature of the junction/device. This conductance influences the DC operating output.

Replace the AB (bottom) area with LS (locos-edge) or LG (gate-edge).02 ⋅ 10 e – 4 ⋅ T KR ⋅ T KR ) V gR = 1.– -----------------------⋅ exp ⎛ ⎝ ( 2 ⋅ V TR ) ( 2 ⋅ V TD ) ⎠ Internal Reference The following equations specify the internal reference parameters for the bottom component: V DBR ⋅ T KD ⎛ V = ----------------------------------------------------------⎞ ⎝ DB T KR – 2 ⋅ V TD ⋅ 1 nF TD⎠ ( V DBR – V R )⎞ PB C JB = C JBR ⋅ A B ⋅ ⎛ ----------------------------⎝ ⎠ V DB PB V DB -----------------------------⎞ I SGB = J SGBR ⋅ F TD ⋅ A B ⋅ ⎛ ⎝ ( V DBR – V R )⎠ I SDB = J SDBR ⋅ F TD ⋅ F TD ⋅ A B Locos-edge and gate-edge components use similar formulations: ■ ■ Replace the B (bottom) index with S (locos-edge) or G (gate-edge).5 V gD ⎞ V gR ----------------------.0 + T KR ) ( 7. For the locos-edge: V DSR ⋅ T KR V DS = ---------------------------------------------------------T KR – 2 ⋅ V TD ⋅ 1 nF TD ( V DSR – V R )⎞ PS C JS = C JSR ⋅ L S ⋅ ⎛ ----------------------------⎝ ⎠ V DS 86 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.02 ⋅ 10 e – 4 ⋅ T KR ⋅ T KD ) V gD = 1.Chapter 3: Diodes Using the JUNCAP Models T KD V TD = K ⋅ --------q ( 7.12 .0 + T KD ) T KD⎞ F TD = ⎛ --------⎝ T KR ⎠ 1.16 – ------------------------------------------------------------------------( 1108.16 – -------------------------------------------------------------------------( 1108.

Chapter 3: Diodes Using the JUNCAP Models PS V DS -⎞ I SGS = J SGSR ⋅ F TD ⋅ L S ⋅ ⎛ ----------------------------⎝ ( V DSR – V R )⎠ I SDS = J SDSR ⋅ F TD ⋅ F TD ⋅ L S For the gate-edge: V DGR ⋅ T KD V DG = ---------------------------------------------------------T KR – 2 ⋅ V TD ⋅ 1 nF TD ( V DGR – V R )⎞ PG C JG = C JGR ⋅ L G ⋅ ⎛ -----------------------------⎝ ⎠ V DG PG V DG -⎞ I SGS = J SGGR ⋅ F TD ⋅ L G ⋅ ⎛ -----------------------------⎝ ( V DGR – V R )⎠ I SDS = J SDGR ⋅ F TD ⋅ F TD ⋅ L G Note: The remainder of this section shows the equations only for the bottom component.12 87 . the charge description consists of two parts: ■ ■ Original power function Supplemented quadratic function The cross-over point between these regions (indicated as Vl) defines the following parameters: F CB ----( 1 + P B )⎞ P B ⎛ -------------------= 1– ⎝ 3 ⎠ 1 V LB = F CB ⋅ V DB C LB = C JB ( 1 – F CB ) –P B HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. JUNCAP Capacitor and Leakage Current Model The charge description defines the following internal parameter: Q JDB = C JB ⋅ V DB ( 1 – P B ) To prevent an unlimited increase in the voltage derivative of the charge.

you can use elementary mathematics to derive simple equations for the capacitance of the bottom area: PB 1–v -⎞ ⎞ C JBV = C JB ⋅ ⎛ 1 ⁄ ⎛ ---------⎝ ⎝ V DB ⎠ ⎠ ( V – V LB ) C LB + C LB ⋅ P B ⋅ ⎛ -----------------------------------------⎞ ⎝ V DB ⋅ ( 1 – F CB )⎠ V < V LB V ≥ V LB Similar expressions exist for CJSV and CJGV.12 .63 (above).⎞ I DB = I SDB ⋅ exp ⎛ ⎝ ( N B ⋅ V TD ) – 1⎠ ( V DB – V )⎞ PB ⎛ V -⎞ – 1⎞ ⎞ I GB = I SGB ⋅ ⎛ ----------------------⋅ exp ⎛ ⎛ ----------------------⎝ V DB ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ N B ⋅ V TD⎠ ⎠⎠ 0 V > V DB V ≤V DB 88 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Total capacitance: C = C JBV + C JSV + C JGV Diffusion and Generation Currents Using the scaled parameters from the preceding section.Chapter 3: Diodes Using the JUNCAP Models Q LB = Q JDB ( 1 – ( 1 – F CB ) ( 1 – P B )) ( 1 – ( 1 – V ) )⎞ ( 1 – P B ) Q JBV = Q JCB ⋅ ⎛ -----------------------------V< V LB ⎝ ⎠ V DB 1 + ( P B ( V – V LB ) ) ⎞ Q LB + C LB ( V – V LB ) ⋅ ⎛ -------------------------------------------------⎝ 2 ⋅ V DB ⋅ ( 1 – F CB )⎠ V >= V LB ( 12. you can express the diffusion and generation current components as: V ---------------------------.63 ) Use similar expressions for the locos-edge (QJSV) and gate-edge (QJGV) charges. The following equation describes the total charge characteristic: Q = Q JBV + Q JSV + Q JGV From Equation 12.

Chapter 3: Diodes Using the JUNCAP Models ■ The first relation. shows an unlimited increase in the derivative of this function.12 89 . is valid over the whole operating range. describing the generation current. ■ Therefore. The continuity constraints of the function and derivative in the merge point lead to the following relations for FSB and VAB: V DB V AB = B ⋅ --------PB F SB = I SGB ⋅ V AB B The generation current voltage characteristic in the forward region. at V=VDB. Simulating the model then divides the exponential part by exp ( V ⁄ ( N B ⋅ V TD ) ) .0 for all generation components.0 with a hyperbolic function in the forward-bias range. concerning the diffusion component. The following equation expresses the total junction current: I = ( I DB + I GB ) + ( I DS + I GS ) + ( I DG + I GG ) HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. the power function merges at V=0.0 Use similar expressions for the locos-edge and gate-edge components. The second relation. The model sets B to a fixed value of 2. becomes: I GB = F SB ⁄ ( ( V + V AB ) B ) ⋅ ( 1 – exp ( – v ) ⁄ ( N B ⋅ V TD ) ) Final Model Equations The final model equations for the currents of the bottom area. This calculation uses the hyperbolic function: I HYP = F SB ( V + V AB ) –B The B parameter controls the decrease in current for voltages V>0. This enables a gradual decrease in the generation-current component. are: I DB = I SDB ⋅ ( exp ( V ⁄ ( N B ⋅ V TD ) ) – 1 ) V DB – V PB V -⎞ – 1 I GB = I SGB ⋅ ⎛ -------------------⎞ ⋅ exp ⎛ ---------------------------⎝ V DB ⎠ ⎝ ( N B ⋅ V TD )⎠ Vab -⎞ B ⎛ – V -⎞ ⎞ Isgb ⋅ ⎛ -----------------------⋅ 1 – exp ⎛ --------------------------⎝ ( V + Vab )⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ( Nb ⋅ Vtd )⎠ ⎠ V ≤0 V > 0.

see http://www.V. and was developed by Koninklijke Philips Electronics N. Physical Effects The following physical effects have been included in the JUNCAP2 model: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Geometrical scaling Depletion capacitance Ideal current Shockley-Read-Hall current Trap-assisted tunneling current Band-to-band tunneling current Avalanche breakdown Noise For a full description of the JUNCAP2 model. combined with a more extensive initialization code. a simulation time reduction of up to a factor of 5 (of the simulation time associated with JUNCAP2) has been demonstrated with a very limited loss of accuracy. It is the successor to the JUNCAP1 model. JUNCAP Model 200.philips.12 .0 Update The newly introduced express-option of the JUNCAP2 model. allows the user to trade some simulation accuracy for simulation speed. invoked by setting SWJUNEXP=1.Chapter 3: Diodes Using the JUNCAP Models JUNCAP2 Model The JUNCAP2 model is a compact MOS model intended to describe the behavior of the diodes that are formed by the source. or well-to-bulk junctions in MOSFETs.3.semiconductors.3. JUNCAP2 Model Updates JUNCAP Model 200. This is achieved by a creating a strongly simplified IV-model.com/Philips_Models/. drain. In transient analyses.3 Update Fixed bug in FJUNQ-based selection-criterion in JUNCAP-express charge model. 90 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

000E+00 TRJ=21.000E+09 FBBTRGAT=1.000E-06 CTATGAT=100. in turn.000E-03 MEFFTATGAT=250.000E+03 + CJORBOT=1.000E-18 + FBBTRBOT=1.0 Update ■ The band-to-band tunneling equations have been modified.000E-06 MEFFTATBOT=250.000E-03 STFBBTSTI=-1.000E-06 CSRHGAT=100. ■ Minor bug fixes.160E+00 PHIGSTI=1.000E+00 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. The diode element uses this name to refer to the model.000E-12 IDSATRSTI=1.000E+00 VBRSTI=10. Symbol that identifies a diode model.160E+00 PHIGGAT=1.000E-09 CTATBOT=100.MODEL NDIO D LEVEL=6 VERSION=200. At temperatures lower than the reference temperature.000E+00 IMAX=1. Symbol that identifies a diode model. Model parameter keywords. An alternative formulation of the equations has been implemented that avoids these problems. specify: .MODEL mname D LEVEL=6 [keyword=val] Parameter Description mname D LEVEL keywords Model name.000E-03 STFBBTGAT=-1.000E-03 + MEFFTATSTI=250. Vj can become lower than VBIR. Each version can be identified with model parameter VERSION.2. sometimes resulted in convergence problems in the simulator.000E+09 FBBTRSTI=1. To use this model.000E+00 DTA=0.000E-18 + CSRHBOT=100.000E+00 VBRGAT=10.000E+00 PBRGAT=4.000E+00 + PBRBOT=4.000E-12 CBBTSTI=1.000E-18 CBBTGAT=1.000E+00 + CTATSTI=100.000E+00 VBIRGAT=1.000E-09 CJORGAT=1.000E-03 PGAT=500.000E-09 XJUNGAT=100. which.160E+00 + IDSATRBOT=1.000E+00 + PBOT=500.000E-06 + XJUNSTI=100.000E+00 VBIRSTI=1.33 + TYPE=1. Usage in HSPICE The JUNCAP2 model is LEVEL=6 in the Synopsys diode models.000E-03 + VBRBOT=10.000E+09 + STFBBTBOT=-1.000E-03 + CBBTBOT=1.000E-03 + PHIGBOT=1. This caused numerical problems in the model.000E+00 CSRHSTI=100.12 91 .000E-09 + VBIRBOT=1. Example .Chapter 3: Diodes Using the JUNCAP Models JUNCAP Model 200.000E-18 IDSATRGAT=1.000E-03 CJORSTI=1.000E+00 PBRSTI=4.000E-03 PSTI=500.

Chapter 3: Diodes Using the JUNCAP Models Model Parameters Table 25 lists the JUNCAP2 model parameters.12 .33 21 0 1000 Diode model level Switch (-1 or 1) to select P-N and N. Table 25 Name JUNCAP2 Model Parameters Unit Default Description LEVEL TYPE VERSION TRJ DTA IMAX °C °C A 1 1 200.P junction Version number for model update Reference temperature Temperature offset with respect to ambient temperature Maximum current up to which forward current behaves exponentially Capacitance parameters CJORBOT F/m2 F/m 1e-3 Zero-bias capacitance per unit-of area of bottom component Zero-bias capacitance per unit-of length of STI-edge component Zero-bias capacitance per unit-of length of gate-edge component Built-in voltage at the reference temperature of bottom component Built-in voltage at the reference temperature of STIedge component Built-in voltage at the reference temperature of gateedge component Grading coefficient of bottom component Grading coefficient of STI-edge component Grading coefficient of gate-edge component CJORSTI 1e-9 CJORGAT F/m 1e-9 VBIRBOT V 1 VBIRSTI V 1 VBIRGAT V 1 PBOT PSTI PGAT - 0:5 0:5 0:5 92 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

Chapter 3: Diodes Using the JUNCAP Models Table 25 Name JUNCAP2 Model Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description Ideal-current parameters PHIGBOT V 1.12 93 .16 IDSATRBOT A/m2 A/m 1e-12 IDSATRSTI 1e-18 IDSATRGAT A/m 1e-18 Shockley-Read-Hall parameters CSRHBOT CSRHSTI CSRHGAT XJUNSTI XJUNGAT A/m3 A/m2 A/m2 m m 1e+2 1e-4 1e-4 1e-7 1e-7 Shockley-Read-Hall prefactor of bottom component Shockley-Read-Hall prefactor of STI-edge component Shockley-Read-Hall prefactor of gate-edge component Junction depth of STI-edge component Junction depth of gate-edge component Trap-assisted tunneling parameters CTATBOT CTATSTI A/m3 A/m2 A/m2 1e+2 1e-4 Trap-assisted tunneling prefactor of bottom component Trap-assisted tunneling prefactor of STI-edge component Trap-assisted tunneling prefactor of gate-edge component CTATGAT 1e-4 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.16 PHIGGAT V 1.16 Zero-temperature bandgap voltage of bottom component Zero-temperature bandgap voltage of STI-edge component Zero-temperature bandgap voltage of gate-edge component Saturation current density at the reference temperature of bottom component Saturation current density at the reference temperature of STI-edge component Saturation current density at the reference temperature of gate-edge component PHIGSTI V 1.

Chapter 3: Diodes Using the JUNCAP Models Table 25 Name JUNCAP2 Model Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description MEFFTATBOT - 0:25 Effective mass (in units of m0) for trap-assisted tunneling of bottom component Effective mass (in units of m0) for trap-assisted tunneling of STI-edge component Effective mass (in units of m0) for trap-assisted tunneling of gate-edge component MEFFTATSTI - 0:25 MEFFTATGAT - 0:25 Band-to-band tunneling parameters CBBTBOT CBBTSTI AV-3 AV-3m AV-3m Vm-1 Vm-1 Vm-1 K-1 K-1 K-1 1e-12 1e-18 Band-to-band tunneling prefactor of bottom component Band-to-band tunneling prefactor of STI-edge component Band-to-band tunneling prefactor of gate-edge component Normalization field at the reference temperature for band-to-band tunneling of bottom component Normalization field at the reference temperature for band-to-band tunneling of STI-edge component Normalization field at the reference temperature for band-to-band tunneling of gate-edge component Temperature scaling parameter for band-to-band tunneling of bottom component Temperature scaling parameter for band-to-band tunneling of STI-edge component Temperature scaling parameter for band-to-band tunneling of gate edge component CBBTGAT 1e-18 FBBTRBOT 1e+9 FBBTRSTI 1e+9 FBBTRGAT 1e+9 STFBBTBOT -1e-3 STFBBTSTI -1e-3 STFBBTGAT -1e-3 Avalanche and breakdown parameters VBRBOT V 10 Breakdown voltage of bottom component 94 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 .

Fowler-Nordheim diodes can be either a metal-insulator-semiconductor or a semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor layer device. Reverse critical electric field. The insulator is sufficiently thin (100 Angstroms) to permit tunneling of carriers.Chapter 3: Diodes Using the Fowler-Nordheim Diode Table 25 Name JUNCAP2 Model Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description VBRSTI VBRGAT PBRBOT V V V 10 10 4 Breakdown voltage of STI-edge component Breakdown voltage of gate-edge component Breakdown onset tuning parameter of bottom component Breakdown onset tuning parameter of STI-edge component Breakdown onset tuning parameter of gate-edge component PBRSTI V 4 PBRGAT V 4 Using the Fowler-Nordheim Diode The LEVEL=2 diode model parameter selects the Fowler-Nordheim model.12 95 . Table 26 Fowler-Nordheim Diode Model Parameters Units Default Description Name (alias) EF ER V/cm V/cm 1. It models: ■ ■ ■ Electrically-alterable memory cells Air-gap switches Other insulation-breakdown devices Fowler-Nordheim Diode Model Parameters LEVEL=2 Table 26 shows the Fowler-Nordheim diode model parameters for LEVEL=2. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0e8 EF Forward critical electric field.

0e-10 Forward current coefficient for FowlerNordheim.12 . Leff = L ⋅ SCALM ⋅ SHRINK + XWeff Thickness of the oxide layer.0 Using Fowler-Nordheim Diode Equations The following forward and reverse non-linear current source equations model the DC characteristics of the Fowler-Nordheim diode.0 0. Reverse current coefficient for FowlerNordheim.0 XW m 0. In these equations: AREAeff = Weff ⋅ Leff ⋅ M Forward Bias vd Š 0 --------------------------vd -⎞ 2 id = AREAeff ⋅ JF ⋅ ⎛ ----------⋅ e vd ⎝ TOX⎠ – EF Þ TOX Reverse Bias vd < 0 -------------------------vd -⎞ 2 ⎛ ----------id = – AREAeff ⇒ JR ⇒ ⇒ e vd ⎝ TOX⎠ ER ⋅ TOX 96 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Weff = W ⋅ SCALM ⋅ SHRINK + XWeff XWeff = XW ⋅ SCALM JR amp/V2 JF L m 0. Length of the diode for calculating the current in Fowler-Nordheim. Width of the diode for calculating the current in Fowler-Nordheim.0 TOX W Å m 100.Chapter 3: Diodes Using the Fowler-Nordheim Diode Table 26 Fowler-Nordheim Diode Model Parameters (Continued) Units Default Description Name (alias) JF amp/V2 1.

044 0. It is meant to be used for DC.459 Clip low 0. derived from: ε ox cd = AREAeff ⋅ ----------TOX Philips D500 Model (Advanced Diode Model).1 Clip high Description Model level Saturation current Junction emission coefficient Voltage dependence at low forward current Breakdown voltage Units A V V HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. see: http://www. The available parameters are described in Table 27. relative to the circuit temperature. You can use DTEMP with this model to increase the temperature of individual elements. The Philips D500 model is available as Level 5 in the Synopsys Diode models. The general syntax for the Diode element is the same as the other standard diode models.nxp.13E-13 0. transient and AC analysis.Chapter 3: Diodes Philips D500 Model (Advanced Diode Model).0 1. For more information about the D500 model. Table 27 Name Level IS N VLC VBR Description of Philips D500 Parameters Default 5 7.com/Philips_Models/additional/advanced_diode/ Using the Philips D-500 Model Set level=5 to identify the model as Philips D500 Model.0 7. Level 5 The Diode 500 model provides a detailed description of the diode currents in forward and reverse biased Si-diodes. Level 5 Fowler-Nordheim Diode Capacitances The Fowler-Nordheim diode capacitance is a constant.1 0.12 97 . Set DTEMP on the element line.

90 0.31E-6 500. Level 5 Table 27 Name V/cm CSRH CBBT RS CTAT TAU CJ VD P TREF VG PTRS KF AF Description of Philips D500 Parameters (Continued) Default 1.1 0.01 Clip high 0.0E-12 0.44E-7 3.0 0.0 0.Chapter 3: Diodes Philips D500 Model (Advanced Diode Model). respectively.36E6 7. 98 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 0.0 0.0 V - Equivalent Circuits and Equations A full description of D-level-500 for diode is provided below.05 -273.15 1.12 .40 Clip low 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.99 Description Electric field at breakdown Shockley-Read-Hall generation Band to band tunneling Series resistance Trap assisted tunneling Transit time Zero-bias depletion capacitance Diffusion voltage Grading coefficient Reference temperature Bandgap voltage Power for temperature dependence of RS Flickernoise coefficient Flickernoise exponent Units EMVBR A/cm A/V Ohm A/cm S F V 25.0 0.0 1.255 0.0E-12 7.0 3.206 0. The DC/transient and AC equivalent circuits are shown in Figure 14 and Figure 15 on page 105.05 0.

6021918 ⋅ 10 k -⎞ ⋅ T K V T = ⎛ -⎝ q⎠ k --⎞ V TR = ⎛ ⎝ q⎠ ⋅ T RK ■ – 19 Depletion Capacitances TK ⎞ 3 1 .12 99 .⋅ exp VG ⋅ ⎛ -------F = ⎛ -------– ⎝ V TR V T⎠ ⎝ T RK⎠ HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. The temperature at which the parameters are determined is specified by TREF (in °C.) ■ Conversion to Kelvins TK = TEMP + 273. Level 5 ID Qd A Qr Figure 14 DC/Transient Circuit for Diode RS K Temperature Effects The actual simulation temperature is denoted by TEMP (in °C).15 ■ Thermal Voltages – 23 k = 1.----1-⎞ .Chapter 3: Diodes Philips D500 Model (Advanced Diode Model).3806226 ⋅ 10 JK C –1 q = 1.15 + DTA TRK = TREF + 273.

2 ⋅ 10 ⋅ dT – 1.Chapter 3: Diodes Philips D500 Model (Advanced Diode Model).8 TAU T = TAU ⎛ -------⎝ T RK⎠ ■ Saturation Current T K ⎞ 1.8 VG ⎛ 1 1⎞ .– 1n ( F ) ⋅ V T VD T = -------V TR VD-⎞ P CJ T = CJ ⋅ ⎛ ---------⎝ VD T⎠ ■ Transit Times T K ⎞ 1. Level 5 VD .9 ⋅ 10 ⋅ ⎜ 1.⋅ -------.21 ⋅ 10 ⋅ T K ⎞ ⎛ -⎟ F 0 = 1.6 ⋅ 10 –6 ⋅ dT 2 100 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.----1 .– ----IS T = IS ⋅ ⎛ -------⋅ exp ------⎝ T RK⎠ ⎝ V TR V T⎠ N ■ Shockley-Read-Hall generation and trap assisted tunneling 3⁄ 2 TK ⎞ T up = ⎛ -------⎝ T RK⎠ VG + VLC 1 .⋅ ⎛ -------⋅ exp ------------------------– -⎞ ⎝ V TR V T⎠ 2 CSRH T = CSRH ⋅ T up CTAT T = CTAT ⋅ T up ETAT T = 70.23 ⋅ 10 6 –4 Bn T = Bn ⋅ 1 + 7.12 .04 – ----------------------------------------------636 + T K ⎝ ⎠ 7 ■ –4 2 Avalanche Multiplication dT = TEMP + DTA – 25 ° C Bn = 1.8 ⋅ T K ■ 3⁄ 2 Band-to-Band Tunneling CBBT T = CBBT (temperature independent) 4.

01 KET = 0. V AK 1 < – 0.Chapter 3: Diodes Philips D500 Model (Advanced Diode Model).99 ⋅ VBR T.99 ⋅ VBR T Vj = ■ Ideal Forward Current Vj ⎞ ⎫ ⎧ Id f = IS T ⎨ exp ⎛ ---------------⎝ N ⋅ V T⎠ – 1 ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. the maximum reverse junction voltage is defined.1 VBR T = VBR ⋅ ⎛ -------⎝ T RK⎠ VD T + VBR T⎞ 1 – P ------------------------------EMVBRT = EMVBR ⋅ ⎛ ⎝ VD + VBR ⎠ ■ Resistance T K ⎞ PTRS -------RS T = RS ⋅ ⎛ ⎝ T RK⎠ Model Constants and Parameter-Related Constants K = 0. Level 5 ■ Breakdown T K ⎞ 0. V AK 1 ≥ – 0. – 0.99 ⋅ VBR T V AK 1 .1 ETM = 3 ■ Maximum Electric Field and Depletion Layer width at zero bias: EMVBR T E 0 = -------------------------------------1–P T⎞ ⎛ 1 + VBR ------------⎝ VD T ⎠ VD T W 0 = -----------------------------E0 ⋅ ( 1 – P ) Diode Currents First.12 101 . ■ Above this voltage the current will be extrapolated on a logarithmic scale.

28 + 38.⋅ exp ⎛ --------------------------I lf = Is lf ⋅ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------⎝ 2 ⋅ N ⋅ V T⎠ Vj VLC 4 ⋅ exp ⎛ ---------------------------⎞ + exp ⎛ ---------------------------⎞ ⎝ 2 ⋅ N ⋅ V T⎠ ⎝ 2 ⋅ N ⋅ V T⎠ 102 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Level 5 ■ Maximum Electric Field and Depletion Layer Width Vj ⎞ 2 ⎛ Vj Vj ⎞ ⎧⎛ ⎫ .– ETM⎞ + KET ⎝ ETAT T ⎠ ETAT T ET = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 I tat ⎧ ⎫ 2 2 ⎪ exp ( ET ) – exp ( ET 0 ) ⎪ -⎬ = CTAT T ⋅ W d ⋅ ⎨ ---------------------------------------------------------E m ⎪ ⎪ ----------------⎩ ⎭ ETAT T Non-Ideal Forward Current including Tunneling ■ Em ⎧ ⎫ VT 2 Is lf = CSRH T ⋅ ⎨ 6.⋅ K⎞ ⎬ ⋅ ⎛ 1 – ---------.Chapter 3: Diodes Philips D500 Model (Advanced Diode Model).– ETM⎞ + KET ⎝ ETAT T ⎠ ETAT T ET 0 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 Em Em ----------------+ ETM – ⎛ ----------------.12 .–1 exp ⎛ ---------------⎝ N ⋅ V T⎠ VLC ⎞ .58 ⋅ ⎛ -----------------⎞ ⋅ exp ( ET 0 ) ⎬ ⋅ -----⎝ ETAT T⎠ ⎩ ⎭ Em Vj ⎞ .+ ---------⎨ ⎝ 1 – ---------⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ VD T VD T VD T⎠ ⎩ ⎭ VD j = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 E m = E 0 ⋅ VD j (1 – P) P W d = W 0 ⋅ VD j ■ Shockley-Read-Hall Generation I srh = CSRH T ⋅ ( W d – W 0 ) ■ Trap-Assisted Tunneling 2 E0 E0 ----------------+ ETM – ⎛ ----------------.

99 VBR T I dBR = I d dI d G dBR = ------dV j Id ID = V AK 1 + – 0.– I bbt + I tat ⋅ exp ( – μ) 2 I d = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1–2⋅ μ⋅ { 1 + exp ( – 2 ⋅ μ) } ■ Extrapolation of the Reverse Current at V j = – 0.99 VBR T at V j = – 0.Chapter 3: Diodes Philips D500 Model (Advanced Diode Model). Level 5 ■ Band-to Band-Tunneling – CBBT T ⋅ V j I bbt = ----------------------------------------------F 0⎞ 1. ■ Diffusion charge Q D = TAU T ⋅ Id f ■ Depletion charge 1 ⎛ --⎞ ⎝ P⎠ 1+P -⎞ FC = 1 – ⎛ -----------⎝ 3 ⎠ VD T ⎞ Q AT = CJ T ⋅ ⎛ ----------⎝ 1 – P⎠ HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.G dBR I dBR ⋅ exp ⎛ ---------------------------------------------⎝ ⎠ I dBR Transient Model Transient behavior is modeled using the DC equations.3295 ⋅ ⎛ exp ⎝ EMVBR T⎠ EMVBR T E m ■ Total Diode Current 1 + exp ( – 2 ⋅ μ) ( Id f + I lf – I srh ) ⋅ --------------------------------------.5 F0 ⎛ ------⎞ ⋅ exp ⎛ -----⎝ E m⎠ ⎝ E m⎠ ■ Avalanche Multiplication Em ⎞ 2 Bn T Bn T ---------------------------------------------------⋅ – μ = 0.99 VBR T V AK 1 ≥ – 0.99 VBR T⎞ .12 103 .99 VBR T V AK 1 < – 0.

if V AK 1 ≥ V L P ⋅ ( V AK' 1 – V L ) ⎫ ⎧ Q T = V L + C L ⋅ ( V AK' 1 – V L ) – ⎨ 1 + ------------------------------------------------2 ⋅ VD T ⋅ ( 1 – FC ) ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ AC Linearized model Using the appropriate definitions for the various circuit elements leads to the following equations: 1 R D = -------------------------------dID ⁄ dV AK 1 Where dID ⁄ dV AK 1 is the first derivative of the total diode current with respect to the Internal voltage Internal voltage V AK 1 . Level 5 V L = FC ⋅ VD T C L = CJ T ⋅ ( 1 – FC ) –P (1 – P) Q L = Q AT ⋅ { 1 – ( 1 – FC ) Then.12 .Chapter 3: Diodes Philips D500 Model (Advanced Diode Model). The capacitances are defined as: V AK 1⎞ ⎫ ⎧ C T = CJ T ⋅ ⎨ 1 – ⎛ ----------⎝ VD T ⎠ ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ –P for V AK 1 < V L P ⋅ ( V AK 1 – V L ) ⎫ ⎧ C T = C L ⋅ ⎨ 1 + --------------------------------------VD T ⋅ ( 1 – FC ) ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ Id f + IS T⎞ C 1 = C T + TAU T ⋅ ⎛ -------------------⎝ N ⋅ VT ⎠ for V AK 1 ≥ V L 104 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. if V AK 1 < V L Q T = Q AT ⋅ } V AK 1⎞ ⎫ ⎧ 1 – ⎨ 1 – ⎛ ----------⎝ VD T ⎠ ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ (1 – P) Or.

do the following: 1. noise sources are added to the small signal model as shown in Figure 15. For a subcircuit that consists of the scaled diode model. To use National Semiconductor circuit models.12 105 . a noise density is obtained. ■ Thermal noise 2 iN RS ■ 4 ⋅ K ⋅ TK ⋅ Δ f = ---------------------------------------RS T Current noise (shot noise and 1/f noise) Id f AF Δ f 2 ⋅ ---iN = 2 ⋅ q ⋅ Id f ⋅ Δ f + KF + MULT ⋅ ---------------f MULT Converting National Semiconductor Models National Semiconductor’s circuit simulator provides a scaled diode model.Chapter 3: Diodes Converting National Semiconductor Models RD iNRS C1 A K1 RS K iN Figure 15 AC equivalent circuit for Diode. When Δ f is taken as 1 Hz. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. including Noise Sources Noise Model For noise analysis. make sure that the subcircuit name is the same as the model name. which is not the same as the diode device model. In these equations f represents the operation frequency of the transistor and is the Δ f bandwidth.

also has a value in the .15M M=2 * . 2.SUBCKT call.MODEL SDIODE D + IS=’IS*SIS*SF’ CJA=’CJA*SF*SCJA’ CJP=’CJP*SF*SCJP’ + RS=’RS*SRS/SF’ EXA=EXA EXP=EXP + N=N CTA=CTC CTP=CTC + TRS=TRS TLEV=1 TLEVC=1 xti=’m*n’ .PARAM statement or the .32 SCJA=67. for example.19E-15 PHI=0.8 RS=20.2285E-2 106 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. XDS 14 1048 SDIODE SIS=67. Check that every parameter used in the .PARAM IS=1. inside the subcircuit.325 CTC=6E-4 + TRS=2.MODEL mname mtype statement to a .MODEL mname statement with a . inside the subcircuit. 3.25 CJP=0.Chapter 3: Diodes Converting National Semiconductor Models The . Circuit simulation then replaces the diode statements with the call to the SDIODE subcircuit. . Add a scaled diode model inside the subcircuit. To use this definition: 1.MODEL statement.32 SRS=1.MODEL parameter in the National circuit simulator. inside the . Using the Scaled Diode Subcircuit Definition The scaled diode subcircuit definition converts the National Semiconductor scaled diode model to a model that you can use in HSPICE. 2.ENDS SDIODE You must define the values for all parameters used in this model in either a . specifies the parameter values for the scaled diode model. Change the model name to SDIODE.12 .PARAM statement.SUBCKT.PARAM parameter. represents the .PARAM statement.7E3 + CJA=0. Example The following is an example of a scaled-diode subcircuit definition. Ensure that the letter X precedes the names of all scaled diode elements. 4.SUBCKT SDIODE NP NN SF=1 SCJA=1 SCJP=0 SIS=1 SICS=1 + SRS=1 D NP NN SDIODE .5 EXP=0.PARAM statement.03 EG=0. then change the . The .318E-15 + EXA=0. Replace the .10E-18 N=1.PARAM statement.

cap: total diode capacitance.12 107 .Chapter 3: Diodes DC Operating Point Output of Diodes DC Operating Point Output of Diodes id: current across the diode. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. req: equivalent resistance (1 / equivalent conductance). vd: voltage across the diode.

12 .Chapter 3: Diodes DC Operating Point Output of Diodes 108 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

HSPICE ships hundreds of examples for your use.12 109 . Compared to surface effect devices such as MOSFETs. include lower noise generation rates and higher immunity to radiation. bulk semiconductors have higher gain. because bulk semiconductor mobility is always higher than surface mobility. Three JFET/MESFET DC model levels have been provided for IC circuit simulation. MESFETs form by applying a metal layer over the gate region.4 4 JFET and MESFET Models Describes how to use JFET and MESFET models in HSPICE circuit simulations. This is possible because these models include materials definition parameters. Features for JFET and MESFET modeling include: ■ ■ Charge-conserving gate capacitors Backgating substrate node HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. These models use the same equations for gallium arsenide MESFETs and silicon-based JFETs. Overview of JFETs JFETs form by diffusing a gate diode between the source and drain. both technologies modulate the gate diode depletion region. You can also use these models to model indium phosphide MESFETs. see Listing of Demonstration Input Files for paths to demo files. These advantages have created the need for newer and more advanced models. and creating a Schottky diode. These field effect devices are called bulk semiconductors and are in the same category as bipolar transistors. To control the flow of carriers. relative to surface effect devices. Enhanced characteristics of JFETs and MESFETs.

BYPASS might reduce simulation accuracy for tightly-coupled circuits such as op-amps. such as silicon. indium phosphide. and so on. Specifying a Model To specify a JFET or MESFET model. Use . high gain ring oscillators. MESFETs. These features let you use the model for other materials. Use . use a JFET element statement and a JFET model statement. and conductances.12 . and diodes. if the voltages at the terminal device nodes have not changed. and gallium aluminum arsenide. Parameter Description LEVEL=1 SPICE model 110 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Bypassing Latent Devices (HSPICE Only) Use the BYPASS (latency) option to decrease simulation time in large designs. capacitances.OPTION BYPASS to set BYPASS. The BYPASS option applies to MOSFETs. and a TriQuint model (TOM) that extends the earlier Statz model. Different submodels for the MESFET LEVEL=3 equations are selected using the parameter SAT. BJTs.OPTION MBYPASS to set MBYPASS to a smaller value for more accurate results. and LEVEL=3 selects the MESFET. JFETs. The model parameter LEVEL selects either the JFET or MESFET model. LEVEL=1 and LEVEL=2 select the JFET. To speed simulation time. This model includes drain voltage induced threshold modulation and user-selectable materials constants. this option does not recalculate currents. The models that have been provided include a revised Curtice model[2].Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models Specifying a Model ■ ■ ■ ■ Mobility degradation due to gate field Computationally efficient DC model (Curtice and Statz) Subthreshold equation Physically correct width and length (ACM) GaAs model LEVEL=3[1] assumes that GaAs device velocity saturates at very low drain voltages.

LEVEL=3.12 111 . Statz. and CAPOP=1 parameter: HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. TriQuint Models) Curtice model (Default) Curtice model with user defined VGST exponent Cubic approximation of Curtice model with gate field degradation (Statz model) HSPICE variable saturation model SAT=0 SAT=1 SAT=2 SAT=3 The CAPOP model parameter selects the type of capacitor model:\ Parameter Description CAPOP=0 CAPOP=1 CAPOP=2 SPICE depletion capacitor model Charge conserving. gate modulation of LAMBDA Hyperbolic tangent MESFET model (Curtice. 2 for any model level. It uses the SAT. ALPHA. symmetric capacitor model (Statz) HSPICE improvements to CAPOP=1 You can use CAPOP=0.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models Bypassing Latent Devices (HSPICE Only) Parameter Description LEVEL=2 LEVEL=3 Modified SPICE model. The ACM model parameter selects the area calculation method: JFET / MESFET Selection Parameters Parameter Description ACM=0 ACM=1 SPICE method (default) Physically based method Example 1 The following example selects the n channel MESFET model. 1. Meta. CAPOP=1 and 2 are most often used for the MESFET LEVEL=3 model.

8E-3 LAMBDA=2. 112 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.2. large errors might be introduced into simulations. but they can be very different. CGD=1P. To overcome these limitations. the large capacitance is between the original drain and gate. where the depletion region thickness (and therefore the capacitance) is determined by the gate-to-source voltage.5 ALPHA=2 Example 2 The following example selects an n-channel JFET: J2 7 1 4 JM1 . + CAPOP=1 ALPHA=2) Example 3 The following example selects a p-channel JFET: J3 8 3 5 JX .5. The model selected by CAPOP=2 contains further improvements. These approximations have serious shortcomings such as: ■ Zero source-to-drain voltage: The symmetry of the FET physics gives the conclusion that the gate-to-source and gate-to-drain capacitances should be equal.5 + BETA=2. use the Statz charge-conserving model by selecting model parameter CAPOP=1.MODEL JX PJF (VTO=-1. the large capacitance should be between the original source and gate. but in this circumstance. ■ When low source-to-drain voltages inverse biased transistors are involved.12 . A similar diode model is often used to describe the normally much smaller gateto-drain capacitance. CGS=5P.2M RS=70 RD=70 IS=1.2M + CGS=100P CGD=20P CAPOP=1 ALPHA=2) Overview of Capacitor Model The SPICE depletion capacitor model (CAPOP=0) uses a diode-like capacitance between source and gate. BETA=5E-3.MODEL JM1 NJF (VTO=-1. Inverse-biased transistor: Where the drain acts like the source and the source acts like the drain.MODEL GAASFET NJF LEVEL=3 CAPOP=1 SAT=1 VTO=-2.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models Overview of Capacitor Model J1 7 2 3 GAASFET . According to the model. LAMBDA=2.7E-14 + CGS=14P CGD=5P UCRIT=1. BETA=.179M.

Use the GMIN.OPTION METHOD = GEAR) when you include the transit time model parameter. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. and GRAMP options to increase the parasitic conductance value in parallel with pn junctions of the device.OPTION DCAP = <val> statement in a JFET or MESFET model. GRAMP. Convergence Enhance convergence for JFET and MESFET by using the GEAR method of computation (. Using MESFET models. GMINDC. Control Option Description DCAP GMIN. GRAMP SCALM To override a global depletion capacitance equation selection that uses the . DCCAP GMIN. GMINDC SCALM Capacitance equation selector Conductance options: transient or DC analysis.MODEL statement.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models Overview of Capacitor Model Model Applications Use MESFETs to model GaAs transistors for high speed applications. Invokes capacitance calculation in DC analysis DCCAP Table 28 Function JFET Options Control Option capacitance conductance scaling DCAP.12 113 . DC auto-convergence Model scaling option Note: SCALM is ignored in Level 49 and higher. include DCAP=<val> in the device’s . GMINDC. transimpedance amplifiers for fiber optic transmitters up to 50 GHz can be designed and simulated.

2 or 3. You can use either I(Jxxx) or I1(Jxxx) syntax when printing the drain current. Jxxx is the device name.0.12 . W. CGS. and WDEL. to enter the W parameter with micron units. control scaling.MODEL statement. L. LDEL. the model parameters IS. BETA. set SCALM to 1e-6 then enter W=5. For example.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Equivalent Circuits Capacitor Equations The DCAP option selects the equation used to calculate the gate-to-source and gate-to-drain capacitance for CAPOP=0. I2 references the gate current and I3 references the source current. JFET Current Conventions Figure 16 on page 115 assumes the direction of current flow through the JFET. together with the SCALE and SCALM control options. CGD. LDEL. JFET and MESFET Equivalent Circuits Scaling The AREA and M Element parameters. DCAP can be set to 1. The SCALM option affects A. are scaled using the same equations. Figure 16 on page 115 represents the current convention for an n channel JFET. For all three model levels. SCALM defaults to 1.OPTION SCALM = <val> statement in a JFET or MESFET model. RD. include SCALM=<val> in the . 114 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. RS. Default is 2. To override global scaling that uses the . The default setting is W=5e-6 meters or 5 microns. and WDEL scaled parameters.

N-Channel For a p-channel device.12 115 . vgs. the following must be reversed: ■ ■ ■ Polarities of the terminal voltages vgd. and vds Direction of the two gate junctions Direction of the nonlinear current source id JFET Equivalent Circuits Circuit simulation uses three equivalent circuits to analyze JFETs: transient. AC. vgs. the partial derivatives of ids with respect to the terminal voltages. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Output Conductance ∂( ids ) gds = --------------∂( vds ) vgs = const . The names for these partial derivatives are: Transconductance ∂( ids ) gm = --------------∂( vgs ) vds = const . Instead. the actual ids current is not used. For noise and AC analyses.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Equivalent Circuits nd (drain node) I1 (Jxxx) ng (gate node) I2 (Jxxx) nb (bulk node) ns (source node) I3 (Jxxx) Figure 16 JFET Current Convention. The components of these circuits form the basis for all element and model equation discussion. and vds are used. and noise circuits. The fundamental component in the equivalent circuit is the drain to source current (ids).

Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Equivalent Circuits The ids equation accounts for all DC currents of the JFET. 116 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Gate capacitances are assumed to account for transient currents of the JFET equations. The two diodes shown in Figure 17 are modeled by these ideal diode equations: --------------igd = ISeff ⋅ ⎛ e N ⋅ vt – 1⎞ ⎝ ⎠ vgd vgd > – 10 ⋅ N ⋅ vt igd = – ISeff vgd ≤– 10 ⋅ N ⋅ vt --------------igs = ISeff ⋅ ⎛ e N ⋅ vt – 1⎞ ⎝ ⎠ vgs vgs > – 10 ⋅ N ⋅ vt igs = – ISeff vgs ≤– 10 ⋅ N ⋅ vt Gate igs Source rs + vgs - cgs cgd ids + vgd - igd rd Drain Figure 17 JFET/MESFET Transient Analysis Note: For DC analysis.12 . the capacitances are not part of the model.

Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Equivalent Circuits Gate ggs Source rs cgs cgd ggd rd Drain gm(vgs vbs) gds Figure 18 JFET/MESFET AC Analysis Gate ggs Source rs cgs cgd ggd rd Drain gm(vgs vbs) inrs gds ind inrd Figure 19 Table 29 Variable/ Quantity JFET/MESFET AC Noise Analysis Equation Variable Names and Constants Definitions cgd cgs ggd Gate to drain capacitance Gate to source capacitance Gate to drain AC conductance HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 117 .

tnom Nominal temperature of parameter measurements in ° K (user-input in ° C).15 + TNOM 118 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.38062e-23 (Boltzmann’s constant) 1.12 .Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Equivalent Circuits Table 29 Variable/ Quantity Equation Variable Names and Constants (Continued) Definitions ggs gds gm igd igs ids ind inrd inrs rd rs vgd vgs f Gate to source AC conductance Drain to source AC conductance controlled by vds Drain to source AC transconductance controlled by vgs Gate to drain current Gate to source current DC drain to source current Equivalent noise current drain to source Equivalent noise current drain resistor Equivalent noise current source resistor Drain resistance Source resistance Internal gate-drain voltage Internal gate-source voltage Frequency εo k q t Dt tnom Vacuum permittivity = 8.60212e-19 (electron charge) Temperature in ° K t . Tnom = 273.854e-12 F/m 1.

MODEL statement to include a JFET or MESFET model in your HSPICE netlist.MODEL statement. see the HSPICE and HSPICE RF Command Reference.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Model Statements Table 29 Variable/ Quantity Equation Variable Names and Constants (Continued) Definitions vt(t) vt(tnom) k ⋅ t/q k ⋅ tnom/q Table 30 Quantities JFET DC Operating Point Output Definitions ids igs igd vgs vds gm gmbs gds cgs cgd D-S current G-S current G-D current G-S voltage D-S voltage transconductance drain-body (backgate) transconductance Drain-source transconductance G-S capacitance G-D capacitance JFET and MESFET Model Statements You can use the . HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 119 . For a general description of the .

. Parameter Description mname NJF LEVEL pname1=val1 Model name. Identifies an N-channel JFET or MESFET model. RS.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Model Statements Syntax . and PB. LDEL. CGS. RD and RS. ALIGN. the saturation current of the two gate junctions. The AREA element parameter always overrides the AREA model parameter. Each JFET or MESFET model can include several model parameters. Use the parameters ALPHA and A to model MESFETs. W.. . WDEL CAPOP. TT Capacitance 120 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. HDIF. CGD. The charge storage is modeled by nonlinear depletion-layer capacitances for both gate junctions that vary as the -M power of junction voltage. CGD. RD. KF and AF parameters model noise.MODEL <mname> NJF <LEVEL=val> <pname1=val1> . RSHG. RG.. Selects different DC model equations. These parameters determine the variation of drain current with gate voltage.. FC. and IS. which is also a function of the series source and drain resistances (RS and RD) in addition to temperature. RSHL. Elements refer to the model by this name. RSH. are included. PJF JFET and MESFET Model Parameters DC characteristics are defined by the model parameters VTO and BETA. The AREA model parameter is common to both element and model parameters. and are defined by the parameters CGS. Table 31 JFET and MESFET Model Parameters Model Parameters Common to All Levels Geometric ACM. Two ohmic resistances. LAMBDA determines the output conductance. LDIF. PB. L. M.MODEL mname PJF <LEVEL=val> <pname1=val1> . Identifies a P-channel JFET or MESFET model. AREA.12 .

Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Model Statements Table 31 JFET and MESFET Model Parameters (Continued) Model Parameters Common to All Levels Subthreshold Noise ND. K1. BETA. LAMBDA. LAMBDA. SATEXP. IS. IS. VTO The following tables provide information about: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Gate Diode DC Parameters (Table 32) Gate Capacitance LEVEL=1. VBI. IS. UCRIT. D. KF LEVEL=1 Model Parameters (JFET) DC BETA. NG AF. LAM1. VP. 2. SAT. N. VGEXP. and 3 Parameters (Table 33 DC Model LEVEL=1 Parameters (Table 34 DC Model LEVEL=2 Parameters (Table 35 DC Model LEVEL=3 Parameters (Table 36 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. N. VTO LEVEL=3 Model Parameters (MESFET) DC ALPHA. LAMBDA.12 121 . NCHAN. VTO LEVEL=2 Model Parameters (JFET) DC BETA. N. GAMDS.

HDIF m 0 Distance of the heavily diffused or low resistance region from source or drain contact to lightly doped region Gate junction saturation current ISeff = IS ⋅ AREAeff IS amp 1. Table 32 Name (Alias) Gate Diode DC Parameters Units Default Description ACM Area calculation method. RD.0e-14 L m 0. If W and L are specified. IS. AREAeff=M ⋅ AREA Override this parameter using the element effective area. CGS.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Model Statements Table 32 provides information about gate diode DC parameters. RS. Override this parameter using the element L. Leff = L ⋅ SCALM + LDELeff LDEL m 0. AREA becomes: ACM=0 ACM=1 AREA=Weff/Leff AREA=Weff ⋅ Leff ALIGN AREA m 0 Misalignment of gate Default area multiplier. This parameter affects the BETA. Use this parameter to select between traditional SPICE unitless gate area calculations and the newer style of area calculations (see the ACM section). and CGD model parameters.0 Default length of FET.12 .0 Difference between drawn and actual or optical device length LDELeff = LDEL ⋅ SCALM 122 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

0 RG ohm 0. sheet resistance Default FET width.0 Heavily doped region.0 Source ohmic resistance (see the ACM section) RSeff = RS/AREAeff . ACM=0 RS ohm 0.0 RD ohm 0. Weff = W ⋅ SCALM + WDELeff WDEL m 0.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Model Statements Table 32 Name (Alias) Gate Diode DC Parameters (Continued) Units Default Description LDIF m 0 Distance of the lightly doped region from heavily doped region to transistor edge Emission coefficient for gate-drain and gate-source diodes Drain ohmic resistance (see the ACM section) RDeff = RD /AREAeff .0 Gate resistance (see the ACM section) RGeff = RG ⋅ AREAeff . ACM=0 N 1.0 Difference between drawn and actual or optical device width WDELeff = WDEL ⋅ SCALM HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. The We element overrides this parameter.12 123 . ACM=0 RSH RSHG RSHL W ohm/sq ohm/sq ohm/sq m 0 0 0 0. sheet resistance Gate sheet resistance Lightly doped region.

and 3 parameters. If specified.0 Zero-bias gate-drain junction capacitance CGDeff = CGD ⋅ AREAeff Override this parameter by specifying GCAP. 2.0 Capacitor model selector: ■ ■ ■ CAPOP=0 – default capacitance equation based on diode depletion layer CAPOP=1 – symmetric capacitance equations (Statz) CAPOP=2 – HSPICE improvement to CAPOP=1 CALPHA ALPHA Saturation factor for capacitance model (CAPOP=2 only) 0 Drain to source capacitance for TriQuint model -----------⋅ M CAPDSeff=CAPDS ⋅ Weff Leff CAPDS F CGAMDS GAMDS Threshold lowering factor for capacitance (CAPOP=2 only) 0. CGSeff = GCAP ⋅ CRAT ⋅ AREAeff CGDeff = GCAP ⋅ (1-CRAT) ⋅ AREAeff GCAP F 124 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. CGD F CGS F 0. and 3 Parameters Units Default Description CAPOP 0. Table 33 Name (Alias) Gate Capacitance LEVEL=1.666 Source fraction of gate capacitance (used with GCAP) Zero-bias gate capacitance.0 Zero-bias gate-source junction capacitance CGSeff = CGS ⋅ AREAeff Override this parameter by specifying GCAP CRAT 0.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Model Statements Table 33 provides information about gate capacitance level 1.12 . 2.

0 0. ALPHA) might also affect capacitance. Table 34 Name (Alias) DC Model LEVEL=1 Parameters Units Default Description LEVEL BETA amp/ V2 1/V 1/V 1.0e-4 LEVEL=1 invokes the SPICE JFET model Transconductance parameter.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Model Statements Table 33 Name (Alias) Gate Capacitance LEVEL=1.5 Coefficient for forward-bias depletion capacitance formulas (CAPOP=0 and 2 only) Threshold voltage for capacitance model (CAPOP=2 only) CVTO VTO M (MJ) 0.50 .12 125 . ⋅ M ----------------------gain BETAeff = BETA ⋅ Weff Leff LAMBDA ND NG 0.33 . and 3 Parameters (Continued) Units Default Description FC 0.8 0 Gate junction potential Transit time – use option METHOD=GEAR when using transit time for JFET and MESFET Note: Many DC parameters (such as VTO. GAMDS.0 0.step junction 0.linear graded junction PB TT V s 0.50 Grading coefficient for gate-drain and gatesource diodes (CAPOP=0 and 2 only) 0. Table 34 provides information about DC model LEVEL=1 parameters.0 1. 2.0 Channel length modulation parameter Drain subthreshold factor (typical value=1) Gate subthreshold factor (typical value=1) HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

Transconductance parameter.0 126 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 Threshold voltage.0 Channel length modulation parameter Channel length modulation gate voltage parameter Drain subthreshold factor (typical value=1) Gate subthreshold factor (typical value=1) Threshold voltage.0 0. LEVEL=2 is a modification of the SPICE model for gate modulation of LAMBDA. VTO overrides the internal calculation.0e-4 LAMBDA LAM1 ND NG VTO 0. A positive VTO is always an enhancement transistor.0 0. V -2.12 . Table 35 provides information about DC model LEVEL=2 parameters. A positive VTO is always an enhancement transistor. regardless of NJF or PJF. it overrides the internal calculation. If set.0 0. A negative VTO is a depletion transistor. regardless of NJF or PJF. ⋅ M ----------------------gain BETAeff = BETA ⋅ Weff Leff BETA amp / V2 1/V 1/V 1/V 1.0 Level of FET DC model. When set. Table 35 Name (Alias) DC Model LEVEL=2 Parameters Units Default Description LEVEL 1. A negative VTO is a depletion transistor.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Model Statements Table 34 Name (Alias) DC Model LEVEL=1 Parameters (Continued) Units Default Description VTO V -2.

0 0. GaAs=10.5m 2.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Model Statements Table 36 provides information about DC model level 3 parameters.0 0. ⋅ M ----------------------gain BETAeff = BETA ⋅ Weff Leff A ALPHA BETA m 1/V 0.0 0.9 Ids feedback parameter of TriQuint model Drain voltage. induced threshold voltage lowering coefficient Channel length modulation parameter Threshold voltage sensitivity to bulk node Effective dopant concentration in the channel DELTA GAMDS (GAMMA) LAMBDA K1 NCHAN 1/V V1/2 atom/ cm3 1/V 0 0 0.0 amp /V 1. Table 36 Name (Alias) DC Model LEVEL=3 Parameters Description Units Default LEVEL 1.7 Semiconductor dielectric constant: Si=11.0e-4 2 D 11.552e1 6 0.12 127 .0 ND NG SAT Drain subthreshold factor Gate subthreshold factor (typical value=1) Saturation factor ■ ■ ■ SAT=0 (standard Curtice model) SAT= (Curtice model with hyperbolic tangent coefficient) SAT=2 (cubic approximation of Curtice model (Statz)) SATEXP 3 Drain voltage exponent HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 Level of FET DC model. LEVEL=3 is the Curtice MESFET model.0 1.7. Active layer thickness: Aeff = A ⋅ SCALM Saturation factor Transconductance parameter.

CGS. A negative VTO is a depletion transistor regardless of NJF or PJF.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Model Statements Table 36 Name (Alias) DC Model LEVEL=3 Parameters (Continued) Description Units Default UCRIT VBI VGEXP (Q) VP VTO V/cm 0 1. ACM=0 SPICE model. m indicates the element multiplier. A positive VTO is always an enhancement transistor. The ACM=1 (HSPICE) model requires that parameters (such as IS. CGD. ACM (Area Calculation Method) Parameter Equations Use the ACM model parameter to select between traditional SPICE unitless gate area calculations and the newer style of area calculations. and BETA) have proper physics-based units. ■ ■ The ACM=0 method (SPICE) uses the ratio of W/L to keep AREA unitless.12 . In the following equations. If set.0 Critical field for mobility degradation Gate diode built-in voltage Gate voltage exponent Dinch-off voltage (default is calculated) V -2.0 Threshold voltage.0 2. Weff -⋅ m AREAeff = ----------Leff RD RDeff = ---------------------AREAeff RS RSeff = ---------------------AREAeff AREAeff RGeff = RG ⋅ ---------------------m2 128 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. parameters determined by element areas. it overrides internal calculation.

12 129 .Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Model Statements ACM=1 ASPEC model. if RD=0: HDIF LDIF + ALIGN RDeff = RSH ⋅ ---------------------+ RSHL ⋅ -------------------------------------Weff ⋅ m Weff ⋅ m RG RGeff = ------m Or. if RS=0: HDIF LDIF – ALIGN . if RG=0: Weff RGeff = RSHG ⋅ --------------------Leff ⋅ m RS RSeff = -----m Or. Resulting calculations: ISeff = IS ⋅ AREAeff CGSeff = CGS ⋅ AREAeff CGDeff = CGD ⋅ AREAeff Weff -⋅ m BETAeff = BETA ⋅ ----------Leff HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. ACM=3 Extends ACM=2 model to deal with stacked devices (shared source/drains) and source/drain periphery capacitance along a gate edge.+ RSHL ⋅ -------------------------------------RSeff = RSH ⋅ ---------------------Weff ⋅ m Weff ⋅ m ACM=2 HSPICE model.1 and provisions for lightly doped drain technology. AREAeff = Weff ⋅ Leff ⋅ m RD RDeff = ------m Or. combination of ACM=0. parameters function of element width.

1 + satexp=2 + eg=1.3 n=1 ng=1.model nj_acm0 njf Level=3 capop=1 sat=3 acm=0 + is=1e-14 cgs=1e-15 cgd=.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Model Statements Note: The model parameter units for IS. Example j1 10 20 0 40 nj_acm0 w=10u l=1u j2a 10 20 0 41 nj_acm1 w=10u l=1u .cgd + rs=100 rd=100 rg=5 beta=5e-4 + vto=.2 vgexp=2 alpha=4 ucrit=1e-4 lambda=.cgd + rs=100 rd=100 rg=5 beta=5e-4 + vto=.4 nd=1 + k1=.4 nd=1 + k1=.3e-3 $$$note different units for is. CGS.12 .2 vgexp=2 alpha=4 ucrit=1e-4 lambda=.1 + satexp=2 + eg=1.cgs.5 gap1=5e-4 gap2=200 d=13 .model nj_acm1 njf Level=3 capop=1 sat=3 acm=1 + is=1e-2 cgs=1e-3 cgd=.5 gap1=5e-4 gap2=200 d=13 JFET and MESFET Capacitances Gate Capacitance CAPOP=0 The DCAP option switch selects the diode forward bias capacitance equation: DCAP=1 Reverse Bias: vgd < FC ⋅ PB –M vgd -⎞ cgd = CGDeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 – -------⎝ PB ⎠ vgs < FC ⋅ PB –M vgs -⎞ cgs = CGSeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 – ------⎝ PB ⎠ 130 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.cgs.3 n=1 ng=1.3e-15 $$$note different units for is. and CGD are unitless in ACM=0 and per square meter for ACM=1.

+ CGDeff ⋅ ---------------------------------------------------------------------cgd = TT ⋅ ----------∂vgd ( 1 – FC ) M + 1 vgs >= FC ⋅ PB vgs 1 – FC ⇒ ( 1 + M ) + M ⋅ ------∂igs PB -----------------------------------------------------------------------------cgs = TT ⋅ + CGSeff ⋅ ∂vgs ( 1 – FC ) M + 1 DCAP=2 (Default) Reverse Bias: vgd < 0 –M vgd --------⎞ cgd = CGDeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 – ⎝ PB ⎠ vgs < 0 vgs⎞ – M cgs = CGSeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 – ------⎝ PB ⎠ Forward Bias: vgd ≥ 0 vgd⎞ ∂igd .+ CGDeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 + M ⋅ -------cgd = TT ⋅ ----------⎝ ∂vgd PB ⎠ vgs ≥ 0 vgs⎞ ∂igs .+ CGSeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 + M ⋅ ------cgs = TT ⋅ ---------⎝ ∂vgs PB ⎠ DCAP=3 Limits peak depletion capacitance to FC ⋅ CGDeff or FC ⋅ CGSeff with proper fall-off when forward bias exceeds PB (FC > 1). HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 131 .Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Model Statements Forward Bias: vgd >= FC ⋅ PB vgd 1 – FC ⇒ ( 1 + M ) + M ⋅ -------∂ igd PB .

vgs + vgd + vds 2 + ⎛ ------------------veff = -⎝ ALPHA⎠ 2 1 .⎟ 1 + ------------------------------------------------1 -⎞ 2 ⎟ 2 ⎟ vds + ⎛ ------------------⎝ ALPHA⎠ ⎠ The following equations calculate values for the preceding equations: vte = VTO + GAMDS ⋅ vds + K 1 ( vbs ) = effective threshold 1 -⎞ 2 1 .2 ) vds 1 + ------------------------------------------------2 1 -⎞ vds 2 + ⎛ ------------------⎝ ALPHA⎠ ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ CGD vds -----------. CGS Cgs = ----------------------------⋅ vnew 4 1 – -----------PB veff – vte .2 ) vds 1 – ------------------------------------------------2 1 2 ⎛ ⎞ vds + ------------------⎝ ALPHA⎠ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ CGD ------------⋅ ⎜ 2 ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ vds .[ veff + vte + ( veff – vte ) 2 + ( 0.⋅ 1 + ------------------------------------------------------2 2 ( veff – vte ) + ( 0.CGDeff CGS .2 ) 2 ] vnew = -2 CGD = High -vds Cgd at vgs = 0 CGS = High -vds Cgs at vgs = 0 CGD .⋅ ⎜ 1 – -------------------------------------------------⎟ 2 ⎜ 1 -⎞ 2⎟ 2 vds + ⎛ ------------------⎝ ⎝ ALPHA⎠ ⎠ ⎛ ⎜ CGS ⋅ Cgd = ⎜ ----------------------------⎜ vnew ⎜ 4 1 – -----------PB ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟+ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ veff – vte .⋅ 1 + ------------------------------------------------------2 2 ( veff – vte ) + ( 0.CGSeff 132 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 .Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Model Statements Gate Capacitance CAPOP=1 Gate capacitance CAPOP=1 is a charge conserving symmetric capacitor model most often used for MESFET model LEVEL=3.

2 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. (For the behavior for Vds<0. However. The capacitance model in the CAPOP=1 implementation also lacks a junction grading coefficient and an adjustable width for the Vgs transition to the threshold voltage.12 133 . interchange Cgs and Cgd and replace Vds with -Vds in the preceding descriptions. while Cgs drops with Vds. Finally. This is not always consistent with a good fit. The width is fixed at 0. Junction grading coefficient Transition width for Vgs M (MJ) VDEL 0. Cgd is greater than Cgs and rises with Vds.2. ■ For vgs below the threshold voltage and Vds>0 (normal bias condition). an internal parameter for limiting forward gate voltage is set to 0.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Model Statements Gate Capacitance CAPOP=2 Statz capacitance equations[3] (CAPOP=1) contain mathematical behavior that might be problematic when trying to fit data. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ CAPOP=2 capacitance equations help to solve the previously-described problems.) It may be difficult to simultaneously fit the DC characteristics and the gate capacitances (measured by S-parameters) with the parameters that are shared between the DC model and the capacitance model.5 0. the Cgs curve drops along an asymptote line to zero.9 gate diode limiting voltage=FC ⋅ PB. Parameter Default Description CALPHA CGAMDS CVTO FC ALPHA GAMDS VTO 0. Cgd properly goes to a small constant representing a sidewall capacitance.5 Saturation factor for capacitance model Threshold lowering factor for capacitance Threshold voltage for capacitance model PB multiplier – typical value 0.8 ⋅ PB in the CAPOP=1 implementation. as Vgs decreases.

6 v) threshold. Figure 20 CAPOP=1 vs.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Model Statements Capacitance Comparison (CAPOP=1 and CAPOP=2) Figure 20 and Figure 21 on page 135 show comparisons of CAPOP=1 and CAPOP=2. while for CAPOP=1. Cgs for CAPOP=2 drops towards the same value as Cgd. below the (-0.12 . Cgd vs. it is does not. the Cgs-Cgd characteristic curve “flips over” below the threshold for CAPOP=1. 3. Cgs. In Figure 20 on page 134. CGS →0. 134 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. 1. CAPOP=2. 4 In Figure 21 on page 135. whereas for CAPOP=2. Vgs for Vds=0. 2.

CAPOP=2. Cgs.12 135 . -0. Vds for Vgs=-1.5. Cgd vs.5. 0 JFET and MESFET DC Equations DC Model LEVEL=1 JFET DC characteristics are represented by the nonlinear current source (ids).Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET DC Equations Figure 21 CAPOP=1 vs.0. The value of ids is determined by the equations: vgst = vgs – VTO vgst< 0 ids = 0 0<vgst<vds Saturated region Channel pinched off ids = BETAeff ⋅ vgst 2 ⋅ ( 1 + LAMBDA ⋅ vds ) 0<vds<vgst Linear region HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. -1.

Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET DC Equations ids = BETAeff ⋅ vds ⋅ ( 2 ⋅ vgst – vds ) ⋅ ( 1 + LAMBDA ⋅ vds ) The drain current at zero vgs bias (ids) is related to VTO and BETA by the equation: idss = BETAeff ⋅ VTO 2 At a given vgs. vgs<0 Saturated region. The value of ids is determined by the equations: vds>0 Forward region 136 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. vgs<0 Saturated region. LAMBDA may be determined from a pair of drain current and drain voltage points measured in the saturation region where vgst<vds: ids 2 – ids 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------⎞ LAMBDA = ⎛ ⎝ ids 1 ⋅ vds 2 – ids 2 Þ vds 1⎠ DC Model LEVEL=2 The DC characteristics of the JFET LEVEL=2 model are represented by the nonlinear current source (ids). The value of ids is determined by the equations: vgst = vgs – VTO vgst<0 ids = 0 0<vgst<vds. reverse bias vgst ----------1 – LAMBDA ⇒ ( vds – vgst ) ⇒ VTO ids = BETAeff ⋅ vgst 2 ⋅ 0<vds<vgst Linear region ids = BETAeff ⋅ vds ( 2 ⋅ vgst – vds ) DC Model LEVEL=3 The DC characteristics of the MESFET LEVEL=3 model are represented by the nonlinear hyperbolic tangent current source (ids).12 . forward bias Channel pinched off ids = BETAeff ⋅ vgst 2 ⋅ [ 1 + LAMBDA ⋅ ( vds – vgst ) ⋅ ( 1 + LAM 1 ⋅ vgs ) ] 0<vgst<vds.

vds. SAT=3 is the same as SAT=2. ND. vgs ) vgst>0. except exponent 3 and denominator 3 are parameterized as SATEXP. vds. vgs ) vgst>0. ND. SAT=2. SAT=0 On region ids = beteff ⋅ ( vgst VGEXP ) ⋅ ( 1 + LAMBDA ⋅ vds ) ⋅ tanh ( ALPHA ⋅ vds ) idsubthreshold ( N 0. vds. ND. vds>3/ALPHA On region ( ids = beteff ⋅ vgst 2 ⋅ ( 1 + LAMBDA ⋅ vds ) ) + idsubthreshold ( N 0. SAT=1 On region vds-⎞ ids = beteff ⋅ ( vgst VGEXP ) ⋅ ( 1 + LAMBDA ⋅ vds ) ⋅ tanh ⎛ ALPHA ⋅ --------⎝ vgst⎠ idsubthreshold ( N 0. vgs ) vgst>0. Note: idsubthreshold is a special function that calculates the subthreshold currents from the N0 and ND model parameters HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET DC Equations If model parameters VP and VTO are not specified they are calculated as: q ⋅ NCHAN ⋅ Aeff 2 VP = – --------------------------------------------------2 ⋅ D ⋅ εo VTO = VP + VBI then: vgst = vgs – [ VTO + GAMDS ⋅ vds + K 1 ( vbs ) ] BETAeff beteff = -------------------------------------------------( 1 + UCRIT ⋅ vgst ) vgst<0 Channel pinched off ids = idsubthreshold ( N 0. ND. and exponent 2 of vgst is parameterized as VGEXP. SAT=2. vds<3/ALPHA On region 3 vds -------⎞ 1 – ⎛ 1 – ALPHA ⇒ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ids = beteff ⋅ vgst 2 ⋅ ( 1 + LAMBDA ⋅ vds ) ⋅ idsubthreshold ( N 0. ND. vds. vgs ) vgst>0. vds. vgs ) If vgst >0.12 137 .

because gm=0. might lead to wrong results in the linear region. Reasonable values for KF are in the range 1e-19 to 1e-25 V2 F. If you set the NLEV parameter to 3. channel thermal noise is 0.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Noise Models JFET and MESFET Noise Models Name (Alias) Default Description AF KF 1.[4] 138 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. used in both saturation and linear regions.0 1.0 Noise Equations Figure 19 on page 117 shows the JFET noise model. Noise equation selector Channel noise coefficient. Use with NLEV=3. The inrd and inrs units are: 4 ⋅ k ⋅ t 1⁄ inrd = ⎛ ---------------------⎞ ⎝ rd ⎠ 4⋅ k ⋅ t 1⁄ inrs = ⎛ ---------------------⎞ ⎝ rs ⎠ 2 2 Channel thermal and flicker noise are modeled by the current source ind and defined by the equation: ind = channelthermalnoise + flickernoise If the model parameter NLEV is less than 3. This is physically impossible.0 Flicker noise exponent Flicker noise coefficient. at VDS=0. simulation uses an equation that is valid in both linear and saturation regions. NLEV GDSNOI 2.12 . then: 8 ⋅ k ⋅ t ⋅ gm⎞ 1 ⁄ -----------------------------------channelthermalnoise = ⎛ ⎝ ⎠ 3 2 The previous formula. For example. inrd and inrs.0 0. Thermal noise generation in the drain and source regions (RD and RS resistances) is modeled by the two current sources.

V2/HZ RS. V2/HZ FN.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Noise Models For NLEV = 3 8 kt 1 + a + a.12 139 . V2/HZ RG.⋅ BETAeff ⋅ ( vgs – VTO ) ⋅ ----------------------⋅ GDSNOI⎞ channelthermalnoise = ⎛ ------⎝ 3 ⎠ a The following equations calculate values for the preceding equation: vds α = 1 – ------------------------vgs – VTO Linear region α = 0 Saturation region The flicker noise is calculated as: KF ⋅ ids ⎞ flickernoise = ⎛ ---------------------------⎝ ⎠ f AF 1 ⁄ 2 2 Parameter Description RD. V2/HZ ID. V2/HZ ONOISE INOISE output thermal noise due to drain resistor output thermal noise due to source resistor output thermal noise due to gate resistor output thermal noise due to channel output flicker noise total output noise (TOT = RD + RS + RG + ID + FN) output noise input noise HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. V2/HZ TOT.

select different temperature equations for the calculation of energy gap. TLEVC=1 enables CTD to override the default temperature compensation. or 2 while TLEVC is either 0. GAP1. and 3) Parameter capacitance DC energy gap equation selections grading mobility resistance CTD. 1. TCV. CTS M. and a number of other model parameters. XTI EG. 2. Table 37 Function Temperature Parameters (Levels 1. and 3.0 Beta temperature coefficient for TriQuint model Mobility temperature exponent.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Temperature Equations JFET and MESFET Temperature Equations Table 37 lists temperature effect parameters. TRS Table 38 Name (Alias) Temperature Effect Parameters Default Description Units BETATCE BEX 1/× 0. 1. TLEVC M BEX TRD. GAP2 TLEV.0 140 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. 2. CTD 1/× 0. correction for low field mobility Temperature coefficient for gate-drain junction capacitance.12 . saturation current. or 3. 2. The temperature effect parameters apply to Levels 1. The temperature equation selectors. TLEV is either 0.0 0. energy gap. TLEV and TLEVC. They include temperature parameters for the effect of temperature on resistance. and gate capacitance. capacitance.

69 .02e-4 First bandgap correction factor.0 TLEV 0.50 Grading coefficient for gate-drain and gate-source diodes ■ ■ 0.germanium 204 . TLEVC=1 enables CTS to override the default temperature compensation.0 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.silicon 210 .17 .0 TLEVC 0.56e-4 .0 Temperature coefficient for gate-source junction capacitance.silicon 636 .Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Temperature Equations Table 38 Name (Alias) Temperature Effect Parameters (Continued) Default Description Units CTS 1/× 0.16 1.linear graded junction N 1.Schottky barrier diode 0.gallium arsenide GAP2 x 1108 Second bandgap correction factor.gallium arsenide GAP1 eV/× 7.50 .silicon 4. from Sze.germanium 1.41e-4 .gallium arsenide M (MJ) 0.silicon 0. TCV (VTOTC) 1/× 0.silicon 4.12 141 . from Sze.0 Emission coefficient for gate-drain and gate-source diodes Temperature compensation coefficient for VTO (threshold voltage) Temperature equation selector for junction diodes. Temperature equation selector for junction capacitances and potential. alpha term ■ ■ ■ ■ 7.02e-4 .step junction 0.33 . Interacts with the TLEV parameter. Energy gap for the gate to drain and gate to source diodes at 0 ° K ■ ■ ■ ■ EG eV 1.52 .73e-4 . beta term ■ ■ ■ ■ 1108 .67 .germanium 5. Interacts with the TLEVC parameter.

0 0 0.16 – 7. Energy Gap Temperature Equations To determine energy gap for temperature compensation.02 e -4 ⋅ ----------------------t + 1108. TLEVC=1 or 2 overrides the default temperature compensation.12 . use the equations shown: TLEV = 0 or 1 tnom 2 egnom = 1.0 TLEV = 2 tnom 2 egnom = EG – GAP 1 ⋅ ---------------------------------tnom + GAP 2 142 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 Temperature Compensation Equations The following subsections described various types of temperature equations for JFET/MESFET models.0 0.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Temperature Equations Table 38 Name (Alias) Temperature Effect Parameters (Continued) Default Description Units TPB V/× 0.16 – 7. Temperature coefficient for drain resistance Temperature coefficient for gate resistance Temperature coefficient for source resistance Saturation current temperature exponent XTI=3 for silicon diffused junction or XTI=2 for Schottky barrier diode TRD (TDR1) TRG (TRG1) TRS (TRS1) XTI 1/× 1/× 1/× 0.0 t2 eg ( t ) = 1.0 Temperature coefficient for PB.02 e -4 ⋅ ----------------------------------tnom + 1108.

0 e -4 ⋅ Δ t – PB + 1⎠ PB ( t ) 1 + M ⋅ ⎛ 4. set the coefficients to a very small value (such as 1e-6).0 e -4 ⋅ Δ t – ------------+ 1⎞ ⎝ ⎠ PB The next equation calculates values for the preceding equations: t -⎞ t -⎞ egnom eg (t) ⎛ ------------------------------------------------------PB ( t ) = PB ⋅ ⎛ ⎝ tnom⎠ – vt ( t ) ⇒ 3ln ⎝ tnom⎠ + vt ( tnom ) – vt ( t ) TLEVC = 1 CGS ( t ) = CGS ⋅ ( 1 + CTS ⋅ Δ t ) CGD ( t ) = CGD ⋅ ( 1 + CTD ⋅ Δ t ) HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 143 .+ XTI ⋅ ln ⎛ ⎝ tnom⎠ vt ( tnom ) vt ( t ) Gate Capacitance Temperature Equations Temperature equations calculate the gate capacitances. simulation uses these equations. To achieve a zero capacitance variation.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Temperature Equations t2 eg ( t ) = EG – GAP 1 ⋅ ----------------------t + GAP 2 Saturation Current Temperature Equations The saturation current of the gate junctions of the JFET varies with temperature according to the equation: is ( t ) = IS ⋅ e facln -----------N TLEV = 0 or 1 t -⎞ EG EG-----------facln = ---------------------. If you set TLEVC to zero.– ---------+ XTI ⋅ ln ⎛ ⎝ tnom⎠ vt ( tnom ) vt ( t ) TLEV = 2 t -⎞ egnom eg ( t ) -----------facln = ---------------------. The CTS and CTD parameters are the linear coefficients.– -----------. and set TLEVC=1 or 2. TLEVC = 0 CGS ( t ) = CGS ⋅ CGD ( t ) = CGD ⋅ PB (t) ⎞ ------------1+M⋅ ⎛ ⎝ 4.

5 ⇒ PB⎠ Δ t-⎞ -----CGD ( t ) = CGD ⋅ ⎛ 1 – 0.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models JFET and MESFET Temperature Equations The next equation calculates values for the preceding equations: PB ( t ) = PB – TPB ⇒ Δt TLEVC = 2 PB -⎞ M CGS ( t ) = CGS ⋅ ⎛ ------------⎝ PB ( t )⎠ PB -⎞ M CGD ( t ) = CGD ⋅ ⎛ ------------⎝ PB ( t )⎠ The next equation calculates values for the preceding equations: PB ( t ) = PB – TPB ⇒ Δt TLEVC = 3 Δ t-⎞ -----CGS ( t ) = CGS ⋅ ⎛ dpbdt ⇒ ⎝ 1 – 0.5 ⇒ dpbdt ⇒ ⎝ PB⎠ The next equation calculates values for the preceding equations: PB ( t ) = PB + dpbdt ⋅ Δ t TLEV = 0 or 1 tnom -⎞ -----------------------------– egnom + 3 ⋅ vt ( tnom ) + ( 1.16 – egnom ) ⋅ ⎛ ⎝ 2 – tnom + 1108⎠ – PB dpbdt = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tnom TLEV = 2 tnom -⎞ – PB – egnom + 3 ⋅ vt ( tnom ) + ( EG – egnom ) ⋅ ⎛ 2 – ---------------------------------⎝ tnom + GAP 2⎠ dpbdt = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tnom Threshold Voltage Temperature Equation The threshold voltage of the JFET varies with temperature according to the equation: VTO ( t ) = VTO – TCV ⇒ Δt CVTO ( t ) = CVTO – TCV ⋅ Δ t 144 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 .

GAP1. GAP2) ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. otherwise (TriQuint model): BETA ( T ) = BETA ⋅ 1.12 145 .Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models TriQuint (TOM) Extensions to LEVEL=3 Mobility Temperature Equation The mobility temperature compensation equation is updated as: t -⎞ BEX -----------BETA ( t ) = BETA ⋅ ⎛ ⎝ tnom⎠ If BETATCE=0. WMAX. LMAX) User-defined band-gap coefficients (EG. RG. geometrically derived from width and length (RD.01 BETATCE ( t – tnom ) Parasitic Resistor Temperature Equations The RD and RS resistances in JFET vary with temperature according to the equations: RD ( t ) = RD ⋅ ( 1 + TRD ⋅ Δ t ) RS ( t ) = RS ⋅ ( 1 + TRS ⋅ Δ t ) RG ( t ) = RG ⋅ ( 1 + TRG ⋅ Δ t ) TriQuint (TOM) Extensions to LEVEL=3 TOM “TriQuint’s Own Model”[5] is implemented as part of the existing GaAs LEVEL=3 model. WDEL. ND) Channel and source/drain resistances.[6] It has a few differences from the original implementation. ALIGN) Substrate terminal Geometric model with width and length specified in the element (ACM=1) Automatic model selection as a function of width and length (WMIN. RS. RSH. RSHG. HDIF. LMIN. LDIF) (ACM=1) Photolithographic compensation (LDEL. RSHL. The HSPICE version of the TOM model takes advantage of existing LEVEL=3 features to provide: ■ ■ Subthreshold model (NG.

Therefore. If BETATCE is set to a nonzero value: BETA ( temp ) = BETA ( tnom ) ⋅ 1. DELTA may be negative or positive. LAMBDA and UCRIT parameters do not exist.( DELTA + v ds ⋅ i ds ) ] CAPDS Drain-to-source capacitance: Weff -⋅ M CAPDSeff = CAPDS ⋅ ----------Leff In the original TriQuint TOM implementation.MODEL statement.12 . However. they must remain zero (their default value) in LEVEL=3 146 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.01 ( BETATCE ⋅ common beta temperature update BEX temp ------------⎞ is: BETA ( temp ) = BETA ( tnom ) ⋅ ⎛ ⎝ tnom⎠ ( temp – tnom ) ) The more DELTA Ids feedback parameter of the TOM model. i ds i ds ⇒-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------max [ ( – 1 + v ntol ) . An alias allows the original name or the alias name to be used in the .Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models TriQuint (TOM) Extensions to LEVEL=3 Several alias TOM parameters are defined for existing LEVEL=3 parameters to make the conversion easier. a sign reversal is needed. even when using the TOM parameter name. Alias Printout Name Note Q GAMMA VTOTC TRG1 TRD1 TRS1 VGEXP GAMDS TCV TRG TRD TRS sign opposite of TriQuint’s original sign opposite of TriQuint’s original Table 39 Name (Alias) TOM Model Parameters Description BETATCE Temperature coefficient for beta. This parameter is not used if its value is zero. the model parameter printout is in the original name. Please note that in two cases.

The model uses analytical derivatives for conductances.12 147 . 3. TriQuint developed it to improve the accuracy of capacitance equations by using quasi-static charge conservation in the implanted layer of a MESFET. You can use DTEMP with this model. TOM3 has its own charge-based capacitance model so it ignores the capacitance model set in the CAPOP parameter. or CAPDS. 7. The topology uses local feedback. 4. Using non-zero values for these parameters with nonzero BETATCE. TNOM.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models LEVEL=7 TOM3 (TriQuint’s Own Model III) to reproduce the TOM model. The set of model parameters must include the model reference temperature. 2. LEVEL=7 TOM3 (TriQuint’s Own Model III) TOM3 (TriQuint’s Own Model III) is available as the JFET/MESFET LEVEL=7 device model. 5. set the simulation temperature to 27 by using either . decreasing the DC output conductance to model drain. which selects the finite difference method. refer to “TOM3 Equations. Note: For more informations. relative to the circuit temperature. The model is defined by a specific sub-circuit. model dispersion. This model ignores the DERIV parameter. Smith. which corresponds to TREF in other levels in the JFET/ MESFET device models. DTEMP increases the temperature of individual elements. When comparing to other simulators. but is 27 in most other simulators. The default room temperature is 25 in HSPICE. Hallgren and David S. DELTA.OPTION TNOM=27. The default for TR is 25. 8. Using the TOM3 Model Follow these steps to use the TOM3 model: 1. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Revised: 2 December 1999” by Robert B. results in a hybrid model. Set LEVEL=7 to identify the model as TOM3. Set DTEMP on the element line. 6. The general syntax for this element is the same as the other standard JFET/ MESFET models. and a set of device equations. and self-heating effects.TEMP 27 or .

+ ⎜ ----------------------------------------------------⎝ 1 + M ST 0 ⋅ V DS⎠ ⎝ K 1+1/K⎠ [1 + (α ⋅ V ) ] DS Q Gate Leakage Diode Current ILK and PLK have no temperature dependence. 148 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. DC Equations The DC equations for the HSPICE LEVEL=7 JFET model are: Drain to Source Current (IDS) I DS = I O ⋅ ( 1 + LAMBDA ⋅ V DS ) IO = β ⋅ VG ⋅ fK α ⋅ V DS f K = ---------------------------------------------------K 1.12 .Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models LEVEL=7 TOM3 (TriQuint’s Own Model III) Model Description This section describes the DC and Capacitance equations for the HSPICE LEVEL=7 JFET model.1/K [ 1 + ( α ⋅ V DS ) ] V G = Q ⋅ V ST ⋅ log [ exp ( u ) + 1 ] V GS – V TO + γ ⋅ V DS u = --------------------------------------------------Q ⋅ V ST V ST = V STO ⋅ ( 1 + M STO ⋅ V DS ) Transconductance GM ⎛ Q ⋅ β ⋅ fK ⋅ VG ⎞ -⎟ ⋅ ( 1 + LAMBDA ⋅ V DS ) = ⎜ ----------------------------------------------1 + exp ( – u ) ⎝ ⎠ Q–1 Q Output Conductance ( V GS – V TO + γ ⋅ V DS ) ⋅ M ST 0⎞ G DS = LAMBDA ⋅ I 0 + G M ⋅ γ – ⎛ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------⎝ ⎠ 1 + M ST 0 ⋅ V DS Q ⋅ I 0 ⋅ M ST 0 ⎞ ⎛ α ⋅ β ⋅ VG ⎞ ⎛ --------------------------------------⎟ ⋅ ( 1 + LAMBDA ⋅ V DS ) .

01 BETATCE ⋅ ( T – T NOM ) ALPHATCE ⋅ ( T – T NOM ) V TO = VTO + VTOC ⋅ ( T – T NOM ) γ = GAMMA + GAMMATC ⋅ ( T – T NOM ) V ST 0 = VST + VSTTC ⋅ ( T – T NOM ) V MT 0 = MST + MSTTC ⋅ ( T – T NOM ) Capacitance Equations The capacitance equations for the HSPICE LEVEL=7 JFET model are: Combined Gate Charge Q GG = Q GL ⋅ f T + Q GH ⋅ ( 1 – f T ) + QGG 0 ⋅ ( V GSI + V GDI ) ∂f T .01 α = ALPHA ⋅ 1.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models LEVEL=7 TOM3 (TriQuint’s Own Model III) – V GS⎞ -----------I LS = ILK ⋅ ⎛ 1 – exp ⎝ PLK ⎠ – V GS ILK-⎞ ⎛ G LS = ⎛ ---------⋅ exp ------------⎞ ⎝ PLK⎠ ⎝ PLK ⎠ – V GD I LD = ILK ⋅ ⎛ 1 – exp -------------⎞ ⎝ PLK ⎠ – V GD ILK-⎞ ⎛ G LD = ⎛ ---------⋅ exp -------------⎞ ⎝ PLK⎠ ⎝ PLK ⎠ Temperature and Geometry Dependence β = AREA ⋅ BETA ⋅ 1.+ QGG 0 C GD = C GDL ⋅ f T + C GDH ⋅ ( 1 – f T ) + ( Q GL – Q GH ) ⋅ -------------∂V GDI f T = exp ( – Q GGB ⋅ I DS ⋅ V DS ) HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.+ QGG 0 C GS = C GSL ⋅ f T + C GSH ⋅ ( 1 – f T ) + ( Q GL – Q GH ) ⋅ ------------∂V GSI ∂f T .12 149 .

= – QGGB ⋅ [ I DS + g ds ⋅ V DS ] ⋅ f T ∂V GD Lower Power Gate Charge Q GL = qgI + QGCL ⋅ ( V GS + V GD ) qgl = QGQL ⋅ exp [ QGAG ⋅ ( V GS + V GD ) ] ⋅ cosh ( QGAD ⋅ V DS ) C GSL = qgl ⋅ [ QGAG + QGAD ⋅ tanh ( QGAD ⋅ V DS ) ] + QGCL C GDL = qgl ⋅ [ QGAG + QGAD ⋅ tanh ( QGAD ⋅ V DS ) ] + QGCL High Power Gate Charge I DS ⎞ .12 .= – QGGB ⋅ [ I DS + ( g m + g ds ) ⋅ V DS ] ⋅ f T ∂V GDI ∂f T -----------.+ QGSH ⋅ V GS + QGDH ⋅ V GD Q GH = QGQH ⋅ log ⎛ 1 + ------------⎝ QGI 0⎠ QGQH -⎞ C GSH = ( G M + G DS ) ⋅ ⎛ ---------------------------+ QGSH ⎝ I DS + QGI 0⎠ QGQH -⎞ + QGDH C GDH = G DS ⋅ ⎛ ---------------------------⎝ I DS + QGI 0⎠ Table 40 Name (Alias) Units Default Description TOM3 Parameters LEVEL TNOM VTO VTOTC ALPHA BETA - 1 25 Model Index (7 for TOM3) Reference temperature Threshold voltage Threshold voltage temperature coefficient Saturation factor Transconductance parameter V V/K 1/V A/V-Q -2 0 2 0.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models LEVEL=7 TOM3 (TriQuint’s Own Model III) ∂f T -------------.1 150 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

12 151 .11 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 5E-16 -2E-16 1E-6 1 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models LEVEL=7 TOM3 (TriQuint’s Own Model III) Table 40 Name (Alias) Units TOM3 Parameters (Continued) Default Description LAMBDA VBI CDS IS KF AF GAMMA 1/V V F A - 0 1 1E-12 1E-14 0 1 0 Channel length modulation parameter Gate diode built-in potential Drain to source capacitance Forward gate diode saturation current Flicker noise coefficient Flicker noise exponent Drain voltage-induced threshold voltage lowering coefficient Parameter Q to model non-square-law of drain current Barrier height at 0K(used for capacitance model) Diode saturation current temperature coefficient Sub-threshold slope Alpha temperature coefficient (exponential) Leakage diode current parameter Leakage diode potential parameter Knee-function parameter Linear temperature coefficient of VST Charge parameter Charge parameter Charge parameter Charge parameter Q EG XTI VST ALPHATCE ILK PLK K VSTTC QGQL QGQH QGI0 QGAG V V K-1 A V VK-1 FV FV A V-1 2 1.

April 1983. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. MTT-33. and Computer Calculation of Large-Signal GaAs FET Amplifier Characteristics. see Compact dc Model of GaAs FETs for Large-Signal Computer Calculation.2. February 1985. 2. Vol. 152 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. For more information about this model.12 . No. No.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models LEVEL=8 Materka Model Table 40 Name (Alias) Units TOM3 Parameters (Continued) Default Description QGAD QGGB QGCL QGSH QGDH QGG0 MST N GAMMATC VBITC CGSTCE CGDTCE MSTTC BETATCE V-1 A-1V-1 F F F F V-1 K-1 VK-1 K-1 K-1 V-1K-1 K-1 1 100 2E-16 1E-16 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Charge parameter Charge parameter Charge parameter Sidewall capacitance Sidewall capacitance Charge parameter Sub-threshold slope – drain parameter Forward gate diode ideality factor Linear temperature coefficient for GAMMA Linear temperature coefficient for VBI Linear temperature coefficient for CGS Linear temperature coefficient for CGD Linear temperature coefficient for MST Linear temperature coefficient for beta LEVEL=8 Materka Model This section describes the JFET/MESFET LEVEL=8 device model. Vol. SC-18. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits.

Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models LEVEL=8 Materka Model Using the Materka Model Follow these steps to use the Materka model: 1.TEMP 27 or . but is 27 in most other simulators.= I DSS – -----------. Set LEVEL=8. 4.12 153 .⎛ .OPTION TNOM=27.⋅ tanh ⎛ ---------------------g m = ----------1 – ⎝ V GS – V P ⎠ VP ⎝ ∂V GS VP ⎠ α1 ⋅ V DS⎞ – α1 ⋅ V DS V GS 2⎞ ⎛ 1 – --------------------------------. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.tanh ⎛ --------------------I D = I DSS ⎛ 1 – -------⎝ ⎝ V GS – V P⎠ VP ⎠ α1 ⋅ V DS⎞ ∂I D V GS⎞ 2. The model has its own charge-based capacitance model.0 LEVEL=8 is the Materka MESFET model.= I DSS ⋅ ⎛ 1 – -------. The default room temperature is 25 in HSPICE. 3. set the simulation temperature to 27 by using either . which selects difference capacitance.⋅ g DS = ----------⎝ ∂V DS VP ⎠ α1 ⋅ V DS⎞ 2 γ V GS – ---------------⋅ tanh ⎛ ---------------------2 ⎝ V GS – V P ⎠ VP α1 ⋅ V DS⎞ α1 ⋅ ( V GS – V PO ) V GS⎞ ⎛ 1 – -------. This model ignores the CAPOP parameter. 2. DC Model α1* V DS ⎞ V GS⎞ 2 .⋅ sec h 2 ⎛ ---------------------2 ⎝ V GS – V P ⎠ ⎝ VP ⎠ ( V GS – V P ) V P = V TO + γ V DS Table 41 Name (Alias) Units DC Model Parameters Default Description LEVEL 1. The ACM parameter is not supported.⋅ ------------------------------------------.⋅ sec h 2 ⎛ ---------------------2 ⎝ V GS – V P ⎠ ⋅ ⎝ VP ⎠ V GS – V P ∂I D V GS⎞ . When comparing to other simulators.

Pinch-off voltage (default is calculated) 0. A negative VTO is a depletion transistor regardless of NJF or PJF. it overrides internal calculation.⎜ 1 – ----------------------------------------------------⎟ 2 ⎜ 1 -⎞ 2⎟ 2 vds + ⎛ ---------------------⎝ ⎝ ALPHA 1⎠ ⎠ vds 1 + ---------------------------------------------------2 1 -⎞ 2 ---------------------vds + ⎛ ⎝ ALPHA 1⎠ CGS veff – vte .⋅ 1 + ------------------------------------------------------C GD = -------------------------2 2 vnew ( veff – vte ) + ( 0. A positive VTO is always an enhancement transistor.12 . If set.1 0.2 ) 4 1 – -----------PB ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ CGD vds -----------.⎜ 1 + ----------------------------------------------------⎟ 2 ⎜ 1 -⎞ 2⎟ 2 vds + ⎛ ---------------------⎝ ⎝ ALPHA 1⎠ ⎠ vds 1 – ---------------------------------------------------2 1 2 ⎛ -⎞ vds + ⎝ ---------------------ALPHA 1⎠ 154 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.⋅ C GS = -------------------------1 + ------------------------------------------------------2 2 vnew ( veff – vte ) + ( 0.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models LEVEL=8 Materka Model Table 41 Name (Alias) Units DC Model Parameters (Continued) Default Description ALPHA1 VTO V -2.0 Empirical constant Threshold voltage.0 Drain saturation current for Vgs=0 Voltage slope parameter of pinch-off voltage VP IDSS GAMMA V A 1/V Gate Capacitance Model CGS veff – vte .2 ) 4 1 – -----------PB ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ CGD vds -----------.

0 0.0 0. and defined by the equation: ind = channel thermal noise+ flicker noise HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models LEVEL=8 Materka Model vte = VTO + GAMMA ⋅ vds = effective threshold 1 1 -⎞ 2 .vgs + vgd + vds 2 + ⎛ ---------------------veff = -⎝ ALPHA1⎠ 2 1 .8 1.12 155 .2 ) 2 ] vnew = -2 Table 42 Name (Alias) Gate Capacitance Model Parameters Units Default Description CGS CGD PB N F F V 0.0 Zero-bias gate-source junction capacitance Zero-bias gate-drain junction capacitance Gate Junction Potential Emission coefficient for gate-drain and gatesource diodes Noise Model Two current sources model the thermal noise generation in the drain and source regions (RD and RS resistances): ■ ■ inrd inrs 1⁄ 2 inrd and inrs are modeled by: 4 kt -------⎞ inrs = ⎛ ⎝ rs ⎠ 4 kt⎞ 1 ⁄ inrd = ⎛ ------⎝ rd ⎠ 2 Channel thermal and flicker noise are modeled by the ind current source.[ veff + vte + ( veff – vte ) 2 + ( 0.

Reasonable values for KF are in the range 1e-19 to 1e-25 V2 F.12 .END 156 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.5 .Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models LEVEL=8 Materka Model 8 kt ⋅ g m 1 ⁄ channel thermal noise = ⎛ ---------------------⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 3 KF ⋅ ids -⎞ flicker noise = ⎛ ---------------------------⎝ ⎠ f Table 43 Name (Alias) AF 1 ⁄ 2 2 Noise Model Parameters Units Default Description AF KF 1.MODEL NCH NJF LEVEL =8 + IDSS = 69.0 0.8e-3 VTO = -2 GAMMA = 0 + ALPHA1 = 1 RS = 0 RD = 0 + CGS = 1e-15 CGD = 2e-16 PB = 0. Example .8 + IS = 5e-16 AF = 1 KF = 0 + FC = 0.0 Flicker noise exponent Flicker noise coefficient.

R. Haus. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory. An Improved GaAs MESFET Model for SPICE. GaAs FET Device and Circuit Simulation in Spice.Smith.” IEEE Tran. [5] A.A.Newman.Curtice. Yanis P. ED-34. Microwave. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. R. Pucel. Vol. [6] W. and H. Vol. 1987.Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models References References [1] GaAs FET Device and Circuit Simulation in SPICE. I. [4] Tsivids. 340. P. [2] A MESFET Model for Use in the Design of GaAs Integrated Circuits.Statz.A. Statz.A. “A MESFET Model for Use in the Design of GaAs Integrated Circuits. G. McCamant.J.Smith.D. and H.W. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. p.W. “GaAs FET Device And Circuit Simulation in SPICE”. P. I. Haus. 5. Pucel.12 157 .A. Mc Cormack. and H.H. McGrawHill.. Operation and Modeling of the MOS Transistor. [3] H. IEEE. and D.Smith.Newman. MTT-28 No.

12 .Chapter 4: JFET and MESFET Models References 158 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

5 5 BJT Models Describes how to use BJT models in HSPICE circuit simulations. IKF. see Listing of Demonstration Input Files for paths to demo files. and IKR parameters. These topics are discussed in the following sections: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Overview of BJT Models BJT Model Equations (NPN and PNP) DC Model Equations Substrate Current Equations Base Charge Equations Variable Base Resistance Equations BJT Capacitance Equations Defining BJT Noise Equations Defining Noise Equations BJT Temperature Compensation Equations BJT LEVEL=2 Temperature Equations Converting National Semiconductor Models Defining Scaled BJT Subcircuits VBIC Bipolar Transistor Model 159 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.The HSPICE BJT model extends the original Gummel-Poon model to include several effects at high bias levels. HSPICE ships hundreds of examples for your use. The bipolar-junction transistor (BJT) model is an adaptation of the integral charge control model of Gummel and Poon. This model automatically simplifies to the Ebers-Moll model if you do not specify the VAF.12 . VAR.

if you did not define the parameter locally). Q3 3 2 5 MOD1 <parameters> .12 . The element statement uses the name of the simulation device model to reference the model statement. then the element parameter (local to the specific instance of the model) always overrides the model parameter (global default for all instances of the model.MODEL MOD1 NPN <parameters> You can specify parameters in both element and model statements. The SUBS model parameter facilitates the modeling of both vertical and lateral geometrics. TTL. the device type might be NPN or PNP. 160 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 503) LEVEL=8 HICUM Model HICUM Model Advantages LEVEL=9 VBIC99 Model LEVEL=9 Model Parameters LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model LEVEL=13 HICUM0 Model Overview of BJT Models You can use the BJT model to develop BiCMOS. If you specify the same parameter in both an element and a model. and ECL circuits. use a BJT element and model statement. This example uses an NPN model type to describe an NPN transistor. use the IKF and IKR high-current Beta degradation parameters. Selecting Models To select a BJT device. for a BJT. The model statement specifies the type of device—for example. The following example uses the reference name MOD1. Note: To modify high-injection effects for BiCMOS devices.

.12 161 . Elements refer to the model by this name.MODEL mname PNP <pname1 =val1> .MODEL statement. and emitter resistance to the BJT model improves its convergence. The resistors limit the current in the device so that the forwardbiased pn junctions are not overdriven. collector. Convergence Adding a base. see the HSPICE and HSPICE RF Command Reference.. Syntax .OPTION DCAP=<val> statement in a BJT model by including DCAP=<val> in the BJTs .MODEL statement to include a BJT model in your HSPICE netlist. Parameter Description mname NPN pname1 PNP Model name. <)> . Identifies a PNP transistor model HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.MODEL statement.MODEL mname NPN <(> <pname1 =val1> .Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models BJT Control Options The following control options affect the BJT model: DCAP DCCAP GRAMP GMIN GMINDC Selects the equation that determines the BJT capacitances Invokes capacitance calculations in DC analysis Place a conductance in parallel with both the base-emitter and the base-collector pn junctions You can override global depletion capacitance equation selection that uses the . BJT Model Statement You can use the ... Identifies an NPN transistor model Each BJT model can include several model parameters. For a general description of the .

MODEL t2n2222a NPN + ISS=0.10000 AF = 1.00531 + NR =1. caused by the following mechanisms: ■ ■ ■ Recombination of carriers in the emitter-base space charge layer Recombination of carriers at the surface Formation of emitter-base channels Low base and emitter dopant concentrations. ISE. many model parameters have aliases. The RE.67373 VJC= 0. + MJS=0. and NE aid in modeling the drop in the observed Beta.00688 RBM= 1.10024 IRB= 4.94518 BJT Basic Model Parameters To permit the use of model parameters from earlier versions of HSPICE.95000 XCJC=0.693e-10 TR =380. NC. use the high-current Beta degradation parameters.31919 IKR= 1. + ITF=0.12 . The new name is always used on printouts. early effect parameters VAF and VAR to model high-gain. The model calculates the slope of the I-V curve for the model in the active region with VAF and VAR. This simplifies the input netlist file.82988 + RC =0. because they replace external resistors.00000 + NE =1.34700 VJE= 0. found in some BIMOS type technologies.00000 + BR =40. and RC parasitic resistor parameters are the most frequently used second-order parameters.77498 IKF= 1.6734e-11 + CJC=1.32339 + MJC=0.00e-9 CJE= 2.00000 ISC= 3. This model is effective for modeling low-frequency large-signal characteristics. The first group of DC model parameters includes the most basic Ebers-Moll parameters.6856e-13 + NC =1. narrow-base devices. EG = 1. RB.50000 PTF= 0. IKF and IKR.47372 + TF =9.50000 VTF= 1.40529 + VAR=17.4040e-11 FC = 0. XTF= 1.00000 + CJS=0. that is.3646e-05 NF = 1. which are included in the model parameter list in BJT Basic Model Parameters on page 162. NS = 1.0503e-03 MJE= 0. BJT model parameters are divided into several groups. Use the base-width modulation parameters. VJS= 0.00000 IS = 1.6339e-14 VAF=103. the slope in the active region is zero. Low-current Beta degradation effect parameters ISC. even if the model statement uses an alias.Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models Example .42753 RE = 3. If VAF and VAR are not specified. All resistances are functions of the BJT multiplier 162 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0000e-02 RB =71.

RE. VTF. To select from several sets of temperature equations for the BJT model parameters.Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models M value. Table 44 Parameter BJT Model Parameters Description DC beta degradation geometric resistor junction capacitor BF. and so on. Parameters Transient model parameters for BJTs are composed of two groups: junction capacitor parameters and transit time parameters.CJE.MJE. set TLEV and TLEVC. and conductances. TF is the forward transit time for base charge storage. IKR SUBS. high gain ring oscillators. capacitances. VAF. IBC. NS.CJS.OPTION BYPASS to set BYPASS. if the voltages at the terminal device nodes have not changed.FC.VJE. and phase. NE. IS. BR. JFETs. VJE.12 163 . NR. VAR ISC. and MJC model base-collector junction capacitance. IRB CJC. current. Bypassing Latent Devices (HSPICE Only) Use the BYPASS (latency) option to decrease simulation time in large designs. The BYPASS option applies to MOSFETs. ISS. ISE. BJTs. BYPASS might reduce simulation accuracy for tightly-coupled circuits such as op-amps.XCJC HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. TF can be modified to account for bias. VJC. RC.VJC.OPTION MBYPASS to set MBYPASS to a smaller value for more-accurate results. IKF. To speed simulation time. The base resistance is a function of base current as is often the case in narrow-base technologies. MESFETs. The base charge storage reverse transit time is set by TR. ■ ■ ■ CJE.MJC. BULK RB. and PTF. Dividing resistances by M simulates parallel resistances. by XTF. this option does not recalculate currents. RBM. and MJE model the base-emitter junction. CJC. and MJS model the collector-substrate junction capacitance. ITF. IBE.VJS. VJS. NF. Use . and diodes. CJS.MJS. NC. Use .

AF Table 45 DC Parameters for BJT Models Unit Default Description Name (Alias) BF (BFM) BR (BRM) BULK (NSUB) 100. simulation uses them in place of IS to calculate DC current and conductance. A substrate terminal node name (ns) in the element statement overrides BULK. VTF.0 EXPLI amp 0 Current explosion model parameter.0 0. otherwise. EXPLIeff =EXPLI ⋅ AREAeff 164 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 Ideal maximum forward Beta. Reverse saturation current between base and collector. If you specify both IBE and IBC. IBCeff =IBC ⋅ AREAB ⋅ M AREAC replaces AREAB. VT. Sets the bulk node to a global node name. CCSP ITF. IBC amp 0. The PN junction characteristics above the explosion current area linear with the slope at the explosion point. CBEP. the simulator uses IS. Ideal maximum reverse Beta. depending on vertical or lateral geometry.12 . This speeds up simulation and improves convergence.0 1. XTF KF.Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models Table 44 Parameter BJT Model Parameters (Continued) Description parasitic capacitance transit time noise CBCP. PTF. TF.

depending on vertical or lateral geometry selection. IBEeff =IBE ⋅ AREA ⋅ M IS amp 1. Substrate current emission coefficient.0 1. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. If you specify both IBE and IBC.0 1.0 Model selector. the simulator uses IS. SSeff =ISS ⋅ AREA ⋅ M LEVEL NF NR NS SUBS 1. Substrate connection selector: ■ ■ ■ ■ +1 for vertical geometry -1 for lateral geometry Default=1 for NPN Default=-1 for PNP UPDATE 0 UPDATE=1 uses alternate base charge equation.Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models Table 45 DC Parameters for BJT Models (Continued) Unit Default Description Name (Alias) IBE amp 0. ISeff =IS ⋅ AREA ⋅ M ISS amp 0. otherwise. If you specify both IBE and IBC. otherwise. Forward current emission coefficient.0 1.0 Reverse saturation current between base and emitter.12 165 . simulation uses IS.0e-16 Transport saturation current. Reverse current emission coefficient. simulation uses them in place of IS to calculate DC current and conductance.0 Reverse saturation current bulk-to-collector or bulk-to-base. simulation uses them in place of IS to calculate DC current and conductance.

If ISE is greater than 1e-4. depending on vertical or lateral geometry.0 1. then: ISE =IS ⋅ ISE otherwise: ISEeff =ISE ⋅ AREA ⋅ M NC (NLC) NE (NLE) 2.0 Base-collector leakage saturation current. 166 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.5 Base-collector leakage emission coefficient. VBF) V VAR (VB.0 Forward early voltage.0 Base-emitter leakage saturation current. Base-emitter leakage emission coefficient. ISE (C2. then: ISC =IS ⋅ ISC otherwise: ISCeff =ISC ⋅ AREAB ⋅ M AREAC replaces AREAB. JLE) amp 0. Zero=infinite value. BV) V 0. Reverse early voltage. Table 47 Base Width Modulation Parameters Unit Default Description Name (Alias) VAF (VA.12 . If ISC is greater than 1e-4. JLC) amp 0.Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models Table 46 Low-Current Beta Degradation Parameters Unit Default Description Name (Alias) ISC (C4. VRB.0 0. Zero=infinite value.

0 0. where base resistance falls halfway to RBM.0 RB Base resistance: RBeff =RB / (AREA ⋅ M) Minimum high-current base resistance: RBMeff =RBM / (AREA ⋅ M) RE RC ohm ohm 0. IRBeff =IRB ⋅ AREA ⋅ M RB RBM ohm ohm 0. IKReff =IKR ⋅ AREA ⋅ M NKF 0.0 Corner for reverse Beta high-current roll-off. Use zero to indicate an infinite value.0 Base current. JBF) amp 0. Use zero to indicate an infinite value. IOB) amp 0. Use zero to indicate an infinite value.0 Emitter resistance: REeff =RE / (AREA ⋅ M) Collector resistance: RCeff =RC / (AREA ⋅ M) HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 167 .0 Corner for forward Beta high-current roll-off. Table 49 Parasitic Resistance Parameters Unit Default Description Name (Alias) IRB (JRB.Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models Table 48 High-Current Beta Degradation Parameters Unit Default Description Name (Alias) IKF (IK.5 Exponent for high-current Beta roll-off. IKFeff =IKF ⋅ AREA ⋅ M IKR (JBR) amp 0.

Base-collector built-in potential.0 Base-collector zero-bias depletion capacitance ■ ■ Vertical: CJCeff =CJC ⋅ AREAB ⋅ M Lateral: CJCeff =CJC ⋅ AREAC ⋅ M if you specify a value other than zero for ibc and ibe.33 Base-collector junction exponent (grading factor).75 0.75 168 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. MJE (ME) MJS(ESUB) VJC (PC) VJE (PE) VJS (PSUB) V V V 0.5 0. MJC (MC) 0.5 Coefficient for forward bias depletion capacitance formula for DCAP=1 DCAP Default=2 and FC are ignored.75 0. Substrate junction exponent (grading factor). Base-emitter junction exponent (grading factor). CSUB) F 0.0 ■ Vertical: CJSeff =CJS ⋅ AREAC ⋅ M Lateral: CJSeff =CJS ⋅ AREAB ⋅ M If you specify a value other than zero for ibc and ibe. Substrate junction built in potential.33 0. Base-emitter built-in potential.0 Base-emitter zero-bias depletion capacitance (vertical and lateral): CJEeff =CJE ⋅ AREA ⋅ M Zero-bias collector substrate capacitance ■ CJS (CCS. FC 0. CJE F 0.Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models Table 50 Junction Capacitor Parameters Unit Default Description Name (Alias) CJC F 0.12 .

0 Frequency multiplier to determine excess phase.0 External collector substrate constant capacitance (vertical) or base substrate (lateral): CCSPeff =CCSP ⋅ AREA ⋅ M Table 52 Transit Time Parameters Unit Default Description Name (Alias) ITF (JTF) amp 0. Table 51 Parasitic Capacitances Parameters Unit Default Description Name (Alias) CBCP F 0.Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models Table 50 Junction Capacitor Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description Name (Alias) XCJC (CDIS) 1.0 External base-collector constant capacitance: CBCPeff =CBCP ⋅ AREA ⋅ M CBEP F 0. TF TR s s 0. Base forward transit time.0 0.0 Internal base fraction of base-collector depletion capacitance.12 169 .0 TF high-current parameter: ITFeff =ITF ⋅ AREA ⋅ M PTF x 0. Base reverse transit time.0 External base-emitter constant capacitance: CBEPeff =CBEP ⋅ AREA ⋅ M CCSP F 0.0 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

0 Reverse beta for substrate BJT.0 0. TF bias dependence coefficient. XTF 0. Table 54 LEVEL=2 Parameters Unit Default Description Name (Alias) BRS GAMMA 1.0 TF base-collector voltage dependence coefficient.0 0. Zero indicates an infinite value.Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models Table 52 Transit Time Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description Name (Alias) VTF V 0. 170 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. n is epitaxial impurity concentration.0 Emission coefficient.0 0.0 Table 53 Noise Parameters Unit Default Description Name (Alias) AF KF 1.12 . NEPI QCO Coul 1. Epitaxial doping factor: GAMMA =(2 ⋅ ni / n)2 In this equation. Epitaxial charge factor: ■ ■ Vertical: QCOeff =QCO ⋅ AREAB ⋅ M Lateral: QCOeff =QCO ⋅ AREAC ⋅ M if you specify a value other than zero for ibc and ibe.0 Flicker-noise exponent. Flicker-noise coefficient.

TIS2. TBR1. TNE2. and base modulation (Early effect) among others.0 Resistance of epitaxial region under equilibrium conditions: RCeff =RC/(AREA ⋅ M) RCC VO ohm V 0. TNF2. TLEVC MJC. Beta degradation (DC). TISC1. GAP2 TLEV. TNR1. TVAF2. TNC2. GAP1. TIKF2. TISS2. TMJC2.Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models Table 54 LEVEL=2 Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description Name (Alias) RCO (RC) ohm 0. XTB. TIKF1. TNS1. TIKR1. TMJE1.12 171 . TBF2. TNE1. TVJE. MJS. TISC2. TMJS2 emission coefficients energy gap equation selectors grading HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Use zero to indicate an infinite value.0 0. TISS1. CTE. MJE. TIRB1. TMJS1.0 Collector resistance Carrier velocity saturation voltage. TNR2. TNS2 EG. TVAR2 CTC. TNF1. Table 55 Function BJT Temperature Parameters Parameter base modulation capacitor capacitor potentials DC TVAF1. TVJS TBF1. BJT Model Temperature Effects Several temperature parameters control derating of the BJT model parameters. TIKR2. TVAR1. They include temperature parameters for junction capacitance. TMJC1. TBR2. TISE2. TIS1. CTS TVJC. TMJE2. TISE1. TIRB2. XTI TNC1.

gallium arsenide 172 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. TTR1. TLEVC=1 enables CTE to override the default temperature compensation.11. TRC2. TRB2. TRE1. Temperature coefficient for zero-bias base collector capacitance.90 0.52 .Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models Table 55 Function BJT Temperature Parameters (Continued) Parameter resistors transit time TRB1. RC temperature exponent (LEVEL=2 only). TLEVC=1 enables CTS to override the default temperature compensation.0 VO temperature exponent (LEVEL=2 only).69 .silicon 0. TTR2 Table 56 Temperature Effect Parameters Unit Default Description Name (Alias) BEX BEXV CTC 1/× 2.12 .Schottky barrier diode 0. default=1. TRM1. TTF2.42 1. Temperature coefficient for zero-bias substrate capacitance. Energy gap for pn junction diode for TLEV=0 or 1.germanium 1. default=1.16: ■ ■ ■ ■ CTE 1/× 0.67 .0 EG eV 1. TLEVC=1 enables CTC to override the default temperature compensation. for TLEV=2.17 . TRC1. TRM2 TTF1.0 CTS 1/× 0. Temperature coefficient for zero-bias base emitter capacitance. TRE2.

First-order temperature coefficient for IKR. Base-emitter junction exponent (grading factor).02e-4 .12 173 .silicon 4.02e-4 First bandgap correction factor (from Sze.0 0.germanium 204 . Second-order temperature coefficient for IKR.73e-4 . First-order temperature coefficient for BF. First-order temperature coefficient for IKF.0 0. alpha term): ■ ■ ■ ■ 7.germanium 5. Second-order temperature coefficient for IRB.0 First-order temperature coefficient for IRB. MJE(ME) MJS (ESUB) TBF1 TBF2 TBR1 TBR2 TIKF1 TIKF2 TIKR1 TIKR2 TIRB1 TIRB2 1/× 1/° 2 1/× 1/° 2 1/× 1/° 2 1/× 1/° 2 1/× 1/° 2 0.gallium arsenide GAP2 x 1108 Second bandgap correction factor (Sze. Second-order temperature coefficient for BR.0 0. Second-order temperature coefficient for IKF.56e-4 . First-order temperature coefficient for BR. Second-order temperature coefficient for BF.0 0.silicon 636 .silicon 4.0 0.41e-4 . HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.gallium arsenide MJC(MC) 0.5 0.33 Base-collector junction exponent (grading factor).silicon 210 .0 0.Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models Table 56 Temperature Effect Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description Name (Alias) GAP1 eV/× 7.0 0. beta term): ■ ■ ■ ■ 1108 . Substrate junction exponent (grading factor).0 0.33 0.

First-order temperature coefficient for ISE TLEV=3 enables TISE1.0 TISS2 0.0 TITF1 TITF2 TLEV 0.Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models Table 56 Temperature Effect Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description Name (Alias) TISC1 1/× 1/° 2 1/× 1/° 2 1/× 1/° 2 1/× 1/° 2 0. Temperature equation level selector: BJTs. and potentials (interacts with TLEV).12 .0 0. First-order temperature coefficient for MJC. TLEVC 0.0 Temperature equation level selector for BJTs (interacts with TLEVC).0 0.0 TMJC1 TMJC2 TMJE1 1/× 1/° 2 1/× 0. First-order temperature coefficient for ISS TLEV=3 enables TISS1. junction capacitances.0 TISE1 0. Second-order temperature coefficient for IS or IBE and IBC TLEV=3 enables TIS2. First-order temperature coefficient for ITF.0 First-order temperature coefficient for ISC TLEV=3 enables TISC1. Second-order temperature coefficient for ITF.0 TISS1 0. TISC2 0. Second-order temperature coefficient for MJC.0 TISE2 0.0 174 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Second-order temperature coefficient for ISS TLEV=3 enables TISS2. First order temperature coefficient for MJE.0 TIS2 0. Second-order temperature coefficient for ISC TLEV=3 enables TISC2. First-order temperature coefficient for IS or IBE and IBC TLEV=3 enables TIS1. TLEV=3 enables TISE2.0 TIS1 0. Second-order temperature coefficient for ISE.

Second-order temperature coefficient for RE. First-order temperature coefficient for MJS.0 0. Second-order temperature coefficient for RB.0 0. Second-order temperature coefficient for NE.0 0.0 0.0 TRB1 TRB2 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 0. 1/× 1/° 2 1/× 1/° 2 1/× 1/° 2 1/× 1/° 2 1/× 1/° 2 1/× 1/° 2 1/× 1/° 2 1/× 1/° 2 0. First-order temperature coefficient for NS. Second-order temperature coefficient for RC. First-order temperature coefficient for NR.0 0. Second-order temperature coefficient for NF.0 0.Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models Table 56 Temperature Effect Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description Name (Alias) TMJE2 TMJS1 TMJS2 TNC1 TNC2 TNE1 TNE2 TNF1 TNF2 TNR1 TNR2 TNS1 TNS2 TRB1 (TRB) TRB2 TRC1 (TRC) TRC2 TRE1 (TRE) TRE2 TRM1 TRM2 1/° 2 1/× 1/° 2 1/× 0. Second-order temperature coefficient for NS.0 Second-order temperature coefficient for MJE. First-order temperature coefficient for RB.0 0.0 0. First-order temperature coefficient for NF. Firs-order temperature coefficient for RBM.0 0.12 175 . Second-order temperature coefficient for RBM. Second-order temperature coefficient for MJS.0 0. Second-order temperature coefficient for NR.0 0. First-order temperature coefficient for RC. Second-order temperature coefficient for NC.0 0.0 0.0 0. First-order temperature coefficient for NC. First-order temperature coefficient for RE.0 0.0 0. First-order temperature coefficient for NE.

First-order temperature coefficient for VAF. Second-order temperature coefficient for VAR.0 0.0 XTI 3. BJT Device Equivalent Circuits This section describes BJT scaling. Second-order temperature coefficient for TR. Forward and reverse Beta temperature exponent (used with TLEV=0. and equivalent circuits.0 0. Second-order temperature coefficient for TF. VJS temperature coefficient.0 0.0 XTB(TBTCB) 0. TVJE uses TLEVC= 1 or 2 to override default temperature compensation.0 0. TVJS uses TLEVC= 1 or 2 to override default temperature compensation. Saturation current temperature exponent: ■ ■ TVJE V/× 0. 176 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 TVJS V/× 0. VJC temperature coefficient.0 0. Set XTI=2. or 2). First-order temperature coefficient for VAR.Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models Table 56 Temperature Effect Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description Name (Alias) TTF1 TTF2 TTR1 TTR2 TVAF1 TVAF2 TVAR1 TVAR2 TVJC 1/× 1/° 2 1/× 1/° 2 1/× 1/° 2 1/× 1/° 2 V/× 0.12 .0 for Schottky barrier diode.0 0.0 Use XTI=3. Second-order temperature coefficient for VAF.0 0. TVJC uses TLEVC= 1 or 2 to override default temperature compensation. First-order temperature coefficient for TR.0 First-order temperature coefficient for TF. current conventions. 1. VJE temperature coefficient.0 0.0 for silicon diffused junction.

For both the vertical and lateral. ISE. or RC. AREAB and AREAC scale the size of the base area and collector area. and M. the resistor model parameters. and IRB) for both vertical and lateral BJT transistors: Ieff = AREA ⋅ M ⋅ I In the preceding equation. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models Scaling Scaling is controlled by the element parameters AREA. I3(Q1) refers to the emitter current. I can be IBE. ISC. BJT Current Conventions The example in Figure 22 on page 178 assumes the direction of current flow through the BJT. For vertical geometry. and CJC. For lateral geometry. The scaling factor is AREA for all other parameters. AREAC. AREAB. AREAC is the scaling factor. RBM. or IRB. IKF. RE. RBM. RE. R can be RB. The following formula scales the DC model parameters (IBE. ISE. and RC are scaled by the following equation. I4(Q1) refers to the substrate current. The AREA parameter. IKR. the normalized emitter area. IKF. IS. ■ ■ ■ I2(Q1) refers to the base current. AREAB is the scaling factor for IBC.12 177 . Note: The above terminal currents account both DC and charge induced currents. depending on whether vertical or lateral geometry is selected (using the SUBS model parameter). divides all resistors and multiplies all currents and capacitors. Either AREAB or AREAC is used for scaling. Use either I(Q1) or I1(Q1) syntax to print the collector current. IKR. IS. RB. R Reff = --------------------------AREA ⋅ M In the preceding equation.

Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models nc (collector node) I1 (Q1) nb (base node) I2 (Q1) ns (substrate node) I4 (Q1) ne (emitter node) I3 (Q1) Figure 22 BJT Current Convention BJT Equivalent Circuits IC circuit simulation uses four equivalent circuits to analyze BJTs: DC. the partial derivatives of ib and ic with respect to the terminal voltages vbe and vbc are used. vbe = const . The fundamental components in the equivalent circuit are the base current (ib) and the collector current (ic). Forward Base Conductance vbc = const . The names for these partial derivatives are: Reverse Base Conductance ∂ib g μ = ----------∂vbc ∂ib g π = ----------∂vbe ∂ic g o = ---------∂vce vbe = const . The components of these circuits form the basis for all element and model equations.12 . For noise and AC analyses. Collector Conductance ∂ic = – ----------∂vbc vbe = const . and AC noise circuits. AC. every effort has been made to demonstrate the relationship between the equivalent circuit and the element/model parameters. the actual ib and ic currents are not used. 178 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. transient. Because these circuits represent the entire BJT during simulation. Instead.

Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models Transconductance ∂ic gm = ----------∂vbe vce = const .----------∂ic gm = ---------+ ∂vbe ∂vbc ∂ic– go gm = ---------∂vbe The ib and ic equations account for all DC effects of the BJT. BJT Transient Analysis HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. ∂ic.12 179 . collector CBCP rc cbcx rb Base cbc ibc ice cbe ibe ibs cbs substrate re CBEP emitter CCSP Figure 23 Lateral Transistor.

12 .Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models collector CBCP rc CCSP cbcx rb Base cbc ibc isc csc ice substrate cbe ibe re CBEP emitter Figure 24 Vertical Transistor. BJT Transient Analysis 180 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

Chapter 5: BJT Models Overview of BJT Models

collector CBCP rc

cbcx rb Base

cbc

gbc

gm vbe

ice

go

cbe

gbe

gbs

cbs substrate re CBEP emitter

CCSP

Figure 25

Lateral Transistor, BJT AC Analysis

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collector CBCP rc CCSP

cbcx rb Base

cbc

gbc

gsc gm vbe

csc

ice

go substrate

cbe

gbe

re CBEP emitter

Figure 26

Vertical Transistor, BJT AC Analysis

182

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collector CBCP rc

inrc

cbcx rb Base

cbc

gbc

gm vbe

ice

go

inc

inrb

cbe

gbe

inb

gbs

cbs substrate re CBEP emitter inre

CCSP

Figure 27

Lateral Transistor, BJT AC Noise Analysis

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collector CBCP CCSP

rc

inrc

cbcx rb Base

cbc

gbc

gsc gm vbe

csc

ice

go

inc substrate

inrb

cbe

gbe

inb

re CBEP emitter

inre

Figure 28

Vertical Transistor, BJT AC Noise Analysis

Table 57
Variable

Equation Variable Names
Definitions

cbc cbcx cbe csc cbs f

Internal base to collector capacitance External base to collector capacitance Internal base to emitter capacitance Substrate to collector capacitance (vertical transistor only) Base to substrate capacitance (lateral transistor only) Frequency

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Table 57
Variable

Equation Variable Names (Continued)
Definitions

gbc gbe gm gsc go gbs ib ibc ibe ic ice inb inc inrb inrc inre ibs isc qb rb rbb

Reverse base conductance Forward base conductance Transconductance Substrate to collector conductance (vertical transistor only) Collector conductance Base to substrate conductance (lateral transistor only) External base terminal current DC current base to collector DC current base to emitter External collector terminal current DC current collector to emitter Base current equivalent noise Collector current equivalent noise Base resistor current equivalent noise Collector resistor equivalent noise Emitter resistor current equivalent noise DC current base to substrate (lateral transistor only) DC current substrate to collector (vertical transistor only) Normalized base charge Base resistance Short-circuit base resistance

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Table 57
Variable

Equation Variable Names (Continued)
Definitions

vbs vsc

Internal base substrate voltage Internal substrate collector voltage

Table 58
Quantities

Equation Constants
Definitions

k q t
Δt

1.38062e-23 (Boltzmann’s constant) 1.60212e-19 (Electron charge) Temperature in degrees Kelvin t - tnom tnom =273.15 + TNOM in degrees Kelvin k ⋅ t/q k ⋅ tnom/q

tnom vt(t) vt(tmon)

Table 59
Quantities

BJT DC Operating Point Output
Definitions

ib ic is vbe vbc

base current collector current substrate current B-E voltage B-C voltage

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Table 59
Quantities

BJT DC Operating Point Output (Continued)
Definitions

vcs vs power betad(betadc) gm rpi rmu(rmuv) rx ro cpi cmu cbx ccs cbs cxs betaac ft *tolcc *tolcb

C-S voltage substrate voltage power beta for DC analysis transconductance B-E input resistance B-C input resistance base resistance collector resistance internal B-E capacitance internal B-C capacitance external B-C capacitance C-S capacitance B-S capacitance external substrate capacitance beta for AC analysis unity gain bandwidth Collector current tolerance Base current tolerance

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187

Lateral geometry is implied when the model parameter SUBS=-1. and vertical geometry when SUBS=+1. base collector emitter buried collector substrate Figure 29 Vertical Transistor (SUBS =+1) base emitter collector substrate Figure 30 Lateral Transistor (SUBS =-1) 188 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 . Figure 29 and Figure 30 show vertical and lateral transistor geometries. The lateral transistor substrate diode is connected to the internal base and the vertical transistor substrate diode is connected to the internal collector.Chapter 5: BJT Models BJT Model Equations (NPN and PNP) BJT Model Equations (NPN and PNP) This section describes the NPN and PNP BJT models. Transistor Geometry in Substrate Diodes The substrate diode is connected to either the collector or the base depending on whether the transistor has a lateral or vertical geometry.

without IBE and IBC: ------------------------------------ISeff ⎛ e ------------------⎛ e ------------------NR ⋅ vt – 1⎞ – ISCeff ⇒ NC ⋅ vt – 1⎞ . AREAC. AREAB or collector area. instead of IS: HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. AREAC DC Model Equations DC model equations are for the DC component of the collector current (ic) and the base current (ib).⇒ ib = ----------⎝ ⎠ ⎠ BF BR ⎝ ------------------⎛ e ------------------NE ⋅ vt – 1⎞ + ISCeff ⋅ ⎛ e NC ⋅ vt – 1⎞ + ISEeff ⇒ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ vbe vbc vbe vbc vbe vbc vbc vbc Current Equations: IBE and IBC If you specify IBE and IBC. Collector. substrate C vertical B lateral transistor E Area AreaB E Area C AreaC AreaB Figure 31 Base.⋅ ⎛ e NF ⋅ vt – 1⎞ + ISeff ----------.12 189 .⋅ ⎛ e NF ⋅ vt – e NR ⋅ vt⎞ – ISeff ----------. the views from the top demonstrate how IBE is multiplied by either base area. AREAB. Current Equations: IS Only If you specify only IS.⇒ ic = ----------⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ qb BR ⎝ ------------------ISeff ⎛ e ------------------NR ⋅ vt – 1⎞ .Chapter 5: BJT Models DC Model Equations In Figure 31.

⇒ ic = ---------------⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ qb qb vbec vbe IBCeff ⎛ e ------------------⎛ e ------------------NR ⋅ vt – 1⎞ – ISCeff ⇒ NC ⋅ vt – 1⎞ . due to recombining the base-emitter and base-collector space charge regions.12 .Chapter 5: BJT Models Substrate Current Equations ------------------IBEeff ⎛ e ------------------NR ⋅ vt – 1⎞ .⋅ ⎛ e NF ⋅ vt – 1⎞ + ---------------ib = ---------------⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ BR BF ------------------⎛ e ------------------NE ⋅ vt – 1⎞ + ISCeff ⋅ ⎛ e NC ⋅ vt – 1⎞ + ISEeff ⇒ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ vbe vbc vbe vbc vbe vbc IBCeff = IBC ⋅ AREAB ⋅ M Vertical IBCeff = IBC ⋅ AREAC ⋅ M Lateral IBEeff = IBE ⋅ AREA ⋅ M Vertical or Lateral ISCeff = ISC ⋅ AREAB ⋅ M Vertical ISCeff = ISC ⋅ AREAC ⋅ M Lateral ISEeff = ISE ⋅ AREA ⋅ M Vertical or Lateral The last two base-current terms represent components. Vertical Transistors -----------------isc = ISSeff ⋅ ⎛ e NS ⋅ vt – 1⎞ ⎝ ⎠ vsc 190 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. at low injection.⇒ – ---------------⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ BR ------------------IBCeff IBEeff ⎛ e ------------------NR ⋅ vt – 1⎞ .⇒ .⋅ ⎛ e NF ⋅ vt – 1⎞ – IBCeff ---------------. Substrate Current Equations The substrate current is substrate to collector for vertical transistors and substrate to base for lateral transistors.

Chapter 5: BJT Models Base Charge Equations vsc > – 10 ⋅ NS ⋅ vt isc = – ISSeff vsc ≤– 10 ⋅ NS ⋅ vt Lateral Transistors -----------------ibs = ISSeff ⋅ ⎛ e NS ⋅ vt – 1⎞ ⎝ ⎠ vbs vbs > – 10 ⋅ NS ⋅ vt ibs = – ISSeff vbs ≤– 10 ⋅ NS ⋅ vt If you do not specify either IBE or IBC: ISSeff = ISS ⋅ AREA ⋅ M If you specify both IBE and IBC: ISSeff = ISS ⋅ AREAC ⋅ M vertical ISSeff = ISS ⋅ AREAB ⋅ M lateral Base Charge Equations VAF and VAR are. respectively. IKF and IKR determine the high-current Beta roll-off. and NC determine the low-current Beta roll-off with ic. NE. forward and reverse early voltages. ISC. ISE. If UPDATE=0 or vbevbc.------------------+ <0 VAF VAR then HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 191 .

12 . and a high-current minimum resistance (set using RBM).------------------+ ≥0 VAF VAR then vbc. it is set to RB. If you do not specify IRB: RBeff – RBMeff rbb = RBMeff + ---------------------------------------qb If you specify IRB: 192 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.⋅ e NR ⋅ vt – 1⎞ q 2 = ---------------⎠ IKReff ⎝ ⎠ IKFeff ⎝ vbe vbc In the preceding equation: ■ ■ IBE=IS if IBE=0 IBC=IS if IBC=0 q1 . if UPDATE=1 and vbevbc.⋅ ⎛ e NR ⋅ vt – 1⎞ q 2 = ---------------⎠ IKReff ⎝ ⎠ IKFeff ⎝ vbe vbc With IBE and IBC. IRB is the current when the base resistance is halfway to its minimum value. the preceding equation is: IBEeff ⎛ ------------------IBCeff ⎛ ------------------.Chapter 5: BJT Models Variable Base Resistance Equations 1 q 1 = ------------------------------------------vbc vbe ⎛ 1 – ---------.– ----------⎞ ⎝ VAF VAR⎠ Otherwise.---------vbeq 1 = 1 + ---------+ VAF VAR ------------------------------------ISeff ISeff .⋅ ⎛ e NF ⋅ vt – 1⎞ + ---------------.⋅ [ 1 + ( 1 + 4 ⋅ q 2 ) NKF ] qb = ----2 Variable Base Resistance Equations A variable base resistance BJT model consists of a low-current maximum resistance (set using RB).⋅ e NF ⋅ vt – 1⎞ + ---------------. If you do not specify RBM.

12 193 . and VTF.⋅ ---------------π2 ⎝ IRBeff⎠ BJT Capacitance Equations This section describes BJT capacitances. ITF.Chapter 5: BJT Models BJT Capacitance Equations tan ( z ) – z rbb = RBMeff + 3 ⋅ ( RBeff – RBMeff ) ⋅ ----------------------------------------------z ⋅ tan ( z ) ⋅ tan ( z ) – 1 + [ 1 + 144 ⋅ ib / ( π2 ⋅ IRBeff ) ] 1 / 2 z = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------24 ⎛ ib ⎞ 1 / 2 ----. XTF. use . cbediff is the base-emitter diffusion. Base-Emitter Capacitance Equations The base-emitter capacitance contains a complex diffusion term with the standard depletion capacitance formula. The diffusion capacitance is modified by model parameters TF. Determining Base-Emitter Diffusion Capacitance Determine diffusion capacitance as follows: ibe ≤0 cbediff = ibe > 0 cbediff = ∂ TF ⋅ ( 1 + argtf ) ⋅ ibe ------qb ∂vbe ∂ ⎛ TF ⋅ ibe -------⎞ qb ⎠ ∂vbe ⎝ HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Note: When you run a DC sweep on a BJT.OPTION DCCAP to force evaluation of the voltage-variable capacitances during the DC sweep. Determine the base-emitter capacitance cbe by the following formula: cbe = cbediff + cbedep In the preceding equation. and cbedep is the depletion capacitance.

DCAP=1 The base-emitter depletion capacitance is determined as follows: vbe < FC ⋅ VJE vbe-⎞ – MJE cbedep = CJEeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 – --------⎝ VJE⎠ vbe ≥ FC ⋅ VJE vbe1 – FC Þ ( 1 + MJE ) + MJE ⋅ --------VJE cbedep = CJEeff ⋅ -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------( 1 – FC ) ( 1 + MJE ) DCAP=2 The base-emitter depletion capacitance is determined as follows: vbe < 0 vbe ⎞ – MJE cbedep = CJEeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 – --------⎝ VJE⎠ vbe ≥ 0 vbe-⎞ cbedep = CJEeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 + MJE ⋅ --------⎝ VJE⎠ 194 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 5: BJT Models BJT Capacitance Equations The following equation calculates the argtf value for the preceding equation: ---------------------------ibe -⎞ 2 argtf = XTF ⋅ ⎛ ----------------------⋅ e 1. Select the proper equation by specifying .12 .OPTION DCAP.44 ⋅ VTF ⎝ ibe + ITF⎠ vbc The forward part of the collector-emitter branch current is determined as follows (IBE=IS if IBE=0): ------------------ibe = ISeff ⋅ ⎛ e NF ⋅ vt – 1⎞ ⎝ ⎠ vbe Determining Base-Emitter Depletion Capacitance There are two different equations for modeling the depletion capacitance.

Determining Base Collector Capacitance Determine the base collector capacitance cbc as follows: cbc = cbcdiff + cbcdep In the preceding equation.OPTION DCAP.Chapter 5: BJT Models BJT Capacitance Equations DCAP=3 Limits peak depletion capacitance to FC ⋅ CJCeff or FC ⋅ CJEeff with proper fall-off when forward bias exceeds PB (FC ≥ 1). Select the proper equation by specifying . DCAP=1 Specify DCAP=1 to select one of the following equations: vbc < FC ⋅ VJC vbc-⎞ – MJC ---------cbcdep = XCJC ⋅ CJCeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 – ⎝ VJC⎠ vbc ≥ FC ⋅ VJC vbc1 – FC ⇒ ( 1 + MJC ) + MJC ⋅ ---------VJC cbcdep = XCJC ⋅ CJCeff ⋅ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------( 1 – FC ) ( 1 + MJC ) DCAP=2 Specify DCAP=2 to select one of the following equations: HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. the internal base-collector current (ibc) is (IBC=IS if IBC=0): ------------------ibc = ISeff ⋅ ⎛ e NR ⋅ vt – 1⎞ ⎝ ⎠ vbc Determining Base Collector Depletion Capacitance There are two different equations for modeling the depletion capacitance.12 195 . Determining Base Collector Diffusion Capacitance cbcdiff = ∂ ( TR ⋅ ibc ) ∂vbc In the preceding equation. cbcdiff is the base-collector diffusion. and cbcdep is the depletion capacitance.

the entire base-collector capacitance is on the internal base node cbc.Chapter 5: BJT Models BJT Capacitance Equations vbc < 0 vbc-⎞ – MJC cbcdep = XCJC ⋅ CJCeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 – ---------⎝ VJC⎠ vbc ≥ 0 vbc-⎞ ---------cbcdep = XCJC ⋅ CJCeff ⋅ ⎛ ⎝ 1 + MJC ⋅ VJC⎠ External Base — Internal Collector Junction Capacitance The base-collector capacitance is modeled as a distributed capacitance when the model parameter XCJC is set. Since the default setting of XCJC is one. vbcx is the voltage between the external base node and the internal collector node.12 . – MJC 196 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. DCAP=1 Specify DCAP=1 to select one of the following equations: vbcx < FC ⋅ VJC vbcx⎞ –MJC cbcx = CJCeff ⋅ ( 1 – XCJC ) ⋅ ⎛ 1 – ----------⎝ VJC ⎠ vbcx ≥ FC ⋅ VJC vbcx 1 – FC Þ ( 1 + MJC ) + MJC ⋅ ----------VJC cbcx = CJCeff ⋅ ( 1 – XCJC ) ⋅ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------( 1 – FC ) ( 1 + MJC ) DCAP=2 Specify DCAP=2 to select one of the following equations: vbcx < 0 vbcx -----------⎞ cbcx = CJCeff ⋅ ( 1 – XCJC ) ⋅ ⎛ ⎝ 1 – VJC ⎠ vbcx ≥ 0 vbcx -⎞ cbcx = CJCeff ⋅ ( 1 – XCJC ) ⋅ ⎛ 1 + MJC ⋅ ----------⎝ VJC ⎠ In the preceding equation.

models excess phase. To switch it from the collector to the base. and you can set PTF and TF. Use it also in transient analysis. Substrate Capacitance Equation: Lateral Base to Substrate Diode Reverse Bias vbs < 0 – MJS vbs ---------⎞ cbs = CJSeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 – ⎝ VJS⎠ Forward Bias vbs ≥ 0 vbs -⎞ cbs = CJSeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 + MJS ⋅ --------⎝ VJS⎠ Substrate Capacitance Equation: Vertical Substrate to Collector Diode Reverse Bias vsc < 0 vsc ⎞ – MJS csc = CJSeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 – --------⎝ VJS⎠ Forward Bias vsc ≥ 0 vsc ⎞ csc = CJSeff ⋅ ⎛ 1 + MJS ⋅ --------⎝ VJS⎠ Excess Phase Equation The model parameter. The excess phase is a delay (linear phase) in the transconductance generator for AC analysis. PTF.Chapter 5: BJT Models BJT Capacitance Equations Substrate Capacitance The function of substrate capacitance is similar to that of the substrate diode. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. set the SUBS model parameter. It is defined as extra degrees of phase delay (introduced by the BJT) at any frequency and is determined by the equation: TF-⎞ excess phase = ⎛ 2 ⋅ π ⋅ PTF ⋅ -------⋅ (2 ⋅ π ⋅ f) ⎝ 360⎠ In the preceding equation. f is in hertz.12 197 .

shot. fknee is the noise knee frequency (typically 100 Hz to 10 MHz). They are calculated as: 2 ⋅ q ⋅ fknee In the preceding equation. and q is electron charge. Typical values for the flicker noise coefficient.Chapter 5: BJT Models Defining BJT Noise Equations Defining BJT Noise Equations Equations for modeling BJT thermal.12 . KF ⋅ ib AF 2 -⎞ inb = ( 2 ⋅ q ⋅ ib ) + ⎛ ------------------------⎝ ⎠ f inb = shot noise + flicker noise shot noise = ( 2 ⋅ q ⋅ ib ) 1 / 2 1/2 ⋅ ib AF KF -------------------------⎞ flicker noise = ⎛ ⎝ ⎠ f 2 2 2 The noise associated with the collector current is modeled as shot noise only. and flicker noise are as follows. 198 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Defining Noise Equations The mean square short-circuit base resistance noise current equation is: 4 ⋅ k ⋅ t 1/2 inrb = ⎛ ---------------------⎞ ⎝ rbb ⎠ The mean square short-circuit collector resistance noise current equation is: 4 ⋅ k ⋅ t 1/2 inrc = ⎛ ---------------------⎞ ⎝ RCeff ⎠ The mean square short-circuit emitter resistance noise current equation is: 4 ⋅ k ⋅ t 1/2 inre = ⎛ ---------------------⎞ ⎝ REeff ⎠ The noise associated with the base current is composed of two parts: shot noise and flicker noise. KF. are 1e-17 to 1e-12.

V2/Hz RC.12 199 . Energy Gap Temperature Equations To determine energy gap for temperature compensation.0 t2 eg ( t ) = 1. use these equations: TLEV =0. V2/Hz output thermal noise due to base resistor output thermal noise due to collector resistor output thermal noise due to emitter resistor output shot noise due to base current output flicker noise due to base current output shot noise due to collector current total output noise: TOT=RB + RC + RE + IB + IC + FN BJT Temperature Compensation Equations This section describes temperature compensation equations.0 TLEV=2 tnom 2 egnom = EG – GAP 1 ⋅ ---------------------------------tnom + GAP 2 t2 ----------------------eg ( t ) = EG – GAP 1 ⇒ t + GAP 2 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. V2/Hz RE.02 e -4 ⋅ ----------------------------------tnom + 1108. 1 or 3 tnom 2 egnom = 1. V2/Hz IB. V2/Hz TOT.16 – 7.16 – 7. V2/Hz IC.Chapter 5: BJT Models BJT Temperature Compensation Equations inc = ( 2 ⋅ q ⋅ ic ) 1 / 2 Parameter Description RB. V2/Hz FN.02 e -4 ⋅ ----------------------t + 1108.

IS ( t ) = IS ⋅ e facln IBE ( t ) = IBE ⋅ facln -----------e NF facln -----------NR IBC ( t ) = IBC ⋅ e TLEV=0. 1 or 3 t -⎞ EG EGfacln = ---------------------.12 .+ XTI ⋅ ln ⎛ -----------⎝ tnom⎠ vt ( tnom ) vt ( t ) 200 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.– -----------.– ---------+ XTI ⋅ ln ⎛ -----------⎝ tnom⎠ vt ( tnom ) vt ( t ) TLEV=2 t -⎞ egnom eg ( t ) facln = ---------------------.Chapter 5: BJT Models BJT Temperature Compensation Equations Saturation/Beta Temperature Equations. TLEV=0 or 2 The basic BJT temperature compensation equations for beta and the saturation currents when TLEV=0 or 2 (default is TLEV=0): t -⎞ XTB BF ( t ) = BF ⋅ ⎛ -----------⎝ tnom⎠ t -⎞ XTB BR ( t ) = BR ⋅ ⎛ -----------⎝ tnom⎠ -----------ISE ISE ( t ) = -------------------------⋅ e NE XTB t -⎞ ⎛ -----------⎝ tnom⎠ facln -----------ISC NC ISC ( t ) = -------------------------⋅ e t -⎞ XTB ⎛ -----------⎝ tnom⎠ -----------ISS NS e ISS ( t ) = -------------------------⋅ t -⎞ XTB ⎛ -----------⎝ tnom⎠ facln facln The parameter XTB usually should be set to zero for TLEV=2.

2 The IKF. IKR. and IRB parameters are also modified as: IKF ( t ) = IKF ⋅ ( 1 + TIKF 1 ⋅ Δ t + TIKF 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) IKR ( t ) = IKR ⋅ ( 1 + TIKR 1 ⋅ Δ t + TIKR 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) IRB ( t ) = IRB ⋅ ( 1 + TIRB 1 ⋅ Δ t + TIRB 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. 1.⋅ e NS ISS ( t ) = -------------------------------1 + XTB ⋅ Δ t facln facln IS ( t ) = IS ⋅ e facln IBE ( t ) = IBE ⋅ IBC ( t ) = IBC ⋅ facln -----------e NF facln -----------e NR The following equation calculates the facIn value for the preceding equations: t ⎞ EG EGfacln = ---------------------. TLEV=1 The basic BJT temperature compensation equations for beta and the saturation currents when TLEV=1: BF ( t ) = BF ⋅ ( 1 + XTB ⋅ Δ t ) BR ( t ) = BR ⋅ ( 1 + XTB ⋅ Δ t ) -----------ISE .⋅ e NE ISE ( t ) = -------------------------------1 + XTB ⋅ Δ t facln -----------ISC .Chapter 5: BJT Models BJT Temperature Compensation Equations Saturation and Temperature Equations.⋅ e NC ISC ( t ) = -------------------------------1 + XTB ⋅ Δ t -----------ISS .– ---------+ XTI ⋅ ln ⎛ -----------⎝ tnom⎠ vt ( tnom ) vt ( t ) TLEV=0.12 201 .

IKR.Chapter 5: BJT Models BJT Temperature Compensation Equations Saturation Temperature Equations. regardless of the TLEV value. BF ( t ) = BF ⋅ ( 1 + TBF 1 ⋅ Δ t + TBF 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) BR ( t ) = BR ⋅ ( 1 + TBR 1 ⋅ Δ t + TBR 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) VAF ( t ) = VAF ⋅ ( 1 + TVAF 1 ⋅ Δ t + TVAF 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) VAR ( t ) = VAR ⋅ ( 1 + TVAR 1 ⋅ Δ t + TVAR 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) ITF ( t ) = ITF ⋅ ( 1 + TITF 1 ⋅ Δ t + TITF 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) TF ( t ) = TF ⋅ ( 1 + TTF 1 ⋅ Δ t + TTF 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) TR ( t ) = TR ⋅ ( 1 + TTR 1 ⋅ Δ t + TTR 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) 202 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. TLEV=3 The basic BJT temperature compensation equations for the saturation currents when TLEV=3 are as follows: 2 IS ( t ) = IS ( 1 + TIS1 ⋅ Δ t + TIS2 ⋅ Δ t ) 2 IBE ( t ) = IBE ( 1 + TIS1 ⋅ Δ t + TIS2 ⋅ Δ t ) 2 IBC ( t ) = IBC ( 1 + TIS1 ⋅ Δ t + TIS2 ⋅ Δ t ) 2 ISE ( t ) = ISE ( 1 + TISE1 ⋅ Δ t + TISE2 ⋅ Δ t ) 2 ISC ( t ) = ISC ( 1 + TISC1 ⋅ Δ t + TISC2 ⋅ Δ t ) 2 ISS ( t ) = ISS ( 1 + TISS1 ⋅ Δ t + TISS2 ⋅ Δ t ) The IKF. and IRB parameters are also modified as: 2 IKF ( t ) = IKF ( 1 + TIKF1 ⋅ Δ t + TIKF2 ⋅ Δ t ) 2 IKR ( t ) = IKR ( 1 + TIKR1 ⋅ Δ t + TIKR2 ⋅ Δ t ) 2 IRB ( t ) = IRB ( 1 + TIRB1 ⋅ Δ t + TIRB2 ⋅ Δ t ) The following model parameters will be modified only according to the following equations whenever you specify corresponding non-zero temperature coefficients.12 .

0 e -4 ⋅ Δ t – + 1⎞ ⎝ ⎠ VJE VJC ( t ) 1 + MJC ⋅ ⎛ 4.0 e -4 ⋅ Δ t – ----------------.0 e -4 ⋅ Δ t – ---------------.+ 1⎞ ⎝ ⎠ VJC VJS ( t ) 1 + MJS ⋅ ⎛ 4.+ 1⎞ ⎝ ⎠ VJS The following equations calculate values for the preceding equations: t t ⎞ egnom eg ( t ) .12 203 .– vt ( t ) ⇒ 3 ⋅ ln ⎛ -----------.– -----------⎝ tnom⎠ vt ( tnom ) vt ( t ) tnom t t -⎞ egnom eg (t) -------------------------------------------VJS ( t ) = VJS ⋅ -----------– vt ( t ) ⇒ 3 ⋅ ln ⎛ ⎝ tnom⎠ + vt ( tnom ) – vt ( t ) tnom TLEVC=1 CJE ( t ) = CJE ⋅ ( 1 + CTE ⋅ Δ t ) HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.+ ---------------------VJE ( t ) = VJE ⋅ -----------– -----------⎝ ⎠ tnom tnom vt ( tnom ) vt ( t ) t t -⎞ egnom eg ( t ) VJC ( t ) = VJC ⋅ -----------– vt ( t ) ⇒ 3 ⋅ ln ⎛ -----------+ ---------------------.Chapter 5: BJT Models BJT Temperature Compensation Equations NF ( t ) = NF ⋅ ( 1 + TNF 1 ⋅ Δ t + TNF 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) NR ( t ) = NR ⋅ ( 1 + TNR 1 ⋅ Δ t + TNR 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) NE ( t ) = NE ⋅ ( 1 + TNE 1 ⋅ Δ t + TNE 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) NC ( t ) = NC ⋅ ( 1 + TNC 1 ⋅ Δ t + TNC 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) NS ( t ) = NS ⋅ ( 1 + TNS 1 ⋅ Δ t + TNS 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) MJE ( t ) = MJE ⋅ ( 1 + TMJE 1 ⋅ Δ t + TMJE 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) MJC ( t ) = MJC ⋅ ( 1 + TMJC 1 ⋅ Δ t + TMJC 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) MJS ( t ) = MJS ⋅ ( 1 + TMJS 1 ⋅ Δ t + TMJS 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) Capacitance Temperature Equations TLEVC=0 CJE ( t ) = CJE ⋅ CJC ( t ) = CJC ⋅ CJS ( t ) = CJS ⋅ VJE (t) ---------------1 + MJE ⋅ ⎛ 4.

12 .5 ⇒ dvjcdt ⇒ ⎝ VJC⎠ Δ t-⎞ --------CJS ( t ) = CJS ⋅ ⎛ dvjsdt ⇒ ⎝ 1 – 0.Chapter 5: BJT Models BJT Temperature Compensation Equations CJC ( t ) = CJC ⋅ ( 1 + CTC ⋅ Δ t ) CJS ( t ) = CJS ⋅ ( 1 + CTS ⋅ Δ t ) The following equations calculate the built-in potentials: VJE ( t ) = VJE – TVJE ⇒ Δt VJC ( t ) = VJC – TVJC ⇒ Δt VJS ( t ) = VJS – TVJS ⇒ Δt TLEVC=2 VJE -⎞ MJE ---------------CJE ( t ) = CJE ⋅ ⎛ ⎝ VJE ( t )⎠ VJC MJC CJC ( t ) = CJC ⋅ ⎛ -----------------⎞ ⎝ VJC ( t )⎠ VJS MJS CJS ( t ) = CJS ⋅ ⎛ ----------------⎞ ⎝ VJS ( t )⎠ The following equations calculate values for the preceding equations: VJE ( t ) = VJE – TVJE ⇒ Δt VJC ( t ) = VJC – TVJC ⇒ Δt VJS ( t ) = VJS – TVJS ⇒ Δt TLEVC=3 Δt ⎞ --------CJE ( t ) = CJE ⋅ ⎛ 1 – 0.5 ⇒ VJS⎠ VJE ( t ) = VJE + dvjedt ⋅ Δ t VJC ( t ) = VJC + dvjcdt ⋅ Δ t VJS ( t ) = VJS + dvjsdt ⋅ Δ t 204 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.5 ⇒ dvjedt ⇒ ⎝ VJE⎠ Δ t -⎞ ---------CJC ( t ) = CJC ⋅ ⎛ 1 – 0.

or 3.Chapter 5: BJT Models BJT Temperature Compensation Equations If TLEV=0.16 – egnom ) ⋅ ⎛ 2 – -----------------------------– VJC ⎝ tnom + 1108⎠ dvjcdt = – ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tnom tnom -⎞ -----------------------------egnom + 3 ⋅ vt ( tnom ) + ( 1. 1.16 – egnom ) ⋅ ⎛ 2 – – VJS ⎝ tnom + 1108⎠ dvjsdt = – --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tnom If TLEV=2: tnom ----------------------------------⎞ egnom + 3 ⋅ vt ( tnom ) + ( EG – egnom ) ⋅ ⎛ ⎝ 2 – tnom + GAP 2⎠ – VJE dvjedt = – ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tnom tnom -⎞ – VJC egnom + 3 ⋅ vt ( tnom ) + ( EG – egnom ) ⋅ ⎛ 2 – ---------------------------------⎝ tnom + GAP 2⎠ dvjcdt = – ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tnom tnom -⎞ – VJS egnom + 3 ⋅ vt ( tnom ) + ( EG – egnom ) ⋅ ⎛ 2 – ---------------------------------⎝ tnom + GAP 2⎠ dvjsdt = – ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tnom Parasitic Resistor Temperature Equations The following equations determine the parasitic resistors as a function of temperature regardless of the TLEV value: RE ( t ) = RE ⋅ ( 1 + TRE 1 ⋅ Δ t + TRE 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) RB ( t ) = RB ⋅ ( 1 + TRB 1 ⋅ Δ t + TRB 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) RBM ( t ) = RBM ⋅ ( 1 + TRM 1 ⋅ Δ t + TRM 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) RC ( t ) = RC ⋅ ( 1 + TRC 1 ⋅ Δ t + TRC 2 ⋅ Δ t 2 ) BJT LEVEL=2 Temperature Equations The model parameters of BJT LEVEL=2 model are modified for temperature compensation as: HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. then: tnom -⎞ egnom + 3 ⋅ vt ( tnom ) + ( 1.12 205 .

the internal base-collector junction is forward biased. and its effects have been included in this model. When a device with lightly doped collector regions operates at high injection levels. The current source Iepi and charge storage elements Ci and Cx model the quasi-saturation effects.12 . an extension of the GummelPoon model (LEVEL=1 model) to model bipolar junction transistors that exhibit quasi-saturation or base push-out effects. Figure 32 and Figure 33 show the additional elements of the LEVEL=2 model. Such an operation regime is referred to as quasi-saturation. DC current gain and the unity gain frequency fT falls sharply. 206 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. The parasitic substrate bipolar transistor is also included in the vertical transistor by the diode D and current source Ibs. while the external base-collector junction is reverse biased.Chapter 5: BJT Models BJT Quasi-Saturation Model GAMMA ( t ) = GAMMA ⋅ e ( facln ) t -⎞ BEX RC ( t ) = RC ⋅ ⎛ -----------⎝ tnom⎠ t -⎞ BEXV -----------VO ( t ) = VO ⋅ ⎛ ⎝ tnom⎠ BJT Quasi-Saturation Model Use the BJT quasi-saturation model (LEVEL=2).

Chapter 5: BJT Models BJT Quasi-Saturation Model S Cx + Vbcx - C lepl Ci csc Ibs=BRS(ibc-isc) D isc + Vbc RB B npn RE E Figure 32 Vertical npn Bipolar Transistor (SUBS=+1) HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 207 .

then the ki and kx values both become one. Iepi: 1 + ki – vbcx -⎞ + vbc -------------------------ki – kx – ln ⎛ -------------⎝ 1 + kx⎠ NEPI ⋅ vt Iepi = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------RCeff -⎞ ⎛ vbc – vbcx ⎛ ------------------------⎞ ----------------------------⎝ NEPI ⋅ vt⎠ ⋅ ⎝ 1 + ⎠ VO The following equations calculate values for the preceding equations: ki = [ 1 + GAMMA ⋅ e vbc ⁄ kx = [ 1 + GAMMA ⋅ e vbcx ⁄ ( NEPI ⋅ vt ) ] 1 / 2 ( NEPI ⋅ vt ) ] 1 / 2 If you set the GAMMA model parameter to zero.Chapter 5: BJT Models BJT Quasi-Saturation Model C Cx + Vbcx lepi Ci + Vbc - RB B ibs RE npn cbs S E Figure 33 Lateral npn Bipolar Transistor (SUBS=-1) Epitaxial Current Source Iepi The following equation determines the epitaxial current value. and: 208 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 .

then the Ci and Cx values become zero.Chapter 5: BJT Models BJT Quasi-Saturation Model vbc – vbcx Iepi = -----------------------------------------------------------------vbc – vbcx -----------------------------⎞ RCeff ⋅ ⎛ ⎝1 + ⎠ VO Epitaxial Charge Storage Elements Ci and Cx The following equations calculate the epitaxial charges: GAMMA -⎞ qi = QCOeff ⋅ ⎛ ki – 1 – ---------------------⎝ ⎠ 2 GAMMA -⎞ qx = QCOeff ⋅ ⎛ kx – 1 – ---------------------⎝ ⎠ 2 The corresponding capacitances are calculated as: Ci = GAMMA ⋅ QCOeff⎞ ∂ -------------------------------------------------( qi ) = ⎛ ⋅ e vbc / ( NEPI ⋅ ⎝ ⎠ 2 ⋅ NEPI ⋅ vt ⋅ kx ∂vbc vt ) Cx = ⋅ QCOeff⎞ ∂ ( qx ) = ⎛ GAMMA -------------------------------------------------⋅ e vbcx / ( NEPI ⋅ ⎝ 2 ⋅ NEPI ⋅ vt ⋅ kx ⎠ ∂vbcx vt ) If GAMMA=0.12 209 . Example This example is based on demonstration netlist quasisat.sp. which is available in directory $<installdir>/demo/hspice/bjt: HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

001 absv=.print dc vce=par('v(10)') i(q11) i(q12) i(q21) + i(q22) i(q31) i(q32) .001 reli=.Chapter 5: BJT Models BJT Quasi-Saturation Model *quasisat.OPTION post q11 10 11 0 mod1 q12 10 12 0 mod2 q21 10 21 0 mod1 q22 10 22 0 mod2 q31 10 31 0 mod1 q32 10 32 0 mod2 vcc 10 0 .end 210 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.probe dc i(q11) i(q12) i(q21) i(q22) .0E-16 BF=75 VAF=75 + Level=1 rc=500 SUBS=+1 .0E-16 BF=75 VAF=75 + Level=2 rco=500 rcc=2.1 .12 .599 vo=1 qco=1e-10 + gamma=1e-9 SUBS=+1 .sp comparison of bjt Level1 and Level2 *model .MODEL MOD1 NPN IS=4.dc vcc 0 3 .MODEL MOD2 NPN IS=4.probe dc i(q11) i(q12) .1u absi=1p .7 i11 0 11 15u i12 0 12 15u i21 0 21 30u i22 0 22 30u i31 0 31 50u i32 0 32 50u .OPTION nomod relv=.

Ensure that each parameter in the . For a subcircuit that consists of the scaled BJT model. Put a scaled BJT model inside the subcircuit.MODEL statement within the subcircuit has a value in the . make the following changes.MODEL mname mtype statement to a .PARAM statement. then change the .Chapter 5: BJT Models Converting National Semiconductor Models Figure 34 Comparing BJT LEVEL=1 and LEVEL=2 Models Converting National Semiconductor Models National Semiconductor’s SNAP circuit simulator has a scaled BJT model that is not the same as the HSPICE BJT models.PARAM statement that specifies the scaled BJT model parameter values. the subcircuit name must be the same as the name of the model. Inside the subcircuit there is a . To use this model.PARAM statement.12 211 . HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

MODEL parameter in the National circuit simulator.Chapter 5: BJT Models Defining Scaled BJT Subcircuits Defining Scaled BJT Subcircuits The following subcircuit definition converts the National Semiconductor scaled BJT model to a form usable in HSPICE. replace the . Note: All parameter values in the following model must come from either a . 212 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Example The following is a subcircuit definition that converts the National Semiconductor scaled BJT model to a form usable in HSPICE. The . Change the model name to SBJT. Therefore.PARAM statement or the subcircuit call.PARAM statement.SUBCKT represents the .PARAM parameter inside the .12 .MODEL mname statement with a .

3745 SCCS=75.8P IBF2=1.57N IBF3=74N + IBF4=3.PARAM IES=1.28*FTF)’ TR=’1/(6.222 ESUB=0.92157E-2 SBET=3.5 BF5=53.7 BF3=55.0 + TRE=2E-3 TRC=6E-3 TRB=1.13U IBF5=64.61 MC=1.92157E-2 SRB=4.02 NC=1.698 RE=75 RC=0.8823E+2 SCBE=94.8 + IBF1=4.12 213 .5 TCB=5.709 PE=1.6E-6 BF1=9.92157E-2 + SRE=3.MODEL SBJT NPN + IBE=’IES*SF*SIES’ IBC=’ICS*SF*SICS’ + CJE=’CJE*SF*SCBE’ CJC=’CJC*SF*SCBC’ + CJS=’CSUB*SF*SCCS’ RB=’RB*SRB/SF’ + RC=’RC*SRC/SF’ RE=’RE*SRE/SF’ + TF=’1/(6.3E-3 + TCB2=1.0 RB=1.SUBCKT SBJT NC NB NE SF=1 SCBC=1 SCBE=1 SCCS=1 SIES=1 SICS=1 + SRB=1 SRC=1 SRE=1 SIC=0 SVCE=0 SBET=1 Q NC NB NE SBJT IC=SIC VCE=SVCE .28*FTR)’ + MJE=EXE MJC=EXC + MJS=ESUB VJE=PE + VJC=PC VJS=PSUB + NF=NE NR=NC + EG=EG BR=BR VAF=VA + TRE1=TRE TRC1=TRC TRB1=TRB + TBF1=TCB TBF2=TCB2 + BF0=BF1 IB0=IBF1 + BF1=BF2 IB1=IBF2 + BF2=BF3 IB2=IBF3 + BF3=BF4 IB3=IBF4 + BF4=BF5 IB4=IBF5 + BF5=BF6 IB5=IBF6 + NSUB=0 sbet=sbet + TLEV=1 TLEVC=1 + XTIR=’MC*NC’ XTI=’ME*NE’ .5 SRC=3.16 PC=0.ENDS SBJT The following replaces the BJT statement: XQ1 1046 1047 8 SBJT SIES=25.37 + PSUB=0.10E-18 ICS=5.03 + ME=3.5 BF6=33.77E-18 NE=1.501 + EXC=0.2U IBF6=516U * .8E9 FTR=40E6 BR=1.5234 + SCBC=41.1679 SIC=1M SVCE=1 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.9E-3 VA=25 + FTF=2.5 SICS=25.1 + BF4=56.24 EG=1.Chapter 5: BJT Models Defining Scaled BJT Subcircuits .12 NSUB=0 + CJE=1E-15 CJC=1E-15 CSUB=1E-15 EXE=0.93 BF2=45.

and RS are linear elements.Chapter 5: BJT Models VBIC Bipolar Transistor Model VBIC Bipolar Transistor Model The VBIC (Vertical Bipolar Inter-Company) model is a bipolar transistor model. The detailed equations for all elements are given in the referenced publication. and self heating. The same parameter names are used in the table and the previous referenced publication. Recent information and source code can be found on the web site: http://www-sm.4 of the VBIC model. VBIC addresses many problems of the Gummel-Poon model: ■ ■ ■ ■ More accurate modeling of Early effect Parasitic substrate transistor Modulation of collector resistance Avalanche multiplication in collector junction. specify the LEVEL=4 parameter for the bipolar transistor model. To use VBIC. RE. Starting in Version 2003.html The HSPICE implementation complies with standard VBIC. RBX. 214 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. The large signal equivalent circuit for VBIC is shown in Figure 35.rz. all other elements of the equivalent circuit are nonlinear. Capacitors CBCO.03. CBEO and resistors RCX. the BJT LEVEL=4 model prints FT in the . VBIC Parameters Figure 35 lists the parameters that you can set for the model. History of VBIC VBIC was developed by engineers at several companies. Starting in release 2001.OP output. and shows the default values for each parameter.de/institute/iafgp/neu/VBIC/index. parasitic capacitances of base-emitter overlap in double poly BJTs.12 . self-heating and excess phase have been implemented or enabled.fht-esslingen.

Table 60 BJT LEVEL=4 Default Model Parameters Unit Default Description Name (Alias) AFN AJC 1 -0.5 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.5 Flicker noise exponent for current Base-collector capacitance switching parameter Base-emitter capacitance switching parameter AJE -0.OPTION NOWARN. those parameters will be reset to new values and warnings will be printed unless you set .Chapter 5: BJT Models VBIC Bipolar Transistor Model Substrate CBCO Collector RS Qbcp RBIP/qBP RCX I t bcp Rbx Base Qbex t Ibex Rbi/qb Qbe t CBEO Figure 35 Transient Analysis If values of parameters given by the user are beyond their ranges.12 t t Ibep Iccp Qbep RCi Qbcx Qbc Ibc/Igc Ibe Icc Re 215 .

12 1.12 1.12 0.12 1.5 Substrate-collector capacitance switching parameter Base-collector weak avalanche parameter 1 Base-collector weak avalanche parameter 2 Flicker noise exponent for 1/f dependence Extrinsic base-collector overlap capacitance Extrinsic base-emitter overlap capacitance Base-collector intrinsic zero bias capacitance Substrate-collector zero bias capacitance Base-emitter zero bias capacitance Base-collector extrinsic zero bias capacitance Thermal capacitance Activation energy for IS Activation energy for IBCI/IBEIP Activation energy for IBEI Activation energy for IBCIP Activation energy for IBCN/IBENP Activation energy for IBEN Activation energy for IBCNP Forward bias depletion capacitance limit Epi doping parameter High-current RC factor AVC1 AVC2 BFN V-1 V-1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.9 0 1 CBCO (CBC0) F CBEO (CBE0) F CJC CJCP CJE CJEP CTH EA EAIC EAIE EAIS EANC EANE EANS FC GAMM HRCF F F F F J/K eV eV eV eV eV eV eV 216 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 5: BJT Models VBIC Bipolar Transistor Model Table 60 BJT LEVEL=4 Default Model Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description Name (Alias) AJS -0.12 1.12 1.12 .12 1.

Chapter 5: BJT Models VBIC Bipolar Transistor Model Table 60 BJT LEVEL=4 Default Model Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description Name (Alias) IBCI IBCIP IBCN IBCNP A A A A 1e-16 0 1e-15 0 Ideal base-collector saturation current Ideal parasitic base-collector saturation current Non-ideal base-collector saturation current Non-ideal parasitic base-collector saturation current Ideal base-emitter saturation current Ideal parasitic base-emitter saturation current Non-ideal base-emitter saturation current Non-ideal parasitic base-emitter saturation current Forward knee current Parasitic knee current Reverse knee current Transport saturation current Parameter for extending the minimum value of is Parasitic transport saturation current Parameter for extending the minimum value of isp Coefficient of TF dependence in Ic Base-emitter flicker noise constant Base-collector grading coefficient Parameter for extending the minimum value of mc IBEI IBEIP IBEN IBENP A A A A 1e-18 0 1e-15 0 IKF IKP IKR IS ISMIN A A A A A 2e-3 2e-4 2e-4 1e-16 1.0e-19 ISP ISPMIN A A 1e-16 1.0d-2 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 217 .33 - 1.0e-19 ITF KFN MC MCMIN A 1e-3 0 0.

0d-2 NCI NCIP 1 1 NCN NCNP 2 2 NEI NEN NF NFP NR PC PE PS QCO (QC0) QTF RBI Ohm V V V C 1 2 1 1 1 0.33 1.Chapter 5: BJT Models VBIC Bipolar Transistor Model Table 60 BJT LEVEL=4 Default Model Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description Name (Alias) ME MEMIN - 0.75 0 0 1e-1 218 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.33 1.0d-2 Base-emitter grading coefficient Parameter for extending the minimum value of me Substrate-collector grading coefficient Parameter for extending the minimum value of ms Ideal base-collector emission coefficient Ideal parasitic base-collector emission coefficient Non-ideal base-collector emission coefficient Non-ideal parasitic base-collector emission coefficient Ideal base-emitter emission coefficient Non-ideal base-emitter emission coefficient Forward emission coefficient Parasitic forward emission coefficient Reverse emission coefficient Base-collector built-in potential Base-emitter built-in potential Substrate-collector built-in potential Epi charge parameter Variation of TF with base-width modulation Intrinsic base resistance MS MSMIN - 0.12 .75 0.75 0.

Extrinsic base resistance Intrinsic collector resistance Extrinsic collector resistance Emitter resistance Substrate resistance Thermal resistance Temperature coefficient of AVC2 Forward excess-phase delay time Forward transit time Temperature coefficient of NF Reverse transit time Nominal measurement temperature of parameters (do not use TNOM alias) Forward Early voltage Reverse Early voltage Epi drift saturation voltage Coefficient of TF dependence on Vbc Portion of IBEI from Vbei. 1-WBE from Vbex Portion of ICCP from Vbep.12 219 .0e-3 Parasitic base resistance Parameter for extending the minimum value of rbp. 1-WSP from Vbci RBX RCI RCX RE RS RTH TAVC TD TF TNF TR TREF (TNOM) Ohm Ohm Ohm Ohm Ohm K/W 1/K s s 1/K s o 1e-1 1e-1 1e-1 1e-1 1e-1 0 0 0 1e-11 0 1e-11 27 C VEF VER VO (V0) VTF WBE WSP V V V V 0 0 0 0 1 1 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 5: BJT Models VBIC Bipolar Transistor Model Table 60 BJT LEVEL=4 Default Model Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description Name (Alias) RBP RBPMIN Ohm A 1e-1 1.

RBP. but not ns. then you must specify the tnodeout parameter to indicate that the fourth node is the temperature node and not the substrate node. ICC. Self-heating and Excess Phase After a self-heating effect is accounted for. RBI Shot noise of currents IBE. IBEP Noise due to IBEX and IGC is not included. RE. ICCP Flicker noise due to currents IBE. If you specify this node. RS. nt is the temperature node. To turn on 220 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. IBEP.Chapter 5: BJT Models VBIC Bipolar Transistor Model Table 60 BJT LEVEL=4 Default Model Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description Name (Alias) XII 3 Temperature exponent of IBEI/IBCI/IBEIP/ IBCIP Temperature exponent of IBEN/IBCN/IBENP/ IBCNP Temperature exponent of IS Temperature exponent of base resistance Temperature exponent of collector resistance Temperature exponent of emitter resistance Temperature exponent of substrate resistance Coefficient of TF bias dependence Temperature exponent of VO XIN 3 XIS XRB XRC XRE XRS XTF XVO (XV0) 3 1 1 1 1 0 0 Noise Analysis The following sources of noise are taken into account: ■ ■ ■ The thermal noise of resistors RBX.12 . RCI. the device element syntax becomes: Qxxx nc nb ne [ns][nt] mname [regular parameters][tnodeout] In the preceding syntax. RCX.

because the model’s convergence is very sensitive to the TD value.Chapter 5: BJT Models VBIC Bipolar Transistor Model self-heating in addition to specifying the temperature node. because it is the name of the default room temperature. VTF. Do not use TNOM as a model parameter name. IKR. IKP. QCO.OPTION TNOM=27 to the netlist. turning on excess phase is not recommended. Do this when testing HSPICE versus other simulators that use 27 as the default room temperature. add . and XV0 parameters are aliases for CBCO. VER. V0. 5. But for transient analysis. Setting these parameters to zero infers a value of infinity: HRCF.12 221 . TREF. The CBC0. add TREF=27 to the model so that simulation correctly interprets the model parameters.0e-3. VO.sp In the preceding example.sp Example 2 This example with self-heating effects is located in the following directory: $installdir/demo/hspice/bjt/self_heat.To set the nominal simulation temperature to 27. v(t) uses the T node to print the device temperature. 6. the RTH (thermal resistance) model parameter must be not zero in the model card. the TD (forward excess-phase delay time) model parameter must be non-zero. VO. If LEVEL=4. The default room temperature is 25 degrees in HSPICE. Example 1 This example with a no self-heating effect is located in the following directory: $installdir/demo/hspice/bjt/vbic.0e-3. TNOM. Excess phase affects only AC and transient characteristics analysis. CBEO. The LEVEL=4 model supports Area and M factor scaling. respectively. but is 27 in some other simulators. the model is a VBIC bipolar junction transistor. 3. QC0. If you set the VBIC bipolar junction transistor model parameters to 27 degrees. VEF. CBE0. 4. ITF. IKF. For this version of implementation. Values smaller than this will be reassigned a value of 1. 7. To turn on this effect. Pole-zero simulation of this model is not supported. all seven internal resistors should have values greater than or equal to 1. Notes on Using VBIC 1. 2. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. and XVO.

222 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Simulation uses the value of DTEMP to de-rate the temperature in model equations and other parameters. if you specify both.12 .Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 503) LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 503) The Philips bipolar model (MEXTRAM Level 503) is the BJT LEVEL=6 model. non-ideal base currents Hard. See also: LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 504). DTA and DTEMP both default to zero. DTEMP overrides DTA locally. MEXTRAM includes effects that are not included in some other BJT models (such as in the original Gummel-Poon model): ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Temperature Charge storage Substrate Parasitic PNP High-injection Built-in electric field in base region Bias-dependent Early effect Low-level.and quasi-saturation Weak avalanche Hot carrier effects in the collector epilayer Explicit modeling of inactive regions Split base-collector depletion capacitance Current crowding and conductivity modulation for base resistance First order approximation of distributed high frequency effects in the intrinsic base (high frequency current crowding and excess phase shift) You can use either of the following two parameters to specify the difference between the circuit temperature and the ambient temperatures in the MEXTRAM model: ■ ■ DTEMP instance parameter as specified in the element statement. DTA (difference between the device temperature and the ambient analysis temperature) global model parameter.

refer to: http://www-us. then simulation uses the DTEMP value.semiconductors. but no substrate node is defined. Substrate node name or number. Starts with Q. Sets initial condition to OFF for this element in DC analysis. Initial internal base to emitter voltage. Base node name or number. nt is used as a self-heating node.0. Collector terminal node name or number. In the second form. Normalized emitter area. followed by up to 1023 alphanumeric characters. nc nb ne ns nt mname AREA OFF VBE VCE HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Initial internal collector to emitter voltage.12 223 . Emitter terminal node name or number. BJT model name reference.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 503) ■ If you do not specify either the DTEMP or the DTA parameter. then DTEMP=0. ■ ■ For a description of the MEXTRAM model. If you specify DTEMP.com/Philips_Models/ LEVEL=6 Element Syntax Qxxx nc nb ne [ns] [nt] mname [AREA=val] + [OFF] [VBE=val] [VCE=val] [M=val] [DTEMP=val] tnodeout Qxxx nc nb ne nt mname [AREA=val] + [OFF] [VBE=val] [VCE=val] [M=val] [DTEMP=val] tnodeout Parameter Description Qxxx BJT element name. If you specify DTA but not DTEMP. then DTEMP uses the DTA value. and ignores the DTA value. Self-heating temperature node name or number.

■ ■ If (MULT > 0.12 . m=1 (no warning messages) MULT=1.0 and MULT != 1. If you use MULT. then HSPICE uses the MULT model parameter and displays a warning message. DTEMP tnodeout Difference between element and circuit temperature...0) and (m == 1). LEVEL=6 Model Parameters This section lists MEXTRAM LEVEL=6 model parameters. Table 61 BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 503 Flags Unit Default Description Name (Alias) LEVEL EXAVL - 0 LEVEL=6 for MEXTRAM Flag for extended modeling of avalanche currents Flag for extended modeling of the reverse current gain Flag for distributed high frequency effects Flag for switching substrate effect EXMOD - 0 EXPHI SUBS OUTFLAG - 1 - 224 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. default values. Identify self heating node from substrate node. m=3 and so on. descriptions. HSPICE uses the m instance parameter and displays a warning message: MULT=1. and notes. set m to zero. m=3 MULT=2. including parameter names. units. Otherwise.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 503) Parameter Description M Multiplier to simulate multiple BJTs in parallel (alias in an instance for the MULT model parameter).

0 Model nominal temperature Collector-emitter saturation current Ideal forward current gain Fraction of ideal base current that belongs to the sidewall Saturation current of the non-ideal forward base current Cross-over voltage of the non-ideal forward base current High-injection knee current Ideal reverse current gain Saturation current of the non-ideal reverse base current Cross-over voltage of the non-ideal reverse base current Part of I EX.0 0.Q EX.0E-14 VLF V 0. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.e-3 25.2e-12 4.5 XEXT - 0.7 3.5 QBO ETA AVL EFI IHC RCC C A ohm 1. 0.E-3 16.5 IK BRI IBR A A 15.E-17 140. Q TEX.0 50.12 225 .Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 503) Table 62 BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 503 Basic Parameters Unit Default Description Name (Alias) TREF IS BF XIBI οC A A - 0.0 8.0 5.0e-15 VLR V 0. and I SUB that depends on the base-collector voltage VBC1 Base charge at zero bias Factor of the built-in field of the base Weak avalanche parameter Electric field intercept (with EXAVL=1) Critical current for hot carriers Constant part of the collector resistance IBF A 2.

01 226 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.6 0.4 0.12 .0 0. 2.6 50.e-10 Resistance of the unmodulated epilayer Space charge resistance of the epilayer Current spreading factor epilayer Constant part of the base resistance Variable part of the base resistance at zero bias Emitter series resistance Minimum delay time of neutral and emitter charge Non-ideality factor of the neutral and emitter charge Zero bias collector-base depletion capacitance Emitter-base diffusion voltage Emitter-base grading coefficient Fraction of the emitter-base depletion capacitance that belongs to the sidewall Zero bias collector-base depletion capacitance Collector-base diffusion voltage Collector-base grading coefficient variable part Constant part of CJC Collector current modulation coefficient Fraction of the collector-base depletion capacitance under the emitter area Band-gap voltage of the emitter MTAU - 1.5 0.1 VGE V 1.2 0. 100.3e-13 0.33 0.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 503) Table 62 BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 503 Basic Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description Name (Alias) RCV SCRCV SFH RBC RBV RE TAUNE ohm ohm ohm ohm ohm s 750.0 3.18 CJE VDE PE XCJE F V F 2.5 CJC VDC PC XP MC XCJC F V F - 1. 1000.5e-13 0.9 0.

AC - 0.5 0.1 Band-gap voltage of the base Band-gap voltage of the collector Band-gap voltage recombination emitter-base junction Ionization voltage base dope Maximum base dope concentration Temperature coefficient of VLF and VLR Temperature coefficient resistivity of the base Temperature coefficient resistivity of the epilayer Temperature coefficient resistivity of the extrinsic base Temperature coefficient resistivity of the buried layer Flicker noise coefficient ideal base current Flicker noise coefficient non-ideal base current Flicker noise exponent Base-substrate saturation current Knee current of the substrate Zero bias collector-substrate depletion capacitance Collector-substrate diffusion voltage Collector-substrate grading coefficient Band-gap voltage of the substrate VI NA ER AB AEPI V cm^-3 - 0.12 227 .15 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.E-16 1.040 3.18 1.205 1.35 2.e-12 VDS PS VGS V V 0.4 KF KFN AF ISS IKS CJS A A F 2.0E17 2.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 503) Table 62 BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 503 Basic Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description Name (Alias) VGB VGC VGJ V V V 1.E-16 5.E-16 2.E-6 1.E-3 1.33 1.15 AEX - 1.0 6.

MEXTRAM Level 504 models several effects that are not included in the original Gummel-Poon model.15 For a closed buried layer: AS=AC For an open buried layer: AS=AEPI Example This example is located in the following directory: $installdir/demo/hspice/bjt/mextram. For first-order and higher-order characteristic derivatives.sp LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 504) Level 504 of the MEXTRAM model is also available as BJT LEVEL=6 as is Level 503 of MEXTRAM.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 504) Table 62 BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 503 Basic Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description Name (Alias) AS - 2. This effect is noticeable in outputconductance. These effects include: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Temperature Charge storage Substrate Parasitic PNP High-injection Bias-dependent early effect Low-level. and low-frequency third-order distortion. MEXTRAM 504 returns better results than MEXTRAM 503.and quasi-saturation (including Kirk Effect) Weak avalanche (optionally including snap-back behavior) Explicit modeling of inactive regions 228 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 . The default value of the VERS parameter is 504. cut-off frequency. Use the VERS parameter to choose MEXTRAM level 503 or 504. non-ideal base currents Hard. See Mextram 504 Update Releases for brief descriptions of version 504 updates.

if you specify both. ■ ■ This model is described at: http://www. and 1/f-noise Self-heating ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ You can use either of two parameters to specify the difference between the circuit temperature and the ambient temperatures in the MEXTRAM model: ■ ■ DTEMP instance parameter as specified in the element statement DTA (difference between the device temperature and the ambient analysis temperature) global model parameter. then simulation uses the DTEMP value. Simulation uses the value of DTEMP to de-rate the temperature in model equations and other parameters. then DTEMP uses the DTA value.com/Philips_Models/newsflashmextram504 The following topics are covered: ■ ■ ■ Notes on Using MEXTRAM 503 or 504 Devices LEVEL=6 Model Parameters (504) Mextram 504 Update Releases HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 229 . and ignores the DTA value.philips. DTA and DTEMP both default to zero. then DTEMP=0.0. ■ If you do not specify either the DTEMP or the DTA parameter. shot noise. DTEMP overrides DTA locally.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 504) ■ ■ ■ Split base-collector and base-emitter depletion capacitance Current crowding and conductivity modulation of the base resistance First order approximation of distributed high frequency effects in the intrinsic base (high frequency current crowding and excess phase shift) Ohmic resistance of epilayer Velocity saturation effects on the resistance of the epilayer Recombination in the base (meant for SiGe transistors) Early effects in the case of a graded bandgap (SiGe) Thermal noise.semiconductors. If you specify DTA but not DTEMP. If you specify DTEMP.

TREF. Constant overlap capacitances are not modelled within MEXTRAM. The CBEO capacitance parameter in MEXTRAM 504 models extrinsic BE charge and capacitance effects. SUBS=0 does not model this effect. MEXTRAM is more complex than Gummel-Poon (the computation time is longer and the convergence is less). the CBCO capacitance parameter models extrinsic B-C charge and capacitance effects.12 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ • • 230 . MEXTRAM does not contain extensive geometrical or process scaling rules (it has a multiplication factor to put transistors in parallel). Clarity of extrinsic current model describing Xiex and Xisub is improved by adding an extra node and an extra contact base resistance. Models the forward current of the parasitic PNP transistor. Reference temperature. Both the MEXTRAM 503 and 504 models support the SUBS flag. You can use the RTH (thermal resistance) and CTH (thermal capacitance) model parameters. No reverse emitter-base breakdown mechanism. Also. In this case. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0e-6. Starting in Release 2002. All internal resistors are limited to greater than or equal to 1. compared to measurements.2: • Self-heating is now enabled for the MEXTRAM 504 model. MEXTRAM 504 has better convergence than 503. parameter extraction would be more difficult.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 504) Notes on Using MEXTRAM 503 or 504 Devices The following information applies to the HSPICE device model for the MEXTRAM 503 or 504 device: ■ Set LEVEL=6 to identify the model as a MEXTRAM bipolar junction transistor model. The SUBS flag models the parasitic substrate effect when set to 1 (the default). Output conductance dIc/dVce at the point where hard saturation starts seems to be too abrupt for high current levels. which had no effect in previous releases. is equal to 25 degrees. MEXTRAM does not contain a substrate resistance. Set VERS parameter to 503 to use MEXTRAM 503 and to 504 to use MEXTRAM 504.

Iavl_bb. Starting in Release X-2005. Starting in Release 2003. ■ LEVEL=6 Model Parameters (504) The following tables describe MEXTRAM 504 as LEVEL=6 model parameters. and Iavl_bc was added.03. including parameter names.09. default values. support for avalanche current shot noise source parameters Iavl_cc. the Mextram BJT (LEVEL=6) model supports Philips modelkit 4.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 504) • • ■ The MEXTRAM 504 model supports HSPICE-specific area-scaling and multiplicity (M factor) features. The following parameters used in MEXTRAM 503 are deleted in MEXTRAM 504: ■ ■ ■ QBO NA VGE ■ ■ ■ ETA VLF ER ■ ■ ■ VI EFI AVL The following parameters have been added to MEXTRAM 504: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ VEF TAUB DVGBR VAVL XREC ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ TAUE DVGBF WAVL DEG CTH ■ ■ ■ ■ AE MLF TAUR RTH ■ ■ ■ ■ VER TEPI DVGTE AXI Table 63 BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 Flags Unit Default Description Name (Alias) LEVEL VERS INTVERS - 6 504 4.4 or 504. Parameters noted with an asterisk (*) are not used in the DC model.5 Model level Flag for MEXTRAM model level (503 or 504) Flag for choosing 504. units.3. The MEXTRAM 503 model includes KN and KFN noise parameters. ■ ■ TAUNE in MEXTRAM 503 acts as TAUE in the 504 model.5 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. and notes. descriptions.12 231 .

1 7.0 IK BRI IBR A A 0.2e-17 2. reverse current gain *Flag for distributed high frequency effects in transient Flag for extended modeling of avalanche currents Reference temperature Flag for switching substrate effect EXPHI - 1 EXAVL - 0 TREF SUBS o C 25. non-ideal forward base current Non-ideal factor of non-ideal forward base current Collector-emitter high injection knee current Ideal reverse current gain Saturation current.12 .0e-15 232 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 - - Table 64 BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 Basic Parameters Unit Default Description Name (Alias) IS VER VEF BF XIBI IBF A 2. non-ideal reverse base current A 215.0 0.0 2.0 Collector-emitter saturation current Reverse early voltage Forward early voltage Ideal forward current gain Fraction of ideal base current for the sidewall Saturation current.7e-15 MLF V 2.5 44.0 1.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 504) Table 63 BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 Flags (Continued) Unit Default Description Name (Alias) EXMOD - 1 Flag for extended modeling.

Qex. non-ideal reverse base current Part of Iex.4 *Zero bias emitter-base depletion capacitance Emitter-base diffusion voltage Emitter-base grading coefficient *Sidewall portion of emitter-base depletion capacitance HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.63 Table 65 BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 Avalanche Model Parameters Unit Default Description Name (Alias) WAVL VAVL m V 1.0 Epilayer thickness in weak-avalanche model Voltage.1e-6 3.2 Cross-over voltage.95 0.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 504) Table 64 BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 Basic Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description Name (Alias) VLR V 0.12 233 .3 Table 66 BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 Base-Emitter Capacitances Unit Default Description Name (Alias) CJE VDE PE XCJE F V - 7. and Isub that depends on the base-collector voltage Vbc1 XEXT - 0. Qtex.3e-14 0. determines avalanche-current curvature Current spreading factor of avalanche model (if EXAVL=1) SFH - 0.4 0.

0 2.12 .2e-12 4.5 0. reverse extrinsic stored base charge Bandgap difference over the base Pre-factor of the recombination part of Ib1 DEG XREC EV - 0.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 504) Table 67 BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 Base-Collector Capacitances Unit Default Description Name (Alias) CJC VDC PC XP MC F V - 7.2e-10 *Non-ideality of the emitter stored charge *Minimum transit time of stored emitter charge *Transit time of stored base charge *Transit time of stored epilayer charge *Transit time.35 0.0 234 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0e-12 4.2e-2 Table 68 BJT LEVEL\=6 MEXTRAM 504 Transit Time Parameters Unit Default Description Name (Alias) MTAU TAUE TAUB TEPI TAUR S S S S 1.8e-14 0.0 0.1e-11 5.5 *Zero bias collector-base depletion capacitance Collector-base diffusion voltage Collector-base grading coefficient Constant part of CJC Coefficient for the current modulation of the collector-base depletion capacitance *Fraction of the collector-base depletion capacitance under the emitter XCJC - 3.68 0.

5 0.0 ATH - 0 DVGBF V 5. extrinsic base Temperature coefficient of resistivity.0 2.0 1.62 Temperature coefficient. emitter stored charge Parameter for fine tuning of temperature dependence for collector-emitter saturation current AC - 2.05 DAIS - 0 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.18 1. forward current gain Bandgap voltage difference.5e-2 VGB VGC VGJ V V V 1.15 DVGTE V 0. reverse current gain Bandgap voltage of the base Bandgap voltage of the collector Recombined bandgap voltage.17 1. buried layer Temperature coefficient of the thermal resistance Bandgap voltage difference.0e-2 CVGBR V 4.3 0.12 235 .Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 504) Table 69 BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 Temperature Parameters Unit Default Description Name (Alias) AQBO AE AB AEPI AEX - 0. zero-bias base charge Temperature coefficient of emitter resistivity Temperature coefficient of resistivity of base Temperature coefficient of resistivity of epilayer Temperature coefficient of resistivity. emitter-base junction *Bandgap voltage difference.

8e-17 2.62 0.0e-11 2.58 236 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.15e-13 Base-substrate saturation current Base-substrate high injection knee current *Zero bias collector-substrate depletion capacitance *Collector-substrate diffusion voltage *Collector-substrate grading coefficient Bandgap voltage of the substrate For a closed buried layer: AS=AC For an open buried layer: AS=AEPI VDS PS VGS AS V V - 0. non-ideal base current KF KFN - 2.0e-11 Table 71 BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 Substrate Parameters Unit Default Description Name (Alias) ISS IKS CJS A A F 4.5e-4 3.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 504) Table 70 BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 Noise Parameters Unit Default Description Name (Alias) AF KAVL - 2.12 .0 0 Exponent of the flicker-noise Switch for white noise contribution due to avalanche Flicker-noise coefficient for ideal base current Flicker-noise coefficient.2 1.34 1.

sp BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 AC Analysis Example This example is located in the following directory: $installdir/demo/hspice/bjt/mextram_ac.12 237 .sp Table 74 Name BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM504 Noise Parameters Unit Default Description BTJE ALB AV-2 V 0 0 Pre-factor of the base-emitter tunneling current Exponential coefficient for the base-emitter tunneling current HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 504) Table 72 BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 Self-Heating Parameters Unit o Name (Alias) Default Description RTH CTH C/W 0 0 Thermal (self-heating) resistance Thermal (self-heating) capacitance J/oC Table 73 BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 Extrinsic Capacitance Parameters Unit Default Description Name (Alias) CBEO CBCO F F 0 0 extrinsic Base-Emitter capacitance extrinsic Base-Collector capacitance BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 DC OP Analysis Example This example is located in the following directory: $installdir/demo/hspice/bjt/mextram_dc.sp BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 Transient Analysis Example This example is located in the following directory: $installdir/demo/hspice/bjt/mextram_tran.

Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 504) Table 74 Name BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM504 Noise Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description ABT - 0 Temperature coefficient of the base-emitter tunneling current parameter Temperature coefficient for the base-emitter tunneling current parameter AET - 0 Table 75 Name BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 Output Templates Alias Description VB2E1 VB2C2 VB2C1 VB1 C1 VE1E IN IC1C2 IB1B2 IB1 ISB1 IB2 IB3 IBET IAVL IEX XIEX LX26 LX27 LX28 LX29 LX30 LX31 LX32 LX33 LX34 LX35 LX36 LX37 LX38 LX39 LX40 LX41 Internal base-emitter bias Internal base-collector bias Internal base-collector bias including epilayer External base-collector bias without contact resistances Bias over emitter resistance Main current Epilayer current Pinched base current Ideal forward base current Ideal side-wall base current Non-ideal forward base current Non-ideal reverse base current Base-emitter tunneling current Avalanche current Extrinsic reverse base current Extrinsic reverse base current 238 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 .

Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 504) Table 75 Name BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 Output Templates (Continued) Alias Description XISUB ISF IRE IRBC IRCC QE QTE QSTE QTC QEPI QB1B2 QTEX XQTEX QEX XQEX QTS GX GY GZ GSPI GPIX LX42 LX43 LX44 LX45 LX46 LX47 LX48 LX49 LX50 LX51 LX52 LX53 LX54 LX55 LX56 LX57 LX58 LX59 LX60 LX61 LX62 Substrate current Substrate failure current Current through emitter resistance Current through constant base resistance Current through constant collector resistance Emitter charge or emitter neutral charge Base-emitter depletion charge Sidewall base-emitter depletion charge Base-collector depletion charge Epilayer diffusion charge AC current crowding charge Extrinsic base-collector depletion charge Extrinsic base-collector depletion charge Extrinsic base-collector diffusion charge Extrinsic base-collector diffusion charge Collector-substrate depletion charge Forward transconductance Reverse transconductance Reverse transconductance Conductance side-wall base-emitter junction Conductance floor base-emitter junction HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 239 .

12 .Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 504) Table 75 Name BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 Output Templates (Continued) Alias Description GPIY GPIZ GMUX GMUY GUMZ GMUEX XGMUEX GRCVY GRCVZ RBV GRBVX GRBVY GRBVZ RE RBC RCC GS XGS GSF CSBE CBEX LX63 LX64 LX65 LX66 LX67 LX68 LX69 LX70 LX71 LX72 LX73 LX74 LX75 LX76 LX77 LX78 LX79 LX80 LX81 LX82 LX83 Early effect on recombination base current Early effect on recombination base current Early effect on avalanche current limiting Conductance of avalanche current Conductance of avalanche current Conductance of extrinsic base-collector junction Conductance of extrinsic base-collector junction Conductance of epilayer current Conductance of epilayer current Base resistance Early effect on base resistance Early effect on base resistance Early effect on base resistance Emitter resistance Constant base resistance Constant collector resistance Conductance parasitic PNP transistor Conductance parasitic PNP transistor Conductance substrate failure current Capacitance sidewall base-emitter junction Capacitance floor base-emitter junction 240 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

12 241 .Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 504) Table 75 Name BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 Output Templates (Continued) Alias Description CBEY CBEZ CBCX CBCY CBCZ CBCEX XCBCEX CB1B2 CB1B2X CB1B2Y CB1B2Z CTS GOUT GMU CBE CBC IQS XIWEPI VB2C2STA PDISS TK LX84 LX85 LX86 LX87 LX88 LX89 LX90 LX91 LX92 LX93 LX94 LX95 LX96 LX97 LX98 LX99 LX100 LX101 LX102 LX103 LX104 Early effect on base-emitter diffusion charge Early effect on base-emitter diffusion charge Early effect on base-collector diffusion charge Capacitance floor base-collector junction Capacitance floor base-collector junction Capacitance extrinsic base-collector junction Capacitance extrinsic base-collector junction Capacitance AC current crowding Cross-capacitance AC current crowding Cross-capacitance AC current crowding Cross-capacitance AC current crowding Capacitance substrate-collector junction Output conductance Feedback transconductance Base-emitter capacitance Base-collector capacitance Current at onset of quasi-saturation Thickness of injection layer Physical value of internal base-collector bias Dissipation Actual temperature HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

3) • • • MULT has been moved in list of parameters Lower clipping value of Tref changed to -273 °C Added I C . and their temperature scaling parameter ACbl. RCc. I B and β dc to operating point information ■ Mextram 504. version 5 (504. Lower clipping value of resistances RE. RCv. version 7 (504.collector diffusion charge Mextram 504 Update Releases See the The following upgrades were made to the Mextram 504 model: ■ Mextram 504.6) • • • Added parameter dA lS for fine tuning of temperature dependence of IsT “GEM = 0" added to equation (4.4): Noise of collector epilayer has been removed Mextram 504.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=6 Philips Bipolar Model (MEXTRAM Level 504) Table 75 Name BJT LEVEL=6 MEXTRAM 504 Output Templates (Continued) Alias Description ISUBO QBEI QBCI LX105 LX106 LX107 Substrate current Base-emitter diffusion charge Base. RBV.12 . SCRCv increased to 1m Ω ■ Mextram 504. version 4 (504.66) Upper clipping value 1.0 of Kavl introduced Added resistances of buried layer RCblx and RCbli.7) • • 242 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.5) • • Addition of temperature dependence of thermal resistance Addition of noise due to avalanche current ■ ■ Mextram 504. RBC. version 3 (504. version 6 (504.

large-signal transient applications and the required high-collector current densities. version 8 (504. Material constants.ewi. implemented as parameters: VgzEB. ■ The HICUM model is implemented as LEVEL=8 in the BJT models. Other major disadvantages of the SGPM are: ■ ■ A lack of sufficient physical background Poor descriptions of base resistance and junction capacitances in the regions of interest Inadequate description of both Si.and III-V material-based HBTs. and TVgEB. These topics are covered in the following sections: ■ ■ ■ ■ HICUM Model Advantages HSPICE HICUM Model vs.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model • ■ Bug fix high temperature limit B nT Zener tunneling current in emitter-base junction— Parameters: IzEBand NzEB. Mextram 504.tudelft. HICUM development was spurred by the SPICE Gummel-Poon model’s (SGPM) inadequate level of accuracy for high-speed. Public HICUM Model LEVEL=8 Element Syntax LEVEL=8 Model Parameters HICUM Model Advantages Major features of HICUM are: HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.nl LEVEL=8 HICUM Model The HIgh CUrrent Model (HICUM) is an advanced transistor model for bipolar transistors with a primary emphasis on circuit design for high-speed/highfrequency applications. AVgzEB.8) • • For detailed description of Mextram updates go to: http://mextram.12 243 .

Parameter extraction is closely related to the process enabling parametric yield simulation. that become significant for small-size transistors. Self-heating effects are included. the GICCR also permits modelling of HBTs with (graded) bandgap differences within the junctions. Simple parallel RC network taking into account the frequency dependent coupling between buried layer and substrate terminal. Sufficiently physical model equations allowing predictions of temperature and process variations. Extensions for graded-base SiGe HBTs have been derived using the Generalized Integral Charge-Control Relation (GICCR). Simple parasitic substrate transistor is included in the equivalent circuit.12 . Collector current spreading is included in minority charge and collector current formulation. as well as scalability. independent on operating point.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model ■ Accurate description of the high-current operating region (including quasisaturation and saturation). Simple equivalent circuit and numerical formulation of model equations result in easy implementation and relatively fast execution time. HICUM parameters can be determined using standard measurement equipment and mostly simple. parameter extraction procedure and list of test structures are available. Non-quasi-static effects. Proper handling of emitter periphery injection and charge storage. decoupled extraction procedures. Parasitic capacitances. representing base-emitter and base-collector oxide overlaps. Distributed modelling of external base-collector region. are modelled as function of bias. Base-emitter tunneling model is available (for example. are available in the equivalent circuit. and emitter geometry. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 244 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. even at high current densities. for simulation of varactor leakage). Weak avalanche breakdown is available. resulting in a delay of collector current AND stored minority charge. Internal base resistance as a function of operating point (conductivity modulation and emitter current crowding).

■ If you use these features with easily-measurable basic variables (such as junction capacitances and transit time). HICUM’s major advantages over other bipolar compact models are: ■ ■ ■ ■ Scalability Process-based and relatively simple parameter extraction Predictive capability in terms of process and layout variations Fairly simple numerical formulation facilitating easy implementation and resulting in still reasonable simulation time compared to the (too) simple SGPM at high current densities HSPICE HICUM Model vs. Also. and especially high-speed large-signal transient simulation. see Table 100 on page 261. There are two versions: version 2.html HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. In summary. MCF.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model ■ Vertical NQS effects have been implemented in HICUM through “additional delay times” for both minority charge and forward transfer current.iee. and has been applied to the SGPM (within its validity limits). The correlation between base and collector noise is included in the HICUM compact model. ■ Version 2. This improved accuracy applies to digital circuit. and ZETACX as additional model parameters. based on the Technology University of Dresden’s HICUM standalone model kit source code Version 2. small-signal high-frequency. see http://www.1 and 2. based on the Technology University of Dresden’s HICUM Verilog-A code (current version 2.12 245 . you can laterally scale HICUM over a wide range of emitter widths and lengths. Public HICUM Model The HSPICE LEVEL=8 model is based on version 2.2.1. the results are more accurate than if you use SGPM.de/iee/eb/hic_new/hic_doc.2. the LEVEL=8 HICUM model uses IS. The scaling algorithm is generic.tu-dresden.24) ■ To maintain flexibility. up to high collector current densities.et. For more information on these parameters.2 of the public HICUM model. For a complete description of HICUM model.

and an example of an input netlist and output format. connected to 1 => 0 Substrate terminal node Temperature node BJT model name reference Emitter area multiplying factor.0. Multiplier to simulate multiple BJTs in parallel. connected to 1 => 2 Emitter terminal node.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model LEVEL=8 Element Syntax This section provides the syntax for BJT LEVEL=8.5*5 dtemp=0. The default is 1.002 The preceding example includes the following connections: ■ ■ Collector is connected to node 1. Affects current. The default is 0. The default is 1. capacitance. Identify self heating node from substrate node. Base is connected to node 2.12 . Difference between the element temperature and the circuit temperature in degrees Celsius. resistance. M DTEMP tnodeout Example The following is an example of a BJT Q1 model: Q1 1 2 0 4 QM area=1*0. Syntax Qxxx nc nb ne ns> <nt> mname[area] [M=val] [DTEMP=val] + [tnodeout] Parameter Description Qxxx nc nb ne ns nt mname area BJT element name Collector terminal node Base terminal node. 246 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

(b) Thermal network used for self-heating calculation.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model ■ ■ ■ Emitter is connected to node 0.12 Ø Ø B* Ø iT Cth Ø 247 . Substrate is connected to node 4. QM references the name of the BJT model. oxide) capacitance with the ratio C’BCx / C”BCx being adjusted with respect to proper modeling of the HF behavior. Figure 36 Large-signal HICUM LEVEL=2 equivalent circuit HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. HICUM LEVEL=2 Circuit Diagram rsu ² CjS ijSC ² Ø iTS C’ CdS CrBi ijBCi ² Csu ² S rCx C ² C’BCx C”BCx B ² ijBCx ² ² ² CjCi B’ ² CdC ² iAVL ² ² rBx CEox ² ² CjEp ijBEp ² ² * rBi iBEt ijBEi E’ ² ² CjEi ² CdE ² ² ² rE ² ² Tj ² P ² E Rth ² (a) (b) Notes: (a) The external BC capacitance consists of a depletion and a bias-independent capacitance (for example.

0 0.5000000E+01 + vces=.18000E+01 + cjci0=.111000E-13 alfav=.140000E+01 thcs=.0 0.0 0.0 1.DC data=test_data .11600E-15 mrei=.180000E-11 gtfe=.0 0.85 VIN 2 0 vbe VC 1 0 vce VS 4 0 vsub VE 3 0 0 Q1 1 2 3 4 hicum .6 0.210000E-11 tbvl=.450000E+00 alqf=.0 0.MODEL hicum NPN Level=8 + tref =26.0 0.5 0.10000E-29 + mrep=.800000E+00 zci=.100000E+00 + t0=.200000E+01 ireps=.82500E-04 + alqav=.0 0.9055000E+00 + alit=.TEMP 26.0 0.0 0.3 0.118600E+01 qavl=.100000E+01 tr=1.8 0.4 0.11600E-14 vdci=.10000E-29 + mbep=.0 0.1000000E+01 + hfe=1.342000E+00 fqi=.700000E+00 vpt=.376500E+01 latl=.0 0.2 0.000000E+00 + hjci=.400000E-11 + tef0=.101500E+01 ibeps=.85 + c10=.2780000E-13 ich=.225000E+00 + favl=.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.11600E-19 mbei=.47500000E-11 dt0h=.0 0.0 .0 0.0 0.81100E-14 vdei=.750000E+00 + fthc=.5000000E+00 + aljei=.0 0.12 .OPTION .950000E+00 zei=.300000E-10 + alhc=.7 0.200000E+01 248 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.DATA test_data vbe vce vsub 0.200000E+01 + ireis=.PRINT DC I(VIN) i2(q1) I(VC) i1(q1) I(VCS) i4(q1) .00000000E-9 + cjei0=.41600E+03 + rci0=.19600E-03 + ibeis=.2090000E-01 + hfc=.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model Input Netlist .0000000E+00 hjei=.127800E+03 vlim=.ENDDATA .0 0.0 0.3330000E+00 + vptci=.600000E+00 + latb=.3760000E-31 qp0=.

00000E+00 vdcx=.000000E+00 msf=.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model + rbi0=.2060E+00 zetare=0.1170000E+01 alb=.24000E+01 + ceox=.000000E+00 + msc=.0000000E+00 + rsu=.0000000E+00 .00000E+00 + cjep0=.200000E+01 ibcis=.1.00000E+00 vdep=.3330000E+00 + vptcx=.END LEVEL=8 Model Parameters This section lists the HICUM LEVEL=8 model parameters.00000000E+00 + kf=.10000E+03 + ccox=.0000E+00 + rth=0.105000E+01 zep=.2 include those of version 2.40000E-03 + zetarbi=0. Table 76 Name (Alias) BJT LEVEL=8 Model Parameters Unit Default Description LEVEL TREF C 8 26.6300000E-02 alt0=.0000000E+00 csu=.2230E+00 + zetarbx=0.000000E+00 + iscs=.6000000E+00 zs=.000000E+00 fdqr0=. and notes.0000000E+00 rbx=.000000E+00 vds=. peripheral element parameters.10000E-29 mbcx=.000000E+00 + kt0=.0000000E+00 + zetaci=.000000E+00 + itss=. descriptions.000000E+00 + cjcx0=.00000000E+00 + vgb=. and external element parameters for version 2.1600E+01 alvs=. internal transistor parameters.00000000E+00 af=.730000E+00 + fcrbi=.0000000E+00 tsf=0.100000E+04 + rcx=.0 + ibets=.1526000E+00 + ibcxs=. This includes parameter names.000000E+00 fbc=.12 249 .101500E+01 + cjs0=.0 cth=0.00000E+00 fgeo=. units.0000000E+00 re=.85 HICUM BJT level Temperature in simulation HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.4000000E+00 + aljep=. default values.5880E+00 zetarcx=0. factors.11600E-19 + mbci=. The parameters for version 2.44700000E+00 + vpts=.700000E+00 zcx=.1 and new parameters listed in Table 77.100000E-02 alces=.00000E+00 abet=.

Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model Table 76 Name (Alias) BJT LEVEL=8 Model Parameters (Continued) Unit Default Description SYNOPSYS_UPDATE - 1 Flag for bug fixing.0 VGE VGC VGS F1VG V V V V/K 1. Tunneling flag (1=on peripheral node.02377e-4 250 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. If FLSH is not 0 and RTH>0.24 HICUM version Table 77 Name Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Parameters Added in Version 2. ON. also has instance parameter. 0=on internal node) BC recombination time constant at the BC barrier for high forward injection Partitioning factor of parasitic BE capacitance Total parasitic BE capacitance (spacer and metal) Effective emitter bandgap voltage VgEeff Effective collector bandgap voltage VgCeff Effective substrate bandgap voltage VgSeff Coefficient K1 in T dependent bandgap equation TUNODE - 1 TBHREC ps 0 FBEPAR CBEPAR - 0 1. otherwise OFF. ■ ■ 1: bug fixed by Synopsys 0: no bug fix CDCI_UPDATE 1 Flag for CDCI equation.17 1. This flag can be used for SYNOPSY_UPDATE = 1 ■ ■ 1=latest equation 0=old equation VERSION - 2.17 1.12 .2 Default Factor Description FLSH - 0 M Self-heating flag.17 1.

factors.0e-16.2 (Continued) Default Factor Description F2VG V/K 4.0e-30. then C10=IS * QP0. This includes parameter names. descriptions. C10=2.12 251 . units. otherwise.3215e-4 Coefficient K2 in T dependent bandgap equation Exponent coefficient in BE junction current temperature dependence Exponent coefficient in transfer current temperature dependence ZETABET - 5 ZETACT - 4. Zero-bias hole charge High-current correction for 2D/3D Weighting factor for Qfc (mainly for HBTs) Weighting factor for Qef in HBTs Weighting factor for Qjci in HBTs Weighting factor for Qjei in HBTs QP0 ICH HFC HFE HJCI HJEI As A - 2e-14 1e+20 1 1 1 1 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. IS=1. If IS > 0.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model Table 77 Name Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Parameters Added in Version 2. and notes.5 Internal Transistors This section lists the HICUM LEVEL=8 internal transistor parameters. The IS setting determines the C10 parameter value. default values. C10=C10. Table 78 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Transfer Current Parameters Default Factor Description C10 A2s 2e-30 M2 Constant.

7 0. to zero-bias value Zero-bias value Built-in voltage Exponent coefficient Punch-through voltage (=q Nci w^2ci / (2epsilion)) Table 81 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Forward Transit Time Parameters Default Factor Description T0 DT0H s s 0 0 Low current transit time at VBC=0 Time constant for base and BC SCR width modulation Voltage for modeling carrier jam at low VC'E' Storage time in neutral emitter TBVL TEF0 s s 0 0 252 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. to zero-bias value Table 80 Name (Alias) BJT LEVEL=8 BC Depletion Capacitance Parameters Unit Default Factor Description ALJEP (AJEP) CJCI0 VDCI ZCI VPTCI F V V 2.4 1e+20 M Ratio of max.12 .9 0 0.5 0 0.5 2.5 Built-in voltage Zero-bias value Exponent coefficient Ratio of max.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model Table 79 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 BE Depletion Capacitance Parameters Default Factor Description VDEI CJEI0 ZEI ALJEI (AJEI) V F - 0.

of BC SCR Internal CE sat.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model Table 81 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Forward Transit Time Parameters (Continued) Default Factor Description GTFE - 1 Exponent factor for current dep.5 1e+20 0. Table 83 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Inverse Transit Time Parameter Default Factor Description TR s 0 Time constant for inverse operation HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. C and B transit time Partitioning factor for base and collection portion Factor for additional delay time of Q_f NQS flag (NQS supported in V2.12 253 . vtg. emitter transit time Saturation time constant at high current densities Smoothing factor for current dep. also has instance parameter THCS ALHC s - 0 0.1 1/M Low-field resistance of internal collector region Voltage separating ohmic and SCR regime Epi punch-through vtg.23).1 FTHC ALQF FLNQS - 0 0 0 Table 82 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Critical Current Parameters Default Factor Description RCI0 VLIM VPT VCES Ohm V V V 150 0.

6557 1/M 1/M Value at zero-bias External base series resistance Geometry factor (corresponds to long emitter stripe) Correction factor for BE and BC SCR modulation FDQR0 - 0 254 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model Table 84 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Base Current Component Parameters Default Factor Description IBEIS MBEI IREIS MREI TBHREC A A ps 1e-18 1 0 2 0 M BE saturation current BE saturation current M BE recombination saturation current BE recombination non-ideality factor BC recombination time constant at the BC barrier for high forward injection IBCIS MBCI A - 1e-16 1 M BC saturation current BC non-ideality factor Table 85 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Weak BC Avalanche Breakdown Parameters Default Factor Description FAVL QAVL 1/V C 0 0 M Prefactor for CB avalanche effect Exponent factor for CB avalanche effect Table 86 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Internal Base Resistance Parameters Default Factor Description RBI0 RBX FGEO Ohm Ohm - 0 0 0.12 .

to zero-bias value HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Table 88 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 BE Depletion Capacitance Default Factor Description CJEP0 VDEP ZEP ALJEP F V - 0 0.5 M Zero-bias value Built-in voltage Depletion coeff Ratio of max.12 255 . Ratio of internal to total minority charge Emitter series resistance External collector series resistance Table 87 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Lateral Scaling Default Factor Description LATB - 0 Scaling factor for Qfc in l_E (“I” is the letter L—not the number 1) Scaling factor for Qfc in l_E direction (“I” is the letter L—not the number 1) LATL - 0 Peripheral Elements This section lists the HICUM LEVEL=8 model peripheral element parameters.5 2. factors. This includes parameter names.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model Table 86 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Internal Base Resistance Parameters (Continued) Default Factor Description FCRBI FQI RE RCX Ohm Ohm 0 1.0 0 0 1/M 1/M Ratio of HF shunt to total internal capacitance. descriptions. default values.9 0. and notes. units.

default values.7 0.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model Table 89 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Base Current Default Factor Description IBEPS MBEP IREPS MREP A A - 0 1 0 2 M Saturation current Non-ideality factor M Recombination saturation factor Recombination non-ideality factor Table 90 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 BE Tunneling Default Factor Description IBETS ABET TUNODE A - 0 40 1 M Saturation current Exponent coefficient Tunneling flag (1=on peripheral node. and notes. units. factors. 0=on internal node) External Elements This section lists the HICUM LEVEL=8 model external element parameters.4 M Zero-bias depletion value Built-in voltage Exponent coefficient 256 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Table 91 Name (Alias) BJT LEVEL=8 BC Capacitance Unit Default Factor Description CJCX0 VDCX ZCX F V - 0 0. This includes parameter names. descriptions.12 .

12 257 .Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model Table 91 Name (Alias) BJT LEVEL=8 BC Capacitance (Continued) Unit Default Factor Description VPTCX CCOX (CBCPAR) FBC (FDCPAR) V F - 1e+20 0 0 M Punch-through voltage Collector oxide capacitance Partitioning factor for C_BCX =C’_BCx+C”_BCx Total parasitic BE capacitance (spacer and metal) Partitioning factor of parasitic BE capacitance CBEPAR - 1.0 FBEPAR - 0 Table 92 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 BC Base Current Component Default Factor Description IBCXS MBCX A - 0 1 M Saturation current Non-ideality factor Table 93 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Other External Elements Default Factor Description RBX RE RCX Ohm Ohm Ohm 0 0 0 1/M 1/M 1/M External base series resistance Emitter series resistance External collector series resistance HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model Table 94 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Substrate Transistor Parameters Default Factor Description ITSS MSF TSF ISCS MSC A s A - 0 1 0 0 1 M Transfer saturation current Non-ideality factor (forward transfer current) Minority charge storage transit time M Saturation current of CS diode Non-ideality factor of CS diode Table 95 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Collector-Substrate Depletion Capacitance Default Factor Description CJS0 VDS ZS VPTS F V V 0 0.6 0.12 .5 1e+20 M Zero-bias value of CS depletion cap Built-in voltage Exponent coefficient Punch-through voltage Table 96 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Substrate Coupling Network Default Factor Description RSU CSU Ohm F 0 0 1/M Substrate series resistance Substrate capacitance from permittivity of bulk material 258 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

3215e-4 ZETACT - 4.17 0 KT0 1/K2 1/K 0 ALVS 0 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model Table 97 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Noise Parameters Default Factor Description KF AF - 0 2 M1-AF Flicker noise factor (no unit only for AF=2!) Flicker noise exponent factor Table 98 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Temperature Dependence Parameters Default Factor Description VGB F1VG V V/K 1.12 259 .5 VGE ZETABET V - 1.17 1.17 5 VGC VGS ALT0 V V 1/K 1.17 1. TEF0 Second-order relative temperature coefficient.02377e-4 Bandgap voltage Coefficient K1 in T dependent bandgap equation Coefficient K2 in T dependent bandgap equation Exponent coefficient in transfer current temperature dependence Effective emitter bandgap voltage VgEeff Exponent coefficient in BE junction current temperature dependence Effective collector bandgap voltage VgCeff Effective substrate bandgap voltage VgSeff First-order relative temperature coefficient. TEF0 Relative temperature coefficient of saturation drift velocity F2VG V/K 4.

otherwise OFF. ON.4) Thermal resistance (not supported in v2000. If you use vers=2. The self-heating effect also applies to the circuit temperature as an increased self-heating temperature. also has instance parameter. set VERS=2.4) Self-heating flag.1 and set an RTH parameter value other than 0. T=Tckt(circuit temperature) + Tsh(self heating temperature) + dtemp (difference between circuit temperature and ambient temperature). 260 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. If FLSH is not 0 and RTH>0. Table 99 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Self-Heating Parameters Default Factor Description RTH CTH FLSH K/W Ws/K - 0 0 0 1/M M M Thermal resistance (not supported in v2000.0 or RTH=0.12 . then self-heating is OFF.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model Table 98 Name (Alias) Unit BJT LEVEL=8 Temperature Dependence Parameters (Continued) Default Factor Description ALCES ZETARBI ZETARBX ZETARCX ZETARE ALFAV 1/K 1/K 0 0 0 0 0 0 Relative temperature coefficient of VCES Temperature exponent factor of RBI0 Temperature exponent factor of RBX Temperature exponent factor of RCX Temperature exponent factor of RE Relative temperature coefficient for avalanche breakdown Relative temperature coefficient for avalanche breakdown ALQAV 1/K 0 To use the self-heating HICUM feature (in BJT LEVEL=8).

12 261 .Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model Table 100 BJT LEVEL=8 Other Parameters Name (Alias) Unit Default Factor Description IS MCF A - -1.0 The default parameter values for HICUM version 2.0 1.2 are follow: HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 Ideal saturation current Non-ideal factor of reverse current between base and collector. VT=VT*MCF Temperature exponent factor (epi-layer) ZETACX - 1.

0 0.225000E+00 + favl=.7 0.700000E+00 vpt=.2 0.5 0.00000000E-9 + cjei0=.41600E+03 + rci0=.9 0.0 0.450000E+00 alqf=.0 0.82500E-04 + alqav=.101500E+01 ibeps=.200000E+01 ireps=.0 0.0 0.127800E+03 vlim=.0 0.180000E-11 gtfe=.00000E+00 fgeo=.3 0.0 0.100000E+00 + t0=.1 0.47500000E-11 dt0h=.140000E+01 thcs=.9055000E+00 + alit=.0 0.85 + c10=.750000E+00 + fthc=.100000E+01 tr=1.11600E-14 vdci=.0 0.10000E-29 + mbep=.4 0.730000E+00 262 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.PRINT DC I(VIN) i2(q1) I(VC) i1(q1) I(VCS) i4(q1) .12 .111000E-13 alfav=.3760000E-31 qp0=.300000E-10 + alhc=.6 0.0 0.0 0.0000000E+00 hjei=.342000E+00 fqi=.0 0.MODEL hicum NPN Level=8 + tref = 26.950000E+00 zei=.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=8 HICUM Model **** .000000E+00 fdqr0=.OPTION post .0 0.0 0.8 0.5000000E+00 + aljei=.5000000E+01 + vces=.18000E+01 + cjci0=.19600E-03 + ibeis=.81100E-14 vdei=.400000E-11 + tef0=.0 0.376500E+01 latl=.10000E-29 + mrep=.85 VIN 2 0 vbe VC 1 0 vce VS 4 0 vsub VE 3 0 0 Q1 1 2 3 4 hicum .210000E-11 tbvl=.DATA test_data vbe vce vsub 0.600000E+00 + latb=.11600E-15 mrei=.0 0.0 0.0 0.000000E+00 + hjci=.ENDDATA .1000000E+01 + hfe=1.0 .200000E+01 + rbi0=.200000E+01 + ireis=.118600E+01 qavl=.800000E+00 zci=.11600E-19 mbei=.0 0.TEMP 26.2090000E-01 + hfc=.0 0.3330000E+00 + vptci=.DC data= test_data .0 0.0 1.2780000E-13 ich=.0 0.

3330000E+00 + vptcx=.0 + ibets=.5880E+00 zetarcx=0.00000E+00 + cjep0=.0000E+00 + rth=0.12 263 . VBIC99 is a newer version of the VBIC model.10000E+03 + ccox=.0000000E+00 .1600E+01 alvs=.0000000E+00 rbx=.000000E+00 + kt0=.1526000E+00 + ibcxs=.24000E+01 + ceox=.000000E+00 + msc=.000000E+00 fbc=.6000000E+00 zs=.000000E+00 + iscs=.0000000E+00 re=.0000000E+00 csu=. the temperature coefficients of the base and collector resistances are split.00000000E+00 + vgb=. To use the VBIC99 model.1170000E+01 alb=.11600E-19 + mbci=.00000E+00 abet=.4000000E+00 + aljep=.100000E-02 alces=.105000E+01 zep=.0 cth=0.200000E+01 ibcis=.6300000E-02 alt0=.00000E+00 vdep=.101500E+01 + cjs0=.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=9 VBIC99 Model + fcrbi=.0000000E+00 + rsu=.00000000E+00 af=.10000E-29 mbcx=. The temperature dependence of the built-in potential is also improved.END LEVEL=9 VBIC99 Model The VBIC 95 (Vertical Bipolar Inter-Company Model) for Motorola bipolar transistor device is installed in the device models as BJT LEVEL=4. The VBIC99 model includes several effects that are improved compared to the VBIC95 model. and is implemented in the device models as BJT LEVEL=9.000000E+00 msf=.000000E+00 + cjcx0=.000000E+00 vds=.00000E+00 vdcx=. set the LEVEL parameter to 9 for the bipolar transistor model.44700000E+00 + vpts=.40000E-03 + zetarbi=0. ■ HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. ■ In VBIC99.700000E+00 zcx=.2060E+00 zetare=0.00000000E+00 + kf=.000000E+00 + itss=.2230E+00 + zetarbx=0.100000E+04 + rcx=.0000000E+00 + zetaci=.0000000E+00 tsf=0.

Substrate node name or number. equals 27 degrees. Self heating node name or number. Model parameters are RTH and CTH. ■ ■ ■ LEVEL=9 Element Syntax Qxxx nc nb ne <ns> mname <AREA=val> <OFF> <VBE=val> <VCE=val> + <M=val> <DTEMP=val> Parameter Description Qxxx BJT element name. You cannot use OFF with VBE or VCE. Nc Nb Ne Ns t Mname AREA OFF 264 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Sets the initial condition to OFF for this element in DC analysis. The VBIC99 model supports AREA and M factor scaling. followed by up to 1023 alphanumeric characters. This model supports self-heating. The normalized emitter area. Area is used only as an alias of the multiplication factor (M). Emitter terminal node name or number.12 . Default value=1. BJT model name reference. The reference temperature. Base terminal node name and number.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=9 VBIC99 Model Usage Notes The following information applies to the HSPICE device model for the VBIC99 device: ■ Set LEVEL to 9 to identify the model as a VBIC99 bipolar junction transistor model. Must begin with Q. Collector terminal node name or number. VBIC99 LEVEL=9 model has no area effect. TREF.

Model Implementation The following parameters were added to the VBIC99 model and are not in the VBIC95 model.12 265 . Fixed collector-substrate capacitance. ISRR DEAR TVBBE1 XRCX IKF EAP TVBBE2 XRBX VRT VBBE TNBBE XRBP ART NBBE EBBE XIXF QBM IBBE CCSO XISR HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 5: BJT Models Effects of VBIC99 Parameter Description VBE VCE M DTEMP Initial internal base-emitter voltage. Reverse transport saturation current. Reach-through model for base-collector depletion capacitance. The temperature difference between the element and circuit. Multiplier to simulate multiple BJTs in parallel. Initial internal collector-emitter voltage. Effects of VBIC99 The VBIC99 model includes several effects that are improved compared to the VBIC95 model: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Addition of temperature dependency for several parameters. High-current beta rolloff effect. Base-emitter breakdown model.

and notes.0 0. including parameter names.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 Model level Nominal measurement temperature of parameters Extrinsic collector Resistance Intrinsic collector Resistance Intrinsic collector Resistance Extrinsic collector Resistance Parasitic base Resistance Emitter Resistance Substrate Resistance Transport saturation current Ideal base-emitter saturation current Non-Ideal base-emitter saturation current Ideal base-collector saturation current Non-Ideal base-collector saturation current Parasitic transport saturation current Ideal parasitic base-emitter saturation current Non-Ideal parasitic base-emitter saturation current RCX RCI RBI RBX RBP RE RS IS IBEI IBEN IBCI IBCN ISP IBEIP IBENP W W W W W W W A A A A A A A A 0.0e-16 1.0e-16 0.0 0. units.12 .Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=9 Model Parameters LEVEL=9 Model Parameters These tables describe VBIC99 as HSPICE BJT LEVEL=9 model parameters. default values.0 0.0 1.0 266 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Table 101 LEVEL=9 VBIC99 Basic Parameters Parameter Unit Default Description LEVEL TREF W 9 27.0e-18 0.0 0.0 0. descriptions.0 0. Parameters with an asterisk (*) are not used in the DC model.

75 0.0 Ideal parasitic base-collector saturation current Non-Ideal base-collector saturation current *Reverse transport saturation current Forward emission coefficient Reverse emission coefficient Ideal base-emitter emission coefficient Non-ideal base-emitter emission coefficient Ideal base-collector emission coefficient Non-ideal base-collector emission coefficient Parasitic forward emission coefficient Ideal parasitic base-collector emission coefficient Ideal parasitic base-collector emission coefficient *High current beta roll off parameter Base-emitter Grading coefficient Base-collector Grading coefficient Substrate-collector Grading coefficient Base-emitter built-in potential Base-collector built-in potential Substrate-collector built-in potential Portion of IBEI from Vbei.33 0.33 0.0 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.75 0.5 0. 1-WBE from Vbex NCNP - 2.0 0.0 1.75 1.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=9 Model Parameters Table 101 LEVEL=9 VBIC99 Basic Parameters (Continued) Parameter Unit Default Description IBCIP IBCNP ISRR NF NR NEI NEN NCI NCN NFP NCIP A A A - 0.0 1.12 267 .0 NKF ME MC MS PE PC PS WBE V V V - 0.33 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.

0 0.12 Portion of ICCP from Vbep. zero means infinity Reverse early voltage.12 1.0 0.0 0.12 1.12 .0 0.12 1. zero means infinity Forward transit time Variation of TF with base-width modulation Coefficient of TF bias dependence Coefficient of TF dependence on Vbc Coefficient of TF dependence on Ic Reverse transit time Activation energy for IS Activation energy for IBEI Activation energy for IBCI/IBEIP Activation energy for IBCIP Activation energy for IBEN Activation energy for IBCN/IBENP Activation energy for IBCNP 268 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 0.0 0.0 1. 1-WBE from Vbci Base-collector avalanche parameter 1 Base-collector avalanche parameter 2 Forward early voltage. zero means infinity Reverse knee current. zero means infinity Forward knee current.0 0.12 1.0 0.12 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. zero means infinity Parasitic knee current.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=9 Model Parameters Table 101 LEVEL=9 VBIC99 Basic Parameters (Continued) Parameter Unit Default Description WSP AVC1 AVC2 VEF VER IKF IKR IKP TF QTF XTF VTF ITF TR EA EAIE EAIC EAIS EANE EANC EANS 1/V 1/V V V A A A S V A S EV EV EV EV EV EV EV 1.12 1.0 0.

0 Epi drift saturation voltage Epi doping parameter High current RC factor *reach-through voltage for Cbc limiting *smoothing parameter for reach-through *base charge model selection *delta activation energy for ISRR *activation energy for ISP *base-emitter breakdown voltage * base-emitter breakdown emission coefficient * base-emitter breakdown current *linear temperature coefficient of VBBE *quadratic temperature coefficient of VBBE *temperature coefficient of NBBE exp(-VBBE/(NBBE*Vtv)) Table 102 LEVEL=9 VBIC99 Capacitance/Charge Parameters Parameter Unit Default Description FC CBEO CJE F F 0.0 0.0e-6 0.0 1.1 0.0 1.0 1.12 269 .9 0.0 Forward bias depletion cap limit Extrinsic base-emitter overlap cap Base-emitter zero bias cap HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 0.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=9 Model Parameters Table 101 LEVEL=9 VBIC99 Basic Parameters (Continued) Parameter Unit Default Description VO GAMM HRCF VRT ART QBM DEAR EAP VBBE NBBE IBBE TVBBE1 TVBBE2 TNBBE EBBE V V - 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.12 0.0 0.0 0.

Smoothing factor Extrinsic base-collector overlap cap Base-collector zero bias cap Epi charge parameter Base-collector extrinsic zero bias cap Base-collector cap smoothing factor Substrate-collector zero bias cap Substrate-collector cap.0 0.0 0.0 XRBX - 0. Smoothing factor *Fixed collector-substrate capacitance Table 103 LEVEL=9 VBIC99 Temperature Coefficients Parameter Unit Default Description XRE XRBI - 0.0 Temperature exponent of emitter resistance Temperature exponent of intrinsic base resistance Temperature exponent.5 0.0 XRS XRCX - 0. intrinsic collector resistance Temperature exponent of substrate resistance *Temperature exponent of extrinsic base resistance *Temperature exponent.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=9 Model Parameters Table 102 LEVEL=9 VBIC99 Capacitance/Charge Parameters (Continued) Parameter Unit Default Description AJE CBCO CJC QCO CJEP AJC CJCP AJS CCSO F F Coul F F F -0. extrinsic collector resistance XRCI - 0.5 0.0 Base-emitter cap.12 .0 -0.0 -0.0 0.0 270 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.5 0.0 0.0 0.

0 *Temperature exponent of parasitic base resistance *Temperature exponent of IKF *Temperature exponent of ISRR Temperature exponent of VO Temperature exponent of IS Temperature exponent of IBEI/IBCI/IBEIP/ IBCIP Temperature exponent.0 0.0 0.0 Table 104 LEVEL=9 VBIC99 Noise Parameters Parameter Unit Default Description AFN KFN BFN - 1.0 3.0 1.0 Base-emitter Flicker noise exponent Base-emitter Flicker noise constant Base-emitter Flicker noise 1/f dependence Table 105 LEVEL=9 VBIC99 Self-heating Parameters Parameter Unit Default Description RTH K/W 0.12 271 .0 3.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=9 Model Parameters Table 103 LEVEL=9 VBIC99 Temperature Coefficients (Continued) Parameter Unit Default Description XRBP - 0.0 XIN - 3.0 TNF TAVC 1/K 1/K 0.0 0.0 Thermal resistance HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 0. IBEN/IBCN/IBENP/ IBCNP Temperature exponent of NF Temperature coefficient of AVC2 XIKF XISR XVO XIS XII - 0.

high injection effect.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model Table 105 LEVEL=9 VBIC99 Self-heating Parameters Parameter Unit Default Description CTH J/K 0.12 .sp VBIC99 LEVEL=9 TRAN Analysis Example The VBIC99 level9 transient test example is located in the following directory: $installdir/demo/hspice/bjt/vbic99_tran.0 Forward excess-phase delay time VBIC99 LEVEL=9 AC Analysis Example The VBIC99 level9 AC test example is located in the following directory: $installdir/demo/hspice/bjt/vbic99_ac. 272 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. It also models current crowding effects. It uses a physical modelling approach where the main currents and charges are independently related to bias-dependent minority carrier concentrations.0 Thermal capacitance Table 106 LEVEL=9 VBIC99 Excess Phase Parameter Parameter Unit Default Description TD S 0. This model is based directly on device physics.sp VBIC99 LEVEL=9 DC Analysis Example The VBIC99 level9 DC test example is located in the following directory: $installdir/demo/hspice/bjt/vbic99_dc.sp LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model The Philips MODELLA LEVEL=10 provides a highly-accurate compact model for lateral pnp integrated circuit transistors.

Table 107 BJT LEVEL=10 Transistor Parameters Name (Alias) Unit Default Description LEVEL IS BF IBF A A 10 1.20e-13 VLR V 0. non-ideal forward base current High injection knee current Vertical fraction of forward current Early voltage of the lateral forward current component at zero collector-base bias Early voltage of the vertical forward current component at zero collector-base bias Ideal reverse common-emitter current gain Saturation current of non-ideal reverse base current Cross-over voltage of non-ideal reverse base current Vertical fraction of reverse current Early voltage of the lateral reverse current component at zero emitter-base bias Early voltage of the vertical reverse current component at zero emitter-base bias VLF V 0.00 1. Table 107 describes the transistor parameters for this model.43 V 20.43 13.00 2.80e-16 131.12 273 .50 EAFV V 75.48 XIRV EARL V 0.00 BR IBR A 25.00 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.60e-14 Model level Collector-emitter saturation current Ideal forward common-emitter current gain Saturation current of non-ideal forward base current V Cross-over voltage.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model and a bias-dependent output impedance.10e-4 0.54 IK XIFV EAFL A 1.10 EARV V 104.

00e-10 274 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.40e-9 TFVR S 3.00e-8 TFN S 2.00 10.00 1.00 47.00 XHCS 1.70e-3 Ratio between saturation current of e-b-s transistor and e-b-c transistor Fraction of substrate current of e-b-s transistor subject to high injection Ratio between the saturation current of c-b-s transistor and c-b-e transistor Fraction of substrate current of c-b-s transistor subject to high injection Saturation current of substrate-base diode External part of the collector resistance Internal part of the collector resistance Constant part of the base resistance RBC Variable part of the base resistance RBC Constant part of the base resistance RBE Variable part of the base resistance RBE External part of the emitter resistance Internal part of the emitter resistance Substrate-base leakage resistance Low injection (forward/reverse) transit time of charge stored in epilayer between emitter and collector Low injection forward transit time due to charge stored in the epilayer under the emitter Low injection forward transit time due to charge stored in emitter.12 .70 XCS 3.00 66.00 27.00 10.00 50. and buried layer under the emitter XHES 0.00 10.00 ISS RCEX RCIN RBCC RBCV RBEC RBEV REEX REIN RSB TLAT A W W W W W W W W W S 4.00e-13 5.00e15 2.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model Table 107 BJT LEVEL=10 Transistor Parameters (Continued) Name (Alias) Unit Default Description XES 2.

base between emitter and collector S 1.30e-12 VDS PS TREF DTA V 0.00 VGEB 1.35 οC οC V 25.52 0.12 275 .206 VGSB V 1.206 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.90e-13 0.30 Zero-bias emitter-base depletion capacitance Emitter-base diffusion voltage Emitter-base grading coefficient Low injection reverse transit time due to charge stored in the epilayer under the collector Low injection reverse transit time due to charge stored in collector.52 0.00e-9 TRN S 3.10e-14 0.206 VGB V 1.00e-9 CJC VDC PC CJS F V 3.206 VGCB V 1.57 0. and buried layer under collector Zero-bias collector-base depletion capacitance Collector-base diffusion voltage Collector-base grading coefficient Zero-bias substrate-base depletion capacitance Substrate-base diffusion voltage Substrate-base grading coefficient Reference temperature of the parameter set Difference between the device temperature and the ambient analysis temperature Bandgap voltage of the emitter-base depletion region Bandgap voltage of collector-base depletion region Bandgap voltage of substrate-base depletion region Bandgap voltage.00 0.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model Table 107 BJT LEVEL=10 Transistor Parameters (Continued) Name (Alias) Unit Default Description CJE VDE PE TRVR F V 6.36 F 1.

853 SNB 2.123 Bandgap voltage of the emitter Bandgap voltage recombination emitter-base junction Temperature coefficient of BF Temperature coefficient.60 SNBN 0.00 KF AF EXPHI 0.00 0.00 1.30 SPE SPC 0.73 0.206 1. epitaxial base hole mobility Temperature coefficient of epitaxial base electron mobility Temperature coefficient.73 SX 1.48 2. buried layer electron mobility Temperature coefficient of emitter hole mobility Temperature coefficient of collector hole mobility Temperature coefficient of combined minority carrier mobilities in emitter and buried layer Flicker noise coefficient Flicker noise exponent rad Excess phase shift AE SPB 4.12 .Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model Table 107 BJT LEVEL=10 Transistor Parameters (Continued) Name (Alias) Unit Default Description VGE VGJE V V 1.00 276 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model Equivalent Circuits B REEX E2 E REIN E1 IFLAT IRLAT C1 RCIN C2 RCEX C IRLAT IFLAT CFLAT CRLAT IRVER IFVER B1 IFVER B2 IRVER IRE IRC ILE RBE ISE RBC ILC ISC CET CCT CFVER CRVER CFN CRN ISE CSD CST S ISF RSB ISC HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 277 .

Figure 38 shows the small signal equivalent circuit.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model Figure 37 Large-signal Equivalent Circuit B E REEX E2 REEX E1 REEX CπL CμL dlπL dlμL C1 REEX C2 REEX C dlRVER dlFVER GπV B1 CπV GBE dlB1B GBC B2 dlB2B GμV CμV CSB dlSE GSB dlSC Figure 38 Small-signal Equivalent Circuit DC Operating Point Output The DC operating point output facility gives information on the state of a device at its operation point. RCIN and RCEX are constant resistors. 278 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. REEX. REIN. Figure 1 shows the DC large signal equivalent circuit.12 .

: ∂I RVER / ∂V C2B2 Conductance e-b junction: ∂ (I RE + I LE)/ ∂V E 2B1 GMU GSB CPIL CPIV Conductance c-b junction: ∂ (I RC + I LC)/ ∂V C 2B2 Conductance s-b junction: ∂I SF / ∂V SB + 1/R SB Forward diffusion cap. vertical path: ∂ (Q TE + Q FVER + Q FN) /∂ V E2B1 Reverse diffusion capacitance.12 279 ..: ∂I FVER / ∂V E 2B1 G12 G21 G22 GPI Collector Early-effect on I FVER: ∂I FVER / ∂V C1B Emitter Early-effect on I RVER: ∂I RVER / ∂V E1B Reverse conductance.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model dILAT=g fL ×dV E1B . lateral path.: ∂I FLAT /∂V E 1B1 Reverse conductance. lateral path: ∂Q FLAT / ∂V E1B Forward total capacitance. lateral path.: ∂I RLAT / ∂V C1B Forward conductance.g rL ×dV C1B dIFVER=g 11× dV E2B1 + g 12 ×dVC1B dIRVER=g 21 ×dV E1B + g 22× dV C2B2 dI B1B=G IBE ×dV E2B1 dI B2B =G IBC ×dV C2B2 dI PL= jw ×C IPL ×dV C1B dI mL= jw ×C ImL ×dV E1B dISE =G ISE ×dV E2B1 dISC= G ISC× dV C2B2 Table 108 BJT LEVEL=10. lateral path: ∂Q RLAT / ∂V C1B CMUL HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. vertical path. vertical path. DC Operating Point Parameters Name (Alias) Description GFL GRL G11 Forward conductance.

vertical path: ∂ (Q tc + Q rver + Q rn)/ ∂V C2B2 Total capacitance s-b junction: ∂Q TS / ∂V SB + ∂Q SD /∂V SB CSB Model Equations Early Factors The Early factors for the components of the main current I p are derived from the variation of the depletion widths in the base relative to the base width itself.+ δ⎟ 1 – + δ – 1 4 ⎜4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ VD VD ⎪ ⎪ T T --------------------------------------------.– -------------------------------------.⎟ ⋅ δE ⎬ FFVR = hyp ⎨ 1 – ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 1⎪ EARV EAFV ⎪ 1 + -------------1 + -------------⎜ ⎟ 2 VD 2 VD T ⎪ ⎪ T ⎝ ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ Early factor of the reverse vertical current component ⎧ ⎫ VE1B ⎞ 2 VC2B2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎛ ⎞ ⎪ ⎪ .+ δ 4 ⎛ 1 – -------------+ δ⎟ ⎜ 4 ⎝ 1 – ----------⎠ ⎝ ⎠ VD VD ⎪ ⎪ T T .Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model Table 108 BJT LEVEL=10.⎟ ⋅ δE ⎬ FLAT = hyp ⎨ 1 – ⎜ -----------------------------------1⎪ EAFL ⎜ 1 + EARL ⎪ .⎟ ⋅ δE ⎬ FRVER = hyp ⎨ 1 – ⎜ ------------------------------------------.– ------------------------------------------.12 .– --------------------------------------------⎜ ⎟ 1⎪ EARV EAFV ⎪ 1 + -------------1 + -------------⎜ ⎟ 2 VD 2 VD ⎪ ⎪ T T ⎝ ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 280 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. DC Operating Point Parameters (Continued) Name (Alias) Description CMUV Reverse total capacitance. Early factor of the lateral current components ⎧ ⎫ V1 ⎞ 2 V-⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 1 – ------⎞ ⎛ 1 – ------⎪ ⎪ +δ + δ ⎜ ⎝ ⎟ ⎝ VD ⎠ ⎪ ⎪ VD ⎠ .⎟ -------------1 + -------------⎝ ⎠ 2 VD 2 VD ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Early factor of the forward vertical current component ⎧ ⎫ V CLB ⎞ 2 VE2B1 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎪ ⎪ ----------------------.

Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model Model Parameters ■ ■ ■ ■ EAFL EAFV EARL EARV Currents The ideal diode equations are as follows. These formulations include Early and high injection effects. originating from the emitter-base junction sidewall and bottom. Because the two currents depend on different internal emitter-base junction voltages. respectively.⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 3 + 1 + 16 × --------Ik ⎠ I flat The vertical forward current component (Ifver) is: HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. The lateral forward current component (Iflat) is: ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ 4 × ( 1 – Xifv ) × If 1⎟ = ⎜ ---------------------------------------------------⎟ ÷ Flat If 1. emitter current crowding is also modelled. Ip = I flat + I fver – I rlat – I rver Forward currents—Iflat and Ifver The main forward current is separated into lateral and vertical components.12 281 . If 1 = I S ( e If 2 = I S ( e Ir 1 = I S ( e Ir 2 = I S ( e Ve1b/Vt – 1) – 1) Ve2b1/Vt Vc1b/Vt – 1) – 1) Vc2b2/Vt model parameter: Is The Ip main current is as follows.

collector current crowding is also modelled. Ideal component: 282 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model I fver ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ 4 × Xifv × If 2 ⎟ -⎟ ÷ Ffver = ⎜ -------------------------------------------If 2⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 3 + 1 + 16 × ------Ik ⎠ Model parameters: ■ ■ Xifv Ik Reverse currents—Irlat and Irver The main reverse current contains lateral and vertical components.⎟ ⎝ 3 + 1 + 16 × ------Ik ⎠ I rlatt The vertical reverse current component (Irver) is: ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ 4 × Xirv × Ir 2 ⎟ -⎟ ÷ Frver = ⎜ -------------------------------------------Ir 2 ⎜ -⎟ ⎝ 3 + 1 + 16 × ------Ik ⎠ I rver Model parameter: Xirv Base Current Forward components The total forward base current is composed of an ideal and a non-ideal component. respectively. Both components depend on the bottom part of the emitter-base junction. The two currents depend on different internal collector-base junction voltages. These formulations include Early and high injection effects.12 . originating from the collector-base junction sidewall and bottom. The lateral reverse current component (Irlat) is: ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ 4 × ( 1 – Xirv ) × Ir 1⎟ -⎟ ÷ Flat = ⎜ --------------------------------------------------Ir 1 ⎜ .

Both components depend on the bottom part of the collector-base junction. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. The XHES parameter determines the fraction that is subject to high injection. Ideal component: Ir 2 Irc = ------Br Non-ideal component: – 1) Ibr × ( e Ilc = ------------------------------------------------Vc2b2/2Vt Vlt/2Vt e +e Model parameters: ■ ■ ■ Vc2b2/Vt Br Ibr Vlr Substrate current Forward components The forward substrate component depends on the bottom part of the emitterbase junction. It consists of an ideal component.12 283 .Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model If 2 Ire = ------Bf Non-ideal component: Ibf × ( e – 1) Ile = -----------------------------------------------Ve2b1/Vt Vlf/2Vt +e e Model parameters: ■ ■ ■ Ve2b1/Vt Bf Ibf Vif Reverse components The total reverse base current is composed of an ideal and a non-ideal component. and a component subject to high injection effects.

Emitter-base depletion charge 284 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model 4 × Xhes × Xes × If 2 Ise = ( 1 – Xhes ) × Xes × If 2 + -----------------------------------------------------If 2 3 + 1 + 16 × ------Ik Model parameters: ■ ■ Xes Xhes Reverse components The reverse substrate component depends on the bottom part of the collectorbase junction. sometimes observed in the base current at low bias conditions and high temperatures. 4 × Xhcs × Xcs × Ir 2 Isc = ( 1 – Xhcs ) × Xcs × Ir 2 + -----------------------------------------------------Ir 2 3 + 1 + 16 × ------Ik Model parameters: ■ ■ Xcs Xhcs Additional Substrate and Base current An ideal diode models the substrate-base junction. and a component subject to high injection effects.12 . It consists of an ideal component. Isf = Iss × ( e Vsb/Vt – 1) Model parameter: Iss Charges Depletion Charges The Poon-Gummel formulation models the depletion charges. The XHCS parameter determines the fraction that is subject to high injection. You can use the reverse leakage current of this junction to model the zero-crossover phenomena.

× ⎨ ----------------------------------------------------.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ – Cje Vde – Ve 2 b 1 .⎬ Qte = -------------Pe 1 – Pe ⎪ ----2 2 ⎪ 2 b 1 ⎪ ⎛ 1 – Ve ⎞ --------------.× ⎨ ----------------------------------------------------.× ⎨ ---------------------------------------------⎬ Qts = -------------Ps 1 – Ps ⎪ ----2 2 ⎪ Vsb ⎪ ⎛ 1 – --------⎞ + δ ⎪ ⎩ ⎝ ⎭ Vds⎠ Model parameters: ■ ■ ■ Cjs Vds Ps HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.+δ ⎪ ⎩ ⎝ ⎭ Vde ⎠ Model parameters: ■ ■ ■ Cje Vde Pe Collector-base depletion charge ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ – Cjc Vdc – Vc 2 b 2 .12 285 .⎬ Qtc = -------------Pc 1 – Pc ⎪ ----2 2 ⎪ 2 b 2 ⎪ ⎛ 1 – Vc ---------------⎞ + δ ⎪ ⎩ ⎝ ⎭ Vdc ⎠ Model parameters: ■ ■ ■ Cjc Vdc Pc Substrate-base depletion charge ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ – Cjs Vds – Vsb .

Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model Forward Stored Charges Storing forward-active charges consists of three main components. 286 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. This charge storage occurs only when the substrate-base junction is forward biased: Qsd = Tsd × Isf Note: Tsd is a constant. ■ Charge stored in epitaxial base region between emitter and collector: Flat Ir 1 .– 1⎞ × -Qrver = Trvr × Ik × ⎛ 1 + 16 × ------⎝ ⎠ 8 Ik ■ Charge stored in collector and buried layer under collector: Qrn = Trn × Ir 2 Substrate-base Stored Charge Charge stored in the substrate and base.12 .– 1⎞ × -Qfver = Tfvr × Ik × ⎛ 1 + 16 × ------⎝ ⎠ 8 Ik ■ Charge stored in emitter and buried layer under emitter: Qfn = Tfn × If 2 Reverse Stored Charges Storing reverse-active charges consists of three main components.– 1⎞ × ---------Qflat = Tlat × Ik × ⎛ 1 + 16 × ------⎝ ⎠ 8 Ik ■ Charge stored in epitaxial base region under emitter: 1 If 2 . ■ Charge stored in epitaxial base region between emitter and collector: Flat If 1 . due to the substrate-base junction.– 1⎞ × ---------Qrlat = Tlat × Ik × ⎛ 1 + 16 × ------⎝ ⎠ 8 Ik ■ Charge stored in epitaxial base region under collector: 1 Ir 2 .

Base resistance under the emitter: 2 × Rbev Rbe = Rbec + ---------------------------------If 2 1 + 16 × ------Ik Base resistance under the collector: 2 × Rbcv Rbc = Rbcc + ---------------------------------Ir 2 1 + 16 × ------Ik The Rb resistance models the ohmic leakage.12 287 . In these equations: ■ ■ f represents the operation frequency of the transistor. across the substrate-base junction. When measured at 1 Hz. Thermal Noise iN 2 REEX= 4 ⋅ k ⋅ Tk ------------------------. a noise density is obtained. is inversely proportional to the electron concentration under the emitter and collector.⋅ Δf REEX HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Noise Equations For noise analysis current sources are added to the small signal equivalent circuit. Df is the bandwidth.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model Series Resistances The emitter includes the following series resistance: ■ ■ Reex—constant Rein—constant Rcex—constant Rcin—constant The collector includes the following series resistance: ■ ■ The conductivity modulation of the base resistances is derived from the fact that the voltage drop across the epitaxial layer.

⋅ Δf RBE 4 ⋅ k ⋅ Tk ------------------------.16 Temp Tn = --------------------------------Tref + 273.⋅ Δf RSB 2 RBC= 2 RSB= Lateral Collector Current Shot Noise iN 2 CLAT= 2 ⋅ q ⋅ I FLAT – I RLAT ⋅ Δ f Vertical Collector Current Shot Noise iN 2 CVER= 2 ⋅ q ⋅ I FVER – I RVER ⋅ Δ f 1 – AF AF Forward-base Current Shot Noise and 1/f Noise iN B= 2 ⋅ q ⋅ I RE – I LE 2 ⋅ I RE ⋅ I LE KF ⋅ MULTI .⋅ Δf RCEX 2 RCIN= 2 RCEX= 2 RBE= 4 ⋅ k ⋅ Tk ------------------------.12 .Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model iN iN iN iN iN iN 2 REIN= 4 ⋅ k ⋅ Tk ------------------------.⋅ Δf RBC 4 ⋅ k ⋅ Tk ------------------------.⋅ Δf ⋅ Δ f + ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------f Temperature Dependence of Parameters Tk = Tref + 273.⋅ Δf REIN 4 ⋅ k ⋅ Tk ------------------------.16 Temp 288 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.16 1 1 Ti = --------------------------------.⋅ Δf RCIN 4 ⋅ k ⋅ Tk ------------------------.– ------------Tref + 273.

x=S Temperature Dependence of Other Parameters TEMP .⋅ 1 n ( T N ) + VDx ⋅ T N + ( 1 – T N ) ⋅ Vgap VDxt = – 3 k --------------q VDx-⎞ PX CJ XT = CJx ⋅ ⎛ ------------⎝ VD XT⎠ Emitter-base Junction Vgap=VGEB. x=E Collector-base Junction Vgap=VGCB.⋅ 1 n ( T N ) + VD ⋅ T N + ( 1 – T N ) ⋅ VGB VD T = – 3 k --------------q EAFL T = EAFL ⋅ VD T ---------VD HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model Series Resistance RCIN T = RCIN × T N SPC SNBN RBCC T = RBCC × T N RBCV T = RBCV × T N RBEC T = RBEC × T N RBEV T = RBEV × T N SNB SNBN SNB The BJT LEVEL=10 model assumes that REEX and RCEX are temperature independent.12 289 . x=C Substrate-base Junction Vgap=VGSB. Depletion Capacitances TEMP .

0 ) TLAT T TRVR T = TRVR ⋅ ---------------TLAT TFN T TRN T = TRN ⋅ ------------TFN All other model parameters are temperature-independent.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=10 Philips MODELLA Bipolar Model EARL T = EARL ⋅ EAFV T = EAFV ⋅ EARV T = EARV ⋅ VD T ---------VD VD T ---------VD VD T ---------VD IS T = IS ⋅ T N ( 4. 290 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.0 – SPB ) ⋅ exp ( q ⋅ VGB ⋅ T I ⁄ k ) BF T = BF ⋅ T N ( AE – SPB ) ⋅ exp { q ⋅ ( VGB – VGE ) ⋅ IBF T = IBF ⋅ T N ⋅ exp { q ⋅ ( VGJE ⁄ 2 ) ⋅ IK T = IK ⋅ T N ( 1 – SPB ) 2 TI ⁄ k} TI ⁄ k} BF T BR T = BR ⋅ --------BF IBF T IBR T = IBR ⋅ ----------IBF ISST = ISS ⋅ T N ⋅ exp { q ⋅ VGSB ⋅ TLAT T = TLAT ⋅ T N ( SPB – 1.12 .0 ) 2 TI ⁄ k} TLAT T TFVR T = TFVR ⋅ ---------------TLAT TFN T = TFN ⋅ T N ( SX – 1.

The default value for TREF is 27. TREF. do one of the following: • • • set the simulation temperature to 27.edu Usage Notes The following information applies to the HSPICE device model for the UCSD HBT device: 1. 4. HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. 2. then set RTH to more than zero and SELFT to 1 in the model card. relative to the circuit temperature.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model The UCSD High Speed Devices Group in collaboration with the HBT Model Working Group. The default room temperature is 25o C in the HSPICE. You can use DTEMP with this model to increase the temperature of individual elements.12 291 . The HBT (BJT LEVEL=11) model includes self-heating effects. If you turn on self-heating. Set BJT LEVEL=11. but is 27o C in most other simulators.OPTION TNOM=27 3. The HSPICE implementation of the UCSD HBT MODEL is based on the website: http://hbt. or set TEMP 27. or set . When comparing to other simulators. The set model parameter should always include the model reference temperature. Set its value on the element line.ucsd. has been developing better SPICE models for heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). 5.

12 . Multiplier to simulate multiple BJTs in parallel. Self-heating node name or number. Emitter terminal node name or number. Substrate node name or number. Difference between the temperature of the element and circuit. Base terminal node name and number. nc nb ne ns t mname AREA OFF VBE VCE M DTEMP Table 109 BJT LEVEL=11 Parameters Parameter Unit Default Description BKDN TREF logic C false 27 Flag indicating to include BC breakdown Temperature at which model parameters are given 292 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Initial internal base-emitter voltage. Normalized emitter area. Initial internal collector-emitter voltage. BJT model name reference. You cannot use OFF with VBE or VCE. Collector terminal node name or number. Must begin with Q.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model LEVEL=11 Element Syntax Qxxx nc nb ne [ns] mname [AREA=val] [OFF] [VBE=val] + [VCE=val] [M=val] [DTEMP=val] Parameter Description Qxxx BJT element name. Sets initial condition to OFF for this element in DC analysis. which can be followed by up to 1023 alphanumeric characters.

12 293 .Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model Table 109 BJT LEVEL=11 Parameters (Continued) Parameter Unit Default Description IS NF NR ISA NA ISB NB VAF VAR IK BF BR ISE NE A A A V V A A - 1e-25 1 1 1e10 2 1e10 2 1000 1000 1e10 10000 10000 1e-30 2 Saturation value for forward collector current Forward collector current ideality factor Reverse current ideality factor Collector current EB barrier limiting current Collector current EB barrier ideality factor Collector current BC barrier limiting current Collector current BC barrier ideality factor Forward Early voltage Reverse Early voltage Knee current for dc high injection effect Forward ideal current gain Reverse ideal current gain Saturation value for non-ideal base current Ideality factor for non-ideal forward base current Saturation value for emitter leakage diode Ideality factor for emitter leakage diode Saturation value for intrinsic bc junction current Ideality factor for intrinsic bc junction current Saturation value for extrinsic bc junction current Ideality factor for extrinsic bc junction current ISEX NEX ISC NC ISCX A A A 1e-30 2 1e-30 2 1e-30 NCX - 2 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

4 MJC CCMIN F 0.9 1000 8 1e-30 2 0 0 Factor for specification of avalanche voltage Collector-base breakdown voltage BVcbo Exponent for BC multiplication factor vs voltage Saturation value for collector-substrate current Ideality factor for collector-substrate current Emitter resistance Extrinsic emitter leakage diode series resistance Extrinsic base resistance Intrinsic base resistance Extrinsic collector resistance Intrinsic collector resistance BE depletion capacitance at zero bias BE diode built-in potential for Cj estimation Exponent for voltage variation of BE Cj Minimum BE capacitance Factor for start of high bias BE Cj approximation Intrinsic BC depletion capacitance at zero bias Intrinsic BC diode built-in potential for Cj estimation Exponent for voltage variation of Intrinsic BC Cj Minimum value of intrinsic BC Cj RBX RBI RCX RCI CJE VJE MJE CEMIN FCE ohm ohm ohm ohm F V F - 0 0 0 0 0 1.8 CJC VJC F V 0 1.12 .33 0 294 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.5 0 0.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model Table 109 BJT LEVEL=11 Parameters (Continued) Parameter Unit Default Description FA BVC NBC ICS NCS RE REX V A ohm ohm 0.6 0.

Extrinsic BC Cj Minimum extrinsic Cbc Factor for partitioning extrinsic BC Cj Collector-substrate depletion capacitance (0 bias) CS diode built-in potential for Cj estimation Exponent for voltage variation of CS Cj Base transit time Excess BE heterojunction transit time Excess BC heterojunction transit time Collector forward transit time Critical current for intrinsic Cj variation Characteristic current for TFC Characteristic current for TFC Characteristic voltage for TFC Forward transit time for Kirk effect Characteristic Voltage for Kirk effect Characteristic current for Kirk effect CJCX VJCX F V 0 1.4 MJCX CXMIN XCJC CJS F F 0.5 0 0 0 0 1e3 0 0 1e3 0 1e3 1e3 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.8 Factor for start of high bias BC Cj approximation Extrinsic BC depletion capacitance at zero bias Extrinsic BC diode built-in potential for Cj estimation Exponent for voltage variation.4 0.12 295 .33 0 1 0 VJS MJS TFB TBEXS TBCXS TFC0 ICRIT0 ITC ITC2 VTC TKRK VKRK IKRK V S S S S A A A V S V A 1.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model Table 109 BJT LEVEL=11 Parameters (Continued) Parameter Unit Default Description FC - 0.

Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model Table 109 BJT LEVEL=11 Parameters (Continued) Parameter Unit Default Description TR S 0 Reverse charge storage time. ISC temp dependence Added activation energy. extrinsic BC diode Factor to determine excess phase BE flicker noise constant BE flicker noise exponent for current BE flicker noise exponent for frequency Exponent for IS temperature dependence Exponent for beta temperature dependence Coefficient for NE temperature dependence Coefficient for NC temperature dependence Coefficient for NEX temperature dependence Activation energy for IS temperature dependence Activation energy. ISE temp dependence Added activation energy. ISEX temp dependence TRX S 0 FEX KFN AFN BFN XTI XTB TNE TNC TNEX EG V 0 0 1 1 2 2 0 0 0 1. ISB temperature dependence Added activation energy.5 EAE V 0 EAC V 0 EAA V 0 EAB V 0 EAX V 0 296 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 . intrinsic BC diode Reverse charge storage time. ISA temperature dependence Activation energy.

Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model Table 109 BJT LEVEL=11 Parameters (Continued) Parameter Unit Default Description XRE XREX XRB XRC TVJE TVJCX TVJC TVJS XTITC XTITC2 XTTF XTTKRK XTVKRK XTIKRK SELFT V/C V/C V/C V/C - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Exponent for RE temperature dependence Exponent for REX temperature dependence Exponent for RB temperature dependence Exponent for RC temperature dependence Coefficient for VJE temperature dependence Coefficient for VJCX temperature dependence Coefficient for VJC temperature dependence Coefficient for VJS temperature dependence Exponent for ITC temperature dependence Exponent for ITC2 temperature dependence Exponent for TF temperature dependence Exponent for TKRK temperature dependence Exponent for VKRK temperature dependence Exponent for IKRK temperature dependence Flag.12 297 . HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. RTH CTH C/W C/ Joule 0 0 Thermal resistance. Indicates whether to use self-heating. 0 (default) does not use self-heating. 1 turns on the self-heating feature. device to thermal ground Thermal capacitance of device.

qb is not used to define the ac model in the fashion of the Gummel-Poon model. VAF.12 . Current Flow There are seven different current flow calculations for the BJT LEVEL=11 device model. Icf and Icr. and IK parameters. ISB. VAR. ISA and ISB approximate the transition currents.Vbci/VAF -Vbei/VAR] q2=IS/IK*[exp(qVbei/NF/KT)-1] In the preceding equations. qb= q1/2 * [1+(1+4*q2)0. ■ Intrinsic Base-Emitter Diode. established in the SPICE BJT model in addition to the ISA. qb partially retains the standard BJT model form (a fractional increase in the base charge associated with the bias changes). and NB parameters described above. This model computes the electron flow between Ei and Ci nodes by using equations similar to the GummelPoon model with modifications to take into account the potential spike that can appear at the base-emitter or base-collector junctions of HBTs. Icf=IS * [exp(qVbei/NF/KT) . This model separates the electron current into forward and reverse components.5] q1=1/ [1 . Ideal and non-ideal components are included: 298 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. ISB.1] / D Icr=IS * [exp(qVbci/NR/KT) -1] / D In these equations: D= qb + IS* exp(qVbei/NA/KT) / ISA + IS*exp(qVbci/NB/KT)/ISB ISA. The total collector current Icc is: Icc=Icf . NF. ■ Intrinsic collector current contributions. As noted in the following. from base-transport controlled to potential-barrier controlled. NA.Icr This formulation uses the IS. qb omits the reverse knee current contribution.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model Model Equations This section describes the model equations for the HSPICE BJT LEVEL=11 model. current flow. NA and NB are new parameters.

1] ■ Extrinsic Base-Emitter Diode. Vbci. Mfl and gl are the values of Mf and its derivative with respect to voltage.(-Vbci/BVC)^NBC] for KTop/q< -Vbci < FA*BVC Mf=1 for -Vbci > KTop/q Mf=Mfl + gl *(-Vbci-FA*BVC) for -Vbci > FA*BVC In the preceding equations. Mf is calculated with a physically based expression.1] Intrinsic Base-Collector Breakdown Current. evaluated at the voltage Vbci=FA*BVC: Mfl=1 / (1-FA^NBC) gl=Mfl*(Mfl-1)*NBC/(FA*BVC) ■ ■ HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. then Ibk is determined according to: Ibk= (Mf -1) * Icf Otherwise. Ibk is current between the collector and base nodes.12 299 . Icf is the forward electron current (as computed above in the absence of multiplication).Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model Ibei= Icf / BF + ISE * [exp (q Vbei/ NE /KT) . Mf depends exclusively on the intrinsic base-intrinsic collector voltage. Ideal and non-ideal components are included: Ibci=Icr / BR + ISC * [exp (q Vbci/ NC /KT) . If you set the BKDN parameter to true. Ibk=0 The preceding equations use the following definitions: • • Mf is the multiplication factor associated with the BC junction at the specified voltage. generated due to avalanche breakdown of the base-collector junction. Mf=1 / [1. The LEVEL=11 model includes a diode connected between the Ex and E nodes. modified to avoid the singularity at Vbci=-BVC. If -Vbci closely approaches or exceeds BVC (-Vbci>FA*BVC with FA typically chosen to be 0. You can use the diode and its resistance to model contributions from emitter edges.95). Ibex=ISEX * [exp (q Vbex/ NEX /KT) .1] Intrinsic Base-Collector Diode. then the multiplication factor is computed according to a constant slope expression. and an associated series resistance (Rex).

Define: Vmin= VJE*[1-(CJE/CEMIN)(1/MJE)] (the critical voltage for attaining the minimum capacitance value) If Vbei<FCE*VJE and Vbei<Vmin: 300 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Qbej is computed using DepletionCapMod. Use it primarily for SiGe HBTs. there is often an extra component of charge storage at the base-emitter heterojunction of HBTs. Ibcx= ISCX * [exp(q Vbcx/ NCX /KTop) . Qbej. the external currents through the E.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model ■ Extrinsic Base-Collector Diode. This diode allows for conducting substrates.12 . Qbe= Qbej + Qbediff ■ Base-Emitter Depletion Charge. Qbediff. modified to allow specification of a minimum capacitance CEMIN (corresponding to reach-through to an n+ layer). follows equations standard for SPICE. ■ Base-Emitter Charge. The overall charge stored at the base-emitter junction has components associated with the base-emitter depletion layer: • • Qbej. which is current-independent.B. and C nodes are: Ib= Ibei + Ibex . As studied by Chris Grossman. Qbej. This diode has customary I-V characteristics with its own saturation current and ideality factor.Ics ■ Charge Storage This section describes the following different charge storage calculations for the HSPICE BJT LEVEL=11 device model.1] Substrate-Extrinsic Collector Diode.Ibk + Ibci + Ibcx Ic= Icc + Ibk -Ibci-Ibcx . Qbediff corresponds to a portion of the base charge. a collector current-dependent charge. The depletion charge. and the (collector current-dependent) basecollector charge. associated with a minimum in the conduction band energy profile.1] In accordance with the model topology. Ics= ICS * [exp(-q Vcs/ NCS /KTop) .

diffusion charge storage in the emitter is also present. and from mobile charge in the collector depletion region. and CJE<CEMIN*(1-FCE)MJE. the emitter charge storage can be associated with the base contribution). the charge stored is directly proportional to the collector current.12 301 . there is frequently a minimum in the conduction band. Qbediff. For a greater degree of HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. In homojunction transistors. The LEVEL=11 model evaluates the base and collector-depletion region contributions separately (if necessary. In heterojunction transistors. The diffusion charge in HBTs is associated with contributions from minority carriers in the base. and CJE>CEMIN*(1-FCE)MJE: Qbej=-CJE*VJE/(1-FCE)MJE*[(1-FCE)/(1-MJE)+FCE-Vbei/VJE -MJE*(FCE-Vbei/VJE)2/2/(1-FCE)] Cbej=CJE/(1-FCE)MJE*[1+MJE*(Vbei/VJE-FCE)/(1-FCE)] If Vbei>FCE*VJE. • • • Specify the base charge through the base transit time. and thus contributes to TFB. In the lowest order. TFB. on the base side of the base-emitter (and potentially base-collector) heterojunction.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model Qbej=CEMIN*(Vbei-VJE)+CEMIN*VJE*MJE/(MJE-1) * (CJE/CEMIN)(1/MJE) Cbej=dQbej/dVbei=CEMIN If Vbei<FCE*VJE and Vbei>Vmin: Qbej= -CJE*VJE*(1-Vbei/VJE)(1-MJE) / (1-MJE) Cbej= CJE*(1-Vbei/VJE)(-MJE) If Vbei>FCE*VJE. Qbej=CEMIN*(Vbei-VJE)+CEMIN*VJE*MJE/(MJE-1) *(CJE/CEMIN)(1/MJE)+CJE*VJE*(Vbei/VJE-FCE)2*MJE/2/(1FCE)(MJE+1) Cbej=CEMIN + CJE*VJE*MJE*(Vbei/VJE-FC)/(1-FCE)(MJE+1) ■ Base-Emitter Diffusion Charge. Minority carriers tend to accumulate in these potential wells. This transit time varies with bias through several mechanisms: The Early effect causes a change in transit time with junction voltage. The stored charge adds to the base charge (to a good approximation).

Qkrk. ITC2 is a higher current at which the velocity profile modulation peaks (and the cutoff frequency begins to roll-off). modified by the qcc velocity modulation factor to account for voltage and current dependences. is associated with the Kirk effect. A part of the mobile charge is specified in the calculation of basecollector depletion region charge. The value of the T temperature to describe these effects is assumed to be Top. the depth of the potential well on the emitter side varies with Vbe. VTC provides a voltage (or electric field) dependence of the carrier velocity. You can use any of these methods to specify collector charge: • A part is specified by the TFC0 transit time parameter. an expression for the collector current-dependent base-collector depletion charge is developed. Similarly. Qfdiff=Icf*ftt*(TFBt + TFC0/qcc) + Qbcm + Qkrk ftt=rTXTTF qcc is a factor describing bias dependence of electron velocity in the BC depletion region: qcc= [1 + (Icf/ITC)2] / [1 + (Icf/ITC2)3 + (VJCI-Vbci)/VTC] • • • ITC is the threshold current for the velocity profile modulation effect. Qbcm. the amount of charge stored at the base-collector side varies with Vbc. Then the current-independent part is subtracted off (as discussed in the next section). The equations used to describe the effects are: TFBt=TFB*(1+Vbei/VAR+Vbci/VAF) + TBEXS*exp(-q(Vbei-VJE)/NA/KTop) + TBCXS*exp(q(Vbci-VJC)/NB/KTop) Note: Different signs are associated with the BE and BC junction effects. To calculate this part.12 . ITC=ITC@Tnom* rTXTITC ITC2=ITC2@Tnom* rTXTITC2 • • 302 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. A separate charge term.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model accuracy.

this section describes the portion corresponding to the Ic=0 condition. and included in Qbcm (a charge that is part of Qfdiff). implying another transcapacitance. As a result. Qkrk and Qbcm. The associated reverse diffusion capacitance is: Cbcrdiff= TRI* dIbci/dVbci For operation also includes diffusion capacitance in a manner similar to base-emitter capacitance with a partitioning specified by the excess phase factor. For reverse operation. Qbci.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model The following expression calculates the charge storage associated with the Kirk effect: Qkrk=TKRK*Icf*exp[Vbci/VKRK+Icf/IKRK] To account for excess phase. a trans-capacitance is implied in the ac model. ■ Intrinsic base-collector depletion charge. Diffusion charge associated with reverse operation of the device. Qbci=Qbcj + TRI* Icr + FEX*Qfdiff Although the charge in the depletion region depends on Ic. Intrinsic base-collector diffusion charge. Subsequently. ■ Intrinsic Base-Collector Charge. while the remainder is associated with the intrinsic BC junction. the proper Ic dependent contribution is considered. Charge stored at the intrinsic basecollector junction includes: • • • Depletion charge from the junction region. FEX. Diffusion charge associated with normal operation of the transistor. Qbcj. a diffusion capacitance is implied by the TRI term in the Qbci equation. Qbediff= (1-FEX)*Qfdiff Note: Qfdiff (and thus Qbediff) depends on Vbci.collector is depleted). which is assumed to be bias-independent. ■ HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. a fraction (1-FEX) of the currentdependent forward charge (Qfdiff) is associated with the BE junction. Qbcdiff depends on Vbei.12 303 . through the terms involving Icf. qcc. Here TRI is the effective reverse transit time. Similarly. When Ic=0. the depletion charge is calculated using the same algorithm as applied to Qbej (which accounts for a minimum of capacitance when the n.

according to: ICRIT=ICRIT0*qcc/ftt In the preceding equation. Qbcm=Qbcf . ICRIT is dependent on temperature and bias conditions. the current dependence of the BC capacitance is included (although it is partially assigned to the BE junction charge. a formulation of the depletion region charge (similar to that used above) is used with the modification that the CJ parameter (zero bias capacitance) can depend on the Icf collector current. generally in conjunction with selecting TFC0 and CJCI in such a way that the sum TFB + TFC0 + TFC1 provide a reasonable estimate of charge storage. ICRIT is a critical current. ■ Qbcm.12 . through the FEX excess-phase parameter). and partially to the BC junction. Note: These parameters also control some of the components of the forward transit time. and Icf and Vcb are the dependence parameters described above. You can extract ICRIT and associated parameters from measurements of Cbc versus Ic. similar to TF in Gummel-Poon SPICE.Qbcj To properly compute Qbcf. at which the effective charge density in the BC depletion region vanishes (and the capacitance Cbci drops dramatically). and the BCi depletion charge computed above (Qbcj). This charge is the difference between the “proper” Icf-dependent charge in the BCi depletion region (called Qbcf). This corresponds to the physical phenomenon of varying charge density in the depletion region as a result of the mobile electron charge in that region. assuming that Icf=0. Using this formulation. ftt and qcc are the temperature-dependence. A delay time is associated with specifying ICRIT: TFC1=CJC*VJC*MJC/(MJC-1)/ICRIT Use the ICRIT parameter carefully. The current-dependent CJ parameter is termed CJCH. 304 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. its form is: CJCH=CJC*sign(1-Icf/ICRIT)*ABS(1-Icf/ICRIT)MJC In this equation. The next section describes the Qbcm portion.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model The terms associated with Icf*ftt*(TFB + TFC0/qcc) + Qkrk have already been discussed above for calculating Qbediff.

Furthermore. Qbcx.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model ■ Extrinsic Base-Collector Charge. between the Bx and Cx nodes. and charge Qbcxx= (1-XCJC)*Qbcxxo HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. TRI. as indicated in the following. XCJC indicates the fraction of overall Cbc depletion capacitance that should be associated with the intrinsic base node. TRX. This difference occurs because of implant-induced recombination. The corresponding charge storage time. might be different from the intrinsic time. However. HBT Spice uses a similar assignment: the depletion charge associated with the extrinsic base-collector junction is partitioned between the Bx node and the B node: Qbcx= TRX*Ibcx + XCJC* Qbcxo has been defined above. this component can be an important contribution to saturation stored-charge in many HBTs (in addition to the contribution associated with the intrinsic base-collector junction). Qbcx= TRX*Ibcx + XCJC*Qbcxo In the preceding equation. surfaces. if you assign a value other than unity to the XCJC variable.12 305 . a diffusion capacitance results from the formulation: Cbcxdiff= TRX* dIbcx/dVbcx Base-Extrinsic Collector Charge (Qbcxx). Qbcxo is the depletion charge. then the depletion charge is partitioned between the Bx-Cx capacitance and the B-Cx capacitance. As a result the dependences of Ibcx on Vbcx. The remaining fraction (1-XCJC) is attached to the base terminal. or other structural changes. and Treatment of XCJC In standard SPICE. Standard SPICE does not use the diffusion charge component. The Qbcx stored charge consists of a depletion charge and a diffusion charge. modified to allow for a minimum value of capacitance under a reach-through condition. The depletion charge corresponds to a standard depletion region expression (without considering charge density modulation due to current).

Qcs= -CJS*VJS/(1-FC)MJS* [(1-FC)/(1-MJS) + FC +Vcs/VJS -MJS/2/(1-FC) *(FC+Vcs/VJS)2] Ccs=CJS*(1-FC)(-MJS)*[1-MJS/(1-FC)*(FC+Vcs/VJS)} Noise The LEVEL=11 model includes noise current generators. formulated in the standard SPICE fashion: For Vcs>-FC*VJS. and are computed based on 1Hz bandwidth. This corresponds to a depletion charge. Qcs.12 . you can use a BFN exponent. The noise sources are placed in parallel with corresponding linearized elements in the small signal model. Qcs= . The Qbcxxo charge is computed with the same algorithm as for Qbcxo by using Vbcxx (rather than Vbcx) as the voltage. ■ Collector-Substrate Charge. similar to those in standard Spice. Sources of 1/f noise have magnitudes that vary with the frequency (f). if you do not see the exact f-1 behavior. inc2=2*q*Icc inb2= 2 * q *Ibe + inre2= 4 * K* Td / inrbx2= 4 * K * Td inrbi2= 4 * K * Td inrcx2= 4 * K * Td inrci2= 4 * K * Td inrex2= 4 * K * Td KFN * IbeAFN / f BFN RE / RBX / RBI / RCX / RCI / REX 306 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.CJS*VJS*(1+Vcs/VJS)(1-MJS) / (1-MJS) Ccs=CJS*(1+Vcs/VJS)(-MJS) For Vcs<-FC*VJS.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model is assigned between the B and Cx nodes. The noise current generators have magnitudes in units of A2/ Hz.

12 307 .Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model Equivalent Circuit C Rcz Cx Qos S lbcz Qbczz + Qbcz Ci ibci ibk loc Ith Rbz Ibez Rez Ex Qbe + ibei Ei + Rth Rci los T + B Bx Qbci Rbi + Qth Re E Figure 39 Circuit Diagram for Large-signal HBT Model HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

12 .Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=11 UCSD HBT Model C Rcz Cz ibczq Rci Cbcz Cbzz B Rbz gez Bz gbcz Cbci Rbi icc Ith Rez Ez Cbe ibeq gbei ibea Rth ibcq gbci ibk ibca Ci + Qth gcs T Ccs S Ei Re E Figure 40 Circuit Diagram for Small-signal HBT Model 308 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

HICUM0 Model Advantages Major features of HICUM0 are: ■ ■ ■ ■ strongly circuit-design oriented and easy to understand for circuit designers sufficiently accurate for many applications computationally efficient and fast allows a fast parameter extraction for single transistors HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.4 + CJS=5E-16 MJS=0.5 ICS=1E-30 NCS=2 CEMIN=1E-15 + FCE=0.45 CXMIN=1E-16 MJE=0.4 MJC=0.5E-10 FEX=0 + XTITC=1.4 ISEX=4E-24 NEX=1. The HICUM0 model is implemented as LEVEL=13 in the BJT models.5E-10 VJCX=1.23 CCMIN=3E-15 TR=3.105 TNE=0 EAC=0.35 XCJC=1 VJS=1.model hbt npn level=11 + IS=1.8E-14 + VJE=1.1 EAE=0.014 VTC=40 TKRK=5E-13 + VKRK=10 IKRK=0.4 + CJCX=8E-15 MJCX=0.01 CTH=1E-6 RTH=0 + EG=1.645 XTI=0 XTB=-1.8 TFB=2E-12 TFC0=2.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=13 HICUM0 Model Example Model Statement for BJT LEVEL=11 .34 + XTTF=1.12 309 .5E-11 TBEXS=1E-14 + ITC=7E-3 ITC2=0.8 + ICRIT0=0.012 TRX=3.2E-18 NF=1 NR=1 BF=200 + BR=5 VAF=60 VAR=20 ISE=1E-17 + NE=1.18E-10 NB=10 ISB=1E10 RE=16 + REX=20 RBI=20 BVC=28 NBC=6 + FA=0.995 RCX =30 RCI=20 CJE=1.8 EAA=-0.35 LEVEL=13 HICUM0 Model HICUM0 is a simplified bipolar transistor model that combines the simplicity of the SPICE Gummel-Poon Model (SGPM) with various improvements from HICUM.3 ISCX=1E-14 + NCX=2 ISC=1E-16 NC=2 NA=10 + ISA=2.495 + EAB=-0.5 XTITC2=1 TREF=25 CJC=7E-15 + VJC=1.5 FC=0.

HICUM LEVEL=2 Model The differences between HICUM0 and HICUM LEVEL=2: ■ The perimeter base node has been eliminated by properly merging the respective internal and external counterparts of the BE depletion capacitance (CJE).Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=13 HICUM0 Model ■ makes use of the advanced capabilities of HICUM LEVEL=2 and the related knowledge base for generating geometry scalable and statistical models offers an easy migration path from a conventional. HICUM0 Model vs. and capacitance for modeling AC emitter current crowding in HICUM LEVEL=2 have been omitted. ■ The model parameters have a clear (physical) meaning and many of them are similar to HICUM LEVEL=2 parameters. and the base current components across the BE and BC junction BE tunneling current. parasitic substrate transistor. substrate coupling network. the BC depletion capacitance (CJC). the base resistance (RB). to a process-based geometry scalable parameter extraction and model usage to meet today’s requirements for advanced integrated circuit design. single-transistor-based.12 . ■ LEVEL=13 Element Syntax Syntax Qxxx nc nb ne [ns][nt] mname [area] [M=val] [DTEMP=val] Parameter Description Qxxx nc nb ne ns nt BJT element name Collector terminal node name or number Base terminal node name or number Emitter terminal node name or number Substrate terminal node name or number Self-heating node name or number 310 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

Difference between the element temperature and the circuit temperature in degrees Celsius. Table 110 BJT LEVEL=13 Model Parameters Parameter Unit Default Description IS MCF MCR VEF IQF IQR IQFH TFH CJE0 VDE ZE AJE A V A A A F V - 1e-16 1 1 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 0 0. M DTEMP LEVEL=13 Model Parameters Table 110 lists the HICUM0 LEVEL=13 model parameters. Default is 1.9 0. capacitance. Multiplier to simulate multiple BJTs in parallel.5 2. Default is 1. resistance.5 Transform saturation current Non-ideality coefficient of forward collector current Non-ideality coefficient of inverse collector current Forward Early voltage Forward DC high-injection roll-off current Inverse DC high-injection roll-off current High-injection correction current High-injection correction factor BE zero-bias depletion capacitance BE built-in voltage BE exponent factor BE ratio of maximum to zero-bias value HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 311 .Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=13 HICUM0 Model Parameter Description mname area BJT model name reference Emitter area multiplying factor. Affects current. then DTEMP uses the DTA value. Default is DTA (difference between the device temperature and the ambient analysis temperature). If you do not specify DTEMP.

Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=13 HICUM0 Model Table 110 BJT LEVEL=13 Model Parameters (Continued) Parameter Unit Default Description CJCI0 VDCI ZCI VPTCI T0 DT0H TBVL TEF0 GTE THCS AHC TR RCI0 VLIM VPT VCES IBES MBE IRES MRE IBCS MBC KAVL EAVL RBI0 F V V sec sec sec sec sec sec Ohm V V V A A A Ohm 0 0.4 1e+20 0 0 0 0 1 0 0.1 1e-18 1 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 BC total zero-bias depletion capacitance BC built-in voltage BC exponent factor BC punch-through voltage Low current transit time at VBC=0 Base width modulation contribution SCR width modulation contribution Storage time in neutral emitter Exponent factor for emitter transit time Saturation time at high current densities Smoothing factor for current dependence Storage time at inverse operation Low-field collector resistance under emitter Voltage dividing ohmic and saturation region Punch-through voltage Saturation voltage BE saturation current BE non-ideality factor BE recombination saturation current BE recombination non-ideality factor BC saturation current BC non-ideality factor Avalanche prefactor Avalanche exponent factor Internal base resistance value at zero-bias 312 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.7 0.12 .5 ∞ 0.1 0 150 0.

4 1e+20 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0.3 0.3 1e+20 Forward Early voltage (normalization voltage) Reverse Early voltage (normalization voltage) Geometry factor External base series resistance Zero-base external BC depletion capacitance External BC built-in voltage External BC exponent factor Punch-through voltage Split factor=CJCI0/CJC0 Emitter series resistance External collector series resistance Emitter-base isolation (overlap) capacitance Collector-base oxide capacitance SC saturation current SC non-ideality factor Zero-bias SC depletion capacitance SC built-in voltage External SC exponent factor SC punch-through voltage Flicker noise coefficient (no unit only if AF=2) Flicker noise exponent factor Bandgap voltage Effective emitter bandgap voltage Effective collector bandgap voltage Effective substrate bandgap voltage CBEPAR(CEOX) F CBCPAR(CCOX) F ISCS MSC CJS0 VDS ZS VPTS KF AF VGB VGE VGC VGS A F V V M1-AF 0 V V V V 2 1.2 1.2 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=13 HICUM0 Model Table 110 BJT LEVEL=13 Model Parameters (Continued) Parameter Unit Default Description VR0E VR0C FGEO RBX CJCX0 VDCX ZCX VPTX FBC RE RCX V V Ohm F V V Ohm Ohm 2.7 0.2 1.656 0 0 0.5 ∞ 0.2 1.12 313 .

Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=13 HICUM0 Model Table 110 BJT LEVEL=13 Model Parameters (Continued) Parameter Unit Default Description F1VG F2VG ALB ALT0 KT0 ZETACT ZETABET ZETACI ALVS ALCES ZETARBI ZETARBX ZETARCX ZETARE ALKAV ALEAV TNOM DT RTH CTH VER FIQF V/K V/K 1/K 1/K 1/K 1/K 1/K 1/K 1/K °C °C K/W Ws/K V - -8.042e-4 Coefficient K2 in temperature-dependent bandgap equation 0 0 0 4.12 .5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 27 0 0 0 ∞ Relative temperature coefficient of forward current gain First-order relative temperature coefficient of T0 Second-order relative temperature coefficient of T0 Exponent coefficient in transfer current temperature dependence Exponent coefficient in BE junction current temperature dependence Temperature coefficient of epi-collector diffusivity Relative temperature coefficient of saturation drift velocity Relative temperature coefficient of VCES Temperature coefficient of internal base resistance Temperature coefficient of external base resistance Temperature coefficient of external collector resistance Temperature coefficient of emitter resistance Temperature coefficient of avalanche prefactor Temperature coefficient of avalanche exponent factor Temperature for which parameters are valid Temperature change for particular transistor Thermal resistance Thermal capacitance Reverse Early voltage Flag to turn on voltage dependence of base-related critical current 0 314 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.46e-5 Coefficient K1 in temperature-dependent bandgap equation 3.

transfer current Temperature coefficient of IQF Exponent factor for temperature dependent thermal resistance For a complete description of the HICUM0 model.c.c.5 0.et.0 0.c.de/iee/eb/comp_mod.9 0.tu-dresden. transfer current BE charge exponent factor for d.0 Smoothing factor for the d.iee. injection width BE charge built-in voltage for d. transfer current BE capacitance ratio (maximum to zero-bias value) for d.5 2.12 315 .c.html HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. see: http://www.Chapter 5: BJT Models LEVEL=13 HICUM0 Model Table 110 BJT LEVEL=13 Model Parameters (Continued) Parameter Unit Default Description AHQ VDEDC ZEDC AJEDC ZETAIQF ZETARTH V - 0 0.

12 . S. Dunn. Moinian. and L. Roulston. I. Parker. J. Bowers. 1996. 316 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. Schroter. M. Getreu. M.Chapter 5: BJT Models References References [1] C. Foisy. D. M. “VBIC95: The vertical bipolar intercompany model. McAndrew. P. J. van Wijnen.” IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits. vol. D. Wagner.1476-1483. McSwain. M.31. Seitchik. p.

A A Finding Device Libraries Lists device libraries you can use in HSPICE.OPTION SEARCH ‘$installdir/96/parts/dio’ HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. you can use the automatic model selector in HSPICE to automatically find the proper model for each transistor size. HSPICE ships hundreds of examples for your use. such as dio for diodes and bjt for bipolar junction transistors.12 317 .OPTION SEARCH statement. For libraries with multiple models of a specific active or passive device element. as in the following example: . You specify the directory path in the . This chapter lists device libraries that you can use. see Listing of Input Demonstration Files for paths to demo files. It includes the following topics: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Overview of Library Listings Analog Device Models Behavioral Device Models Bipolar Transistor Models Diode Models JFET and MESFET Models Overview of Library Listings The following sections list the names of the models provided with HSPICE. The directory path is shown for each model type. Models are stored by type in directories named after the model type.

$installdir is the environment variable set to the path to the software installation directory and 96 is the HSPICE release number.12 . All model directories are under the parts directory. Analog Device Models The search path for analog device models is: $installdir/parts/ad Table 111 Analog Model Names AD581 ad581t ad584l ad587k ad600 ad620a ad624b ad630b ad633j ad645k ad704j ad705b ad706a ad711 ad711k ad712b ad581j ad581u ad584s ad587l ad600j ad620b ad624c ad630j ad645 ad645s ad704k ad705j ad706b ad711a ad711s ad712c ad581k ad584 ad584t ad587s ad602 ad620s ad624s ad630k ad645a ad704 ad704t ad705k ad706j ad711b ad711t ad712j ad581l ad584j ad587 ad587t ad602j ad624 ad630 ad630s ad645b ad704a ad705 ad705t ad706k ad711c ad712 ad712k ad581s ad584k ad587j ad587u ad620 ad624a ad630a ad633 ad645j ad704b ad705a ad706 ad706t ad711j ad712a ad712s 318 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Appendix A: Finding Device Libraries Analog Device Models In the preceding syntax.

12 319 .Appendix A: Finding Device Libraries Analog Device Models Table 111 Analog Model Names (Continued) ad712t ad713k ad734b ad743j ad744b ad744t ad745k ad746j ad780s ad810 ad812a ad818 ad828 ad829s ad840 ad843a ad844 ad845a ad846 ad847a ad848j ad9622 ad713 ad713s ad734s ad743k ad744c ad745 ad745s ad746s ad797 ad810a ad813 ad818a ad828a ad830 ad840j ad843b ad844a ad845b ad846a ad847j ad848s ad9623 ad713a ad713t ad743 ad743s ad744j ad745a ad746 ad780 ad797a ad810s ad813a ad820 ad829 ad830a ad840k ad843j ad844b ad845j ad846b ad847s ad9617 ad9624 ad713b ad734 ad743a ad744 ad744k ad745b ad746a ad780a ad797b ad811 ad817 ad826 ad829a ad830j ad840s ad843k ad844s ad845k ad846s ad848 ad9618 ad9630 ad713j ad734a ad743b ad744a ad744s ad745j ad746b ad780b ad797s ad812 ad817a ad826a ad829j ad830s ad843 ad843s ad845 ad845s ad847 ad848a ad9621 adg411 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

Appendix A: Finding Device Libraries Analog Device Models Table 111 Analog Model Names (Continued) adg411b adg413 buf04 mlt04g op176 op177e op200a op20c op213 op215e op21f op220c op221a op249 op260 op27b op282 op290 op292 op297f op37c op400a adg411t adg413b mat02 op160 op176g op177f op200e op20f op215 op215f op21g op220e op221b op249a op27 op27c op282g op290a op295 op297g op37e op400e adg412 adg413t mat03 op160a op177 op177g op200f op20g op215a op215g op21h op220f op221c op249e op275 op27e op283 op290e op297 op37 op37f op400f adg412b amp01 mat04 op160f op177a op20 op200g op20h op215b op21a op220 op220g op221e op249f op275g op27f op285 op290f op297a op37a op37g op400g adg412t amp02 mlt04 op160g op177b op200 op20b op21 op215c op21e op220a op221 op221g op249g op27a op27g op285g op290g op297e op37b op400 op400h 320 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 .

12 321 .Appendix A: Finding Device Libraries Analog Device Models Table 111 Analog Model Names (Continued) op41 op41g op420f op421c op42e op43b op467 op490 op492 op497f op77a op80 op90 op97 ref01 ref02 ref02h ref10a ssm2210 op41a op42 op420g op421f op42f op43e op467g op490a op497 op497g op77b op80b op90a op97a ref01a ref02a ref05 ref10b ssm2220 op41b op420 op420h op421g op42g op43f op470 op490e op497a op61 op77e op80e op90e op97e ref01c ref02c ref05a ssm2017 op41e op420b op421 op421h op43 op43g op482 op490f op497b op64 op77f op80f op90f op97f ref01e ref02d ref05b ssm2017p op41f op420c op421b op42a op43a op44 op482g op490g op497c op77 op77g op80g op90g pm1012 ref01h ref02e ref10 ssm2131 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

Appendix A: Finding Device Libraries Behavioral Device Models Behavioral Device Models The search path for behavioral device models is: $installdir/parts/behave The required element syntax is: Xyyyyy in.12 .in+ out vcc vee modelname Optional parameters are: vos=value. av=value Table 112 Behavioral Model Names ad4bit alf255 alf356 alm108 alm124a alm158a alm224 alm2904 alm318 alm358a amc1458 anjm4558 aop14 atl072c atl092cp ad8bit alf347 alf357 alm108a alm139a alm201a alm258 alm301a alm324 alm725 amc1536 anjm4559 aop15b atl074c atl094cn alf155 alf351 alf3741 alm111 alm1458 alm207 alm258a alm307 alm3302 alm741 amc1741 anjm4560 aop16b atl081c aupc1251 alf156 alf353 alm101a alm118 alm1558 alm208 alm2901 alm308 alm339 alm747 amc1747 aop04 at094cns atl082c aupc358 alf157 alf355 alm107 alm124 alm158 alm208a alm2902 alm308a alm358 alm747c ane5534p aop07 atl071c atl084c ga201 322 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010. ibos=value.

tauf=value Table 113 Bipolar Transistor Model Names t2n1132a t2n2369 t2n2857 t2n2905a t2n3013 t2n3251a t2n3742 t2n3946 t2n5058 t2n706 t2n930 t2sc1815 tmps6595 t2n2102 t2n2369a t2n2894 t2n2906 t2n3227 t2n3467 t2n3743 t2n3947 t2n5059 t2n708 t2sa1015 t2sc1923 tne741 t2n2219a t2n2501 t2n2904 t2n2907 t2n3250 t2n3501 t2n3866 t2n3962 t2n5179 t2n869 t2sa950 t2sc2120 tne901 t2n2222 t2n2605 t2n2904a t2n2907a t2n3250a t2n3546 t2n3904 t2n4261 t2n6341 t2n869a t2sa965 t2sc2235 t2n2222a t2n2642 t2n2905 t2n2945a t2n3251 t2n3637 t2n3906 t2n4449 t2n6438 t2n918 t2sa970 t2sc2669 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 323 .Appendix A: Finding Device Libraries Bipolar Transistor Models Table 112 Behavioral Model Names (Continued) rcfilt tline Bipolar Transistor Models The search path for bipolar transistor models is: $installdir/parts/bjt The required element syntax is: Xyyyy coll base emit modelname Optional parameters are: betaf=value.

Appendix A: Finding Device Libraries Diode Models Diode Models The search path for diode models is: $installdir/parts/dio The required element syntax is: Xyyyyy anode cathode modelname Optional parameters are: isat=value. tt=value Table 114 Diode Model Names d12bg11 d12fh11 d1n3016 d1n3021 d1n3026 d1n3031 d1n3036 d1n3041 d1n3046 d1n3051 d1n3825 d1n3830 d1n4005 d1n4150 d1n4447 d12bh11 d12gg11 d1n3017 d1n3022 d1n3027 d1n3032 d1n3037 d1n3042 d1n3047 d1n3821 d1n3826 d1n4001 d1n4006 d1n4370 d1n4448 d12dg11 d12gh11 d1n3018 d1n3023 d1n3028 d1n3033 d1n3038 d1n3043 d1n3048 d1n3822 d1n3827 d1n4002 d1n4007 d1n4371 d1n4449 d12dh11 d12jg11 d1n3019 d1n3024 d1n3029 d1n3034 d1n3039 d1n3044 d1n3049 d1n3823 d1n3828 d1n4003 d1n4148 d1n4372 d1n4728 d12fg11 d12jh11 d1n3020 d1n3025 d1n3030 d1n3035 d1n3040 d1n3045 d1n3050 d1n3824 d1n3829 d1n4004 d1n4149 d1n4446 d1n4729 324 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 .

Appendix A: Finding Device Libraries Diode Models Table 114 Diode Model Names (Continued) d1n4730 d1n4735 d1n4740 d1n4745 d1n4750 d1n4755 d1n4760 d1n5221 d1n5226 d1n5231 d1n5236 d1n5241 d1n5246 d1n5251 d1n5256 d1n5261 d1n5266 d1n5271 d1n5336 d1n5341 d1n5346 d1n5351 d1n4731 d1n4736 d1n4741 d1n4746 d1n4751 d1n4756 d1n4761 d1n5222 d1n5227 d1n5232 d1n5237 d1n5242 d1n5247 d1n5252 d1n5257 d1n5262 d1n5267 d1n5272 d1n5337 d1n5342 d1n5347 d1n5352 d1n4732 d1n4737 d1n4742 d1n4747 d1n4752 d1n4757 d1n4762 d1n5223 d1n5228 d1n5233 d1n5238 d1n5243 d1n5248 d1n5253 d1n5258 d1n5263 d1n5268 d1n5333 d1n5338 d1n5343 d1n5348 d1n5353 d1n4733 d1n4738 d1n4743 d1n4748 d1n4753 d1n4758 d1n4763 d1n5224 d1n5229 d1n5234 d1n5239 d1n5244 d1n5249 d1n5254 d1n5259 d1n5264 d1n5269 d1n5334 d1n5339 d1n5344 d1n5349 d1n5354 d1n4734 d1n4739 d1n4744 d1n4749 d1n4754 d1n4759 d1n4764 d1n5225 d1n5230 d1n5235 d1n5240 d1n5245 d1n5250 d1n5255 d1n5260 d1n5265 d1n5270 d1n5335 d1n5340 d1n5345 d1n5350 d1n5355 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 325 .

12 .Appendix A: Finding Device Libraries Diode Models Table 114 Diode Model Names (Continued) d1n5356 d1n5361 d1n5366 d1n5371 d1n5376 d1n5381 d1n5386 d1n5819 d1n5917 d1n5922 d1n5927 d1n5932 d1n5937 d1n5942 d1n5947 d1n5952 d1n746 d1n751 d1n756 d1n957 d1n962 d1n967 d1n5357 d1n5362 d1n5367 d1n5372 d1n5377 d1n5382 d1n5387 d1n5913 d1n5918 d1n5923 d1n5928 d1n5933 d1n5938 d1n5943 d1n5948 d1n5953 d1n747 d1n752 d1n757 d1n958 d1n963 d1n968 d1n5358 d1n5363 d1n5368 d1n5373 d1n5378 d1n5383 d1n5388 d1n5914 d1n5919 d1n5924 d1n5929 d1n5934 d1n5939 d1n5944 d1n5949 d1n5954 d1n748 d1n753 d1n758 d1n959 d1n964 d1n969 d1n5359 d1n5364 d1n5369 d1n5374 d1n5379 d1n5384 d1n5817 d1n5915 d1n5920 d1n5925 d1n5930 d1n5935 d1n5940 d1n5945 d1n5950 d1n5955 d1n749 d1n754 d1n759 d1n960 d1n965 d1n970 d1n5360 d1n5365 d1n5370 d1n5375 d1n5380 d1n5385 d1n5818 d1n5916 d1n5921 d1n5926 d1n5931 d1n5936 d1n5941 d1n5946 d1n5951 d1n5956 d1n750 d1n755 d1n914 d1n961 d1n966 d1n971 326 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

Appendix A: Finding Device Libraries JFET and MESFET Models Table 114 Diode Model Names (Continued) d1n972 d1n977 d1n982 d1s1585 d1sv149 dsk4a3 d1n973 d1n978 d1n983 d1s1586 dmbr115p d1n974 d1n979 d1n984 d1s1587 dmbr120p d1n975 d1n980 d1n985 d1s1588 dmbr130p d1n976 d1n981 d1n986 d1sv147 dmbr140p JFET and MESFET Models The search path for JFET and MESFET models is: $installdir/parts/fet The required element syntax is: Xyyyy drain gate source modelname Optional parameters are: vt=value.12 327 . betaf=value Table 115 FET Model Names J108 j113 j2n4392 j2n5458 j2n5463 jsj74 m2n6758 m2n6763 J109 j2n3330 j2n4393 j2n5459 j2n5465 jsk170 m2n6759 m2n6764 J110 j2n3460 j2n4856 j2n5460 j309 m2n6755 m2n6760 m2n6765 J111 j2n3824 j2n4857 j2n5461 j511 m2n6756 m2n6761 m2n6766 J112 j2n4391 j2n5457 j2n5462 j557 m2n6757 m2n6762 m2n6767 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

Appendix A: Finding Device Libraries JFET and MESFET Models Table 115 FET Model Names (Continued) m2n6768 m2n6789 m2n6794 m2n6799 mbuz20 mbuz36 mbuz63 mbuz76 mirf130 mirf141 mirf152 mirf223 mirf240 mirf251 mirf322 mirf333 mirf350 mirf421 mirf432 mirf443 mirf510 mirf521 m2n6769 m2n6790 m2n6795 m2n6800 mbuz23 mbuz42 mbuz64 mirf120 mirf131 mirf142 mirf153 mirf230 mirf241 mirf252 mirf323 mirf340 mirf351 mirf422 mirf433 mirf450 mirf511 mirf522 m2n6770 m2n6791 m2n6796 m2n6801 mbuz24 mbuz45 mbuz71 mirf121 mirf132 mirf143 mirf220 mirf231 mirf242 mirf253 mirf330 mirf341 mirf352 mirf423 mirf440 mirf451 mirf512 mirf523 m2n6787 m2n6792 m2n6797 m2n6802 mbuz32 mbuz46 mbuz72a mirf122 mirf133 mirf150 mirf221 mirf232 mirf243 mirf320 mirf331 mirf342 mirf353 mirf430 mirf441 mirf452 mirf513 mirf530 m2n6788 m2n6793 m2n6798 mbuz10 mbuz35 mbuz60 mbuz74 mirf123 mirf140 mirf151 mirf222 mirf233 mirf250 mirf321 mirf332 mirf343 mirf420 mirf431 mirf442 mirf453 mirf520 mirf531 328 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.12 .

12 329 . HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.Appendix A: Finding Device Libraries JFET and MESFET Models Table 115 FET Model Names (Continued) mirf532 mirf543 mirf620 mirf631 mirf642 mirf713 mirf730 mirf741 mirf812 mirf823 mirf840 mirff110 mirff121 mirff132 mirff213 mirff230 mirff311 mirff322 mirff333 mirf533 mirf610 mirf621 mirf632 mirf643 mirf720 mirf731 mirf742 mirf813 mirf830 mirf841 mirff111 mirff122 mirff133 mirff220 mirff231 mirff312 mirff323 mirff430 mirf540 mirf611 mirf622 mirf633 mirf710 mirf721 mirf732 mirf743 mirf820 mirf831 mirf842 mirff112 mirff123 mirff210 mirff221 mirff232 mirff313 mirff330 mirff431 mirf541 mirf612 mirf623 mirf640 mirf711 mirf722 mirf733 mirf810 mirf821 mirf832 mirf843 mirff113 mirff130 mirff211 mirff222 mirff233 mirff320 mirff331 mirff432 mirf542 mirf613 mirf630 mirf641 mirf712 mirf723 mirf740 mirf811 mirf822 mirf833 mirf9020 mirff120 mirff131 mirff212 mirff223 mirff310 mirff321 mirff332 mirff433 Transmission Line Models Table 116 lists the Transmission Line models that you can use in HSPICE.

12 .Appendix A: Finding Device Libraries JFET and MESFET Models Search path: $installdir/parts/tline Table 116 Transmission Line Model Names rcfilt rg11_u rg11a_u rg15_u rg180b_u rg188a_u rg59b_u rg9_u rg53_u rg62_u rg9b_u rg54a_u rg62b_u tw_sh_u rg58a_u rg71_u tw_un_u rg58c_u rg71b_u 330 HSPICE® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models E-2010.

289 transistor process parameters 273 BJT Level 9. 179 current equations 189 DC models 163 equations 189 parameters 163 energy gap temperature equations 199 equations 188 equivalent circuits 176. wire RC model 8 BJT Level 10 272 charges 284 circuit schematics 277 current 281 depletion capacitance 289 equations 280 noise equations 287 operating point 278 series resistance 287. 289 temperature 288. 305 depletion charge 303 diffusion charge 303 diode 299 junction 163 base-emitter capacitance equations 193 charge 300 depletion charge 300 diffusion charge 301 junction 163 base-emitter diode 298 basic model parameters JFETs TOM model 146 behavioral device models 322 beta degradation 163 BiCMOS circuits 160 devices 160 331 .Index A A model parameter 42 AB model parameter 80 ACM 111 model parameter 111 parameter equations 128 ALPHA model parameter 42 analog device models 318 analysis. noise 220 area calculation method See ACM JFETs and MESFETs equations 128–130 units 128. 178 excess phase equation 197 geometric 163 high current Beta degradation parameters 167 junction capacitance equations 196 model parameters 168 junction capacitor 163 B base charge equations 191 collector capacitance 195 resistance equations 192 base-collector charge 303. 130 AREA capacitor parameter 53 bidirectional circuits. syntax 264 BJTs base charge equations 191 push-out effects 206 width modulation model parameters 166 base-collector depletion capacitance equations 195 diffusion capacitance equations 195 base-emitter depletion capacitance equations 194 diffusion capacitance equations 193 beta degradation 163 temperature equations 200–202 capacitance temperature equations 203 conductance 178.

186 convergence 161 names 161 parameters 163. 110. internal collector 196 model 32 parameters 33 parameters 33 BJTs 168 junction 59 parasitic 9. HiCUM 243 low current Beta degradation parameters 163 . 215–220 quasi-saturation 206 statement 161 transistor 323 variables (table) 184 noise 164 equations 198 model parameters 170 summary printout 198 npn identifier 161 parasitic capacitance 164 parasitics capacitance model parameters 169 resistance model parameters 167 resistor temperature equations 205 pnp identifier 161 quasi-saturation model 206 resistor 163 saturation temperature equations 200–202 scaling 177 subcircuits. 196 depletion 73 diffusion 73 diode 73 metal and poly 74 GMIN 161 GMINDC 161 input-output ratio 9 JFETs 113 JFETs and MESFETs 113.Index C LEVEL 2 model parameters 170 temperature equations 205 LEVEL 4. 194. 161 DCCAP 52. Fowler-Nordheim 97 distribution for wire RC model 9 effective 34 equations BJTs 193. 130–134 CAPOP=2 parameters 133 equations 114 gate to drain 112 source to gate 112 junction. 161 diode. TOM3 149 capacitor BJT 164 DC sweep evaluation 193 device equations 34 model 32 332 . 163 C capacitance 73 base collector 195 DCAP 52. scaled 212 substrate capacitance equations 197 current equation 190 temperature capacitance equations 203 compensation equations 199 effect parameters 172 parasitic resistor 205 saturation equations 201 transit time 164 model parameters 169 variable base resistance equations 192 breakdown current 299 bulk semiconductor devices 109 BULK wire model parameters 10 BUS wire RC model 8 BV diode model parameter 50 BYPASS option 51. model parameters 215–220 LEVEL 8 HiCUM parameters 249 LEVEL 8. 195. 169 substrate 197 temperature 35 BJT equations 203 equations 35 VBIC99 269 voltage 35 wire. equations 13 capacitance equations.MODEL statement 161 models constants (table) 119.

BJT Level 10 289 333 . 161 option 51. SPICE 112 parameters junction 168 metal and poly 59 temperature. 305 base-emitter 300 substrates 306 VBIC99 269 charge stoarge. 161 equation selector 161 option 51 JFETs and MESFETs capacitance 113 JFETs and MESFETs models 113 overriding in BJTs models 161 DCCAP 51. 113. 161 equations 73 depletion capacitance.Index D element 32 equation selector option 51 equations 114 models. 115 control options 113 convergence 52 setting 50 convergence BJT model 161 JFETs and MESFETs 113 problems diodes 52 core Jiles-Atherton 37 ferromagnetic 41 model parameters 39 magnetic 37 element output 39 model parameters 37 model parameters 39 A 42 ALPHA 42 MS 42 current BJT Level 10 281 breakdown 299 collector 298 convention BJTs 177 JFETs 114 diodes 63 epitaxial 208 HBT model 298 Curtice model 111. BJT Level 10 284 circuit schematics BJT Level 10 277 HBT model 307 circuits BiCMOS 160 BJT 176. 178 ECL 160 TTL 160 CJBR model parameter 81 CJGR model parameter 81 CJSR model parameter 81 CMC R2 resistor model 20 collector current 298 collector diode. equations 15 CAPOP model parameter 111 charge base-collector 303. BJT Level 10 278 DCAP 51. 179 diodes 64 GMIN 52 GMINDC 52 JFETs 113 JFETs and MESFETs 113. TOM3 148 DC model. BJTs 189 parameters JFETs LEVEL=1 126 JFETs LEVEL=2 126 JFETs LEVEL=3 128 DC equations. 193 JFETs and MESFETs capacitance 113 depletion capacitance DCAP equation selector 52. substarte 300 collector-substrate junction 163 conductance BJTs 178. 127 D DC BJT 163 equations JFETs and MESFETs 135–137 equations. JFET Level 8 153 DC operating point. HBT model 300 charges.

equations 34 inductor. 50 See also junction diodes DTA model parameter 80 E Ebers-Moll model 159. barrier 49 series resistance units 59 temperature compensation equations 75 effects 66 types 50 Zener 49.Index E depletion charge base-collector 303 base-emitter 300 device capacitor. 95 equations 96 junction 49 capacitance parameters 59 DC equations 70 DC parameters 55 equations 69 geometric 50 model 53 parameters 55 temperature 66 junction capacitance models 78 metal model capacitance parameters (table) 59 models 324 define 63 levels 50 noise parameters (table) 59 regions 70 statements 50 using 49 variables (table) 69 noise equations 74 nongeometric junction 50 nonvolatile memory 49 poly model capacitance parameters (table) 59 scaling options 51 parameters 61–63 Schottky. wire model parameters 11 diffusion capacitance equations 73 diffusion charge base-collector 303 base-emitter 301 diodes barrier 49 base collector 299 base emitter 298 capacitance 73 calculations 51 equations 73 Fowler-Nordheim 97 collector 300 conductance 64 control options 50 convergence problems 52 current 63 DC parameters 122 equations 69–78 breakdown voltage 76 contact potential 76 depletion capacitance 73 diffusion capacitance 73 energy gap 75 Fowler-Nordheim diodes 96 grading coefficient 78 junction capacitance 77 leakage current 75 LEVEL=3 metal 74 LEVEL=3 poly 74 resistance 78 transit time 76 equivalent circuits 64. VBIC99 265 element capacitors 32 linear inductors 36 statements capacitor 32 linear inductor 36 subcircuits 4 element parameters capacitors 32–36 diodes 53 334 . 162 ECL circuits 160 devices 160 effective capacitance calculation 34 effects. 64–66 Fowler-Nordheim 50. equations 40 dielectric constant 14 thickness.

34 DC JFETs and MESFETs 135 junction 70 device capacitor 34 inductor 40 diodes 73 Fowler-Nordheim 96 junction 69 HBT model 298 inductor device 36. 115 MESFETs 114 errors bulk node not specified 15 negative slope for magnetization level 42 reference to undefined inductor 41 example hysteresis 45 parameter extraction 46 subcircuit 4 examples HBT model 309 VBIC99 272 excess phase 197 F ferromagnetic core 37 model 41 field effect transistor.Index F AREA 61 M 61. models 327 flicker noise 16 Fowler-Nordheim diodes 50. 201 capacitance depletion 73 diffusion 73 diodes 73 effective 34 metal and poly 74 temperature 35. 52 capacitances 97 equations 96 model parameters 95 using 95 frequency. 62 element statements. JFETs and MESFETs 130–134 parameters JFETs 124–125 335 . 203 capacitor 114 device 32. 199 inductor 40 JFETs and MESFETs 140 variable definitions 69 names 184 names and constants 117 wire capacitance 13 resistance 12 equivalent circuit BJTs 178 JFETs 114. JFETs 122–123 equations. low model parameters 162 G gate capacitance diode DC parameters. 203 compensation 75. BJT 176 energy gap temperature equations BJTs 199 JFETs and MESFETs 142 epitaxial charge 209 current source 208 equations ACM parameters 128 BJT Level 10 280 BJTs DC models 189 noise 198 parasitic resistor 205 parasitic resistor temperature 205 temperature 199. 40 temperature 40 noise 138 BJTs 198 junction diode 74 resistor device 8 model 12 noise 15 temperature 15 substrate current 190 temperature BJTs 201 capacitance 35.

overriding 51. 161 option 113 GMINDC 52. VBIC99 265 improved effects. JFET Level 8 154 geometric model parameter 163 geometry ACM 128 JFETs and MESFETs parameters 114 SCALE 52 SCALM 52 substrate diode 188 global scaling. 115 gate capacitance parameters 124–125 diode DC parameters 122–123 model constants 117 names 120 parameters 120 specifying 110 statements 119 variables 117 n-channel specification 120 noise equations 138 parameters 138 summary printout 139 output conductance 115 overview 109 H HBT model 291 charge storgae 300 circuit schematics 307 current 298 equations 298 example 309 noise 306 parameters 292 temperature 291 UCSD 291 HiCUM model BJT level 13 309 BJT level 8 243 HiCUM model. 161 option. JFETs and MESFETs conductance 113 GRAMP conductance option 113 Gummel-Poon model 159. VBIC99 265 inactive devices See latent devices inductance mutual 41 temperature equation 40 inductors core models 37 336 . BJT parameters 249 hysteresis. 206 coupling 41 device equations 40 model 36 linear 36 branch relations 41 temperature. 114 GMIN 52. equation 40 insulation breakdown devices 95 J JFET Level 7 147 JFET Level 8 152 DC model 153 example 156 gate capacitance model 154 noise model 155 parameters 153 JFETs capacitance equations 114.Index H temperature equations. 130 parameters 133 CAPOP=2 model parameters 133 convergence 113 current convention 114 DC model equation selector 120 LEVEL 1 parameters 125–126 LEVEL 2 parameters 126 LEVEL 3 parameters 127–128 voltage equations 135 equivalent circuits 114. Jiles-Atherton example 45 I IKF model parameter 160 IKR model parameter 160 implementation. JFETs and MESFETs 143 gate capacitance model.

110. 163 latent devices BYPASS option 51. 38. 163 bypassing 51. 163 LEVEL diode parameter 50 model selector 110 Level 10 272 charges 284 circuit schematics 277 current 281 depletion capacitance 289 equations 280 noise equations 287 operating point 278 series resistance 287. 110. 142–145 parameters 140 TOM model parameters 146 transconductance 115 Jiles-Atherton example hysteresis 45 parameter extraction 46 model 37. 41 parameters 39 JSDBR model parameter 81 JSDGR model parameter 81 JSDSR model parameter 81 JSGBR model parameter 80 JSGGR model parameter 81 JSGSR model parameter 81 Juncap diode electrical variable 83 leakage 87 Juncap diodes equations 83 model parameters 80. ON/OFF 85 L L capacitor parameter 53 latency option 51.Index K p-channel specification 120 scaling 114 temperature equations 140. 92 junction capacitance 164 capacitor parameters 168 DC 70 diodes element parameters 53 equations 69 geometric 52 nongeometric 52 parameters 53 Silicon diffused 49 temperature 66 model parameters 54 statement 53 setting capacitance parameters 59 DC LEVEL=1 and 3 parameters 55 junction capacitance models 78 Junction diode. 289 temperature 288. 46 saturable core 36 K K model parameters 43 337 . 110. 289 transistor process parameters 273 Level 11 model 291 Level 7 147 Level 8 152 DC model 153 example 156 gate capacitance model 154 noise model 155 parameters 153 LG model parameter 80 libraries device 317 listings 317 LM capacitor parameter 53 low-frequency large-signal characteristics 162 LP capacitor parameter 53 LS model parameter 80 M M capacitor parameter 53 element parameter 62 magnetic core 37 element outputs 39 models ferromagnetic core 41 parameters 37.

110. 130 CAPOP=2 model parameters 133 control options 113 convergence 113 DC model equation selector 120 voltage equations 135 equivalent circuits 114 models constants 117 names 120 parameters 120 specifying 110 statements 119 variables 117 n-channel specification 120 noise equations 138 parameters 138 summary printout 139 overview 109 p-channel specification 120 scaling 114 temperature equations 140. 146 ACM 128 capacitance 133 DC. resistance 167 temperature. MESFETs 145 model parameters BJT level 13 Level 13. MESFETs magnetic cores 38–39 MESFETs 338 . 163 MESFETs capacitance equations 114. JFETs and MESFETs 114 IKF 160 IKR 160 JFETs 133. HiCUM 311 BJT level 8 Level 8. 142–145 metal and poly capacitance equations 74 MEXTRAM 504 noise parameterss 237 MEXTRAM504 output templates 238 mobility temperature equations. 57 model names 53 Ebers-Moll 162 Fowler-Nordheim diodes 96 geometry. 126 DC.Index M statement 37 outputs (table) 39 Materka model 152 MBYPASS option 51. LEVEL=2 126 DC. LEVEL=1 125. 54 level 50 noise 60 scaling 62 temperature 67–69 diodes. capacitance 169 parasitics. junction AREA 55 BV 58 capacitance 59 DC 55–58 LEVEL 54. JFETs or model parameters. parameters 171 transistor 161 transit time 169 BV 50 capacitance 33 DCAP 113 diodes 53 junction 53. 130 GMIN 113 LEVEL 120 level selector 110 NIF 120 PIF 120 See also model parameters. JFETs. LEVEL=3 127–128 gate capacitance 124–125 gate diode DC 122–123 noise 138 temperature 140–142 JFETs and MESFETs 120 DCAP 113. 138. 57 model 53. HiCUM 249 BJTs 171 base width modulation 166 beta degradation 162 high current Beta degradation 167 junction capacitance 168 LEVEL 2 170 low current Beta degradation 163 model name 161 noise 170 parasitics. effects 172–176 temperature.

Index N noise 138 See also model parameters. diode 61 selecting 110 SPICE capacitor 112 Statz 111 subcircuit MULTI 4 transient 163 VBIC bipolar transistor 214 VBIC99 263 wire RC 8 MS model parameter 42 MULTI 4 multiply parameter 4 mutual inductor coupling coefficient 41 N National Semiconductor model 211 converting 105 NB model parameter 81 NG model parameter 81 noise analysis 220 BJTs 164 equations BJTs 198 JFETs and MESFETs 138 junction diode 74 resistor 15 HBT model 306 JFETs and MESFETs equations 138 summary printout 139 parameters 59.MODEL statement 53 BJTs 161 capacitance 33 diode junction 53 ferromagnetic cores 37 magnetic core 37 wire RC 8 . BJT Level 10 287 noise model.MODEL statements and MESFETs 119 models ACM selector 111 BJTs HiCUM 243 quasi-saturation 206 statement 161 capacitance 32 capacitors. 170 BJTs 170 resistor 15 equation 15 thermal 15 VBIC99 271 noise equations. Fowler-Nordheim 95 passive device 7 quasi-saturation 206 resistor equations 12 scaling. 211 parameters. model selector 111 Curtice 111 device capacitor 32 inductor 36 resistor 8 diode 50 define 63 junction 53 scaling 61 statements 50 Ebers-Moll 159. 10–11 table 12 . JFETs metal and poly capacitors 60 SUBS 160 TOM model 146 wire models 9. MEXTRAM 504 237 nonvolatile memory diodes 49 notes for VBIC99 264 NS model parameter 81 339 . 162 ferromagnetic cores 41 Gummel-Poon 159 HBT 291 JFETs and MESFETs capacitor 112 DC models 109 Jiles-Atherton core 41 junction parameters 54 statement 53 Level 11 291 Level 2 R2_CMC resistor 20 magnetic core 37 National Semiconductor 105. JFET Level 8 155 noise parameters.

OPTION DCAP 51. capacitance 59 setting. 163 MBYPASs 51 SCALE 51. 161 DCCAP 51 GMIN 52. 92 junction 54 magnetic core 37 noise 59 BJTs 170 resistance 167 temperature. BJTs 205 temperature equations. MEXTRAM 504 238 P . 169 RC wire model 9 resistance parameters. BJT Level 10 278 . parameter 53 PS model parameter 81 Q Qbci 303 Qbcj 303 Qbcm 304 Qbcx 305 Qbcxx 305 Qbediff 301 Qbej 300 Qcs 306 quasi-saturation BJT model 206 R R2_CMC resistor model 20 RC wire model 8 resistance parameters 167 340 . 62 SHRINK 62 options control. 161 GMINDC 52. 161 GRAMP 161 MBYPASS 110.Index O O ON/OFF Condition 85 operating point. BJTs 167 temperature equations.PARAM statement 4 parameters AREA 53 base width 166 BJT LEVEL 2 170 capacitance 33 capacitor junction 168 metal and poly 59 DC model 162 Ebers-Moll 162 extraction example 46 HBT model 292 high-current beta degradation 167 JFET Level 8 153 junction capacitor 163 diode 53 setting. 169 VBIC 214 VBIC99 266 parasitic capacitance 169 BJT parameters 164. DC LEVEL=1 and 3 55 limit checking capacitor device 34 magnetic core 40 low-current beta degradation 163 model BJT LEVEL 2 170 Fowler-Norheim 95 Jiles-Atherton core 39 Juncap 80. 61. 62 SCALM 51. JFETs and MESFETs 145 PB model parameter 81 PG model parameter 81 Philips MODELLA 272 PJ capacitor. JFETs and MESFETs 140 TOM3 150 transient model 163 transistor process 273 transit time 163. setting 50 convergence 52 output magnetic core 39 LX1 .LX7 39 output templates. 61.

Index S resister thermal noise 16 resistor BJTs 163 device model 8 flicker noise 16 model equations 12 noise 15 equation 15 temperature 15 equations 15 wire model parameters 12 S saturable core models 36 saturation current temperature equations. LEVEL=2 205 341 . 127 capacitance equations 133 storing charges 300 subcircuits BJTs 212 call statement 4 calling 3 element names 4 model names 4 multiply parameter 4 node names 4 parameter 4 SUBS model parameter 160 substrate capacitance equations 197 current equations 190 diodes 176 substrates charge 306 collector diode 300 syntax. JFETs and MESFETs 143 temperature equations. 34. VBIC99 271 series resistance. 61. 111. BJT Level 9 264 T temperature BJT Level 10 288. 51. 62 JFETs and MESFETs scaling 113 parameter in a diode model statement 51 schematics BJT Level 10 277 HBT mode 307 Schottky barrier diodes 49 self-heating. BJT Level 10 287. 51. 289 BJTs beta equations 200–202 capacitance equations 203 energy gap equations 199 LEVEL 2 equations 205 parameters 171 parasitic resistor equations 205 saturation equations 200–202 capacitor equations 15 compensation equations 75 diodes 66 effect parameters BJTs 172 junction diodes 66 equations BJTs 200 BJTs. 34. 61. BJTs 200 SCALE 51 option 12. 289 SHRINK model parameter 12. 62 scale diode parameters 62 JFETs and MESFETs 113 parameters 114 scaling BJTs 177 diode model 61 global vs model 51 JFETs 113 options 51 SCALM 51 option 12. 34 option 62 SPICE compatibility 128 depletion capacitor model 112 statements call subcircuit 4 model 7 BJTs 161 junction 53 X4 Statz model 110.

HBT model 291 V VB model parameter 81 VBIC model (vertical bipolar inter-company) 214 noise analysis 220 parameters 214 VBIC99 capacitance 269 charge 269 example 272 implementation 265 improved effects 265 noise 271 notes 264 parameters 266 self-heating 271 temperature 270 VBIC99 model 263 VDBR model parameter 81 VDGR model parameter 81 VDSR model parameter 81 voltage. 183. 208 substrate diodes 176 geometry 188 vertical 182. 184 transient analysis 179. JFETs and MESFETs 144 TOM model 145 LEVEL 3 parameters 146 parameters 146 See also TriQuint model TOM3 capacitance equations 149 DC equations 148 parameters 150 TOM3 model 147 TR model parameter 80 transconductance. 180 lateral 181. 184. JFETs and MESFETs DC models 135 VR model parameter 80 342 . 142–145 parameters 140 JFETs 140 JFETs and MESFETs 140 reference model parameters 11 resistor equations 15 VBIC99 270 thermal noise 15. 207 VBIC 214 transit time BJTs 164 parameters 169 transmission lines. 142–145 TLEV parameter 140 TLEVC parameter 140 junction diodes 66 MESFETs equations 140. 182 AC noise analysis 183.Index U breakdown voltage 76 capacitance 77 contact potential 76 energy gap 75 FJET’s and MESFETs 140 grading coefficient 78 leakage 75 resistance 78 resistor 15 transit time 76 HBT model 291 inductor 40 JFETs equations 140. models 329 TriQuint model 110 extensions 145 LEVEL 3 parameters 146 See also TOM model TriQuint TOM3 147 TTL circuits 160 devices 160 U UCSD. 16 threshold temperature equations. JFETs and MESFETs 115 transient lateral 179 vertical 180 transistor process parameters BJT Level 10 273 transistors BJTs AC analysis 181. 188 geometry 188. 188 geometry 188.

40 invalid value for CRATIO 9 IS parameter too small 57 resistance smaller than RESMIN 13 wire capacitance 13 model effective length and width 12 parameters 8. 12 resistance calculation 12 model capacitance calculation 13 distribution 9 model RC 8 resistance 12 WM capacitor parameter 53 WP capacitor parameter 53 X X statement 4 XCJC 305 Z Zener diodes 50 343 .Index W W W capacitor parameter 53 warnings capacitance too large 34.

Index Z 344 .

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