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A mini project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
S. ANUSHA (097G1A0452) A.MAMATHA (097G1A0401) I. MANASA (097G1A0422). M.KAVITHA (097G1A0434)
Under the guidance of Mr.R. ARUN KUMAR
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
VIVEKANANDA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCES FOR WOMEN
BOMMAKAL, KARIMNAGAR DIST-505 001 (Affiliated to JNTU HYD) (2012-2013)
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
This is to certify that mini project entitled “WIRELESS NOTICE BOARD USING RF” is being submitted by S.ANUSHA, I.MANASA, A.MAMATHA, and M.KAVITHA. ROLL No: 097G1A0452, 097G1A0422, 097G1A0401, 097G1A0434, in the partial fulfillment for the award of degree of bachelor of technology in “ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING” to “JNTU” is a record of bonafide work carried out by them. The results embodied in this project have not been submitted to any other university or institute for the award of any degree.
Mr. R.ARUN KUMAR Asst. Professor
Mrs. R. VANITHA RANI. HOD of ECE department
I consider it as my privilege to express our gratitude and respect to all those who guided, inspired and helped us in completion of this project. We wish to express our sincere gratitude to Mr.R.Arun kumar, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Vivekananda institute of technology and sciences for women, Karimnagar, for his guidance and valuable suggestions while carrying out this project work. I also express thanks to Mrs. R.Vanitha Rani, HOD of ECE, Vivekananda institute of technology and sciences for women, Karimnagar for her support. I am highly indebted to Principal Mr. Somi Reddy garu for giving us the permission to carry out this project. I would like to thank the Teaching & Non-teaching staff of Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering for sharing their knowledge with us.
I hereby declare that the mini project entitled “WIRLESS NOTICE BOARD USING RF” is being submitted by us in the partial fulfilment for the award of degree of bachelor of technology in “ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING” to “JNTU” is a record of bonafide work carried out by us. The results embodied in this project have not been submitted to any other university or institute for the award of any degree
3 Introduction of embedded system Objective of the system Requirements 1.3 Enhancements 31 31 31 32 33 CONCLUSION REFERENCES ABSTRACT .2 Software tools 1.Abstract List of figures and tables i ii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.3 Micro C flash 20 28 29 CHAPTER 4: 4.5 Block diagram 1.1 Keil micro vision 3.5.3 Microcontroller 2.3.1 Explanation 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 6 1.2 Outputs 2.1 Explanation Schematic diagram 1.4.4 Encoder and Decoder 8 10 12 16 CHAPTER 3: SOFTWARE MODULES 3.2 1.2 Applications 4.3.2 PCB wizard 3.4 1.1 1.1 Inputs 2.1 Advantages 4.1 Hardware tools CHAPTER 2: HARDWARE MODULES 2.
In this project Wireless Encoding and decoding are using one of the techniques called cipher text technique. Advantages: • • The data secure is more while transferring data Used in data communication. MAX 232 DB-9 Connector. i . Using today’s Communication technology the data transmission and reception from one place to another is easy and fast. Encryption is any procedure to convert plaintext into Cipher text. transmitting section we have AT89S52 Microcontroller. It can be used in Air craft applications. Hardware components: • • • • • AT 89C52 Micro controllers LCD RF Module. Software tools: • Kiel vision. At the time when data will transfer from the transmitter a pre defined code will be added with every 8 bit data and when this data received by the Receiver this code will be decoded by the receiver and generate the exact data that will be displayed on LCD. one is transmitter another one Receiver. Applications: • • This system can be used for Military application for security. In Receiver section we have another AT89S52 Microcontroller and LCD.In Today’s Electronic world wireless communication is playing a very important role. Decryption is any procedure to convert cipher text into plaintext. PC and LCD. ` In our project we have two sections.
184.108.40.206 Block diagram of wireless notice board RF Transmitter RF Receiver power supply circuit power supply circuit block diagram MAX232 LCD pin configuration HT12E Encoder HT12D Decoder PCB whizard in real time 2 4 6 8 9 9 11 13 16 18 29 LIST OF TABLES 2.1 2.1 220.127.116.11..1 18.104.22.168.2 2.2 HT12E Encoder pin description HT12D Decoder pin description 17 20 ii .4 1.1 1.4.1 2.3 2.1.3 2.LIST OF FIGURES 1.1 2.2.2 3.
1. In contrast.2 objective of the system The main objective of the project is to develop a wireless notice board that will be used any where such as faculty.CHAPTER 1 1. drawback of this type of the system is inflexible in turn of placement. Now-a-days most of the electronic notice boards are designed using wired system.1 Hardware components: • • • • 1. embedded controllers carryout a specific work for which they are designed. The wireless electronic notice boards offer flexibility to user to control the information display within a specified distance.3 Requirements 1. shops and any other places in order to display latest information. 1. So. So these controllers cannot be used in any other place.3. You need to install the relevant software to get the required processing facility. mosques. drawback of this type of design is the system is inflexible in term of placement.1 Introduction to embedded systems The computer you use to compose your mails. PCB wizard Micro C flash AT 89C52 Micro controllers LCD RF Module. 1.2 Software tools: • • • Kiel vision. Engineers design these embedded controllers with a specific goal in mind. Introduction: Now-a-days most of the electronic notice boards are designed using wire system. these desktop computers can do many things. or create a document or analyze the database is known as the standard desktop computer. These desktop computers are manufactured to serve many purposes and applications.3. MAX 232 .
4 Block diagram LCD Regulated power supply PC Max 232 Embedded controller Embedded controller Regulate d Power Supply RF Transmitte r module RF Receiver module TRANSMITTER RECEIVER Fig: 1.1 1.4 block diagram of wireless notice board .
The transmitter module is used by a user to place a message through an input module such as pc. The information or messages are displayed using pc.2 1. The information then transmitted using RF technology to the receiver. The system is divided into different modules.4. The system consists of two modules. The wireless system for dot matrix display is a method using Radio Frequency as transmission medium.2 Block diagram explanation Electronic notice board is a common device that is used to display information. Above figure is a simple block diagram of wireless notice board using RF. The modules are: • • • • Microcontroller Module Liquid Crystal Display Module Encoder and Decoder Module Transmitter and Receiver Module . It then will be decoded and displayed on electronic notice board. transmitter and receiver.
3 1.5-12V supply. making FCC and ETSI compliance easy.1 Transmitter Fig: 1. The transmitter operates from a1. The transmitter employs a SAW-stabilized oscillator. Output power and harmonic emissions are easy to control.5. ensuring accurate frequency control for best range performance. making it ideal for battery-powered applications. .5.5.5 Schematic 1.2Explanation: The STT-433 is ideal for remote control applications where low cost and longer range is required.1 Transmitter 1. The manufacturing-friendly SIP style package and low-cost make the STT-433 suitable for high volume applications.
In theory. the 200m quote range is a reliable range over open ground using1 whip antenna at both end with 1. With additional simple antenna. the transmitter can be used to transmit data up to 200m range.5. Increase the size of the antenna and slower the data transfer will increase the reliable range. The transmitter used in this project is FM-TX1 that operates at 433.4 Fig 1. Smaller antenna. The signal source is modulated by carrier into a modulated signal to ensure it is received by a receiver. The range depends on several factors. .2: RF Transmitter Transmitter is a device that is used to transmit signal to free space at certain frequency. The transmitter is designed to work in pair with receiver FM-RX1.92MHz. interference or building will reduce the reliable range to 25-30m range.5m above ground. One of the elements that is antenna design.
.3 RF Receiver 1. making FCC and ETSI approvals easy. The receiver module requires no external RF components except for the antenna.4 Explanation: The STR-433 is ideal for short-range remote control applications where cost is a primary concern.5.5.5. The super-regenerative design exhibits exceptional sensitivity at a very low cost.5 1. The manufacturing-friendly SIP style package and low-cost make the STR-433 suitable for high volume applications. It generates virtually no emissions.3 Receiver Fig:1.
Like the transmitter. the better receive . The characteristic of a receiver must be similar with transmitter.92MHz. Demodulation process is important to separate between carrier signal and modulating signal. The modulated signal is then demodulated to obtain the original signal. If the characteristic is not equal. The larger antenna. the frequency of receiver that used is 433.6 Fig 1. The type of the receiver is FM-RX1. The range is also influenced by the size of the antenna and the environment. FM-RX1 can receive data from FM-TX1 in the range of 200m in open and 25-30m when there are obstacles.5. the data cannot be transferred to the receiver.4: RF receiver The receiver is used to receive signal from free space through the antenna.
1Power supply circuit: Fig: 2. Hardware modules 2.7 CHAPTER 2 2. is one where you can continuously adjust the output voltage to your requirements.1. Varying the output of the power supply is the recommended way to test a project after having double checked parts placement against circuit drawings and the parts placement guide. Actually this is quite important because one of the first projects a hobbyist should undertake is the construction of a variable regulated power supply. . especially for testing.1 Power supply circuit A variable regulated power supply. also called a variable bench power supply.1.1 Inputs 2. This type of regulation is ideal for having a simple variable bench power supply. 5V or 12V.g. it's much handier to have a variable supply on hand. While a dedicated supply is quite handy e.
.8V for low.2 Regulated power supply block diagram 2.3 MAX 232 .... +2V . +5V (roughly 0V .3V or even lower..1.1. -3V for high [sic]) and +3V ... +3. classic TTL computer logic operates between 0V .1.8 2.. Fig: 2..24) communication works with voltages (-15V . On the other hand. +5V for high).1.. +15V for low [sic]) which are not compatible with normal computer logic voltages. +0.2 power supply circuit block diagram 2.3 MAX 232 Serial RS-232 (V. Modern low-power logic operates in the range of 0V ...
calculators and measuring instruments are the simple seven-segment displays. The serial communication transfer uses only a single data line instead of the 8 bit data line of parallel communication which makes the data transfer not only cheaper but also makes it possible for two computers located in two different cities to communicate over telephone. Computers transfer data in two ways: parallel and serial. it provides data in byte sized chunks. but are grouped together in an ordered form similar to a crystal. and interfacing standard called RS232 was set by the Electronics industries Association in 1960. Today RS232 is the most widely used I/O interfacing standard. making -3 to +3 undefined.2.9 When a processor communicates with the outside world. MAX232 ICs are commonly referred to as line drivers.2 outputs 2. to connect any RS232 to a microcontroller system we must use voltage converters such as MAX232 to connect the TTL logic levels to RS232 voltage levels and vice versa. having a limited amount of numeric data. In RS232. Rather than having a melting point. they have a temperature range within which the molecules are almost as mobile as they would be in a liquid. 2. a 1 bit is represented by -3 to -25V. its input and output voltage levels are not TTL compatible. The LCDs used exclusively in watches. In parallel data transfers. . To allow the compatibility among data communication equipment made by various manufacturers.1 Liquid crystal display Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have materials which combine the properties of both liquids and crystals. since the standard was set long before the advent of the TTL logic family. while a 0 bit is represented +3 to +25 V. This standard is used in PCs and numerous types of equipment. often more lines are used to transfer data to a device and 8 bit data path is expensive. However. For this reason.
2. Ease of programming for characters and graphics . 3.10 Fig 2.This is due to the following reasons: 1. In the case of LED s.2. This is in contrast to LED which is limited to numbers and a few characters. 4. 2. The declining prices of LCDs. they must be refreshed by the CPU to keep on displaying the data. there by relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. characters and graphics.1 LCD 2. The ability to display numbers. Incorporation of a refreshing controller into the LCD.2 LCD operation In recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED s (seven-segment LED s or other multi-segment LED s).
the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. and clock circuitry. three 16-bit timer/counters. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip. the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture. timer/counters. high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8k bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non volatile memory pro. 32 I/O lines. and interrupt system to continue functioning. In addition. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash. disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset Features • • • • • • 32 programmable i/o lines 8KB in system programmable flash memory 256 X 8 bit internal RAM Three 16 bit timer/counters 4.3 MICROCONTROLLER AT89S52: The AT89S52 is a low-power. on-chip oscillator. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM.grammar. serial port. Watchdog timer. two data pointers. 256 bytes of RAM.5V operating range 8 interrupt sources . The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density non volatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out.tents but freezes the oscillator.0 to 5. The Power-down mode saves the RAM con. a full duplex serial port.11 2.
Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port.2 Pin Description VCC Supply voltage. . When 1s are written to port 0 pins.1 pin configuration 2. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. each pin can sink eight TTL inputs.12 2. As an output port. In this mode. GND Ground.1 Pin configuration Fig 22.214.171.124. the pins can be used as high-impedance inputs.
respectively.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. P1. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S52. they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. as shown in the following table. Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses 16bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). 13 Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. As inputs. as shown . In this application.0 and P1. External pull-ups are required during program verification. Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI).P0 has internal pull-ups. As inputs. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. Port 2 uses strong internal pullups when emitting 1s. In addition. Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pullups. Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register.1/T2EX). As inputs. Port 3: Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pullups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program verification. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification Port 2: Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups.
except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. When the AT89S52 is executing code from external pro.. ALE/PROG: Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle. In normal operation.gram memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled.in the following table. PSEN: Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. This pin drives High for 96 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes.. In the default state of bit DISRTO. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle. XTAL1: . If desired. 14 RST: Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. When the AT89S52 is executing code from external pro-gram memory.
The capability to select a TE trigger on the HT12E or a DATA trigger on the HT12A further enhances the application flexibility of the 212 series of encoders.4. XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. The programmed addresses/data are transmitted together with the header bits via an RF or an infrared transmission medium upon receipt of a trigger signal. The HT12A additionally provides a 38kHz carrier for infrared systems. . They are capable of encoding information which consists of N address bits and 12_N data bits. 15 2.1 HT12E Encoder The 212 encoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications.4 Encoder and Decoder 2.Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input internal clock operating circuit. Each address/ data input can be set to one of the two logic states.
4.Fig: 2.1 HT12E Encoder 16 .
Fig: 2.1 HT12E Encoder pin description 17 .4.
For proper operation.2 HT12D Decoder 18 . The series of decoders are capable of decoding information that consist of N bits of address and 12_N bits of data. Fig: 2. and HT12F is used to decode 12 bits of address information. the HT12D is arranged to provide 8 address bits and 4 data bits.4.4. the input data codes are decoded and then transferred to the output pins. If no error or unmatched codes are found. The VT pin also goes high to indicate a valid transmission.2. Of this series.2 HT12D Decoder The decoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. a pair of encoder/decoder with the same number of addresses and data format should be chosen. The decoders receive serial addresses and data from a programmed 212 series of encoders that are transmitted by a carrier using an RF or an IR transmission medium. They are paired with Holtek_s series of encoders (refer to the encoder/ decoder cross reference table). They compare the serial input data three times continuously with their local addresses.
The devices also play a role to convert data from parallel to serial and conversely. it allows the signal to be received by any receiver with the same frequency. This is due to the fact that the signal is broadcasted using radio wave. Data transmitted use 4 bits while address uses 8 bits.2 HT12D Decoder pin description Encoder and decoder are used in the project to ensure only the intended receiver receives the signal. The type of encoder and decoder that will be used is this project is HT12E and HT12D. Only the receiver with the same address as the transmitter will receive the signal 19 .4. Thus. Both of these devices have 255 possible addresses.Table:2.
1 keil micro vision Steps for source code creation:: 1. 4. Click on the Project menu from the title bar Then Click on New Project . 2.1. Click on the Keil uVision Icon on Desktop The following fig will appear 3.CHAPTER 3 3.1 Software modules • • • Pcb wizard for schematic Keil micro vision for writing source code Micro c flash for dumping the code 3.
20 5. 8. 7. Then Click on save button above. Save the Project by typing suitable project name with no extension in u r own folder sited in either C:\ or D:\ 6. i. Select the component for u r project. Atmel…… Click on the + Symbol beside of Atmel .e.
Then Click on “OK” The Following fig will appear . 11. Select AT89C51 as shown below 10.21 9.
13. 14. you would get another option “Source group 1” as shown in next page.22 12. Click on the file option from menu bar and select “new” . 15. Then Click either YES or NO………mostly “NO” Now your project is ready to USE Now double click on the Target1.
The next screen will be as shown in next page.23 16.C” . Now start writing program in either in “C” or “ASM” For a program written in Assembly. 18. and just maximize it by double clicking on its blue boarder. then save it with extension “. asm” and for “C” based program save it with extension “ . 17.
24 19. on which by default “C” files will appear. . Now you will get another window. Now right click on Source group 1 and click on “Add files to Group Source” 20.
The new window is as follows . If the file contains no error. 23. 24.25 21. 22. Now select as per your file extension given while saving the file Click only one time on option “ADD” Now Press function key F7 to compile. 25. then press Control+F5 simultaneously. Any error will appear if so happen.
Drag the port a side and click in the program file. . Then Click “OK” Now Click on the Peripherals from menu bar.26 26. 27. and check your required port as shown in fig below 28.
automatic routing.2 PCB whizard PCB Wizard 3 is a highly innovative package for designing single-sided and double sided printed circuit boards. 30. schematic capture. 3.1. You are running your program successfully. Now keep Pressing function key “F11” slowly and observe. It provides a comprehensive range of tools covering all the traditional steps in PCB production.27 29. component placement. and bill of materials reporting and files generation for manufacturing . including schematic drawing.
This means that C programs written for one computer can be on another with little or no modification. C is highly portable. Portability is important if we plan to use a new computer with a different operating system. portability and compactness of code.3 Micro C flash Programming language used in this project is C. C is a general purpose structured programming language that is powerful.1.1. The C compiler combines the capabilities of an assembler language with the features of high level language.28 Fig 3. It has emerged as the language of choice for most applications due to speed. efficient and compact. .2: PCB whizard in real time 3.
A C program is basically a collection of functions that are supported by the C library. A proper collection of these modules make a complete program. the programming task becomes simple. This modular structure makes program debugging. testing and maintenance easier. Another important feature of C is its ability to extend itself.29 C language is well suited for structured programming thus requiring the user to think of a problem in terms of function modules and blocks. 30 CHAPTER 4 4.1Advantages . With the availability of a large number of functions. We can continuously add our own functions to the C library.
2 Applications • • • • • • • Used in hospitals Used in banks Used for traffic control Used for advertisements Used in Educational sector Used for information purpose Used in stock exchanges 4. remote control • Let’s take an example of combination of micro controller and mobile technology. 31 CONCLUSION .3 Enhancements This technology can be used for broader applications with the help of further enhancements • • It can be used to cover wide range by the use of effective RF Even we can increase the size of LCD so that it will be more practical and advanced with its various features like wireless communication.• • The data secure is more while transferring data Used in data communication 4. This adds to one of the major further enhancement. where we can deploy the feature of sms to the mobile along with LCD display.
Programming & Applications" .• • • • The system is constructed with simple circuits The information is modified without taking much time It reduces the work load and requires less time to display the information and gives accurate results It eliminates the use of a printer The project “WIRELSS NOTICE BOARD USING RF” has been successfully designed and tested. "The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture. Integrating features of all the hardware components used have developed it. Presence of every module has been reasoned out and placed carefully thus contributing to the best working of the unit. 32 REFERENCES 1. Secondly. using highly advanced IC’s and with the help of growing technology the project has been successfully implemented.
8051freeprojectsinfo. "The 8051 Microcontroller & Embedded Systems" by Mohammed Ali Mazidi and Janice Gillispie Mazidi 3. "Electrical Machines II” by B L Thereja 7. 2.com 33 .By Kenneth J Ayala. "Power Electronics” by M D Singh and K B Khanchandan 4. www. "Linear Integrated Circuits” by D Roy Choudary & Shail Jain 5. "Electrical Machines” by S K Bhattacharya 6.