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The Analects of Confucius 論語
Translated by A. Charles Muller

Table of Contents
1. 學而 2. 爲政 3. 八佾 4. 里仁 5. 公冶長 6. 雍也 7. 述而 8. 泰伯 9. 子罕 10. 鄕黨 11. 先進 12. 顏淵 13. 子路 14. 憲問 15. 衞靈公 16. 季氏 17. 陽貨 18. 微子 19. 子張 20. 堯曰 First translated during the summer of 1990. Revised 2013-01-17 When citing, please refer to the URL of this page:

1. 學而 [1-1] 子曰。學而時習之、不亦說乎。 有朊臩遠方來、不亦樂乎。人不知而 不慍、不亦君子乎。 [1:1] The Master said: ―Isn't it a pleasure to study and practice what you have learned? Isn't it also great when friends visit from distant places? If people do not recognize me and it doesn't bother me, am I not a noble man?‖ [Comment] ―Noble man‖ is an English translation for the Chinese term junzi 君子, which originally meant ―son of a prince‖—thus, someone from the nobility. In the Analects, Confucius imbues the term with a special meaning. Though sometimes used strictly in its original sense, it also refers to a person who has made significant progress in the Way (dao) of self-cultivation, by developing a sense of justice 義, by loving treatment of parents 孝, respect for elders 弟, honesty with friends 信, etc. Though the junzi is a highly advanced human being, he is still distinguished from the category of sage (shengren 聖人), who is, in the Analects more of a ―divine being,‖ usually a model from great antiquity. The character of the noble man, in contrast to the sage, is being taught as a tangible model for all in the here and now. And although many descriptions of the requirements for junzi status seem quite out of our reach, there are many passages where Confucius labels a contemporary, or one of his disciples a ―noble man,‖ intending a complement. Thus, the categorization is not so rigid. One might want to compare the term ―noble man‖ to the Buddhist bodhisattva, in that both are the models for the tradition, both indicate a very high stage of human development as technical terms, yet both may be used colloquially to refer to a ―really good person.‖ [1-2] 有子曰。其爲人也孝弟、而好犯上者、鮮矣。不好犯上、而好作亂者 、未之有也。君子務本、本立而道生。孝弟也者、其爲仁之本與。 [1:2] You Zi said: ―There are few who have developed themselves filially and fraternally who enjoy offending their superiors. Those who do not enjoy offending superiors are never troublemakers. The noble man concerns himself with the fundamentals. Once the fundamentals are established, the proper way appears. Are

not filial piety and obedience to elders fundamental to the actualization of fundamental human goodness?‖ [Comment] The word ren 仁 is perhaps the most fundamental concept in Confucian thought. It has been translated into English as ―benevolence,‖ ―altruism,‖ ―goodness‖, ―humaneness‖ etc. It is a difficult concept to translate because it doesn't really refer to any specific type of virtue or positive endowment, but refers to an inner capacity possessed by all human beings to do good, as human beings should. It is the quality that makes humans human, and not animals. In earlier iterations of this translation I have gone through various transitions: at first I attempted to use a unified English rendering throughout the text. I then pursued a strategy of leaving untranslated, as ren. Now I am presently leaning in the direction of translating the term variously, according to the context, but at present, remnants of all three strategies remain in the text. I intend to eventually sort this out. In the Chinese ―essence-function‖ 體用 paradigm, ren can be understood as the innate, unmanifest source of all kinds of manifestations of virtuosity: wisdom, filial piety, reverence, courtesy, love, sincerity, etc., all of which are aspects, or functions of ren. Through one's efforts at practicing at the function of ren, one may enhance and develop one's ren, until one may be called a noble man, or even better, a ―humane person‖ 仁人. In the Analects, to be called a ―humane person‖ by the Master is an extremely high evaluation, rarely acknowledged for anyone. [1-3] 子曰。巧言令色、鮮矣仁。 [1:3] The Master said: ―Someone who is a clever speaker and maintains a contrived smile is seldom considered to be a really good person.‖ [1-4] 曾子曰。吾日三省吾身、爲人謀而不忠乎。與朊友亣而不信乎。傳不 習乎。 [1:4] Ceng Zi said: ―Each day I examine myself in three ways: in doing things for others, have I been disloyal? In my interactions with friends, have I been untrustworthy? Have not practiced what I have preached?‖

[1-5] 子曰。道千乘之國、敬事而信、節用而愛人。使民以時。 [1:5] The Master said: ―If you would govern a state of a thousand chariots (a smallto-middle-size state), you must pay strict attention to business, be true to your word, be economical in expenditure and love the people. You should employ them [appropriately] according to the seasons.‖ [Comment] ―Usage of the people according to the seasons‖ is extremely important in an agriculture-based society, where planting, cultivating, or harvesting a certain crop during a certain few-day period can be critical. During the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods in China, selfish and aggressive warlords frequently pulled farmers off their land at important farming times, to use them for public works projects, or have them fight in the ruler's personal wars. [1-6] 子曰。弟子、入則孝、出則弟、謹而信、凡愛衆、而親仁。行有餘力 、則以學文。 [1:6] The Master said: ―A young man should serve his parents at home and be respectful to elders outside his home. He should be earnest and truthful, loving all, but become intimate with his innate good-heartedness. After doing this, if he has energy to spare, he can study literature and the arts.‖ [Comment] In the above-mentioned essence-function view, the development of one's proper relationship with one's parents and others around her/him is fundamental in life. Only after these things are taken care of is it proper to go off and play at whatever one likes— even if this ―play‖ involves the serious study of some art form. [1-7] 子夏曰。賢賢易色、事父母、能竭其力、事君、能致其身、與朊友亣 、言而有信。雖曰未學、吾必謂之學矣。 [1:7] Zi Xia said: ―If you can treat the worthy as worthy without strain, exert your utmost in serving your parents, devote your whole self in serving your prince, and be honest in speech when dealing with your friends. If you do this and someone says you are not learned (xue 學), I would say that you are definitely learned.‖

learning (xue) is more than intellectual.‖ [1-10] 子禽問於子貢曰。夫子至於是邦也、必聞其政、求之與 抑與之與 。 子貢曰。夫子溫、良、恭、儉、讓以得之。夫子之求之也、其諸異乎人之求 之與 [1:10] Zi Qin asked Zi Gong: ―When our teacher (Confucius) arrives in any country. If he is not learned. frugal.‖ [Comment] Confucian didn't need to dig around. academic study. ―Our teacher gets it by being cordial. The difference between him and other people is that he rectifies his errors as soon as he becomes aware of them. It is the process of manifesting one's ren by developing oneself in self-reflection through the various types of human relationships.‘ then he will not inspire awe in others. or press people for information.‖ [Comment] The noble man still makes mistakes. He takes loyalty and good faith to be of primary importance. . When he makes a mistake. and has no friends who are not of equal (moral) caliber. People naturally opened up to him due to his warmth and honesty. he invariably finds out everything about its government. or the accumulation of facts (although this aspect is included). upright. then he will not be on firm ground.[Comment] In the Confucian tradition. he doesn't hesitate to correct it. courteous. Does he seek this information? Or is it given to him?‖ Zi Gong said. [1-9] 曾子曰。愼終、追遠、民德歸厚矣。 [1:9] Ceng Zi said: ―When they are careful (about their parents) to the end and continue in reverence after (their parents) are long gone. His way of getting information is quite different from that of other men. [1-8] 子曰。君子不重、則不威。學則不固。主忠信。無友不如己者。過、 則勿憚改。 [1:8] The Master said: ―If the noble man is not ‗heavy. and humble. the virtue of the people will return to its natural depth.

Yet there are occasions when this does not apply: If you understand flexibility and use it.‖ the English translation of the Chinese xiao. The term li however. [1-12] 有子曰。禮之用、和爲貴。先王之道、斯爲美、小大由之。有所不行 。知和而和、不以禮節之、亦不可行也。 [1:12] You Zi said: ―In the actual practice of propriety. since it can also refer to the many smaller ―ritualized‖ behavior patterns involved in day-to-day human interactions. This is what the ancient kings did so well— both the greater and the lesser used flexibility. The most significant of course. or appropriate to the situation. things won't go well. in the modern . the most fundamental practice is that of ―filial piety. and is difficult to translate in a single word. coming-of-age rituals. a much broader meaning than ritual. but don't structure yourself with propriety.‖ [Comment] In terms of the development of the character of the human being. age. This would include proper speech and body language according to status. which means to love. coronations. in the Analects. 孝). li means any action proper. Confucius believed that if people cultivated this innate tendency well. But there were also various agricultural rituals. ―manners. This is a word that also has a wide range of meaning in Classical Chinese thought.‖ In this sense. would be wedding ceremonies and funerals.[1-11] 子曰。父在、觀其志。父沒、觀其行。三年無改於父之道、可謂孝矣 。 [1:11] The Master said: ―When your father is alive. When your father is dead observe his former actions.‖ [Comment] Propriety is the English rendition of the Chinese li 禮. has. all other natural forms of human goodness would be positively affected by it. you can be called a ‗real son‘ (xiao. sex— thus. Its most basic meaning is that of ―ritual‖ or ―ceremony. etc. If. for three years you do not change from the ways of your father. observe his will. flexibility is important. For instance. Confucius was an expert on the proper handling of all sorts of rituals. respect and take care of one's parents.‖ referring to all sorts of rituals that permeated early East Asian society.

it is a strongly internalized human capacity. etc. or justice delivered in a situation when a person is in a position of power or authority. place and thing its proper due.‖ [Comment] Fairness is one way of rendering of the Chinese yi 義. or to a student in my class whom I don't know very well. according to the context. Although not quite as essential a concept as ren 仁. you will be far from shame and disgrace. [1-13] 有子曰。信近於義、言可複也。恭近於禮、遠恥辱也。因不失其親、 亦可宗也。 [1:13]You Zi said: ―When your own trustworthiness is close to fairness. a supervisor.context. substantial goodness of the human being. In the Analects. he is diligent in his work and careful in speech. fraternal respect 弟. li is fairness 恕. li.‘‖ . one of the greatest qualities to be possessed by teacher. Thus. you can become an ancestor. I might go up and slap my friend on the back. and li is the functioning of ren in the manifest world. But I certainly wouldn't to that to my professor. a judge. which we also translate in this text as Justice. or justice. or the leader of any social circle is that of fairness. ‗he loves learning. 義 has the specific connotations of fairness. He avails himself to people of the Way and thereby corrects himself. [1-14] 子曰。君子食無求飽、居無求安、敏於事而愼於言、就有道而正焉、 可謂好學也已。 [1:14] The Master said: ―When the noble man eats he does not try to stuff himself. your words can be followed. in treating those over whom he or she has power or influence. where ren is the inner. That is to say. a company owner. is clearly defined in a relationship with ren. filial piety 孝. as a general category. Being attuned to fairness allows people to do the proper thing in the proper situation. If you have genuine affection within your family. to give each person. In the Analects and other Confucian texts. This is the kind of person of whom you can say. at rest he does not seek perfect comfort. When your show of respect is according to propriety.

This is one good reason for us to be careful . ―They are good. 3 ‖ [1-16] 子曰。不患人之不己知、患不知人也。 [1:16] The Master said: ―I am not bothered by the fact that I am unknown. It just stays in its place while all the other stars position themselves around it.‖ Zi Gong said. I speak of various things. ―The Book of Odes 1 says:‖ Like cutting and filing. and he knows what is to be brought back. Scholars of Chinese thought have commonly placed great emphasis on a supposed radical distinction between Confucian ―authoritative‖ government and Daoist ―laissezfaire‖ government. you will be like the North Star. 爲政 [2-1] 子曰。爲政以德、譬如北辰居其所而衆星兯之。 [2:1] The Master said: ―If you govern with the power of your virtue. Grinding and polishing 2 ―Is this what you are talking about?‖ Confucius said. but not as good as a poor man who is satisfied and a rich man who loves propriety. But numerous Confucian passages such as this which suggest of the ruler's governance by a mere attunement with an inner principle of goodness. without unnecessary external action.‖ [Comment] This is the Analects' first statement on government. quite like the Daoist wu-wei are far more numerous than has been noted. now I can begin to discuss the Book of Odes with Ci. ―Ah.‖ 2.[1-15] 子貢曰。貧而無諂、富而無驕、何如 。 子曰。可也。未若貧而樂、 富而好禮者也。子貢曰。詩云。如切如磋、如琢如磨』、其斯之謂與 子曰。 賜也、始可與言詩已矣、吿諸往而知來者。 [1:15] Zi Gong asked: ―What do you think of a poor man who doesn't grovel or a rich man who isn't proud?‖ Confucius said. I am bothered when I do not know others.

死、葬之以禮、祭之 以禮。 [2:5] Mengyi Zi asked about the meaning of filial piety.‖ [2-4] 子曰。吾十有亓而志于學、三十而立、四十而不惑、亓十而知天命、 六十而耳順、七十而從心所欲、不踰矩。 [2:4] The Master said: ―At fifteen my heart was set on learning. ―Mengsun asked me about the meaning of filial piety. Confucius told Fan Chi. ―What did you mean by that?‖ Confucius said.‖ [2-5] 孟懿子問孝。子曰。無違。樊遲御、子吿之曰。孟孫問孝於我、我對 曰、無違。』 樊遲曰。何謂也 子曰。生、事之以禮.‘‖ Fan Chi said.‘‖ Later. bury them with propriety. but have no personal sense of shame. at forty I had no more doubts. at seventy I could follow my heart's desire without transgressing the norm.when making the commonplace Confucian/Daoist generalizations without qualification. and I told him ‗not diverging. and then worship them with propriety. they will avoid crime. at sixty my ear was obedient. Confucius said. ―It means ‗not diverging (from your parents). when they die. they will gain their own sense of shame. ―When your parents are alive. If you govern them by means of virtue and control them with propriety. [2-2] 子曰。詩三百、一言以蔽之、曰。思無邪』 。 [2:2] The Master said: ―The 300 verses of the Book of Odes can be summed up in a single phrase: ‗Don't think in an evil way. at thirty I stood firm. at fifty I knew the mandate of heaven.‖ [2-6] 孟武伯問孝。子曰。父母唯其疾之憂。 . when Fan Chi was driving him.‘‖ [2-3] 子曰。道之以政、齊之以刑、民免而無恥。道之以德、齊之以禮、有 恥且格。 [2:3] The Master said: ―If you govern the people legalistically and control them by punishment. serve them with propriety. and thus correct themselves.

[2:6] Mengwu Bo asked about the meaning of filial piety. Confucius said, ―The main concern of your parents is about your health.‖ [Comment] When we are separated from our parents for long periods of time, we can set their minds at ease by letting them know that we are in good health. [2-7] 子游問孝。子曰。今之孝者、是謂能養。至於犬馬、皆能有養。不敬 、何以別乎。 [2:7] Zi You asked about the meaning of filial piety. Confucius said, ―Nowadays filial piety means being able to feed your parents. But everyone does this for even horses and dogs. Without respect, what's the difference?‖ [2-8] 子夏問孝。子曰。色難。有事、弟子朋其勞。有酒食、先生饌、曾是 以爲孝乎。 [2:8] Zi Xia asked about filial piety. Confucius said, ―What is important is the expression you show in your face. You should not understand ‗filial‘ to mean merely the young doing physical tasks for their parents, or giving them food and wine when it is available.‖ [2-9] 子曰。吾與囘言終日、不違、如愚。退而省其私、亦足以發、囘也不 愚。 [2:9] The Master said: ―I can talk with Hui for a whole day without him differing with me in any way— as if he is stupid. But when he retires and I observe his personal affairs, it is quite clear that he is not stupid.‖ [Comment] Hui (Yan Yuan) was Confucius' favorite disciple, who is praised in many passages of the Analects. He died at a young age, probably around thirty, a fact which Confucius lamented. [2-10] 子曰。視其所以、觀其所由、察其所安。人焉廋哉。人焉廋哉 [2:10] The Master said: ―See a person's means (of getting things). Observe his motives. Examine that in which he rests. How can a person conceal his character? How can a person conceal his character?‖

[Comment] People think that they are successfully hiding the devious plots that are going on in their minds. But as the Doctrine of the Mean teaches, ―The sincerity on the inside shows on the outside.‖ When someone is deceitful, everyone knows it. When someone is good and honest, everyone knows it. [2-11] 子曰。溫故而知新、可以爲師矣。 [2:11] The Master said: ―Reviewing what you have learned and learning anew, you are fit to be a teacher.‖ [2-12] 子曰。君子不器。 [2:12] The Master said: ―The noble man is not a utensil.‖ [Comment] The noble man is not a technician, to be used by others to do a single job. On another level, his mind is not narrowly oriented by a specific task. The junzi thinks broadly and does not limit himself quickly into a certain world-view, and cannot easily be used as a cog in someone else's machine. [2-13] 子貢問君子。子曰。先行其言、而后從之。 [2:13] Zi Gong asked about the character of the noble man. Confucius said, ―First he practices what he preaches and then he follows it.‖ [2-14] 子曰。君子周而不比、小人比而不周。 [2:14] The Master said: ―The noble man is all-embracing and not partial. The inferior man is partial and not all-embracing.‖ [2-15] 子曰。學而不思則罔、思而不學則殆。 [2:15] The Master said: ―To study and not think is a waste. To think and not study is dangerous.‖ [2-16] 子曰。攻乎異端、斯害也己。 [2:16] The Master said: ―To throw oneself into strange teachings is quite dangerous.‖ [2-17] 子曰。由、誨女知之乎。 知之爲知之、不知爲不知。是知也。

[2:17] The Master said: ―You, shall I teach you about knowledge? What you know, you know, what you don't know, you don't know. This is knowledge.‖ [Comment] The stage of ―knowing what you know and knowing what you don't know‖ is not easy to attain. It has been noted in the teachings of other religious traditions to be a very high level of attainment. [2-18] 子張學干祿。子曰。多聞闕疑、愼言其餘、則寡尤。多見闕殆、愼行 其餘、則寡悔。言寡尤、行寡悔、祿在其中矣。 [2:18] Zi Zhang was studying to get an upgrade in his civil service rank. [Advising him about self-improvement,] Confucius said, ―Listen widely to remove your doubts and be careful when speaking about the rest and your mistakes will be few. See much and get rid of what is dangerous and be careful in acting on the rest and your causes for regret will be few. Speaking without fault, acting without causing regret: ‗upgrading‘ consists in this.‖ [2-19] 哀公聞曰。何爲則民朋 孔子對曰。擧直錯諸枉、則民朋; 擧枉錯諸 直、則民不朋。 [2:19] The Duke of Ai asked: ―How can I make the people follow me?‖ Confucius replied: ―Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, and the people will follow you. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, and the people will not follow you.‖ [2-20] 季康子問:使民敬、忠以勤、如之何 子曰。臨之以莊、則敬; 孝慈 、則忠; 擧善而教不能、則勤。 [2:20] Ji Kang Zi asked: ―How can I make the people reverent and loyal, so they will work positively for me?‖ Confucius said, ―Approach them with dignity, and they will be reverent. Be filial and compassionate and they will be loyal. Promote the able and teach the incompetent, and they will work positively for you.‖ [2-21] 或謂孔子曰。子奚不爲政 子曰。書云:孝乎惟孝、友于兄弟、施於 有政。』 是亦爲政、奚其爲爲政

[2:21] Someone asked Confucius: ―Why are you not involved in government?‖ Confucius said, ―What does the Book of History say about filial piety? ‗Just by being a good son and friendly to ones brothers and sisters you can have an effect on government.‘ Since this is also ‗doing government,‘ why do I need to do ‗doing government?‘‖ [2-22] 子曰。人而無信、不知其可也。大車無輗、小車無軏 , 其何以行之 哉 [2:22] The Master said: ―If a person lacks trustworthiness, I don't know what s/he can be good for. When a pin is missing from the yoke-bar of a large wagon, or from the collar-bar of a small wagon, how can it go?‖ [2-23] 子張問:十世可知也 子曰。殷因於夏禮、所損益、可知也。 周因於 殷禮、所損益、可知也。其或繼周者、雖百世、可知也。 [2:23] Zi Zhang asked whether the state of affairs ten generations hence could be known. Confucius said, ―The Shang based its propriety on that of the Yin, and what it added and subtracted is knowable. The Zhou has based its propriety on that of the Shang and what it added and subtracted is knowable. In this way, what continues from the Zhou, even if 100 generations hence, is knowable.‖ [2-24] 子曰。非其鬼而祭之、諂也。見義不爲、無勇也。 [2:24] The Master said: ―To worship to other than one's own ancestral spirits is flattery. If you see what is right and fail to act on it, you lack courage.‖

3. 八佾 [3-1] 孔子謂季氏、八佾舞於庭、是可忍也、孰不可忍也 [3:1] Confucius, speaking about the head of the Qi family said, ―He has eight rows of dancers in his court. If he does this, what will he not do?‖ [Comment] In this passage and the following one, Confucius is complaining about a lower-level aristocrat using ceremonies that were officially prescribed for much

―What an excellent question! In ritual. [3-2] 三家者以雍徹。子曰。“相維辟公、天子穆穆。 奚取於三家之堂 ” [3:2] The Three Families used the Yong Songs at the clearing of the sacrificial vessels. Confucius said. though having kings. Attended on by Lords and Princes: How magnificent is the Son of Heaven! How could these words be used in the halls of the Three Families? [3-3] 子曰。人而不仁、如禮何。人而不仁、如樂何 [3:3] The Master said: ―If a man has no ren what can his propriety be like? If a man has no ren what can his music be like?‖ [Comment] Since ren is the essence of all positive human attributes.‖ [Comment] Either Confucius is an outright ethnic chauvinist. The head of the Qi family is often criticized in the Analects for similar improprieties. in funerals deep sorrow is better than ease. it is better to be frugal than extravagant. how can they truly operate? [3-4] 林放問禮之本。子曰。大哉問禮、與齊奢也、寧儉. Confucius said. are not equal to our people. even when lacking kings. without it.‖ [3-5] 子曰。夷狄之有君、不如諸夏之亡也。 [3:5] The Master said: ―The tribes of the East and North (Koreans and Mongolians).‖ was the amount allowable to only the most elite of the nobility.higher-level nobility. ―Eight rows of dancers. 喪、與其易也、 寧戚。 [3:4] Lin Fang asked about the fundamentals of ritual. . or he is pointing to a real difference in the relative level of cultural development at that time between the central Chinese kingdoms and the peoples of the outlying regions.

Now we can really begin to discuss the Book of Odes. Confucius said.[3-6] 季氏旅於泰山。子謂冉有曰。女弗能救與 對 曰。不能。子曰。嗚呼 曾謂泰山不如林放乎。 [3:6] The Ji family went to make a sacrifice at Mt. bowing in deference. Tai is not the equal of Lin Fang?‖ 4 [3-7] 子曰。君子無所爭。必也射乎。揖讓而升、下而飮。其爭也君子。 [3:7] The Master said: ―The noble man has nothing to compete for. This is the competition of the noble man. fine and clear. you uplift me. he does it in an archery match. wherein he ascends to his position.‖ [3-11] 或問禘之說。子曰。不知也。 知其說者之於天下也、其如示諸斯乎 。指其掌。 .‖ The master said: ―Alas! Does this meant that Mt.‖ [3-8] 子夏問曰。巧笑倩兮、美目盼兮、素以爲絢兮。何爲也 子曰。繪事后 素。曰。禮后乎。子曰。起予者商也 始可與言詩矣。 [3:8] Zi Xia quoted the following: Her tactful smile charms. The master said to Ran You: ―Can't you save them from this?‖ You responded: ―I can't. ―Then are rituals a secondary thing?‖ Confucius said. [3-10] 子曰。禘、臩旣灌而往者、吾不欲觀之矣。 [3:10] The Master said: ―At the Great Sacrifice. ―Ah. Her eyes. Shang. Descending. And asked its meaning. Tai. Confucius seems to place special value on the Book of Odes.‖ [Comment] Among all the ancient classical works available to scholars of the time. But if he must compete. Beautiful without accessories. for its strength in moral teachings as well as the intellectual stimulation it provided. I have no further desire to watch. ―A painting is done on plain white paper.‖ Zi Xia said. after the pouring of the libation. he drinks the ritual cup.

‖ [3-13] 王孫賈問曰。與其媚於奧、寧媚於竈. I now follow the Zhou. there is no one you can pray to. ―Not so.‖ [3-14] 子曰。周監於二代、郁郁乎文哉。吾從周。 [3:14] The Master said: ―The people of the Zhou were able to observe the prior two dynasties and thus their culture flourished.‖ [3-16] 子曰。射不主皮、爲力不同科、古之道也。 [3:16] The Master said: ―In archery it is not important to pierce through the leather covering of the target. ―I don't know. Confucius said. If you offend Heaven. 何謂也 子曰。不然. [3-12] 祭如在、祭神如神在。子曰。吾不與祭、如不祭。 [3:12] ―Sacrificing as if present‖ means sacrificing to the spirits as if they were present.[3:11] Someone asked for an explanation of the Great Sacrifice. 也。 [3:13] Wang Sun Jia asked: ―What do you think about the saying ‗It is better to sacrifice to the god of the stove than to the god of the family shrine. 獲罪於 天、無所禱.‖ [3-15] 子入大廟、每事問。或曰。孰謂鄒人之子知禮乎。入大廟、每事問。 子聞之、曰。是禮也。 [3:15] When Confucius entered the Grand Temple.‘?‖ Confucius said. ―This is the ritual. it is the same as not having sacrificed at all. This is the Way of the ancients. If there were someone who knew this. ―If I do not personally offer the sacrifice. he could see the whole world as if it were this‖: He pointed to the palm of his hand. he asked about everything. Someone said. Confucius said. ―Who said Confucius is a master of ritual? He enters the Grand Temple and asks about everything!‖ Confucius. said. since not all men have the same strength. hearing this.‖ [3-17] 子貢欲去吿朔之餼羊。子曰。賜也 爾愛其羊、我愛其禮。 .

―The Xia emperor planted them with pines.[3:17] Zi Gong wanted to do away with the sacrifice of the sheep on the first of the month.‖ [3-18] 子曰。事君盡禮、人以爲諂也。 [3:18] The Master said: ―If you use every single courtesy while serving your prince. the ministers serve their prince with good faith. said. the people will call you a sycophant. I love the ceremony. Confucius said. Zai Wo said. don't bother blaming that which is already past. the Xiang people planted them with cypress and the Zhou people planted them with chestnut.‖ [3-20] 子曰。關雎、樂而不淫、哀而不傷。 [3:20] The Master said: ―The Guanju 5 allows for pleasure without being lewd and allows for grief without being too painful.‖ [3-19] 定公問:君使臣、臣事君、如之何 孔子對曰。君使臣以禮、臣事君 以忠。 [3:19] Duke Ding asked how a ruler should employ his ministers and how a minister should serve his ruler. ―Don't bother explaining that which has already been done. ―Ci. 管氏亦有反坫 。管氏而知禮、孰不知禮 [3:22] The Master said: ―Guan Zhong 6 was quite limited in capacity. Confucius replied. saying: ―The prince employs his ministers with propriety.‖ [3-21] 哀公問社於宰我。宰我對曰。夏后氏以松、殷人以柏、周人以栗、曰 、使民戰栗。子聞之、曰。成事不說. you love the sheep. hearing this.‖ [3-22] 子曰。管仲之器小哉。或曰。管仲儉乎。曰。管氏有三歸、官事不攝 、焉得儉 然則管仲知禮乎。曰。邦君樹塞門、管氏亦樹塞門。邦君爲兩君之 好、有反坫 . don't bother criticizing that which is already gone. 遂事不諫、旣往不咎。 [3:21] The Duke of Ai asked Zai Wo about sacred temple grounds.‖ .‖ Confucius. thinking to cause people to be in awe of these trees.

Guan also turned his cups over on the table. said. if it is pure. ―Guan had three sets of wives and his officers never worked overtime. clear and without break. and so did Guan Zhong (even though he was not of the proper rank to do this). he said. If Guan Zhong understood propriety. How can he be considered to have been frugal?‖ ―But then did Guan Zhong understand propriety?‖ Confucius said. the piece should be begun in unison. propriety without respect and funerals without grief: how can I bear to look at such things?!‖ . don't have any doubts about your master failing. saying: ―Whenever a noble man comes here. but Heaven will use your master to awaken everyone.‖ [3-26] 子曰。居上不寛、爲禮不敬、臨喪不哀、吾何以觀之哉 [3:26] The Master said: ―Men of high office who are narrow-minded. it will be perfect. ―The princes of the states have a special ritual screen at their door.‖ [3-24] 儀封人請見、曰。君子之至於斯也、吾未嘗不得見也。從者見之。出 曰。二三子何患於喪乎。天下之無道也久矣、天將以夫子爲木鐸。 [3:24] The border guard at Yi requested an audience with the Master. when talking with the Grand Music Master of Lu. then who doesn't?‖ [3-23] 子語魯大師樂、曰。樂其可知也:始作、翕如也。 從之、純如也、 皦如也、繹如也、以成。 [3:23] Confucius.Someone asked: ―Wasn't Guan Zhong frugal?‖ Confucius said. they would ritually turn their cups over on the table. ―Friends. ―In my understanding of music. The world has certainly lacked the Way for a long time now. When the princes of state had a friendly meeting. When he came out. I never miss the opportunity to see him.‖ The disciples sent him in. Afterwards.

it has been stated that the man of ren is capable of hating people. if he makes an effort to exercise his innate goodness. Here it would seem that although he has that capability. But if they cannot be attained in accordance with the Way they should not be kept. Humane men are comfortable in ren.4. If you choose to live in a place that lacks ren. 里仁 [4-1] 子曰。里仁爲美。擇不處仁、焉得知 [4:1] The Master said: ―As for a neighborhood.‖ [4-4] 子曰。苟志於仁矣、無惡也。 [4:4] The Master said: ―If you are really committed to ren.‖ [4-3] 子曰。唯仁者、能好人、能惡人。 [4:3] The Master said: ―Only the humane person is able to really like others or to really dislike them.‖ [Comment] In the prior passage. The wise take advantage of ren. how can you grow in wisdom?‖ [4-2] 子曰。不仁者、不可以久處約、不可以長處樂。仁者安仁、知者利仁 。 [4:2] The Master said: ―If you lack ren you can't handle long periods of difficulty or long periods of comfort. 7 [4-5] 子曰。富與貴、是人之所欲也。 不以其道得之、不處也。貧與賤、是 人之惡也。 不以其道得之、不去也。君子去仁、惡乎成名。君子無終食之間 違仁、造次必於是、顚沛必於是。 [4:5] Confucius said. you will not have resentments. ―Riches and honors are what all men desire. Poverty and low status are what all men hate. If a noble man departs from his fundamental goodness. you should not avoid them. he will not hold that malice. it is its ren that makes it beautiful. But if they cannot be avoided while staying in accordance with the Way. how can he be worthy of that name? A noble man never leaves his fundamental goodness for even the time of a single meal. In moments of .

‖ [4-9] 子曰。士志於道、而恥惡衣惡食者、未足與議也 [4:9] ―A shi who is set on the way. you would not let it near you.‖ but is not quite . what Confucius is referring to is a level of spiritual/moral development. we can tell by the type of mistake. If you really hated the non-ren. in the evening I can die content.‖ [Comment] No one is perfect. free from error. is not worth consulting. ―scholar. we can understand the shi to be a person who is well on the way toward becoming a ―noble man. In times of difficulty or confusion he acts according to it. but I have never seen it. It is by observing a person's mistakes that you can know his/her goodness.‖ [4-7] 子曰。人之過也、各於其黨。觀過、斯知仁矣。 [4:7] The Master said: ―People err according to their own level. If you really loved ren you would not place anything above it. but is ashamed of old clothes and coarse food. Thus. and by the person's way of dealing with it. Perhaps there has been such a case. what her/his true character is like. While the shi of later Chinese history is more definitely a scholar than a knight.‖ [Comment] The title shi is translated into English with such terms as ―elite‖. ―knight‖.haste he acts according to it. [4-8] 子曰。朝聞道、夕死可矣 [4:8] The Master said: ―If I can hear the Way in the morning.‖ etc. Is there anyone who has devoted his strength to ren for a single day? I have not seen anyone who has lacked the strength to do so.‖ [4-6] 子曰。我未見好仁者、惡不仁者。好仁者、無以尚之。惡不仁者、其 爲仁矣、不使不仁者加乎其身。有能一日用其力於仁矣乎。我未見力不足者 。蓋有之矣、我未之見也。 [4:6] The Master said: ―I have never seen one who really loves ren or really hates non-ren. But when someone makes a mistake in a human relationship. in the Analects. as well as academic and martial cultivation which is clearly above that of the average person.

The noble man seeks discipline. and that's it.‖ [4-13] 子曰。能以禮讓爲國乎、何有 不能以禮讓爲國、如禮何 [4:13] The Master said: ―If you can govern the country by putting propriety first. He does what is Right. as either ―scholar‖ or ―knight‖ because of the limitations in meaning that occur with these English words. my Way is penetrated by a single thread. I am reluctant to render shi.there yet. some disciples asked what he meant.‖ Ceng Zi said. ―Our master's Way is to be sincere and fair. I don't worry about being unknown. I seek to be known in the right way. the inferior man seeks favors. Ceng Zi said.‖ [4-15] 子曰。參乎。吾道一以貫之。曾子曰。唯。子出。門人問曰。何謂也 曾子曰。夫子之道、忠恕而已矣。 [4:15] The Master said: ―Shan.‖ [4-16] 子曰。君子喩於義、小人喩於利。 .‖ [4-12] 子曰。放於利而行、多怨。 [4:12] The Master said: ―If you do everything with a concern for your own advantage.‖ When the Master left. the inferior man cares about material things. ―Yes. what else will you need to do? If you can't govern your country by putting propriety first. [4-10] 子曰。君子之於天下也、無適也、無莫也、義之與 比。 [4:10] The Master said: ―When the noble man deals with the world he is not prejudiced for or against anything.‖ [4-11] 子曰。君子懷德、小人懷土。 君子懷刑、小人懷惠。 [4:11] The Master said: ―The noble man cares about virtue. how could you even call it propriety?‖ [4-14] 子曰。不患無位、患所以立。 不患莫己知、求爲可知也。 [4:14] The Master said: ―I don't worry about not having a good position. I worry about the means I use to gain position. you will be resented by many people.

‖ [4-19] 子曰。父母在、不遠游、游必有方。 [4:19] The Master said: ―While your parents are alive.[4:16] The Master said: ―The noble man is aware of fairness. Sometimes it will be a source of joy. think of becoming like her/him. you should have a precise destination. When you see someone not so good. Work without complaining. fearing that their actions would not do justice to their words. your mistakes will be few. you can certainly be called ‗filial. the inferior man is aware of advantage.‖ [4-20] 子曰。三年無改於父之道、可謂孝矣。 [4:20] The Master said: ―If. for three years (after your father's death) you don't alter his ways of doing things.‖ [4-17] 子曰。見賢思齊焉。 見不賢而內臩省也。 [4:17] The Master said: ―When you see a good person.‖ [4-23] 子曰。以約失之者、鮮矣。 [4:23] The Master said: ―If you are strict with yourself.‘‖ [4-21] 子曰。父母之年、不可不知也:一則以喜、一則以懼。 [4:21] The Master said: ―Your parents' age should not be ignored. and sometimes it will be a source of apprehension.‖ [4-24] 子曰。君子欲訥於言、而敏於行。 .‖ [4-22] 子曰。古者言之不出、恥躬之不逮也。 [4:22] The Master said: ―The ancients were hesitant to speak. But if you see that they are not going to listen to you. If you do travel. keep your respect for them and don't distance yourself from them. reflect on your own weak points. it is better not to travel far away.‖ [4-18] 子曰。事父母几諫。見志不從、又敬不違、勞而不怨。 [4:18] The Master said: ―When you serve your mother and father it is okay to try to correct them once in a while.

[5-2] 子謂南容、邦有道不廢、邦無道免於刑戮。以其兄之子妻之。 [5:2] Confucius said of Nan Yong that if the Way prevailed in the state he would never lack an official post. he had been innocent. he would avoid getting into trouble. If the Way was lacking in the state. [5-3] 子謂子賤、君子哉若人。魯無君子者、斯焉取斯 [5:3] Confucius said of Zi Jian: ―He is a noble man.[4:24] The Master said: ―The noble man desires to be hesitant in speech. but sharp in action. ―You are a vessel. With friends. You will always have friends. you will not be lonely.‖ [4-26] 子游曰。事君數、斯辱矣。 朊友數、斯疏矣。 [4:26] Zi You said: ―In serving your prince. therefore Confucius gave him his daughter in marriage.‖ 5.‖ ―What kind of vessel. frequent remonstrance will lead to disgrace.‖ [4-25] 子曰。德不孤、必有鄰。 [4:25] The Master said: ―If you are virtuous. He gave him the daughter of his own elder brother in marriage. Even though he was arrested once. 公冶長 [5-1] 子謂公冶長、可妻也。雖在縲絏之中、非其罪也。以其子妻之。 [5:1] Confucius said of Gong Ye Chang that he was fit for marriage. If the state of Lu is really lacking Superior Men how could he have acquired such a character?‖ [5-4] 子貢問曰。賜也何如 子曰。女、器也。曰。何器也 曰。瑚璉也。 [5:4] Zi Gong asked: ―What do you say of me?‖ Confucius said.‖ . frequent remonstrance will lead to separation.

―Qiu could be the governor of a city of 1. I don't know if Yong is a ren man. Confucius said.‖ He asked again. ―You likes daring more than I.‖ Meng again asked: ―What about Qiu?‖ Confucius said.‖ . but why should he have to be a clever speaker?‖ [5-6] 子使漆雕開仕。對曰。吾斯之未能信。子說。 [5:6] Confucius encouraged Qi Diao Kai to get employment as an official. but he lacks discretion.―A gemmed sacrificial vessel. [5-7] 子曰。道不行、乘桴浮于海。從我者、其由與 子路聞之喜。子曰。由 也好勇過我、無所取材。 [5:7] The Master said: ―The Way is not practiced.‖ [5-8] 孟武伯問子路仁乎。子曰。不知也。又問。子曰。由也、千乘之國、 可使治其賦也、不知其仁也。求也何如 子曰。求也、千室之邑、百乘之家、 可使爲之宰也、不知其仁也。赤也何如 子曰。赤也、束帶立於朝、可使與賓 客言也、不知其仁也。 [5:8] Meng Wu Bo asked Confucius whether Zi Lu was a ren man. but I don't know if he is a ren man.‖ [5-5] 或曰。雍也仁而不侫。子曰。焉用侫 禦人以口給、屢 憎於人。不知 其仁、焉用侫 [5:5] Someone said: ―Yong is a ren man. 000 chariots. ―You could direct the public works forces in a state of 1. you will soon be disliked. Confucius said. but I don't know if I would call him a ren man.‖ Zi Lu was very happy to hear this.‖ The master was pleased.‖ Confucius said. or of a clan of 100 chariots. 000 families. Confucius said. I shall go ride a raft on the ocean— and I imagine You would go with me. He replied: ―I am not yet sincere enough. ―Why does he need to be sharp with his tongue? If you deal with people by smooth talk. but he is not sharp enough with his tongue. ―I don't know.

Meng asked: ―What about Chi?‖ The Master said. placed in the middle of the court. How could he be solid?‖ [5-12] 子貢曰。我不欲人之加諸我也、吾亦欲無加諸人。子曰。賜也、非爾 所及也。 [5:12] Zi Gong said: ―What I don't want done to me. I don't want to do to others. saying: ―How could I compare myself to Hui? He hears one point and understands the whole thing.‖ Confucius said.‖ [5-9] 子謂子貢曰。女與囘也、孰愈 對曰。賜也、何敢望囘。囘也、聞一以 知十。 賜也、聞一知二。子曰。弗如也。 吾與女、弗如也。 [5:9] Confucius. we are not equal to him. Confucius said. Now I listen to what people say and watch what they do.‖ . he could make conversation with the guests. ―Dressed up with his sash. ―Who is superior. you have not yet gotten to this level.‖ Confucius said. ―Rotten wood cannot be carved. you or Hui?‖ Zi Gong answered. dirty earth cannot be used for cement: why bother scolding him? At first I used to listen to what people said and expect them to act accordingly. ―What about Shan Cheng?‖ Confucius said. but I don't know if he is a ren man.‖ [5-11] 子曰。吾未見剛者。或對曰。申棖。子曰。棖也慾、焉得剛 [5:11] The Master said: ―I have not yet met a really solid man. I hear one point and understand a second one. ―Ci. ―Cheng is ruled by lust.‖ Someone said. speaking to Zi Gong said. you and I. 8 ‖ [5-10] 宰予晝寢。子曰。朽木不可雕也、糞土之牆不可朽也。於予與何誅 子曰。始吾於人也、聽其言而信其行。 今吾於人也、聽其言而觀其行。於予 與改是。 [5:10] Zai You slept during the daytime. I learned this from You. ―You are not equal to him.

can be heard. in providing for the people he was kind.‖ [5-16] 子謂子產. refined) Confucius said. 有君子之道四焉:其行己也恭、其事上也敬、其養民也惠 、其使民也義。 [5:16] Confucius said that Zi Chan had four characteristics of the noble man: In his private conduct he was courteous. Our Master's words on the essence and the Heavenly Way. [5-17] 子曰。晏平仲善與人亣、久而敬之。 [5:17] The Master said: ―Yan Ping Zhong was good at getting along with people.[5-13] 子貢曰。夫子之文章、可得而聞也。 夫子之言性與天道、不可得而 聞也。 [5:13] Zi Gong said: ―What our Master has to say about the classics can be heard and also embodied.‖ [5-19] 子張問曰。令尹子文三仕爲令尹、無喜色。三已之、無慍色。舊令尹 之政、必以吿新令尹。何如 子曰。忠矣。曰。仁矣乎。曰。未知。 焉得仁 崔子殺齊君、陳文子有馬十乘、棄而違之。至於他邦、則曰、猶吾大崔子也 。』 違之。 之一邦、則又曰。猶吾大夫崔子也。』 違之。何如 子曰。淸 矣。曰。仁矣乎。子曰。未之。 焉得仁 . Therefore he got the name wen. ―He was diligent and loved to study. he would continue to treat them with respect. Even after a long period of acquaintance. [5-15] 子貢問曰。孔文子何以謂之文』 也 子曰。敏而好學、不恥下問、是 以謂之文』 也。 [5:15] Zi Gong asked: ―How did Kong Wen Zi get the title ‗wen‘‖? (wen = learned. in serving superiors he was respectful. He was also unashamed to ask questions to his inferiors. in dealing with the people he was just. he would be apprehensive about hearing something new in the meantime.‖ [5-14] 子路有聞、未之能行、唯恐有聞。 [5:14] When Zi Lu heard a teaching and had not yet put it into practice. literary. though not attainable.

they don't always know when to restrain themselves. ―I don't know what he did to deserve to be called humane. Though they are developing well. He was fired three times. ―I must return! I must return! My young disciples are wild 9 and unbridled. What do you think of him?‖ Confucius said. ―He was loyal.‖ ―Was he humane?‖ Confucius said. When Confucius heard this. when Confucius was in Chen. he said. he said. he said. but never showed any sign of disappointment.‖ [5-22] 子在陳曰。歸與歸與 吾黨之小子狂簡、斐然成章、不知所以裁之。 [5:22] Once. but never showed any sign of pleasure.‘ and he left.‖ ―Was he humane?‖ ―I don't know what he did to merit being called humane. Arriving to another state. ‗The government here is just like that of the officer Qiu Zi.‘ and he left it. but no one can match his stupidity. Coming to another state he said.‖ Zi Zhang again asked: ―When Qiu Zi assassinated the prince of Qi. He would always inform the incoming minister on all the details of the prior government.‖ [5-20] 季文子三思而後行。子聞之、曰。再、斯可矣。 [5:20] Ji Wen Zi contemplated something three times before acting upon it. Ning Wu Zi showed his intelligence. abandoned them and left the state. Someone might be able to match his intelligence. ―Twice is enough. ―He was pure. who had a fief of ten chariots.[5:19] Zi Zhang asked: ―The Chief Minister Zi Wen was appointed three times. ‗They are again just like the officer Qiu Zi. Chan Wen Zi. he played stupid.‖ [5-21] 子曰。甯武子、邦有道、則知。 邦無道、則愚。其知可及也。 其愚 不可及也。 [5:21] The Master said: ―When the Way prevailed in the state.‖ . When the Way declined in the state. What do you think of him?‖ Confucius said.

‖ Yanyuan said. trust to my friends and nurturance to the young. Concealing one's resentments and acting friendly to people: Zuo Qiuming was ashamed to act this way and so am I. [5-25] 子曰。巧言、令色、足恭、左丘明恥之、丘亦恥之。匿怨而友其人、 左丘明恥之、丘亦恥之。 [5:25] The Master said: ―Clever words.‖ [5-26] 顏淵、季路侍。子曰。盍各言爾志 子路曰。願車馬、衣輕裘、與朊 友兯、蔽之而無憾。顏淵曰。願無伐善、無施勞。子路曰。願聞子之志。子 曰。老者安之、朊友信之、少者懷之。 [5:26] Yanyuan and Zi Lu were by the Master's side. ―What are your wishes. a pretentious face and too-perfect courtesy: Zuo Qiuming was ashamed of them. Teacher?‖ Confucius said. and he went and got some from his neighbors and gave it to him. ―I would like to give comfort to the aged. ―I would like not to be proud of my good points and not to show off my works. I am also ashamed of them.‖ Zi Lu said. and so there was little resentment against them.‖ . He said to them: ―Why don't each of you tell me of your aspirations?‖ Zi Lu said. horses and light fur coats to give to my friends.[5-23] 子曰。伯夷、叔齊不念舊惡、怨是用希。 [5:23] The Master said: ―Bo Yi and Shu Qi did not keep others' former wrongdoings in mind. and if they damaged them.‖ (Rather than giving his own). [5-24] 子曰。孰謂微生高直。或乞醯 焉、乞諸鄰而與之。 [5:24] The Master said: ―Who said that Wei Sheng Gao is of straight character? Someone begged vinegar from him. ―I would like to have wagons.‖ [Comment] Bo Yi and Shu Qi are two ministers of antiquity. not to get angry. famous for their virtue.

‖ Zhong Gong said.‖ [6-2] 仲弓問子桑伯子。 子曰、可也簡。仲弓曰。居敬而行簡、以臨其民、 不亦不可乎。居簡而行簡、無乃大簡乎。子曰。雍之言然。 [6:2] Zhong Gong asked about Zisang Bo Zi. Confucius answered: ―There was Yanhui. he didn't transfer his anger to the wrong person. He loved to study. ―He will do. Unfortunately he died young. ―Maybe if you are easygoing but abide in reverence it is all right. Confucius said. But if you abide in easygoingness and are also easygoing in your activities.‖ [6-3] 哀公問、弟子孰爲好學。孔子對曰。有顏囘者。好學、不遷怒、不貳 過。不幸短命死矣、今也則亡、未聞好學者也。 [6:3] The Duke of Ai asked which disciple loved to study. But I doubt there will be someone as fond of study. ―Yong is right. He is easygoing. Since then I have not yet met anyone who loves to study the way he did.‖ 6.‖ [5-28] 子曰。十室之邑、必有忠信如丘者焉、不如丘之好學也。 [5:28] The Master said: ―In a hamlet of ten families there must be someone as loyal and trustworthy as I.[5-27] 子曰。已矣乎。吾未見能見其過、而臩訟者也。 [5:27] The Master said: ―It's all over! I have not yet met someone who can see his own faults and correct them within himself.‖ [6-6] 子謂仲弓、曰、犁牛之子騂且见、雖欲勿用、山川其舍諸?。 . and he didn't repeat his mistakes. wouldn't that be excessive?‖ Confucius said. 雍也 [6-1] 子曰。雍也可使南面。 [6:1] The Master said: ―Yong could fulfill the role of ‗facing south‘ (being a ruler).

speaking of Zhong Gong said: ―The calf of a brindled ox could be all red and have good horns. Confucius said. ―Please decline for me politely. I shall have to go live on the banks of the Wen River. What problem could he have in handling government work?‖ ―And what about Qiu?‖ Confucius said. Min Ziqian said.[6:6] Confucius. ―Ci is intelligent. would nature [lit. Others are lucky if they can do it for one day out of a month. ―Qiu is talented.‖ [6-8] 季康子問:仲由可使從政也與 子曰。由也果、於從政乎何有 曰。賜 也可使政也與 曰。賜也達、於從政乎何有 曰。求也可使從政也與 曰。求也 藝、於從政乎何有 。 [6:8] Jikang Zi asked whether Zhongyou was capable of serving in the government. ―You is efficient.‖ 12 [6-10] 伯牛有疾、子問之、臩牖執其手、曰。亡之、命矣夫 斯人也。有斯 疾也 斯人也。有斯疾也。 。 . If they pursue me further. What difficulty would he have in handling government work?‖ [6-9] 季氏使閔子騫爲費宰。閔子騫曰。善爲我辭焉 如有復我者、則吾必在 汶上矣。 [6:9] The head of the Qi family sent to Min Ziqian to ask him to govern Pi for them. What problem could he have in handling government work?‖ Kang asked: ―Is Ci capable of serving in the government?‖ Confucius said. ‗the mountains and rivers‘] cast it away?‖ 11 [6-7] 子曰。囘也、其心三月不違仁、其餘則日月至焉而已矣。 [6:7] The Master said: ―Hui could keep his mind on ren for three months without lapse. 10 But even if we decide not to use it.

―Have you got any good men working for you?‖ . courageous. don't be a petty scholar. He held his hand through the window and said. but Hui never changed from his happy disposition. The Master said. Others could not have endured his misery.[6:10] Boniu was sick and Confucius came to see him. You are now limiting yourself.‖ etc. it indicates someone who is ―almost perfect‖ but who is not a ―divine being. ―Those whose strength is not enough give up half way.‖ [6-14] 子游爲武城宰。子曰。女得人焉爾乎。曰。有澹臺滅明者、行不由徑 、非公事、未嘗至於偃之室也。 [6:14] Zi You became the governor of Wucheng.‖ a sage. ―He is dying! How awful it is that this kind of man should be sick like this! How awful it is that this kind of man should be sick like this!‖ [6-11] 子曰。賢哉、囘也 一簞食、一瓢飮、在陋巷、人不堪其憂、囘也不 改其樂。賢哉、囘也 。 [6:11] The Master said: ―Hui was indeed a worthy! With a single bamboo bowl of rice and gourd-cup of water he lived in a back alley.‖ [6-13] 子謂子夏曰。女爲君子儒 無爲小人儒 。 [6:13] Confucius said to Zi Xia: ―Be a noble scholar. Generally speaking. the term xian (―worthy‖) means ―good. Hui was a worthy indeed!‖ Comment In Confucian and Daoist thought. intelligent. [6-12] 冉求曰。非不說子之道、力不足也。子曰。力不足者、中道而廢。今 女畫。 [6:12] Yenqiu said: ―It is not that I don't enjoy your Way. but my strength is not enough. kind.‖ Confucius said. But it is also a technical term for a person of a high level of moral and intellectual advancement.

‖ [6-21] 子曰。中人以上、可以語上也。中人以下、不可以語上也。 [6:21] The Master said: ―You can teach high-level topics to those of above-average ability.‖ [6-15] 子曰。孟之反不伐、奔而殿、將入門、策其馬、曰。非敢後也、馬不 進也。』 。 [6:15] The Master said: ―Meng Zhifan is not boastful. you will be coarse. he whipped his horse and said. it is difficult to stay out of trouble in the present age.‖ [6-19] 子曰。人之生也直、罔之生也幸而免。 [6:19] The Master said: ―People are straightforward at birth.‖ [6-20] 子曰。知之者不如好之者、好之者不如樂之者。 [6:20] The Master said: ―Knowing it is not as good as loving it. Once he was covering the rear during a retreat. Once they lose this.‖ . you will be clerical.‖ [6-17] 子曰。誰能出不由戶。何莫由斯道也 。 [6:17] The Master said: ―Who can go out without using the door? So why doesn't anybody follow the Way?‖ [6-18] 子曰。質勝文則野、文勝質則史。文質彬彬、然後君子。 [6:18] The Master said: ―If raw substance dominates refinement. who never takes short cuts in his work and does not come to my office unless he has real business to discuss. they rely on luck to avoid trouble. loving it is not as good as delighting in it.‘‖ [6-16] 子曰。不有祝鮀之侫、而有宋朝之美、難乎免於今之世矣。 [6:16] The Master said: ―Without the smooth speech of Preacher Tuo or the good looks of Prince Zhao of Song. you will be a noble man. and when he was about to enter the gate. but you can't teach high-level topics to those of less than average ability. ‗I wasn't so brave as to be last. When refinement and raw qualities are well blended. My horse would not run fast enough. If refinement dominates raw substance.He answered: ―I have Dantai Mieming.

with one change. ren. with one change.‖ [6-24] 子曰。齊一變、至於魯。魯一變、至於道。 [6:24] The Master said: ―The state of Qi. The state of Lu. ―Working to give the people justice and paying respect to the spirits.‖ He asked about the nature of ren. If you suffer first and then attain it. Confucius said. Confucius said. The wise are busy. the humane are tranquil. The wise are happy. will he climb into it?‖ Confucius said. He can be deceived. the humane enjoy the mountains.‖ [6-23] 子曰。知者樂水、仁者樂山。知者動、仁者靜。知者樂、仁者壽。 [6:23] The Master said: ―The wise enjoy the sea.[6-22] 樊遲問知。子曰。務民之義、敬鬼神而遠之、可謂知矣。問仁。曰。 仁者先難而後獲、可謂仁矣。 [6:22] Fan Chi asked about the nature of wisdom. it can be called ren. but not to the point of serious loss!‖ [6-27] 子曰。君子博學於文、約之以禮、亦可以弗畔矣夫 。 . could be at the level of Lu. but keeping away from them. the humane are eternal. you can call wisdom. ―Are you kidding? The noble man will go to the well but not fall into it. ―Ah yes. could attain to the Way.‖ [6-25] 子曰。觚不觚、觚哉、觚哉。。 [6:25] The Master said: ―A cornered vessel without corners! Is it a cornered vessel or not?‖ [6-26] 宰我問曰。仁者、雖吿之曰、五有仁焉。其從之也 。子曰。何爲其 然也 君子可逝也、不可陷也。可欺也、不可罔也。 [6:26] Zai Wo asked: ―If you tell a ren man there is ren at the bottom of the well.

sees that others are established. and. saying: ―Whatever I have done wrong. Now the ren man.‖ 7. rather than an original thinker. what would you think of him? Might he be called humane?‖ The Master said. 述而 [7-1] 子曰。述而不作、信而好古、竊比於我老彭。 [7:1] The Master said: ―I am a transmitter. The Master dealt with this. wishing himself to be successful. and disciplines himself with propriety can keep from error. may Heaven punish me! May Heaven punish me!‖ [6-29] 子曰。中庸之爲德也、其至矣乎。民鮮久矣。 [6:29] The Master said: ―Even over a long period of time. In my heart I compare myself to old Peng. To be able to take one's own feelings as a guide may be called the art of ren. ―Why only humane? He would undoubtedly be a sage.‖ [6-28] 子見南子、子路不說。夫子矢之曰。予所否者、天厭之 天厭之。 [6:28] The Master visited Nan Zi (a woman known for her sexual excesses) and Zi Lu was displeased. wishing himself to be established. Even Yao and Shun would have had to strive to achieve this. there have been few people who have actualized the Mean into Manifest Virtue. I trust and enjoy the teachings of the ancients. sees that others are successful.‖ [7-2] 子曰。默而識之、學而不厭、誨人不倦、何有於我哉 .‖ [6-30] 子貢曰。如有博施於民而能濟衆、何如 可謂仁乎。子曰。何事於仁 必也聖乎。堯舜其猶病諸 夫仁者、己欲立而立人、己欲達而達人。能近取譬 、可謂仁之方也已。 [6:30] Zi Gong asked: ―Suppose there were a ruler who benefited the people far and wide and was capable of bringing salvation to the multitude.[6:27] The Master said: ―The noble man who studies culture extensively.

[7:2] The Master said: ―Keeping silent and thinking; studying without satiety, teaching others without weariness: these things come natural to me.‖ [7-3] 子曰。德之不修、學之不講、聞義不能徒、不善不能改、是吾憂也。 [7:3] The Master said: ―Having virtue and not cultivating it; studying and not sifting; hearing what is just and not following; not being able to change wrongdoing: these are the things that make me uncomfortable.‖ [7-4] 子之燕居、申申如也、夭夭如也。 [7:4] During the Master's leisure time he was relaxed and enjoyed himself. [7-5] 子曰。甚矣吾衰也 久矣吾不復夢見周公 [7:5] The Master said: ―I am really going down the drain. I have not dreamt of the Duke of Zhou for a long time now.‖ [7-6] 子曰。志於道、據於德、依於仁、游於藝。 [7:6] The Master said: ―Set your aspirations on the Way, hold to virtue, rely on your ren, and relax in the study of the arts.‖ [7-7] 子曰。臩行束脩以上、吾未嘗無誨焉。 [7:7] The Master said: ―From the one who brought a bundle of dried meat (the poorest person) upwards, I have never denied a person my instruction.‖ [7-8] 子曰。不憤不啓、不悱 不發。擧一隅不以三隅反、則不復也。 [7:8] The Master said: ―If a student is not eager, I won't teach him; if he is not struggling with the truth, I won't reveal it to him. If I lift up one corner and he can't come back with the other three, I won't do it again.‖ [7-9] 子食於有喪者之側、未嘗飽也。 [7:9] If the Master sat beside a person in mourning, he would not eat to the full. If he had wept on a certain day, he would not sing.

[7-11] 子謂顏淵曰。用之則行、舍之則藏、惟我與爾有是夫。子路曰。子行 三軍、則誰與 子曰。暴虎馮河、死而不悔者、吾不與也。必也臨事而懼、好 謀而成者也。 [7:11] Confucius said to Yanyuan: When needed, acting When not needed, concealing. ―Only you and I can do this.‖ Zi Lu said, ―If you had to handle a major army, who would you choose to assist you?‖ Confucius said, ―I would not select the kind of man who likes to wrestle with tigers or cross rivers on foot, who can die without a second thought (like Zi Lu). It must be someone who approaches his business with caution, who likes to plan things well and see them to their completion.‖ [7-12] 子曰。富而可求也、誰執鞭之士、吾亦爲之。如不可求、從吾所好。 [7:12] The Master said: ―If the attainment of wealth was guaranteed in its seeking, even if I were to become a groom with a whip in hand to get it, I would do so. But since its attainment cannot be guaranteed, I will go with that which I love.‖ [7-13] 子之所愼:齊、戰、疾。 [7:13] The things with which the Master was cautious, were fasting, war and sickness. [7-14] 子在齊聞韶、三月不知肉味、曰。不圖爲樂之至於斯也。 [7:14] When Confucius was in Qi, he heard the Shao music, and for three months did not know the taste of meat. He said, ―I never knew music could reach this level of excellence!‖ [7-15] 冉有曰。夫子爲衞君乎。子貢曰。諾。吾將問之。入、曰。伯夷、叔 齊何人也 曰。古之賢人也。曰。怨乎。曰。求仁而得仁、又何怨 出、曰。 夫子不爲也。

[7:15] Yen You said: ―Is our Teacher in favor of the ruler of Wei?‖ Zi Gong said, ―Well, I will go find out.‖ He entered the Teacher's room and asked: ―What kind of men were Bo Yi and Shu Qi?‖ Confucius said, ―They were ancient worthies.‖ Zi Gong asked: ―Weren't they resented by anyone?‖ Confucius said, ―If you seek ren and attain it, what resentment can you incur?‖ Zi Gong came out and said, ―He is not in favor of him" 13 ‖ [7-16] 子曰。飯疏食飮水、曲肱而枕之、樂亦在其中矣。不義而富且貴、於 我如浮雲。 [7:16] The Master said: ―I can live with coarse rice to eat, water for drink and my arm as a pillow and still be happy. Wealth and honors that one possesses in the midst of injustice are like floating clouds.‖ [7-17] 子曰。加我數年、亓十以學易、可以無大過矣。 [7:17] The Master said: ―If I could add 50 years to my life, I would study the Changes and become free of error.‖ [7-18] 子所雅言、詩、書、執禮、皆雅言也。 [7:18] Topics which the Teacher regularly discussed were the Book of Odes, the Book of History, and the maintenance of propriety. These were the topics which he regularly discussed. [7-19] 葉公問孔子於子路、子路不對。子曰。女奚不曰、其爲人也、發憤忘 食、樂以忘憂、不知老之將至云爾。 [7:19] The Duke of Sheh asked Zi Lu about Confucius. Zi Lu didn't answer him. The Teacher said, ―Why didn't you just tell him that I am a man who in eagerness for study forgets to eat, in his enjoyment of it, forgets his problems and who is unaware of old age setting in?‖ [7-20] 子曰。我非生而知之者、好古、敏以求之者也。

[7:20] The Master said: ―I was not born with wisdom. I love the ancient teachings and have worked hard to attain to their level.‖ [7-21] 子不語怪、力、亂、神。 [7:21] The master never discussed strange phenomena, physical exploits, disorder or ghost stories. [7-22] 子曰。三人行、必有我師焉。擇其善者而從之、其不善者而改之。 [7:22] The Master said: ―When doing something together as a threesome, there must be one who will have something to teach me. I pick out people's good and follow it. When I see their bad points, I correct them in myself.‖ [7-23] 子曰。天生德於予、桓魋其如予何 。 [7:23] The Master said: ―Heaven gave birth to the virtue within me. What can Huan Tui 14 do to me?‖ [7-24] 子曰。二三子以我爲隱乎。吾無隱乎爾。吾無行而不與二三子者、是 丘也。 [7:24] Confucius said to his disciples: ―My boys, do you think I conceal things from you? There is nothing I conceal from you. There is nothing that I do that is not right out in front of you. That is the way I am.‖ [7-25] 子以四教:文、行、忠、信。 [7:25] The Master taught four things: Culture, correct action, loyalty and trust. [7-26] 子曰。聖人、吾不得而見之矣。得見君子者、斯可矣。子曰。善人、 吾不得而見之矣。得見有恆者、斯可矣。亡而爲有、虛而爲盈、約而爲泰、 難乎有恆矣。 [7:26] The Master said: ―I have not yet been able to meet a sage, but I would be satisfied to meet a noble man. I have not yet met a man of true goodness, but would be satisfied to meet a man of constancy. Lacking, yet possessing; empty, yet full; in difficulty yet at ease. How difficult it is to have constancy!‖ [7-27] 子釣而不綱、弋不射宿。

Confucius said.‖ When Confucius left. select the good and follow their ways. when he hunted. ―He did. saying: ―I have heard that the noble man is not partisan. (For the levels of knowledge. not for the way they are after they leave. Confucius said. see Analects 16:9). the disciples didn't know what to do with him. the minister bowed to (his prince) Wu Maqi and went up to him. [7-28] 子曰。蓋有不知而作之者、我無是也。多聞、擇其善者而從之。多見 而識之。知之次也。 [7:28] The Master said: ―There may be those who can act creatively without knowledge.‖ [7-29] 互鄕難與言、童子見、門人惑。子曰。與其進也、不與其退也、唯何 甚 人潔己以進、與其潔也、不保其往也。 [7:29] Since it was hard to have a worthwhile discussion with the people of Huxiang.[7:27] When the Master went fishing. but maybe he can be since Prince Wu took a wife with the same surname. I listen widely.‖ [7-30] 子曰。仁遠乎哉。我欲仁、斯仁至矣。 [7:30] The Master said: ―Is ren far away? If I aspire for ren it is right here!‖ [7-31] 陳司敗問昭公知禮乎、孔子曰。知禮。孔子退、揖巫馬期而進之、曰 。吾聞君子不黨、君子亦黨乎。君取於呉、爲同姓、謂之呉孟子。君而知禮 、孰不知禮 巫馬期以吿。子曰。丘也幸、苟有過、人必知之。 [7:31] The Minister of Justice in Chen asked whether the Duke of Zhao knew the rules of propriety. This is the second level of knowledge. when one of their young men came to see the teacher. I am not at this level. saying that she came from ‗the . accept him in his purity. he would not shoot at a perched bird. Why be so strict? If someone purifies his mind to approach you. Don't worry about what he does after he leaves. he did not use a net. ―Take people the way they come to you. I observe broadly and contemplate.

and he would sing the harmony.‖ [7-36]子曰。奢則不孫,儉則固。與其不孫也,寧固。 .elder family of Wu. Confucius said. ―There is. ―is there such a thing?‖ Zi Lu said. But I strive for these without being disappointed.‖ [7-34] 子曰。若聖與仁、則吾豈敢 抑爲之不厭、誨人不倦、則可謂云爾已 矣。公西華曰。正唯弟子不能學也。 [7:34] The Master said: ―I dare not claim to be a sage or a ren man. perhaps I am equal to others.‘ If this prince knew the rules of propriety.‖ [7-32] 子與人歌而善、必使反之、而後和之。 [7:32] When the Teacher was singing with someone. This is what can be said of me. he would make them start over again. then who doesn't know them?‖ Wu Maqi told this to Confucius.‖ Gongxi Hua said. and Zi Lu said that he would pray for him. ―It is exactly these qualities that cannot be learned by the disciples. The Eulogies say: ‗I pray for you to the spirits of the upper and lower realm. and he found out that they sang well. ―I am so lucky! When I make a mistake they always find it out.‖ [7-35]子疾病,子路請禱。子曰。有諸 。子路對曰。有之。誄曰:禱爾於上 下神祗』子曰。丘之禱久矣。 [7:35] The Master was very sick. [7-33] 子曰。文、莫吾猶人也。躬行君子、則吾未之有得。 [7:33] The Master said: ―In literature. But I cannot manifest the behavior of the noble man. The Teacher said. ―Then I have been praying for a long time already.‘‖ Confucius said. and I teach without becoming weary.

the people too. Straightforwardness without propriety is rudeness.‖ [7-38]子温而厲,威而不猛,恭而安。 [7:38] The Master was mild yet strict. If he does not forget his old friends. courteous. He declined the rule of the kingdom three times.‖ [7-37]子曰:「君子坦蕩蕩,小人長戚戚。 [7:37] The Master said: ―The noble man is always at ease with himself. ―Uncover my feet and hands. 8.[7:36] The Master said: ―Luxury leads to laxity. Apprehensive. the people will be moved toward ren. frugality leads to rigidity. will not be fickle. without the people knowing about it.‖ [8-2] 子曰。恭而無禮則勞。愼而無禮則葸。勇而無禮則亂。直而無禮則絞 。君子篤於親、則民興於仁。故舊不遺、則民不偸。 [8:2] The Master said: ―Courtesy without propriety is wasted energy. . Boldness without propriety is recklessness. When the ruler is kind to those who are close to him. He summoned his disciples and said.‖ [8-3] 曾子有疾、召門弟子曰。啓予足 啓予手 詩云:戰戰兢兢、如臨深淵 、如履薄冰。』 而今而後、吾知免夫小子。 [8:3] Ceng Zi was ill. yet relaxed. It is better to be rigid than to be lax. 泰伯 [8-1] 子曰。泰伯其可謂至德也已矣。三以天下讓、民無得而稱焉。 [8:1] The Master said: ―Taibo can be said to have had a perfected level of virtue. Caution without propriety is timidity. The inferior man is always anxious. The Book of Odes says:‖ He was cautious. authoritative yet not mean.

possessing. being full yet seeming empty. As far as attending to the sacrificial tables— there are specialists hired for these jobs. yet seeming to lack. The Way prized by the noble man has three aspects:‖ In his behavior and deportment he avoids brashness and arrogance. ―When a bird is about to die. using one's learning to learn from the unlearned. I know that I have gotten past this (sickness). Meng Jing Zi went to see him. 15 ‖ [8-6] 曾子曰。可以託六尺之孤、可以寄百里之命、臨大節、而不可奪也。 君子人與。君子人也。 [8:6] Ceng Zi said: ―A man who can be entrusted with the care of the crown prince. As if treading on thin ice. When speaking. its song is melancholy.‖ [8-4] 曾子有疾、孟敬子問之。曾子言曰。鳥之將死、其鳴也哀。人之將死 、其言也善。君子所貴乎道者三:動容貌、斯遠暴慢矣。正顏色、斯近信笑 。出辭氣、斯遠鄙倍矣。籩豆之事、則有司存。 [8:4] While Ceng Zi was ill. Ceng Zi said. When paying attention to his facial expressions he is guided by honesty. who can take responsibility for a district of 100 li and who can handle a major crisis without losing touch with himself: Is he a noble man? He certainly is a noble man.As if at the edge of a deep chasm. [8-5] 曾子曰。以能問於不能、以多問於寡、有若無、實若處、犯而不校、 昔者吾友、嘗從事於斯矣。 [8:5] Ceng Zi said: ―Using one's ability to learn from those of less ability. his words are excellent. When a man is about to die. he avoids vulgarity and slander. able to accept harm without retaliation: in the past I had a friend who could do this. ―From now.‖ [8-7] 曾子曰。士、不可以不弘毅、任重而道遠。仁以爲己任、不亦重乎、 死而後已、不亦遠乎。 .

but you won't be able to force them to understand it. is it not heavy? If you continue to death. When the Way prevails in your . then hide. is it not long?‖ [8-8] 子曰。興於詩。立於禮。成於樂。 [8:8] The Master said: ―Be aroused by poetry.‖ [8-12] 子曰。三年學、不至於穀、不易得也。 [8:12] The Master said: ―It is quite rare to see someone who applies himself to the study of something for three years without having a noticeable result. Be steadfast unto death in pursuit of the good Way. those good qualities will not be noticed. structure yourself with propriety. since your burden is heavy and your course is long. If a man lacks ren and his dissatisfaction reaches an extreme. When the Way prevails in the world. Do not enter a state which is in peril. show yourself.‖ [8-11] 子曰。如有周公之才之美、使驕且吝、其餘不足觀也已。 [8:11] The Master said: ―Perhaps you could be as handsome and as talented as the Duke of Zhou.‖ [8-10] 子曰。好勇疾貧、亂也。人而不仁、疾之已甚、亂也。 [8:10] The Master said: ―A man who enjoys boldness and hates poverty will be rebellious.[8:7] Ceng Zi said: ―To be called a shi you must be open-minded as well as resolute. he will rebel. When it does not. If you take ren as your burden.‖ [8-9] 子曰。民可使由之、不可使知之。 [8:9] The Master said: ―You might force people act according a certain principle. But if you are arrogant or stingy. refine yourself with music. nor reside in one which people have rebelled.‖ [8-13] 子曰。篤信好學、守死善道。危邦不人、亂邦不居、天下有道則見、 無道則隱。邦有道、貧且賤焉、恥也、邦無道、富且貴焉、恥也。 [8:13] The Master said: ―Be of unwavering good faith and love learning.

‖ . [8-19] 子曰。大哉堯之爲軍也、巍巍乎、唯天爲大、唯堯則之、蕩蕩乎、民 無能名焉。巍巍乎、其有成功也、煥乎、其有文章。 [8:19] The Master said: ―The rulership of Yao was so magnificent! He was so sublime that even though there is nothing as great as Heaven. His efficacy was amazing. to be poor and obscure is a disgrace. he could accord with it. frank but not careful.‖ which is discussed at length in the Daode jing and the Zhuangzi.‖ [8-14] 子曰。不在其位、不謀其政。 [8:14] The Master said: ―If you don't have the official position.own state. the finale of the Guanju was magnificent. you can't plan the affairs of government. his writings were enlightening. His greatness was so boundless it is beyond description. to be rich and honored is a disgrace. But when the Way does not prevail in your own state.‖ [8-17] 子曰。學如不及、猶恐失之。 [8:17] The Master said: ―Study as if you have not reached your goal— as if you were afraid of losing what you have. and naive but not honest.‖ [8-18] 子曰。巍巍乎、舜禹之有天下也、而不與焉。 8:18 Confucius said: ―How sublime was the manner in which Shun and You handled the empire.‖ [8-15] 子曰。師摯之始、關雎之亂、洋洋乎盈耳哉。 [8:15] The Master said: ―After Music Master Zhi took over. without lifting a finger!‖ [Comment] Here we can a similarity in Confucius' understanding with that of the wu-wei or ―non-manipulation. How it filled my ears!‖ [8-16] 子曰。狂而不直、侗而不愿、悾悾而不信、吾不知之矣。 [8:16] The Master said: ―I really don't know what to do with those who are ardent but not upright.

he is not known for expertise in any particular skill. ―Their ability is the issue. However. served the Yin. Normally wearing coarse clothing.‖ Confucius said.[8-20] 舜有臣亓人、而天下治。武王曰。予有亂臣十人。孔子曰。才難、不 其然乎、唐虞之際、於斯爲盛、有婦人焉、九人而已。三分天下有其二、以 朋事殷、周之德、其可謂至德也已矣。 [8:20] Shun. King Wu said. and with this. was able to successfully govern the empire. Don't you think so? When the Tang and Wu dynasties combined. ―Altogether I have ten ministers. he looked magnificent in his ceremonial cap and gown. with a woman and nine men. [9-2] 達巷黨人曰、大哉孔子、博學而無所成名。子聞之、謂門弟子曰、吾 何執 執御乎、執射乎。吾執御矣。 [9:2] A man from Daxiang said: ―How great Confucius is! His learning is so broad. yet perfect in his piety to the ancestral spirits. Indeed. I cannot find a flaw in his character!‖ 9. 子罕 [9-1] 子罕言、利、與命、與仁。 [9:1] The master never spoke about advantage in connection with destiny or in connection with ren. Living in a humble abode. he exhausted himself in the excavation of drainage ways and canals. King Wen (of the Zhou) controlled two-thirds of the empire. Surviving on the simplest food and drink. the virtue of Zhou can be called the epitome of virtue!‖ [8-21] 子曰。禹吾無間然矣、菲飮食、而致孝乎鬼神、惡衣朋、而致美乎黻 冕、卑宮室、而盡力乎溝恤、禹吾無間然矣。 [8:21] The Master said: ―Yu was flawless in character.‖ When Confucius heard this. with five ministers. they had as many ministers as you. he said to his disciples: ―What shall I take up? Shall I take up charioteering? Shall I take up archery? I think I will take up charioteering!‖ .

‘ then it would have been unattainable for later generations. but that is presumptuous.‖ [9-4] 子絕四、毋意、毋必、毋固、毋我。 [9:4] There were four things the master had eliminated from himself: imposing his will. ―What does the minister know about me? As a youth my family was poor so I had to learn many worldly skills. and I will go along with the consensus.‖ The master. So even if I differ from the consensus. arbitrariness. what can the men of Guang do to me?‖ [9-6] 大宰問於子貢曰。夫子聖者與 何其多能也 子貢曰。固天縱之將聖、 又多能也。子聞之曰。大宰知我乎。吾少也賤、故多能鄙事。君子多乎哉。 不多也 。 [9:6] A high minister asked Zi Gong: ―If your master is really a sage. as well as diverse skills. but his culture abides within me. I will bow below the hall. hearing about this. ―King Wen 16 has already died. He said. said. why does he know so many skills? 17 ‖ Zi Gong answered.[9-3] 子曰。麻冕、禮也。今也、純儉、吾從衆。拜下、禮也。今拜乎上、 泰也、雖遠衆、吾從下。 [9:3] The Master said: ―The linen cap is prescribed by the rules of propriety. but nowadays they use a silk one. If Heaven intended to destroy this ‗culture. Bowing below the hall is prescribed by the rules of propriety. stubbornness and egotism. [9-5] 子畏於匡。曰。文王旣沒、文不在茲乎。天之章喪斯文也。後死者不 得與於斯文也。天之未喪斯文也。匡人其如予何。 [9:5] There was fear for the Master's life when he was in the district of Guang. ―Heaven has granted him sagehood. It is economical. Is skillfulness necessary for the noble man? Of course it isn't.‖ [9-7] 牢曰。子云。吾不試、故藝。 . If Heaven does not want to destroy this culture.

―I didn't have an official position. Boring into it.‖ 20 . he would collect himself. I have exhausted my ability. I am finished. My master skillfully guides his students a step at a time. but I can't. the Yellow River has not produced at diagram. or in full ceremonial dress. Yet if even simple men come to ask a question of me. I want to give up. he would do it quickly. He has broadened me with literature. and Zi Lu wanted the disciples to become Confucius' ―ministers.‖ [9-12] 子疾病、子路使門人爲臣、病聞、曰。久矣哉、由之行詐也 無臣而 爲有臣、吾誰欺 欺天乎。且予與其死於臣之手也、無<4D2A>死於二三子 之手乎。且予縱不得大葬、予死於道路乎。 [9:12] The Master was extremely ill. or a blind person. even if they were young.‖ 18 [9-9] 子曰。鳳鳥不至、河不出圖、吾已矣乎。 [9:8] The Master said: ―The Phoenix has not come. yet it seems as if there is something rising up in front of me. disciplined me with propriety. it gets higher. I want to follow it.[9:7]Lao said: ―Our teacher said.‖‖ [9-8] 子曰。吾有知乎哉。無知也。有鄙夫問於我、空空如也。我叩其兩端 而竭焉。 [9:8] The Master said: ―Do I possess knowledge? No. I do not possess it. I developed various skills. it gets harder. therefore.‖ [9-10] 子見齊衰者、冕衣裳者、與瞽者、見之雖少必作。過之必趨。 [9:10] If the master saw someone in mourning. 19 Alas. [9-11] 顏淵喟然歎曰。仰之彌高、鑽之彌堅、瞻之在前、忽焉在後 夫子循 循然善誘人:搏我以文、約我以禮。欲罷不能、旣竭吾才、如有所立、卓爾 。雖欲從之、末由也已 。 [9:11] Yanyuan sighed in admiration saying: ―Looking up to it. If he had to pass by them. I see it in front. and suddenly it is behind me. but there is no way. I clear my mind completely and thoroughly investigate the matter from one end to the other.

during a remission in his illness. What problems could I possibly have?‖ [9-17] 子在川上曰。逝者如斯夫 不舍晝夜。 [9:17] The Master. ―If a noble man dwells with them. how could they be unruly?‖ [9-15] 子曰。吾臩衞反魯、然後樂正、雅頌、各得其所。 [9:15] The Master said: ―Only after I returned to Lu from Wei did the music get straightened out.‖ [9-16] 子曰。出則事公卿、入則事父兄、喪事不敢不勉、不爲酒困。何有於 我哉。。 [9:16] The Master said: ―When out in the world. I served my ruler and ministers. Should we hide it away. or look for a good price and sell it?‖ Confucius said. said. said.‖ [9-14] 子欲居九夷。或曰。陋、如之何 子曰。君子居之、何陋之有 。 [9:14] The Master wanted to go and stay with the Nine Tribes of the East. you would make it appear that I have them? Who would I be fooling? Heaven? I would much rather die in the hands of my disciples than in the hands of ministers. with the Royal Songs and the Praises being played at the proper place and time. ―Sell it! Sell it! But I would wait till I got a good price. You has been deceitful for a long time. At home I served my father and elder brothers. I never dared to take funerals lightly and I didn't get into trouble with alcohol. Someone said. ―Ah. ―It goes on like this. standing by a river. ―They are unruly! Why do you want to do such a thing?‖ Confucius said.Confucius. Though I don't have ministers. never ceasing day or night!‖ [9-18] 子曰。吾未見好德、如好色者也。 . And I would prefer dying in the streets to a pompous funeral!‖ [9-13] 子貢曰。有美玉於斯、韞剏而藏諸 求善賈而沽諸 子曰。沽之哉。沽 之哉。我待賈者也 。 [9:13] Zi Gong said: ―We have a beautiful gem here.

some who blossom but do not bear fruit.‖ [9-23] 子曰。後生可畏、焉知來者之不如今也 四十亓十而無聞焉、斯亦不 足畏也已 。 [9:23] The Master said: ―We should be in awe of the younger generation.‖ [9-22] 子曰。苗而不秀者、有矣夫、秀而不實者、有矣夫 。 [9:22] The Master said: ―There are some who sprout but do not blossom. and have never seen him rest. even if only a bit at a time. It is like leveling the ground: If I continue even after dumping only one basket. How can we know that they will not be equal to us? But if a man reaches the age of forty or fifty and has still not been heard from. it is my stopping.‖ [9-19] 子曰。譬如爲山、未成一簣。止、吾止也 譬如平地、雖覆一簣。進 、吾往也 。 [9:19] The Master said: ―It is like building a mound: If I stop before carrying a single basket of earth. it is my continuation. Is anyone incapable of enjoying words of gentle advice? But it is inquiring deeply into their . then he is no one to be in awe of. said: ―How rare is his type! I have seen him striving. Hui!‖ [9-21] 子謂顏淵曰。惜乎吾見其進也、吾未見其止也 。 [9:21] The Master. [9-20] 子曰。語之而不惰者、其囘也與 。 [9:20] The Master said: ―I teach him and he never slacks off.‖ [9-24] 子曰。法語之言、能無從乎。改之爲貴 巽與之言、能無說乎。繹之 爲貴 說而不繹、從而不改、吾末如之何也已矣。。 [9:24] The Master said: ―Is anyone incapable of following words of correct instruction? But it is self-transformation according to it that is important.‖ [Comment] The process of self-development requires continual effort. Aah.[9:18] The Master said: ―I have never seen one who loves virtue as much as he loves beauty. speaking of Hui.

If I enjoy without inquiring deeply.‖ [9-26] 子曰。三軍可奪師也、匹夫不可奪志也。 [9:26] The Master said: ―You can snatch away the general of a large army. don't hesitate to correct it. how can you attain excellence?‖ [9-28] 子曰。歲寒、然後知松柏之後彫也。 [9:28] The Master said: ―Only after it turns winter are we aware of the survival of the Pine and Cypress. the brave are not afraid.‖ [9-27] 子曰。衣敝縕袍、與衣孤貉者立、而不恥者、其由也與。不忮不求、 何用不臧 』 子路終身誦之。子曰。是道也、何足以臧 。 [9:27] The Master said: ―Standing in tattered work clothes among gentlemen clothed in fine furs without any embarrassment.meaning that is important. but you cannot snatch away the will of even the lowliest of men. the humane are not anxious. ―With just this. [9-25] 子曰。主忠信。毋友不如己者。過、則勿憚改。 [9:25] The Master said: ―Base yourself in loyalty and trust. how can I say that I have understood them?‖ [Comment] Confucian ―learning‖ is always fully connected to self-transformation.‖ [9-30] 子曰。可與兯學、未可與適道。可與適道、未可與立。可與立、未可 與權。 .‖ [9-29] 子曰。知者不惑。仁者不憂。勇者不懼。 [9:29] The Master said: ―The wise are not confused. Confucius said. Don't be companion with those who are not your moral equal. and follow without changing myself. not coveting: How can he do wrong? 21 Zi Lu continuously chanted this. it is You!‖ Not harming. When you make a mistake.

his face took on a serious expression. how could it be a problem?‖ 10. he straightened up ceremoniously. [10-2] 君召使擯、色勃如也、足躩如也。揖所與立、左右手、衣前後、檐如 也。趨進、翼如也。賓退、必復命、曰。賓不顧矣。 [10:2] When the ruler summoned him to take care of important guests. 鄕黨 [10-1] 孔子於鄕黨、恂恂如也、似不能言者。其在宗廟朝廷、便便然、唯謹 爾。朝與下大夫言、侃侃如也。與上大夫言、誾誾如也。君在、踧踖如也、 與與如也。 [10:1] When Confucius was in his village. but extremely cautious. There are some with whom we can establish ourselves. but with a calm demeanor. ―If he does not think about the distance. He bowed as he came to the place of . but with whom we cannot agree with on future planning. When the ruler was present. he was quietly sincere. How could I not think of you? But your house is so far. When speaking to the junior grandmasters in court. but with whom we cannot establish ourselves. When he was in the ancestral temple or the court. he was straightforward but formal. Confucius said. as if he could not speak. he was candid and at ease. he was eloquent. when speaking to the senior grandmasters. but with whom we cannot traverse on the same path. and he walked briskly.[9:29] The Master said: ―There are some with whom we can study.‖ [9-31] 唐棣之華、偏其反而。豈不爾思 室是遠而。子曰。未之思也、未何 遠之有 。 [9:31] As the flowers of the aspen plum Lean and turn. There are some with whom we can traverse on the same path.

When he passed in front of the ruler's position. ―the guest has stopped looking back. he would wear thin. he would without fail watch. and he appeared to be contented. and he stepped carefully in small steps. and continue to report. He held his breath as if he could not breathe. his countenance became relaxed.greeting. he shrunk down deferentially. Once inside. he was deferential. as if there was not enough space. and from below in an offering way. In private meetings. He held it from above in a folding way. He lifted up the hems of his skirt when entering the hall nodding deeply in respect. [10-5] 君子不以紺緅飾、紅紫不以爲褻朋。當暑、袗、絺、綌、必表而出之 。緇衣羔裘、素衣麑裘、黃衣狐裘。褻裘長、短右袂。必有寢衣、長一身有 半。狐貉之厚以居。 去喪無所不佩。非帷裳、必殺之。羔裘玄冠、不以弔。 吉月、必朝朋而朝。齊、必有明衣、布。齋必變食、居必遷坐。 [10:5] The noble man did not wear decorative cuffs colored violet and puce. he would not wear red and maroon. walking in a straight line with shuffling steps. He showed a serious and anxious expression. as if he could not support it. When the guest left. he did not stand in the middle. and with his left and right hand held his garment in front and back.‖ [10-3] 入公門、鞠躬如也、如不容。立不中門、行不履閾。過位、色勃如也 、足躩如也、其言似不足者。攝齊升堂、鞠躬如也、屛氣似不息者。出降一 等、逞顏色、怡怡如也。沒階趨進、翼如也。復其位、踧踖如也。 [10:3] When he came through the court door. Upon leaving. Reaching the bottom of the stairs he began to move briskly. He moved forward quickly with his arms like wings. unlined garments made of fine and coarse vine-fiber when he went out. In the presentation ceremony. his arms like wings. for his house clothes. [10-4] 執圭、鞠躬如也、如不勝。上如揖、下如授。勃如戰色、足蹜蹜如有 循。享禮、有容色。私覿、愉愉如也。 [10:4] When holding the jade scepter. he showed a genial expression. it seemed difficult for him to speak. his expression became serious. During hot weather. once he had gone down one step. keeping it properly adjusted. he was bent over with deference. Returning to his original position. he seemed relaxed without concerns. . and he would not step on the threshold.

and did not talk after retiring. such as coarse rice or broth. Even if there was a lot of meat. or which was out of season. with a short right sleeve. No matter what kind of simple fare it might be. His house robe was long. nor would he eat food that was not properly sliced. as well as his seat. As for sacrificial meats in general. there was nothing he would not wear on his decorative belt sash. but he would not overdo it. He would not refrain from eating food with ginger. He would not drink wine or eat dried meat that came from the marketplace. He would not wear a black sheepskin mantle or a black hat when paying visits of condolence. He would not eat food that that had a bad color or smell. he would definitely adjust their length. nor fish and meat that had spoiled. [10-6] 食不厭精、膾不厭細。食饐而餲魚餒而肉敗、不食。色惡不食、臭惡 不食。失飪不食、不時不食。割不正不食、不得其醬、不食。肉雖多、不使 勝食氣。唯酒無量、 不及亂。沽酒、市脯、不食。不撤薑食、不多食。祭於 公、不宿肉。祭肉、不出三日、出三日、不食之矣。食不語、寢不言。雖疏 食、菜羹、瓜 22 祭、必齊如也。 [10:6] When he ate he was not averse to refined rice. he always wore clean white clothes of linen. If clothes were not ceremonial. he sat on thick fox and badger rugs. He would not eat rice that was rancid or had gone rotten. doing so with due solemnity. [10-7] 席不正不坐。 . he would not keep them more than three days. When always slept in sleeping garments. he would always make an offering. but at the same time. and if they were more than three days old. he would not eat food that that was not cooked to the proper level. with a yellow robe he wore a foxskin mantle. When there was a sacrifice for the ruler. nor to finely minced meat. he would not keep the meat overnight.With a black robe he wore a black sheepskin mantle: with an uncolored robe he wore a fawnskin mantle. he would not eat them. When not in a mourning period. he never lost control of himself. or did not come with the appropriate condiments. When fasting. which were half again as long as his body. He did not chat while eating. he would not eat it greater quantity than rice. He always showed up in court on the first of the month properly attired in court garb. During the fast he would always change his diet. At home. It was only wine with which he did not limit himself.

[10-10] 康子饋藥。拜而受之、曰。丘未達、不敢嘗。 [10:10] Kangzi sent the Master some medicine as a present. 23 [10-9] 問人於他邦、再拜而送之。 [10:9] When he asked some to go to another country. he said. he asked: ―Was anybody hurt?‖ He didn't ask about the horses. he would not sit on it. he would don his ceremonial court robes and stand on the eastern steps. he would lie down facing to the east with his court robe on him and his sash drawn across him. When attending at a meal for the ruler. [10-12] 君賜食、必正席先嘗之。君賜腥、必熟而薦之。君賜生、必畜之。 侍食於君、君祭、先飯。 [10:12] When the ruler would send a gift of cooked food. he would always rear it.‖ [10-11] 廐焚、子退朝、曰。傷人乎。不問馬。 [10:11] There was a fire in the stables. [10-14] 君命召、不俟駕行矣。 . he would leave only after the elders had done so. he would always sit straight and first taste it. [10-8] 鄕人飮酒、杖者出、斯出矣。鄕人儺、朝朋而立於阼階。 [10:8] When drinking with the townsfolk. When the Master returned from court. after the ruler makes the sacrifice. he would bow to him twice before sending him off. 24 [10-13] 疾、君視之、東首加朝朋拖紳。 [10:13] When he was sick and the ruler came to visit him. he would always cook it and offer it to others. Respectfully receiving it. he is first to eat it. When the townsfolk carried out rituals for the cleansing of evil spirits.[10:7] If a mat was not straight. when the ruler presented him with a live animal. ―I don't know about this medicine. if the ruler sent uncooked meat. so I don't dare to take it.

[10-19] 升車、必正立、執綏。車中不內顧、不疾言、不親指。 [10:19] When he got up into the carriage. or the blind. At home. When delicious food was served. [10-17] 寢不尸。居不容 25 。 [10:17] When he slept. he would lower his head in the carriage.‖ When a friend would send a gift of food — even horses and carriages — if it was not sacrificial meat. holding the straps. he would not lie on the bed like a corpse. his expression would change and he would stand up. he would not put on any special airs. His expression would also change with a sudden thunderclap or violent wind. [10-16] 朊友死、無所歸、曰。於我殯。朊友之饋、雖車馬、非祭肉、不拜 。 [10:16] When a friend died. he would change his expression. he didn't look about. he inquired about every detail. he would say. even if he knew them well. [10-20] 色斯擧矣、翔而後集。曰。山梁雌雉、時哉時哉。子路兯之、三嗅 而作。 . he would go at once. without waiting for the horses to be yoked to his carriage. Encountering a person in full attire. talk rapidly or point around with his hands. Once inside the carriage. he would show the proper attitude. even if he was in his informal home dress.[10:14] When the ruler summoned him. he would not bow. ―I will take care of it. and would do the same for someone carrying census boards. [10-18] 見齊衰者、雖狎必變。見冕者與瞽者、雖褻必以貌。凶朋者式之、 式負版者。有盛饌、必變色而作。迅雷、風烈必變。 [10:18] When he saw someone in mourning clothes. he would stand straight. if there was no one to handle the funeral. [10-15] 入大廟、每事問。 [10:15] When he entered the great ancestral temple. Encountering someone in mourning.

what timing. excellent in their scholarship were Zi You and Zi Xia. The Master said: ―The hen pheasant on the mountain bridge. Min Ziqian. The nobility develop these later. Ran Boniu. ‖ [11-6] 南容三復白圭。孔子以其兄之子妻之。 .[10:20] At a change in expression the bird took off. skillful administrators were Ran You and Zi Lu. 26 11.‖ [11-5] 子曰。孝哉閔子騫、人不間於其父母皆弟之言。 [11:7] The Master said: ―How filial Min Ziqian was! Others say nothing of him different from the report of his parents. 先進 子曰。先進於禮樂、野人也。後進於禮樂、君子也。如用之、則吾從先進。 [11:1] The Master said: ―The country folk develop their understanding of music and ritual earlier. I suggest earlier development. none have come to see me since.‖ [11-2] 子曰。從我於陳蔡者、皆不及門也。 [11:2] Among those who followed me in Chen and Cai. but after sniffing three times. From a practical perspective. the articulate were Zai Wo and Zi Gong. it took off. [11-3] 德行。顏淵、閔子騫、冉伯牛、仲弓。言語。宰我、子貢。政事。冉 有、季路。文學。子游、子夏。 [11:3] The virtuous in conduct were Yan Yuan. it flew around and then joined a flock. and Zhong Gone. what timing!‖ Zi Lu offered it [some bait]. [11-4] 子曰。囘也、非助我者也 於吾言、無所不說。 [11:4] The Master said: ―Hui is no help to me. He simply delights in everything I say.

The Master said ―Talented or not. and it is the fault of you students. Unfortunately he died young.[11:6] Nan Rong frequently recited the line of the ―White Jade Table. The Master told them not to. the master cried: ―How cruel! Heaven is killing me! Heaven is killing me!‖ [11-10] 顏淵死、子哭之慟。從者曰。子慟矣。曰。有慟乎。非夫人之爲慟 而誰爲 。 [11:10] When Yanhui died. but not an outer coffin. ―Master. When (my son) Li died. Yuan Lu (his father) asked the Master for his carriage so that he could (sell it to ) buy an outer coffin.‖ . Confucius said. I could not go on foot just for the sake of making an outer coffin. and there has been no one like him since then. the disciples wanted to give him a lavish funeral. when should I cry?‖ [11-11] 顏淵死、門人欲厚葬之、子曰。不可。門人厚葬之。子曰。囘也、 視予猶父也、予不得視猶子也。非我也、夫二三子也。 [11:11] When Yanhui died. The disciples said. Confucius replied: ―Yanhui did. I can't walk on foot. ―Going overboard?! If I can't cry now. ―Hui treated me like a father. a son is called a son. ‖ [11-9] 顏淵死、子曰。噫天喪予、天喪予 。 [11:9] When Yanyuan died. we had an inner coffin. [11-7] 季康子問。弟子孰爲好學 孔子對曰。有顏囘者、好學、不幸短命死 矣。今也則亡。 [11:7] Ji Kang Zi asked which of the disciples loved to learn. Now I have not been able to treat him as a son. you are going overboard with this!‖ Confucius said. the Master wept uncontrollably. but they did it anyway.‖ [11-8] 顏淵死、顏路請子之車以爲之椁。子曰。才不才、亦各言其子也。鯉 也死、有棺而無椁。吾不徒行、以爲之椁、以吾從大夫之後、不可徒行也。 [11:8] When Yan Yuan died.‖ 27 Confucius gave him his elder brother's daughter to wed. When I am following in the rear of the grandmasters.

―What is the lute of You doing at my door?‖ and so the other disciples had begun to lose their respect for Zi Lu (You). Confucius said. Shang does not go far enough. The Master was pleased.‖ [11-16] 子貢問。師與商也孰賢 子曰。師也過、商也不及。曰。然則師愈與 子曰。過猶不及。 [11:16] Zi Gong asked who was the most worthy between Shih and Shang. ―If you don't understand what life is. but has not yet entered the inner chambers. he was calm and precise. ―May I ask about death?‖ Confucius said. Ran You and Zi Gong were affable.‖ [11-15] 子曰。由之瑟、奚爲於丘之門 門人不敬子路。子曰。由也升堂矣。 未入於室也 。 [11:15] Confucius had said. Confucius said. ―If you can't yet serve men. how can you serve the spirits?‖ Lu said. Zi Lu was always ready for action. ―You has ascended to the main hall. ―This fellow doesn't say much.‖ ―Then is Shih superior?‖ . but when he does. how will you understand death?‖ [11-13] 閔子侍側、誾誾如也。子路、行行如也。冉有、子貢、侃侃如也。 子樂。若由也、不得其死然。 [11:14] When Min Zi waited by the Master's side. but said: ―People like You can't die a natural death. he is right on the mark.[11-12] 季路問事鬼神。子曰。未能事人、焉能事鬼 敢問死 曰。未知生、 焉知死 。 [11:12] Chi Lu asked about serving the spirits. ―Shih goes too far. The Master said.‖ [11-14] 魯人爲長府。閔子騫曰。仍舊貫、如之何。何必改作 子曰。夫人不 言、言必有中。 [11:14] The men of Lu were rebuilding the Main Treasury. Min Ziqian said: ―Why don't we keep its old style? Why do we have to change it completely?‖ Confucius said.

―You should practice it immediately. Confucius said. ―If you don't follow its traces.‖ . you won't enter the Inner Chamber. Confucius said: ―Hui is completely full.‖ Confucius said: ―Someone may have profound theories— but is he a noble man? Or is he only superficially impressive?‖ [11-20] 子路問。聞斯行諸 子曰。有父兄在、如之何其聞斯行之 冉有問: 聞斯行諸 子曰。聞斯行之 公西華曰。由也問聞斯行諸 』 、子曰。有父兄 在』 。求也問、聞斯行諸 』 子曰。聞斯行之』 。赤也感、敢問 子曰。求 也退、故進之。由也兼人、故退之。 [11:20] Zi Lu asked if it was a good idea to immediately put a teaching into practice when he first heard it. ―You have a father and an older brother to consult.‖ [11-19] 子張問善人之道。子曰。不踐紋、亦不入於室。子曰。論篤是與、 君子者乎。色莊者乎。 [11:19] Zi Zhang asked about the Way of the Good Man. you can beat the drum and attack him if you want.‖ [11-18] 柴也愚、參也魯、師也辟、由也喭。子曰。囘也奇庶乎屢空。賜不 受命、而貨殖焉。億則屢中。 [11:18] Zhai is simple-minded.‖ [11-17] 季氏富於周公、而求也爲之聚斂而附益之。子曰。非吾徒也、小子 鳴鼓而攻之可也 。 [11:17] Even though the head of the Chi family was ―wealthier than the Duke of Zhou. My students. yet always possession-less. Why do you need to be so quick to practice it?‖ Zanyou asked the same question. ―He is no disciple of mine. Confucius said. Yu is reckless. Zeng is slow. and made him richer. so he has to contrive in order to enrich himself.‖ Qiu collected taxes for him. and is usually on the mark. Confucius said. Shi is biased. Confucius said. ―Going too far is the same as not going far enough.The Master said. Si is not wealthy by fate.

―Qiu has a tendency to give up easily.‖ Zi Lu said: ―There are people and there are national altars (to be administered). When Qiu (Zanyou) asked you.‖ Hui said. but then you asked me about You and Qiu. ―I was afraid they had killed you. ―When You asked you. so I push him. he will quit.Gong Xihua said. A great minister serves his ruler by means of the Way. May I ask why?‖ Confucius said. how can I dare to die?‖ [11-22] 季子然問。仲由、冉求、可謂大臣與 子曰。吾以子爲異之問、曾由 與求之問 所謂大臣者、以道事君、不可則止。今由與求也、可謂具臣矣。曰 。然則從之者與 子曰。弒父與君、亦不從也。 [11:22]When Ji Ziran asked the Master whether Zhong You and Ran Qiu could be called great ministers. you told him to practice it immediately. and if he can't.‖ [11-23] 子路使子羔爲費宰。子曰。賊夫人之子 子路曰。有民人焉、有社稷 焉、何必讀書、然後爲學。子曰。是故惡夫侫者。 [11:23] Zi Lu got Zi Gao installed as Prefect of Bi. You (Zi Lu) has a tendency to jump the gun. ―While you are alive. they wouldn't do it. you told him he should consult his father and elder brother first. Why should it be necessary to read books to be regarded as learned. Confucius said. so I restrain him. Hui had fallen behind. Now You and Qiu can be called ‗stopgap ministers.‖ [11-21] 子畏於匡、顏淵後。子曰。吾以女爲死矣。曰。子在、囘何敢死 。 [11:21] During the incident of the Master's endangerment in Guang.‘‖ ―Does this mean that they will do as they are told?‖ The Master said: ―If they were ordered to kill their father or ruler. the Master said: ―I thought you were going to ask about someone else.‖ [11-24] 子路、 曾砽、冉有、公西華侍坐。子曰。以吾一日長乎爾、毋吾以 也。居則曰。 不 吾知也 』 如或知爾、則何以哉。子路率爾而對、曰。千乘之國、攝乎大 國之間、加之以師旅、因之以饑饉、由也爲之、比及三年、可使有勇、且知 .‖ The Master said: ―This is why I don't like glib people. The Master said: ―You are damaging someone's son.

what about you?‖ Chi said. You are all always saying: ‗Our talents are unrecognized. within three years my people would be fearless and know how to take care of themselves. ―What about you?‖ Qiu said. and the people would have all they need. dressed in the ceremonial gown and cap. I would seek a noble man. forget about it for the time being. He turned to Qiu and said.方也。夫子哂之。求、爾何 如 對曰。方六七十、如亓六十、求也爲之、比 及三年、可使足民。如其禮樂、以俟君子。赤、爾何如 對曰。非曰能之、願 學焉 宗廟之事、如會同、端章甫、願爲小相焉。點、爾何如 鼓瑟希、鏗爾 、舍瑟而作。對曰。異乎三子者之撰。子曰。何傷乎。赤各言其志也。曰。 莫春者、春朋旣成。冠者亓六人、童子六七人、浴乎沂、風乎舞雩、詠而 歸 。夫子喟然歎曰。吾與點也 三子者出、曾砽後。曾砽曰。夫三子者之言何如 子曰。亦各言其志也已矣。曰。夫子何哂由也 曰。爲國以禮、其言不讓、是 故哂之。唯求則非邦也與 安見方六七十、如亓六十、而非邦也者。唯赤非邦 也與 宗廟會同、非諸侯而何 赤也爲之小、孰能爲之大 。 [11:25] Zi Lu (You). or maybe 50 to 60 li. As for handling the affairs of ritual and music. ―I cannot say I am capable of what the other two have proposed. If I were in this position. What would you do then?‖ Zi Lu jumped to reply first.‖ ―Chi. for three years.‖ . or at the audiences with the Prince. saying: ―I would like to be in the position of the charge of a relatively small state which was being threatened by the armies of the surrounding larger states. ―Although I am a day or so older than you fellows. and suffering from crop failure. Confucius said. Tsang Hsi (Qiu).‖ Confucius laughed at him. though I would like to work toward it. At the services at the ancestral hall. I would like to serve as a minor assistant. Zan You (Ch'ih) and Gong Xihua (Tian) were sitting with the Master. ―Let me have the government of a territory of 60 to 70 li.‘ Suppose your abilities were fully acknowledged.

―Dian. ―Each just told his wish. what about you?‖ Dian set his lute down with its strings still ringing.‖ ―Yes. lovely. ―What harm can there be? Please speak as the others have. ―is quite different from these three. If Chi were to be a minor assistant at these affairs. I would like to take five or six young men. ―What I would like to do. ―At the height of spring.‖ ―But why did you laugh at You?‖ ―Because to govern a state. and six or seven youngsters to go for a swim in the Yi river. 顏淵 [12-1] 顏淵問仁。子曰。克己復禮、爲仁。一日克己復禮、天下歸仁焉。爲 仁由己、而由人乎哉。顏淵曰。請問其目 子曰。非禮勿視、非禮勿聽、非禮 勿言、非禮勿動。顏淵曰。囘雖不敏、請事斯語矣。。 . I am with you.‖ ―But Qiu wasn't asking for a state. who could be a chief assistant?‖ 12.‖ The three others left and Dian asked the Master: ―What did you think about the words of those three?‖ Confucius said.‖ Confucius sighed. and make our way back home.‖he said.‖ Dian said. That's why I laughed at him. or have an audience with the Prince. and stood up. singing. enjoying the cool breeze at the Rain Dance Festival. Tien. but who besides the nobility can serve in the ancestral temple. and his words are totally lacking in humility. you need propriety.‖ Confucius said. ―Have you ever seen a territory of 60 or 70 li that wasn't a state?‖ ―At least Chi wasn't asking for a state. and said. ―Ah. all decked out in spring clothes.‖The Master said.

do not speak improperly and do not act improperly. ―To completely overcome selfishness and keep to propriety is ren. For this reason. This is an important passage in that it shows very clearly a world-view that is common to all the philosophers whose works are contained in this volume: a world not of isolated monads. Does ren come from oneself. but a world that is much more transparent. If for a full day you can overcome selfishness and keep to propriety. I hesitate to rewrite the text in this case. or from others?‖ [Comment] This passage has always provided problems for translators and commentators. I will apply myself to this teaching. unified and connected than we of modernity perceive. act as if meeting an important guest. do we really know what it is like to ―completely overcome our selfishness‖ for a full day. everyone in the world will return to ren. Employ the people as if . in the case of a ruler: can political power in itself make the people become good? It is doubtful. and only one in a position of political power can do so.e. 28 I. we are expected to acknowledge that a single person obviously does not have the power to influence the whole world.‖ [12-2] 仲弓問仁。子曰。出門如見大賓。使民如承大祭。己所不欲、勿施於 人。在邦無怨、在家無怨。 仲弓曰。雍雖不敏、請事斯語矣。。 [12:2] Zhong Gong asked about the meaning of ren. Yanyuan asked: ―May I ask in further detail how this is to be brought about?‖ Confucius said. Also. and be perfectly guided by proper action? I would like to suggest that perhaps we do not know the level of spiritual influence that may be brought about by the actualization of one's inner perfection. ―Although I am not so perspicacious. We now return to the text. For instance. Virtually all of the modern English translators either alter the grammar of this sentence or reinterpret it and in such a way as to disallow the possibility that power of the mind of a single individual to bring peace to the world.‖ Yanyuan said. ―Do not watch what is improper.[12:1] Yanyuan asked about the meaning of ren. do not listen to what is improper. and try to think further of what Confucius meant. The Master said: ―When you are out in the world.. The Master said.

don't do to others. Confucius said.‖ Niu replied.‖ Zhong Gong said. ―Actualizing it is so difficult. . how can you not be hesitant to speak about it?‖ [12-4] 司馬牛問君子。子曰。君子不憂不懼。曰。不憂不懼、斯謂之君子矣 乎。子曰。內省不疚、夫何憂何懼 。 [12:4] Sima Niu asked about the qualities of the noble man. Wealth and honor are held by Heaven. ―Are you saying that ren is mere hesitancy in speaking?‖ Confucius said. ―Free from anxiety and fear? Is this all it takes to be a noble man?‖ Confucius said. Live in your town without stirring up resentments. What you don't want done to yourself. I will apply myself to this teaching.‖ Niu said. ―The ren man is hesitant to speak.‖ [12-3] 司馬牛問仁。子曰。仁者、其言也訒。曰。斯言也訒、其謂之仁矣乎 。 子曰。爲之難、言之得無訒乎。 [12:3] Sima Niu asked about the meaning of were assisting at a great ceremony. ―The noble man is free from anxiety and fear. and live in your household without stirring up resentments. Confucius said. I alone have none. ―I have heard this proverb:‖ Life and death are up to Fate. how could you have anxiety or fear?‖ [12-5] 司馬牛憂曰。人皆有兄弟、我獨亡 子夏曰。商聞之矣:死生有命、 富貴在天』 。君子敬而無失、與人恭而有禮。四海之內、皆兄弟也。君子何 患乎無兄弟也 。 [12:5] Sima Niu.‖ Zi Xia said. said: ―Everyone has brothers. ―If you reflect within yourself and find nothing to be ashamed of. ―Although I am not so smart. upset.

‖ Confucius said. and courteous to everyone within the frame of propriety. The Master said. Why should he need external refinement?‖ .‖ Zi Gong said ―What if you had to give up one of the remaining two which one would it be?‖ The Master said.‘‖ [12-7] 子貢問政。子曰。足食、足兵、民信之矣。子貢曰。必不得已而去、 於斯三者何先 曰。去兵。子貢曰。必不得已而去、於斯二者何先 曰。去食 。臩古皆有死。民無信不立。 [12:7] Zi Gong asked about government. ―Enough food. death has come to all men.‘ Indeed. enough weapons and the confidence of the people. which one would be let go of first?‖ The Master said. ―One who does not experience the permeation of slander and who is not agitated by accusations can certainly be called ‗enlightened. ―Weapons. Why should a noble man be concerned about not having brothers?‖ [12-6] 子張問明。子曰。浸潤之譖、膚受之愬、不行焉、可謂明也已矣。浸 潤之譖、膚受之愬、不行焉、可謂遠也已矣。 [12:6] Zi Zhang asked about the meaning of ―enlightenment.‖ [12-8] 棘子成曰。君子質而已矣、何以文爲 子貢曰。惜乎、夫子之說君子 也、駟不及舌 文猶質也、質猶文也。虎豹之鞹、猶犬羊之鞹。 [12:8] Ji Zi Zhang said: ―All the noble man needs is to have his substance.‖ Zi Gong said. everything within the four seas will be his brother. ―Suppose you had no alternative but to give up one of these three. such a person may be called ‗transcendent.―If the noble man is reverent without lapse. ―Food. but a people without confidence in its rulers will not stand. From ancient times.

What should I do?‖ Ruo said. clear or sincere you are. Most essence-function teachings. ―If the people have enough. We want life for the things we love. will stress the need for one to place his/her priorities on the more essential. on the other hand. the message is that no matter how bright. and your virtue will be paramount. here as well as in the other texts of this volume.Zi Gong said. ―Amazing! You speak about the noble man. and death for the . substance is refinement! When the hair is taken off the hide of a tiger or leopard. while emphasizing unity of essence and function. how can the prince be satisfied?‖ [12-10] 子張問崇德、辨惑。子曰。主忠信、徒義崇德也。愛之欲其生、惡 之欲其死。旣欲其生又欲其死、是惑也 (誠不以富、亦祇以異。) [12:10] Zi Chang asked how to increase virtue and dispel confusion. Confucius said. ―Base yourself in loyalty and trust and permeate yourself with fairness. but with an interesting twist. [12-9] 哀公問於有若曰。年饑、用不足、如之何 有若對曰。盍徹乎。曰。 二、吾猶不足。如之何其徹也 對曰。百姓足、君孰不足 百姓不足、君孰與 足 。 [12:9] Duke Ai asked You Ruo: ―It has been a year of famine and there are not enough revenues to run the state. what prince can be in want? If the people are in want. Refinement is substance. This emphasis on polishing the outside is something that we find in the Analects more than in other texts. it cannot show through properly if you don't cultivate your manners and the various arts of expression. how am I going to do it on 10%?‖ Ruo said. but a team of horses couldn't keep up with your tongue. it looks the same as the hide of a dog or sheep. Here.‖ [Comment] This is probably the clearest statement of the unity of essence and function that we can see in the Analects. ―Why can't you use a 10% tax?‖ The Duke answered: ―I can't even get by on a 20% tax.

it was not for wealth. Just for a change 29 [12-11] 齊景公問政於孔子。孔子對曰。君、君。臣、臣。父、父。子、子 。公曰。善哉。信如君不君、臣不臣、父不父、子不子、雖有粟、吾得而食 諸 。 [12:11] Duke Jing of Qi asked Confucius about government. and disciplining yourself with propriety.things we hate.‖ [12-16] 子曰。君子成人之美、不成人之惡。小人反是。 . What we need is to have no lawsuits. the ministers not ministers. Confucius replied: ―Let the ruler be a ruler. carry your policies guided by loyalty. fathers not fathers and sons not sons. even if I have food. if the ruler is not a ruler. minister be a minister. The Master said: ―Stay in your position without wearying. son be a son.‖ [12-15] 子曰。博學於文、約之以禮、亦可以弗畔矣夫。 [12:15] The Master said: ―Studying liberal arts broadly.‖The Duke said.‖ [12-14] 子張問政。子曰。居之無倦。行之以忠。 [12:14] Zizhang asked about carrying ot proper governance.‖ 30 [12-13] 子曰。聽訟、吾猶人也。必也、使無訟乎。 [12:13] The Master said: ―In hearing lawsuits. I am no better than anyone else. it is easy to stay on the narrow path. ―Excellent! Indeed. father be a father. we are confused.‖ Really. He never delayed in giving his answer. But if we have already desired life for something and now we want it to die. how can I eat it?‖ [12-12] 子曰。片言可以折獄者、其由也與 子路無宿諾。 [12:12] The Master said: ―You is the kind of man who could settle a dispute with a single sentence.

even if you were to offer them a reward to do so. The nature of the noble man is like the wind. what is the need of killing? If you desire good.‖ Confucius said. who would not be rectified?‖ [12-18] 季康子患盜、問於孔子。孔子對曰。苟子之不欲、雖賞之不竊。 [12:18] Being robbed. not their bad points. it always bends. When the wind blows over the grass. ―If you were desireless. and questioned Confucius about what to do. that he may be called ―excellent. and famous in your clan. Confucius replied saying: ―To ‗govern‘ means to ‗rectify.‖ [12-20] 子張問士:何如斯可謂之達矣。子曰。何哉。爾所謂達者 子張對曰 。在邦必聞、在家必聞。子曰。是聞也、非達也。夫達也者:質直而好義、 察言而觀色、慮以下人。在邦必達、在家必達。夫聞也者:色取仁而行違、 居之不疑。在邦必聞、在家必聞。 [12:20] Zi Zhang asked what a shi should be like. in order to advance the just. Would that be all right?‖ Confucius replied: ―In doing government. Ji Kang Zi was upset. they wouldn't steal from you. ―What do you mean by ‗excellent?‘‖ Zi Zhang replied: ―It means to be famous in your town. the nature of the inferior man is like the grass. Confucius said.‖ [12-19] 季康子問政於孔子曰。如殺無道、以就有道、何如 孔子對曰。子爲 政、焉用殺 子欲善、而民善矣。君子之德風。小人之德草。草上之風必偃。 [12:19] Ji Kang Zi asked Confucius about government saying: ―Suppose I were to kill the unjust.‖ .‖ [12-17] 季康子問政於孔子。孔子對曰。政者、正也、子帥以正、孰敢不正 。 [12:17] Ji Kang Zi asked Confucius about government.‘ 31 If you were to lead the people with correctness. The inferior man does the opposite. the people will be good.[12:16] The Master said: ―The noble man develops people's good points.

if you put on a show of goodness and do otherwise. (even if invisible) effect on each other through their interrelatedness. and excellent in your clan. ―May I ask how to heighten virtue. Its most basic meaning is to penetrate. pierce or pass through. because of a moment's anger. If you listen carefully to what people say. not excellence. observe their facial expressions and are careful to be humble to them. you will indeed be ‗famous‘ in your town and ‗famous‘ in your clan. said. ―This is fame. is this not delusion?‖ [12-22] 樊遲問仁。子曰。愛人。問知。子曰。知人。樊遲未達。子曰。擧 直錯諸枉、能使枉者直。樊遲退、見子夏曰。鄕也、吾見於夫子而問知』 。 子曰。擧直錯諸枉、能使枉者直。』 何謂也 子夏曰。富哉言乎。舜有天下 . ―An excellent question! If you take care of your responsibilities before you seek your own gain. [12-21] 樊遲從遊於舞雩之下。曰。敢問崇德、脩慝、辨惑 子曰。善哉問 先事後得、非崇德與 攻其惡、無攻人之惡、非脩慝與 一朝之忿、忘其身以 及其親、非惑與 。 [12:21] Fan Chi. you will be excellent in your town.‖ [Comment] In this passage. One who is excellent has an upright character and loves justice. In its usage in the description of the operation of cause and effect in the external world. ―excellence‖ is a translation of the Chinese word da 達 which has such a range of meaning in Classical East Asian languages. won't this heighten your virtue? If you attack your own evil rather than the evil of others. permeate. and are not the least bit bothered in doing so.Confucius said. won't you overcome wickedness? If. we can see the inherent understanding of the ancients of an interpermeated world. It is no accident that the word da and its synonym tong become central in the Huayen description of the universe a millennium later. It is used in religious and philosophical works to describe a consciousness that is able to penetrate all things and apprehend them. as well as that of your parents. while strolling with the Master among the Rain Dance altars. you endanger your own life. where things have a profound. overcome wickedness and resolve delusion?‖ The Master said. As far as ‗fame‘ is concerned.

and skillfully show them the right path. put him in charge and the evil again stayed far away.‖ 13. ―Speak to your friends honestly. When T'ang was emperor. The Master said. ―Put the honest in positions of power and discard the dishonest.‖He asked about the meaning of ―knowledge.‖ What did he mean?‖ Zi Xia said. ―Know others.‖ [12-23] 子貢問友。子曰。忠吿而善道之、不可則止。毋臩辱焉。 [12:23] Zi Gong asked about the way of friendship. you will force the dishonest to become honest.‖ Fan Chi couldn't get it. he selected Kao Yao from among the people. ―A little while ago I saw the Master and asked him about ‗knowledge. Confucius said. Don't humiliate yourself. put him in charge. he selected I Yin.‖ The Master said. If you cannot. then stop. and the evil people stayed far away. and you will force the dishonest to be honest.、選於紅.擧奛陶、不仁者遠矣。湯有天下、選於衆、擧伊尹、不仁者遠矣 。 [12:22] Fan Chi asked about the meaning of ren. ―If you put the honest in positions of power and discard the dishonest. ―How rich our Master's words are! When Shun was emperor.‘ and he told me.‖ Fan Chi left and seeing Zi Xia said. Confucius said ―love others. and through his friends develops his ren. 子路 [13-1] 子路問政。子曰。先之、勞之。請益。曰。無倦。 .‖ [12-24] 曾子曰。君子以文會友。以友輔仁。 [12:24] Ceng Zi said: ―The noble man uses his refinement to meet his friends.

then what is said cannot be followed. asked about government.[13:1] Zi Lu asked about how to govern. ―Are you serious? Why is this so important?‖ Confucius said. What will be your top priority?‖ Confucius said.‖ ―Is there anything else?‖ ―Don't get discouraged. If work cannot be . ―You are really simple. Confucius said. Confucius said.‖ [13-2] 仲弓爲季氏宰、問政。子曰。先有司、赦小過、擧賢才。曰。焉知賢 才而擧之 曰。擧爾所不知、人其舍諸 。 [13:2] Zhong Gong. ―Lead the people and work hard for them. ―Select from those you know.‖ He asked. aren't you? A noble man is cautious about jumping to conclusions about that which he does not know. then grant pardon to all the petty offenses and then put virtuous and able men into positions of responsibility.‖ ―If terminology is not corrected. If what is said cannot be followed. ―First get some officers. then work cannot be accomplished.‖ Zi Lu said. ―How am I going to find these virtuous and able men to get them into these positions?‖ The Master said. ―There must be a correction of terminology. currently serving as prime minister to the head of the Chi family. Will the people let you ignore the ones you don't know of?‖ [13-3] 子路曰。衞君待子而爲政、子將奚先 子曰。必也正名乎。子路曰。 有是哉。子之迂也 奚其正 子曰。野哉、由也 君子於其所不知、蓋闕如也。 名不正、則言不訓。言不訓、則事不成。事不成、則禮樂不興。禮樂不興、 則刑罰不中。刑罰不中、則民無所措手足。故君子名之必可 言也、言之必可 行也。君子於其言、無所苟而已矣。。 [13:3] Zi Lu said: ―The ruler of Wei is anticipating your assistance in the administration of his state.

If criminal punishments are not appropriate. carrying their babies on their backs. and his speech must accord with his actions.accomplished. then ritual and music cannot be developed. If ritual and music cannot be developed. If the men in charge love fairness.‖ [13-4] 樊遲請學稼、子曰。吾不如老農。請學爲圃、曰。吾不如老圃。樊遲 出、子曰。小人哉、樊須也 上好禮、則民莫敢不敬。上好義、則民莫敢不朋 。上好信、則民莫敢不用情。夫如是、則四方之民、襁負其子而至矣。焉用 稼 。 [13:4] Fan Chi wanted to ask about agriculture. Confucius said. the people cannot make a move. ―Why don't you ask an old gardener?‖ Fan Chi left. Why do you have to worry about agriculture?‖ [13-5] 子曰。誦詩三百。授之以政、不達。使於四方、不能專對。雖多、亦 奚以爲 。 [13:5] The Master said: ―You can recite the 300 poems from the Book of Odes. ―Why don't you ask an old farmer?‖ Fan Chi then said that he would like to learn about gardening. but when you try to use them in administration. you cannot apply them. then the people cannot stand not to respond with their emotions. what good is it?‖ [13-6] 子曰。其身正、不令而行。其身不正、雖令不從。 . then even though you know a lot. Confucius said. then criminal punishments will not be appropriate. Confucius said. If you were to govern in this way. the noble man needs to have his terminology applicable to real language. the people can't stand to be disrespectful. the people would come flocking to your kingdom. then the people can't stand not to follow them. ―Fan is really simple. they are not effective (da). The speech of the noble man cannot be indefinite. Therefore. 32 and in handling the outerlying regions. If the men in charge love trust. isn't he? If the men in charge love propriety.

―Once there are so many people. Thus. no one will follow them. he said ―this will do. what should be done?‖ ―Enrich them. 33 [13-8] 子謂衞公子荊善居屋:始有、曰。苟合矣。』 少有、曰。苟完矣。 』 富有、曰。苟美矣。』 。 [13:8] Confucius said of Gongzi Jing of Wei that he was good at managing his household. what next?‖ ―Educate them. this passage reflects his self-critical attitude toward his own accomplishment. and would have everything straightened out within three years. which. When he began to accumulate property. But if your own life isn't straightened out.‖ [13-10] 子曰。苟有用我者、期月而已可也、三年有成。 [13:10] The Master said: ―If any of the rulers were to employ me. Confucius said.‖ Ran You said.‖ Comment: Gongzi Jing was a senior official in the state of Wei 衛he was said to be exceptionally good at handling finances. for someone of lesser skills. he said ―this is pretty good.‖ .‖ [13-7] 子曰。魯、衞之政、兄弟也。 [13:7] The governments of Lu and Wei are elder and younger brothers. would have been more impressive. I would have control of the situation within a month. ―Once they are enriched. things will go well without your giving orders. even if you give orders. [13-9] 子適衞、冉有僕。子曰。庶矣哉。冉有曰。旣庶矣、又何加焉 曰。 富之。曰。旣富矣、又何加焉 曰。教之。 [13:9] Ran You was driving for the Master on a trip to Wei.‖ When he had a little more.‖ When he became rich. he said ―it seems to be enough.‖ said the Master. ―How populous it is here.[13:6] The Master said: ―When you have gotten your own life straightened out.

there is a proverb which says. how can you correct others?‖ [13-14] 冉子退朝。子曰、何晏也。對曰。有政。子曰。其事也。 如有政、 雖不吾以、吾其與聞之 。 [13:14] Ran Zi returned from court. might this not be enough to uplift a country?‖ .‖ The Master said. even though I am no longer directly involved. The Master said ―What kept you?‖ Ran replied: ―I had official business. ―It was a personal matter. right? If it were official business. Confucius replied: ―Words in themselves cannot have such an effect.‘ If you really understand the difficulties of rulership.[13-11] 子曰。善人爲邦百年、亦可以勝殘去殺矣。』 誠哉是言也 。 [13:11] The Master said: ―If good men were to govern a country for a hundred years. I would have heard about it. what problem will you have in governing? If you can't correct yourself. they could overcome cruelty and do away with killing. it would still take a generation for ren to prevail. ‗Being a ruler is difficult. and being a minister is not easy.‖ [13-13] 子曰。苟正其身矣、於從政乎何有 不能正其身、如正人何 。 [13:13] The Master said: ―If you can correct yourself. Nonetheless.‖ [13-15] 定公問:一言而可以興邦、有諸 孔子對曰。言不可以若是其幾也 人之言曰。爲君難、爲臣不易。』 如知爲君之難也、不幾乎一言而興邦乎。 曰。一言而喪邦、有諸 孔子對曰。言不可以若是其幾也 人之言曰。予無樂 乎爲君、唯其言而莫予違也。』 如其善而莫之違也、不亦善乎。如不善而莫 之違也、不幾乎一言而喪邦乎。 [13:15] Duke Ding asked if there were a single phrase which could uplift a country. How true this saying is!‖ [13-12] 子曰。如有王者、必世而後仁。 [13:12] The Master said: ―Even if you have the position of kingship.

and no one disagrees with you. who was serving as governor of Jufu. Confucius said. The father conceals the wrongs of his son. ―Again.The Duke asked further: ―Is this not close to the saying ‗there a single phrase which could ruin a country?‘‖ Confucius answered. If a father steals a sheep. perhaps you could destroy the country with a single utterance. If you look for small advantages. ―The righteous men in my land are different from this. you will never accomplish anything great. but the people also have a proverb which says: ‗I do not enjoy ruling.‖ [13-17] 子夏爲莒父宰、問政。子曰。無欲速。無見小利。欲速則不達。見 小利則大事不成。 [13:17] Zi Xia. ―Don't be impatient. But if you are evil. I only enjoy people not disagreeing with me. If you are impatient. Confucius said.‘ Now if you are a good man and no one disagrees with you. you will not be thorough (‗penetrating. asked about government.‖ [13-16] 葉公問政。子曰。近者說、遠者來。 [13:16] The Duke of She asked about government.‖ Confucius said.‘ da 達). it is fine. there are righteous men. and don't look for small advantages. the son will testify against him. then those close to you will be happy. and the son conceals the wrongs of his father. ―If you do it right. This is fairness!‖ [13-19] 樊遲問仁。子曰。居處恭、執事敬、與人忠。雖之夷狄、不可棄也 。 .‖ [13-18] 葉公語孔子曰。吾黨有直躬者。其父攘羊而子證之。 孔子曰。吾黨 之直者異於是。父爲子隱、子爲父隱、直在其中矣。 [13:18] The Duke of She told Confucius: ―In my land. words in themselves cannot have such an effect. and those who are far away will come to you.

Even the barbarian tribes cannot do without this.‘ It is a good proverb... I must find the adamant and the cautious.‖ ―wild. he cannot be a shaman or a healer.‖ . Confucius said. be respectful in working for superiors and be sincere to people. If you are not consistently developing your virtue.‖ [. ―Be naturally courteous. what can you give to others? You will not even be able to give a diagnosis.‖ [13-20] 子貢問曰。何如斯可謂之士矣。子曰。行己有恥。使於四方、不辱 君命。可謂士矣。曰。敢問其次 曰。宗族稱孝焉、鄕黨稱弟焉。曰。敢問其 次 曰。言必信、行必果。硜硜然、小人哉。抑亦可以爲次矣。曰。今之從政 者何如 子曰。噫 斗筲之人、何足算也 。 [13:20] Zi Gong asked: ―What must a man be like to be called a shi?‖ The Master said. ―One who in conducting himself maintains a sense of honor. Important Confucian thinkers such as Mencius and Wang Yangming understood a measure of uncontrolledness to be a useful ingredient of the personality of the person who was striving for the Way. may be called a shi. painters and musicians. referring to the sort of personality we often associate with poets.translation incomplete] [13-21] 子曰。不得中行而與之、必也狂狷乎。狂者進取、狷者有所不爲也 。 [13:21] The Master said: ―Since I can't get men who act according to the middle way. the cautious restrain themselves from doing certain things.[13:19] Fan Chi asked about ren.‖ [Comment] ―Adamant‖ is a translation of guang 狂 which can also be translated into English as ―crazy. The adamant go after things. [13-22] 子曰。南人有言曰。人而無恆、不可以作巫醫。』 善夫不恆其德、 或承之羞。』 子曰。不占而已矣。 [13:22] The Master said: ―The Southerners have a saying: ‗If a man is not constant in his self-cultivation. and who when sent to the four quarters of the world does not disgrace his prince's commission.‖ ―unbridled‖ etc..

simplicity and caution in speaking. but difficult to please. And in his employment of people. The inferior man is arrogant and lacks self-confidence. he gives them work according to their ability. but easy to please. ―What if they all hate you?‖ ―Also not too good. The inferior man follows the crowd. he tries to squeeze everything out of them that he can. strength. Even if you have used devious means to please him. you will be close to ren.‖ [13-28] 子路問曰。何如斯可謂之士』 矣。子曰。切切、偲偲、怡怡如也、 可謂士』 矣。朊友切切偲偲、兄弟怡怡。 . is because if you try to please him by devious means.‖ [13-25] 子曰。君子易事而難說也:說之不以道、不說也。及其使人也、器 之。小人難事而易說也。說之雖不以道、說也。及其使人也、求備焉。 [13:25] The Master said: ―The reason that the noble man is easy to work for.[13-23] 子曰。君子和而不同。小人同而不和。 [13:23] The Master said: ―The noble man is in harmony but does not follow the crowd. and the evil ones hate you.‖ [13-26] 子曰。君子泰而不驕。小人驕而不泰。 [13:26] The Master said: ―The noble man is self-confident without being arrogant. It is better if the good people in town like you. And in his employment of people. but is not in harmony.‖ said Confucius. he will still be happy. The inferior man is difficult to work for. he will not be happy.‖ [13-27] 子曰。剛、毅、木訥、近仁。 [13:27] The Master said: ―With firmness.‖ [13-24] 子貢問曰。鄕人皆好之、何如 子曰。未可也。鄕人皆惡之、何如 子曰。未可也。不如鄕人之善者好之、其不善者惡之。 [13:24] Zi Gong asked: ―What do you think if all the people in town like someone?‖ ―Not too good.

to be concerned about your salary is shameful.‖ Xian asked: ―When one is not motivated by arrogance.‖ [14-2] 子曰。士而懷居、不足以爲士矣。。 [14:2] The Master said: ―A shi who is addicted to comfort should not be called a shi.‖ 14. 憲問 [14-1] 憲問恥。子曰。邦有道穀、邦無道穀。恥也。克、伐、怨、欲、不行 焉、可以爲仁』 矣。子曰。可以爲難矣、仁則吾不知也。 [14:1] Xian asked about what is shameful. may they take up arms.[13:28] Zi Lu asked: ―What sort of man deserves to be called a shi?‖ Confucius said. With friends. ―This can certainly be called ‗difficult. To lead untrained people into battle is the same as throwing them away.‖ [14-3] 子曰。邦有道、危言、危行。邦無道、危行、言孫。 [14:3] The Master said: ―When the government is just. kind and gentle.‘ but I don't know if it can be called ren. to be concerned about your salary is shameful. When the Way is absent in your state. resentment and desire. the shi is clear but kind. when you have an unjust government. you can be called a shi. you may act boldly. but be careful of what you say. With his brothers he is gentle. pride. ―When the Way prevails in your state. ―If you are decisive.‖ [13-29-30] 子曰。善人教民七年、亦可以卽戎矣。子曰。以不教民戰、是謂 棄之。 [13:29-30] The Master said: ―Only when good men have instructed the people for seven years. can be he considered humane?‖ Confucius said.‖ . you may speak boldly and act boldly. Confucius said.

When Nan Gongguo left.” [14-8 』 子曰、愛之能勿勞乎、忠焉能勿誨乎。 [14:8] The Master said: ―Can you love someone without exerting yourself for them? Can you be sincere to someone without teaching them?‖ [14-11 』 子曰、貧而無怨難、富而無驕易。 [14:11] The Master said: ―To be poor without resentment is difficult. Confucius said. a man of enhanced virtue.‖ .‖ [14-7] 子曰、君子而不仁者有矣夫、未有小人而仁者也。 [14:7] The Master said: ―There are some cases where a noble man may not be a perfectly humane man. but the brave man is not necessarily possessed of ren. but those who have something to say are not necessarily virtuous. To be rich without arrogance is easy.‖ Confucius didn't answer.[14-4] 子曰。有德者必有言。有言者不必有德。仁者必有勇。勇者不必有仁 。 [14:4] The Master said: ―The virtuous will certainly have something to say.‖ [14-5] 南宮适問於孔子曰。羿善射奡盪舟倶不得其死.然.禹稷躬稼而有天 下夫子不答。南宮适出、子曰。君子哉若人 尚德哉若人 。 [14:5] Nan Gongguo said to Confucius: ―Yi was skillful at archery and Ao shook a whole ship 34 but neither died a natural death. ―Here is a noble man. but there are no cases where an inferior man is a perfectly humane man. The ren man is always brave. You and Ji did their own farming and ended up as emperors.‖ [14-12 』 子路問成人、子曰、若臧武仲之知、公綽之不欲、卞莊子之勇、 冉求之藝、文之以禮樂、亦可以爲成人矣、曰、今之成人者、何必然、見利 思義、見危授命、久要不忘平生之言、亦可以爲成人矣。 [14:12] Zi Lu asked what constitutes a ―perfected man.

you can be regarded as a ‗perfected man. Duke Huan of Qi 37 was upright. think of what would be the right thing to do. you might indeed be called a ‗perfected man. and not devious. and people never get tired of his taking. and people never get tired of his words. 38 Zhao Hu 39 followed him to his death. ―This is an exaggeration. He had not fully developed his Humaneness. why would you need all of that? When you see an opportunity for advantage.Confucius said: ―If you have the wisdom of Zang Wu Zhong. and not forget the words that have you have lived by. He takes when it is right to do so. but Guan Zhong 40 did not. When you can stay in difficulty for a long time. ―When Huan Gong assassinated Gongzi Jiu. leave it up to destiny. the desirelessness of Gong Chuo.‘ But if you want to perfect yourself right now. [14-16] 子路曰。桓公殺公子糾、召忽死之、管仲不死。曰。未仁乎。 子曰 。桓公九合諸侯、不以兵車、管仲之力也。如其仁 如其仁 。 [14:16] Zi Lu said. had he?‖ The Master said: ―When Huan Gong unified the nobles.‘‖ 35 [14-13] 子問公叔文子於公明賈、曰。信乎。夫子不言不笑不取乎。公明賈 對曰。以吿者過也 夫子時然後言、人不厭其言。樂然後笑、人不厭其笑。義 然後取、人不厭其取。子曰。其然 豈其然乎。 [14:14] The Master asked Gong Mingjia about Gongshu Wen Zi: ―Is it true that your master doesn't speak. Encountering danger. ―Is this so? Is it really so!?‖ [14-15] 子曰。晉文公譎而不正。齊桓公正而不譎。 [14:15] The Master said: Duke Wen of Jin 36 was devious. it was not through military force. How about this level of Humaneness?‖ . but by the efforts of Guan Zhong. and people never tire of his laughter. and not upright.‖ Confucius said. He laughs when he is happy. doesn't laugh and doesn't accept anything?‖ Gong Mingjia replied. and are also refined through propriety and music. the courage of Bian Zhuang Zi and the abilities of Zan Qiu. My master speaks when it is appropriate.

he made him leader of the nobles and straightened out the disorder in the realm. preacher Tuo handles the temples and Wang Sunjia is his military commander. The people are benefiting from this down to the present day.[14-17] 子貢曰。管仲非仁者與桓公殺公子糾、不能死、又相之。 子曰。管 仲相桓公、霸諸侯、一匡天下。民到于今受其賜。微管仲、吾其被髮左衽矣 。豈若匹夫匹婦之爲諒也、臩經於溝瀆、而莫之知也 。 [14:17] Zi Gong said: ―Guan Zhong was not a truly good man. Kang Zi said. With ministers like these. who would hang themselves to death in a ditch. with no one knowing about it? ‖ [14-18] 公叔文子之臣大夫僎、與文子同升諸公。子聞之曰。可以爲文』 矣 。。 [14:18] The minister Zhuan of Gongshu Wenzi rose to the rank of court officer together with Wenzi. we would all be like unkempt barbarians. how could he fall from power?‖ [14-20] 子曰。其言之不怍、則爲之也難 。 [14:20] The Master said: ―If your words are not humble. If not for Guan Zhong.‖ . wearing our hair over our faces and fastening our clothes on the left. it will be difficult to put them into action. When the Master heard of it he said: ―He certainly deserved the appellation of ‗refined. ―If he is such a person.‖ Confucius said: ―When Guan Zhong served Huan Gong as minister. 41 Shall we exercise the sincerity of simple people. when Huan Gong executed [his own brother] Gong Zi Jiu. ―Zhongshu You takes care of his (Kang Zi's) guests. he was not only incapable of dying along with his lord — he became Huan's minister. how can he stay in power?‖ Confucius said.‘!‖ [14-19] 子言衞靈公之無道也、康子曰。夫如是、奚而不喪 孔子曰。仲叔圉 治賓客、祝鮀治宗廟、王孫賈治軍旅。夫如是、奚其喪 。 [14:19] Confucius was speaking about the evils of Duke Ling of Wei.

Confucius said. reporting on the incident to Duke Ai.‖ [14-24] 子曰。古之學者爲己。今之學者爲人。 [14:24] The Master said: ―The ancient scholars studied for their own improvement. I request that you chastise him. but is not able to do so. ―If you have to oppose him. saying: ―What is your master like? ‖ The messenger replied: ―My master wants to decrease his faults. ‖ Confucius said: ―Since I following in the rear of the grandmasters. and Confucius said: ―What a messenger! What a messenger!‖ [14-26] 子曰。不在其位、不謀其政。曾子曰。君子思不出其位。 . Modern scholars study to impress others. The inferior man penetrates that which is below. I have no recourse but to report. don't do it by deceit. Confucius sat down with him and asked him. My ruler has said. ‗Report it to the chiefs of the three families‘ and the three chiefs have said that there is nothing that can be done. I had no recourse but to report.‖ [14-25] 蘧伯玉使人於孔子。孔子與之坐、而問焉。曰。夫子何爲 對曰。夫 子欲寡其過而未能也。 使者出。子曰。使乎。使乎。 [14:25] Qu Baoyu sent a messenger to Confucius.‖ [14-23] 子曰。君子上達。小人下達。 [14:23] The Master said: ―The noble man penetrates that which is above.‖ The messenger left. ‖ The Duke replied: ―Report it to the chiefs of the three families.‖ Confucius said: ―Since I follow in the rear of the grandmasters.‖ [14-22] 子路問事君。子曰。勿欺也、而犯之。 [14:22] Zi Lu asked how to deal with a ruler.[14-21] 陳成子弒簡公。孔子沐浴而朝、吿於哀公曰。陳恆弒其君、請討之 。公曰。吿夫三子。 孔子曰。以吾從大夫之後、不敢不吿也 君曰。吿夫三 子。』 者 之三子吿、不可。孔子曰。以吾從大夫子後、不敢不吿也 。 [14:21] 陳成子 murdered 簡公. Confucius bathed and went to court. saying: ―Chen Heng has murdered his lord.

and you don't plan for your not being believed. but because of its character.‖ 42 .‖ [14-31] 子曰。不逆詐』 、不億不信』 。抑亦先覺者、是賢乎。 [14:31] The Master said: ―If you don't try to anticipate deception. yet are the first to be aware of these things. you should not make plans for administration.‖ [14-30] 子曰。不患人之不己知、患其不能也。 [14:30] The Master said: ―I don't worry about being unknown.‖ [14-28] 子曰。君子道者三、我無能焉。仁者不憂。知者不惑。勇者不懼。 子貢曰。夫子臩道也 。 [14-29] 子貢方人。子曰。賜也、賢乎哉。夫我則不暇 。 [14:29] Zi Gong was correcting people.‖ [14-27] 子曰。君子恥其言而過其行。 [14:27] The Master said: ―The noble man is humble in his speech but superb in his actions. ―Si (Zi Gong) must be quite talented! I have no spare time to do this. I worry about my lack of ability. aren't you a worthy?‖ [14-32] 微生畝謂孔子曰。丘何爲是栖栖者與。無乃爲侫乎。孔子曰。非敢 爲侫也、疾固也。 [14:32] Weisheng Mou said to Confucius: ―Why are you so busy running around from place to place? Is it not that you be a flatterer?‖ Confucius said.[14:26] The Master said: ―If you don't have an official position. Confucius said. ―I wouldn't dare practice flattery.‖ Ceng Zi said: ―The noble man doesn't worry about those things which are outside of his control. it is just that I despise stubbornness.‖ [14-33] 子曰。驥不稱其力、稱其德也。 [14:33] The Master said: ―A really excellent horse is called such not simply because of its physical strength.

then he becomes free from lust.‖ [14-35] 子曰。莫我知也夫 子貢曰。何爲其莫知子也 子曰。不怨天、天尤 人。下學而上達。知我者、其天乎。 [14:35] The Master said: ―Aah! No one understands me!‖ Zi Gong said. then he becomes free from language.‖ [14-37] 子曰。賢者辟世、其次辟地、其次辟色、其次辟言。子曰。作者七 人矣。。 . I study from the bottom and penetrate to the top. ‗No one understands you‘?‖ Confucius said. Who understands me? Heaven does!‖ [14-36] 公伯寮愬子路於季孫、子朋景伯以吿、曰。夫子固有惑志於公伯寮 、吾力猶能肆諸市朝。子曰。道之將行也與 命也。道之將廢也與 命也。公 伯寮其如命何 。 [14:36] Gong Boliao had said bad things about Zi Lu to Lisun.‖ Confucius said. then he becomes free of his land. no quarrel with men. ―Then how will you repay virtue? Repay harm with Justice 43 and repay virtue with virtue. and when it isn't. ―I have no resentment against Heaven. What can Gong Boliao do about fate?‖ [14-37] 子曰。賢者辟世、其次辟地、其次辟色、其次辟言。子曰。作者七 人矣。。 [14:37] The Master said: ―A worthy becomes free of the world. ―It is up to fate as to when the Way is going to function.[14-34] 或曰。以德報怨、何如。子曰。何以報德 以直報怨、以德報德。 [14:34] Someone said: ―What do you think of the saying: ‗Repay harm with virtue‘?‖ Confucius replied. saying: ―Lisun (Jingbo's teacher) is certainly being deceived by Gong Boliao. ―What do you mean. Zifu Jingbo told Confucius about it. But I have enough power to drag his carcass out into the middle of the marketplace.

next. next. ‖ Comment: This passage is one that reflects some overlap between ―Confucian‖ and ―Daoist‖ values.‖ [14-39] 子撃磬於衞。有荷蕢而過孔氏之門者、曰。有心哉、撃磬乎。旣而 曰。鄙哉、硜硜乎。莫己知也、斯已而已矣。深則厲、淺則揭。』 子曰。果 哉。末之難矣。。 [14:39] Confucius was playing the jade chimes when in Wei. the morning guard said.‖ The guard said. who always recommended that intelligent people not accept the norms of a decadent world. the one who tries to do what can't be done. A man who passed by Confucius' door carrying a bucket. When it's shallow. he said. they leave to avoid abusive words. where are you from? Zi Lu answered: ―I came from the place where Confucius is staying. all of the officials took orders from the Minister of State for three years. playing like this! If no one understands. [14-38] 子路宿於石門。晨門曰。奚臩 子路曰。臩孔氏。曰。是知其不可而 爲之者與 。 [14:38] Zi Lu was staying at outer stone gate (of the capital Qufu). After the ruler died. just plunge in. they avoid service to a particular state. Confucius' attitude is reminiscent of that of Zhuangzi. in this case. just stop!‖ ―When the water is deep. and retire in solitude instead.‖ Why did he do this? Confucius said: ―It need not be Gaozong.‖ Confucius said: ―That would be decisive — and not difficult!‖ [14-40] 子張曰。書云:高宗諒陰三年不言』 何謂也 子曰。何必高宗 古之 人皆然。君薨、百官總己以聽於僴宰、三年。 [14:40] Zi Zhang said: The Book of History says: ―Gaozong stayed in mourning for three years without speaking. The ancients were all like this. Normally Confucianism is understood as a tradition where one must remain engaged in society. they leave when confronted with a disrespectful attitude.[14:38] The Master said: ―The worthy avoid society. said ―You really are determined — I can hear your playing of the chimes!‖ After a bit. raise your skirt. However.‖ . ―Aah. ―How stubborn you are. next. There were seven who did this.

He wants to grow up too quickly. ―He cultivates himself by comforting others.‖ 15.[14-41] 子曰。上好禮、則民易使也。 [14:41] The Master said: ―If those in power love propriety. ―I can see that he likes to sit in grown-up's places. 衞靈公 [15-1] 衞靈公問陳於孔子。孔子對曰。俎豆之事、則嘗聞之矣。軍旅之事、 未之學也。。 .‖ ―Is that all?‖ ―He cultivates himself by comforting everyone. [14-44] 闕黨童子將命。或問之曰。益者與 子曰。吾見其居於位也、見其與 先生竝行也。非求益者也、欲速成者也。 [14:44] A boy from the village of Que was working as a messenger. But he is not seeking to develop himself.‖ [14-42] 子路問君子。子曰。脩己以敬。曰。如斯而已乎。曰。脩己以安人 。曰。如斯而已乎。曰。脩己以安百姓。脩己以安百姓、堯舜其猶病諸。 [14:42] Zi Lu asked about the qualities of the noble man. Someone asked Confucius. this is something that even Yao and Shun found difficult.‖ [14-43] 原壤夷俟。子曰。幼而不孫弟、長而無述焉、老而不死、是爲賊。 以杖叩其脛。 [14:43] Yuanrang was waiting for the Master in a sprawled-out position. Confucius said. ―Is he developing?‖ Confucius said. the people will be easy to manage. to be mature and have nothing to pass on. and likes to be buddies with his elders. ―To be young and not act like a junior. Now. Confucius said. to get old and not die: a parasite!‖ He whacked him on the shins with his staff.

‖ [15-2] 明日遂行 在陳絕糧。從者病、莫能興。子路慍見曰。君子亦有窮乎 。子曰。君子固窮。小人斯濫矣。 The next day.‖ [15-6] 子張問行。子曰。言忠信、行篤敬、雖蠻貊之邦行矣。言不忠信、行 不篤敬、雖州里行乎哉。立、則見其參於前也。在輿、則見期倚於衡也。夫 然後行 子張書諸紳。 . they had run out of provisions. He said. ―Si. ―Must the noble man suffer such dire straits?‖ Confucius said. he and his disciples continued their travels. By the time they got to Chen. The inferior man falls apart. ―It seems that way. but I have not studied strategy. and Zi Lu was obviously angry about it. ―The noble man remains stable when in dire straits. Confucius said.[15:1] Duke Ling of Wei asked Confucius about military tactics. But perhaps not?‖ Confucius said. ―The answer is no. those who understand virtue are few and far between.‖ [15-3] 子曰。賜也、女以予爲多學而識之者與 對曰。然、非與 曰。非也 予一以貫之。 [15:3] Confucius said.‖ [15-4] 子曰。由、知德者鮮矣。。 [15:4] The Master said: ―You. I penetrate all with one.‖ [15-5] 子曰。無爲而治者、其舜也與 夫何爲哉。恭己正南面而已矣。 [15:5] The Master said: ―Cannot Shun be considered as one who governed without overreaching (wu-wei)? What did he do? He permeated himself with courtesy and correctly faced South. ―I know about the handling of ritual sacrifices. do you think that I am a person who studies widely and memorizes all of it?‖ Si replied.

‖ Zhi Zhang wrote these words down on his sash. [15-7] 子曰。直哉史魚邦有道、如矢。邦有道、如矢。君子哉蘧伯玉 邦有 道、則仕。邦無道、則可卷而懷之。 [15:7] The Master said: ―The Historiographer Yu was truly of straight character. Confucius said. When a person shouldn't be spoken with and you speak to them. you waste your words. he was like an arrow.‖ [15-10] 子貢問爲仁。子曰。工欲善其事、必先利其器。居是邦也、事其大 夫之賢者、友其士之仁者。 [15:10] Zi Gong asked about humaneness. you lose them. he will always sharpen his tools first.‖ [15-9] 子曰。志士仁人、無求生以害仁、有殺身以成仁。 [15:9] The Master said: ―The earnest officer with a truly humane mind (ren) will not save his life if it requires him to sacrifice of his humaneness. The wise do not lose people. When the government is unjust he can roll up his principles and keep them in his breast. When you . He will even sacrifice himself to consummate his humaneness. you will have problems. When the government is just. he will have a position in it. and you don't speak with them. nor do they waste their words. then even if you live in your hometown. When the government was just. he was like an arrow. ―When a craftsman wants to do a nice piece of work.‖ [15-8] 子曰。可與言、而不與之言、失人。不可與言、而與之言、失言。知 者不失人、亦不失言。 [15:8] The Master said: ―When a person should be spoken with. and your way of carrying yourself is earnest and reverent. such behavior will work even if you live among the Southern and Northern barbarians. When the government was unjust. Confucius said: ―If your speech is sincere and honest. But if your speech is insincere and dishonest and your way of carrying yourself is neither earnest nor reverent.[15:6] Zi Zhang asked about correct behavior.‖ ―Qu Boyu is definitely a noble man.

‖ [15-12] 子曰。人無遠慮、必有近憂。 [15:12] The Master said: ―If a man is not far-sighted. keep distance from flatterers. but did not recommend him. Confucius said: ―Use the calendar of Xia.‖ [15-16] 子曰。不曰。如之何、如之何』 者、吾末如之何也已矣。。 [15:16] The Master said: ―If a man doesn't continually question. [15-17] 子曰。群居終日、言不及義、好行小慧。難矣哉。。 [15:17] The Master said: ―When a circle of people can spend the whole day together without their conversation ever touching on justice. flatterers are dangerous. it is very hard to teach her/him anything of value. ‗What is it? What is it?‘I don't know what I can do for him.‖ [15-11] 顏淵問爲邦。子曰。行夏之時、乘殷之輅。朋周之冕。樂則韶舞。 放鄭聲、遠侫人。鄭聲淫、侫人殆。 [15:11] Yan Yuan asked about governing the state. get into the service of the most worthy officers.‖ [Comment] If a student is not seriously and genuinely concerned about the deeper questions of life. play that of Shao and Wu. and they like to act according to small-minded wisdom. Get rid of the music of Zheng. ride in the state carriage of Yin. and seek friends among scholars who are steeped in humaneness. what can be done?‖ .‖ [15-13] 子曰。已矣乎。吾未見好德如好色者也 。 [15:13] The Master said: ―Expect much from yourself and little from others and you will avoid incurring in a certain district. then trouble is impending. the music of Zheng is lewd.‖ [15-14] 子曰。臧文仲、其竊位者與 知柳下惠之賢、而不與立也。 [15:14] The Master said: ―Did not Zang Wenzhong steal the chances of others for a position? He knew the ability of Liu Xiahui. for music. wear the ceremonial cap of Zhou.

The inferior man seeks within others. but doesn't belong to a clique.‖ [15-20] 子曰。君子疾沒世而名不稱焉。 [15:20] The Master said: ―The noble man is concerned about the kind of reputation he will have after he passes away. don't do to others. He actualizes it through propriety. demonstrates it in humility. This is the noble man!‖ [15-19] 子曰。君子病無能焉、不病人之不己知也。 [15:19] The Master said: ―The noble man suffers from his own lack of ability.‖ [15-24] 子貢問曰。有一言而可以終身行之者乎。子曰。其怒乎。己所不欲 、勿施於人。 [15:24] Zi Gong asked: ―Is there a single concept that we can take as a guide for the actions of our whole life?‖ Confucius said.‖ [15-22 』 子曰、君子矜而不爭、羣而不黨。 [15:22] The Master said: ―The noble man strives but does not wrangle.[15-18] 子曰。君子義以爲質、禮以行之、孫以出之、信以成之。君子哉。 。 [15:18] The Master said: ―The noble man takes justice as essential.‖ . not from lack of recognition. ―What about ‗fairness‘? What you don't like done to yourself.‖ [15-23] 子曰。君子不以言擧人。不以人廢言。 [15:23] The Master said: ―The noble man does not promote a man because of his words. and does not disregard the words because of the man.‖ [15-21] 子曰。君子求諸己。小人求諸人。 [15:21] The Master said: ―The noble man seeks within himself. He has friends. develops it by truthfulness.

If everybody loves something.‖ .‖ [15-26] 子曰。吾猶及史之闕文也。有馬者、借人乘之。今亡矣夫 。 [15:26] The Master said: ―I still look for the scribe who would leave some space in the text. you'd better check into it. and the man who would lend others his horse to ride.‖ [15-28] 子曰。衆惡之、必察焉。衆好之、必察焉。 [15:28] The Master said: ―If everybody hates something. you'd better check into it. Lack of patience in small matters leads to the disruption of great plans. ‖ [15-30] 子曰。過而不改、是謂過矣。。 [15:30] The Master said: ―To make a mistake and not correct it: this is a real mistake.‖ ―The present common people are the same material with which the rulers of the Three Dynasties 44 manifested the correct Way. It is not the way that unfolds the person. Nowadays such niceties are gone!‖ [15-27] 子曰。巧言亂德。小不忍、則亂大謀。 [15:27] The Master said: ―Clever words disrupt virtue. Thinking cannot compare with studying.‖ [15-29] 子曰。人能弘道、非道弘人。 [15:29] The Master said: ―It is the person who unfolds the way.[15-25] 子曰。吾之於人也、誰毀誰譽 如有所譽者、其有所試矣。斯民也、 三代之所以直道而行也。 [15:25] The Master said: ―Among people. who should I criticize and who should I praise? If I praise someone it is because I have had some way of testing him.‖ [15-31] 子曰。吾嘗終日不食、終夜不寢、以思。無益、不如學也。 [15:31] The Master said: ―I have spent a whole day without eating and a whole night without sleeping in order to think— but I got nothing out of it.

and you manifest it but don't act according to propriety. I have never seen someone walk the path of ren and die. If your wisdom grasps it and your ren is sufficient to maintain it. external polish is still necessary to be a complete human being. but you don't manifest it. but he can act within the framework of lesser wisdom. you are still not perfect.‖ [15-35] 子曰。民之於仁也、甚於水火。水火、吾見蹈而死者矣。未見蹈仁 而死者也。 [15:35] The Master said: ―The people are more in awe of ren than water or fire. similar to that expressed in 12:8.‖ [Comment] This is a decidedly Confucian perspective on the unity of essence and function. The inferior man cannot handle major affairs. But I have seen people tread on water or fire and die.[15-32] 子曰。君子謀道不謀食。耕也、餒在其中矣。學也、祿在其中矣。 君子憂道不憂貧。 [15:32] The Master said: ―The noble man indulges in the Way and does not indulge in his stomach. the people will not revere you. [15-34] 子曰。君子不可小知、而可大受也。小人不可大受、而可小知也。 [15:34] The Master said: ―The noble man cannot act within the framework of lesser wisdom. but he can handle major affairs. you will certainly lose it. but your ren is incapable of maintaining it. your ren is sufficient to maintain it.‖ . Doesn't agriculture have the avoidance of starvation as its motivating factor. and is not concerned about avoiding poverty. Even with a deep understanding of reality (essence) and a concomitant reflection in the person. If your wisdom grasps it.‖ [15-33] 子曰。知及之、仁不能守之。雖得之、必失之。知及之、仁能守之 、不莊以涖之。則民不敬。知及之、仁能守之、莊以涖之、動之不以禮。未 善也。 [15:33] The Master said: ―If your wisdom can grasp it. even though you have grasped it. and study have enrichment as its motivating factor? The noble man is concerned about following the Way.

saying: ―The Ji family is getting ready to move against Zhuanyu. type.‖ [15-38] 子曰。事君敬其事而後其食。 [15:38] The Master said: ―In serving your ruler.‖ 16.‖ Confucius said. Ran You (Ran Qiu) and Ji Lu (Zilu) went to see Confucius. your compensation for the work should be a secondary matter.)‖ [15-40] 子曰。道不同、不相爲謀。 [15:40] The Master said: ―If your paths are different.[15-36] 子曰。當仁、不讓於師。 [15:36] The Master said: ―It is better to value ren than to passively follow your teacher. ―Qiu. but not rigid.‖ [15-41] 子曰。辭、達而已矣。。 [15:41] The Master said: ―Speak enough to make the point. 季氏 [16-1] 季氏將伐顓臾。冉有季路見於孔子、曰。季氏將有事於顓臾。孔子曰 。求、無乃爾是過與。夫顓臾、昔者先王以爲東蒙主、且在邦域之中矣。是 社稷之臣也、何以伐爲。冉有曰、夫子欲之、吾二臣者、皆不欲也。 [16:1] The Ji family was about to attack Zhuanyu.‖ [15-37] 子曰。君子貞而不諒。 [15:37] The Master said: ―The noble man is precise. and then leave it at that. there is no discrimination (of class. ‖ [15-39] 子曰。有教無類。 [15:39] The Master said: ―In teaching people. are you not at fault for this? Since ancient times . you cannot make plans together. you should be concerned about your service to him first. etc.

丘也聞有國有家者、不患寡而患不均、不患貧而患不安。蓋均無貧、和無寡 、安無傾。夫如是、故遠人不朋、則修文德以來之。旣來之、則安之。今由 與求也、相夫子、遠人不朋而不能來也、邦分崩離析、而不能守也。而謀動 干戈於邦內、吾恐季孫之憂、不在顓臾、而在蕭牆之內也 。 I have heard that the heads of states or noble families do not worry over poverty but instead over equal distribution of wealth. whose fault is this?‖ Ran You said. ―Qiu. and you are unable to attract them. If it done like this. ―It is our lord who wants to do this. and if there is security. 47 Now. Once they come. it is located within our own country. if there is equality in distribution there will be no poverty. When a tiger or wild buffalo 45 escapes from the cage.‖ 孔子曰、求、周任有言曰。陳力就列、不能者止。危而不持、顚而不扶、則 將焉用彼相矣。且爾言過矣。虎兕出於柙、龜玉毀於櫝中、是誰之過與。冉 有曰、今夫顓臾、固而近於費。今不取、後世必爲子孫憂。孔子曰。求、君 子疾夫舍曰欲之而必爲之辭。 Confucius said. Zhuanyu is strongly fortified and close to Bi. why should it be attacked?‖ Ran You said. if there is harmony in society there will be no underpopulation. it is not we two ministers who want it. Moreover. or support him when he is about to fall. serving as advisors to your lord. or the tortoise shell and jade are destroyed in their cases. you can attract them by cultivating refinement and virtue. what you are saying is wrong. 46 If we don't seize it now. but whether the people are insecure.‖ Confucius said. the country is falling apart. Qiu.‘ If a minister does not support his lord when he is in danger. then if there are distant subjects who do not submit. the Noble Man does not like the one who declines to say what he really wants and who must then make excuses later. there is a saying of Zhou Ren: ‗The one who displays his power is the one who gets the position. there will be subversion. have distant subjects who will not submit. and has served as the site of our national altars to the soil and grain. there will be trouble for the later generations. ―Now. they do not worry over underpopulation.the former kings have maintained Zhuanyu as the site of the sacrifice at Dong Meng mountain. those who are not capable give up. then what use is he? Moreover. then you can give them security. Now You and Qiu. and you can do nothing to .

the common people do not debate politics among themselves. the ruling house will usually lose its power within five generations. Yet you now plan military action within your own state. When these things are initiated by the nobles. When the Way prevails in the realm. then ritual. ―It has been five generations since the assignment of emoluments left the ducal house. [16-2] 孔子曰。天下有道、則禮樂征伐、臩天子出。天下無道、則禮樂征伐 、臩諸侯出。臩諸侯出、蓋十世希不失矣。臩大夫出、亓世希不失矣。陪臣 執國命、三世希不失矣。天下有道、則政不在大夫。天下有道、則庶人不議 。 [16:2] The Master said: ―When the Way (just government) prevails in the realm. music and military campaigns are all initiated by the emperor. Friendship with the deceptive. I am afraid that the trouble of the descendants of Ji lies not in Zhuanyu. then ritual. within the confines of our own court.‖ [16-4] 孔子曰。益者三友、損者三友。友直、友諒、友多聞。益矣。友便辟 、友善柔、友便侫損矣。 [16:4] The Master said: ―There are three kinds of friendship which are beneficial and three kinds of friendship which are harmful. the ruling house will lose its power within three generations. When they are initiated by the lower officers. but rather.‖ [16-3] 孔子曰。祿之去公室、亓世矣。政逮於大夫、四世矣。故夫三桓之子 孫微矣。 [16:4] Confucius said. Therefore the descendants of the three Huan 48 have been in decline. friendship with the unprincipled. and friendship with the learned are all beneficial. and friendship with smooth talkers are harmful. friendship with the sincere. the ruling house will usually lose its power within ten generations.‖ . When the Way declines in the realm. It has been four generations since the government came under control of the Councilors.preserve it. Friendship with the honest. music and military campaigns are initiated by the nobles. When these things are initiated by the high ministers.

(3) To speak without paying attention to the expression on the person's face. [16-7] 孔子曰。君子有三戒。少之時、血氣未定、戒之在色。及其壯也、血 氣方剛、戒之在岗。及其老也、血氣旣衰、戒之在得。 [16:7] The Master said: ―The noble man is on guard against three things:‖ (1) When he is a young man and his physical energies are not yet settled. the enjoyment of speaking of the goodness of others and the enjoyment of being surrounded by friends of good character are all beneficial. he is on guard against lust.[16-5] 孔子曰。益者三樂、損者三樂。樂節禮樂、樂道人之善、樂多賢友、 益矣。樂驕樂、樂佚遊、樂宴樂、損矣。 [16:5] The Master said: ―There are three kinds of enjoyment which are beneficial and three kinds of enjoyment which are harmful. he is on guard against being drawn into a fight. this is deception. this is imprudence. (2) To be silent when there is something to be said.‖ [16-6] 孔子曰。侍於君子有三愆:言未及之而言、謂之躁』 。言及之而不 言、謂之隱』 。未見顏色而言、謂之瞽』 。 [16:6] The Master said: ―There are three common mistakes made by those who are of rank:‖ (1) To speak when there is nothing to be said. (2) When he is mature and his physical energy is solid. (3) When he is old. The enjoyment of cultivation in music and ritual. he is on guard not to cling to his attainments. The enjoyment of arrogance. this is called blindness. the enjoyment of dissipation and the enjoyment of comfort are all harmful. [16-8] 孔子曰。君子有三畏。畏天命、畏大人、畏聖人之言。小人不知天命 而不畏也、狎大人、侮聖人之言。 [16:8] The Master said: ―The noble man stands in awe of three things:‖ . and his physical power is weakened.

(3) He is in awe of the words of the sages. in listening. he thinks of what would be Just.‖ [16-10] 孔子曰。君子有九思。視思明、聽思聰、色思溫、貌思恭、言思忠 、事思敬、疑思問、忿思難、見得思義。 [16:10] The Master said: ―There are nine patterns which are awarenesses of the noble man. he is aware of clarity. ―I have seen this kind of person and have heard these words. . The inferior man does not know the decree of Heaven. he is aware of the difficulties that may ensue. in faces. those who are limited and yet study are next. But as for:‖ I hide myself away in order to fathom my own will. In seeing. In doubt. in service. I act with fairness to penetrate the Way. when angry. When he sees an opportunity for gain. (2) He is in awe of great men. he takes great men lightly. Those who study to know it are next.‖ [16-11] 孔子曰。見善如不及、見不善而探湯。』 吾見其人矣、吾聞其語矣 隱居以求其志、行義以達其道。』 吾聞其語矣、未見其人也 。 [16:11] Confucius cited the proverb: I regard goodness as something I haven't attained. in the attitude he projects. is aware of warmth. reverence.(1) He is in awe of the decree of Heaven. those who are limited and do not even study are considered to be the lowest level of people. sincerity. and laughs at the words of the sages. and said. he is aware of courtesy. I regard evil as my deep-welling spring. [16-9] 孔子曰。生而知之者、上也。學而知之者、次也。困而學之、又其次 也。困而不學、民斯爲下矣。。 [16:9] The Master said: ―Those who are born knowing it are the best. in speech. he is aware of sharpness. he is inclined to question.

but haven't seen this kind of person. Once. and he asked me. ―Not yet. elated.‖ Chenkang left. ―I questioned on one thing and got three! I learned about the Poems. 陽貨 [17-1] 陽貨欲見孔子、孔子不見、歸孔子豚。孔子時其亡也、而往拜之。遇 諸塗、謂孔子曰。來、予與爾言。曰。懷其寶而迷其邦、可謂仁乎。曰。不 可。好從事而亟失時、可謂知乎。曰。不可。日月逝矣、歲不我與。孔子曰 。諾、吾將仕矣。。 . but when he died. there was nothing for which the people could praise him.I have heard this said. when my father was standing by himself. ‗Have you learned the Book of Odes yet?‘ I said. On another day.‖ So I went and studied the Propriety. ‗Not yet. and the people praise them up till this day. the same scene occurred. saying. and he said.‘ So I went and studied the Book of Odes. I learned about the Propriety and I learned that the noble man is not partial to his son. What meaning can you glean from this? [16-13] 陳亢問於伯魚曰。子亦有異聞乎。對曰。未也。嘗獨立、鯉趨而過 庭。曰。學詩乎。』 對曰。未也。』 不學詩、無以言 』 鯉退而學詩。他 日、又獨立、鯉趨而過庭。曰。學禮乎。』 對曰。未也。』 不學禮、無以 立 』 鯉退而學禮。聞斯二者。陳亢退而喜曰。問一得三:聞詩、聞禮。又 聞君子遠其子也。 [16:13] Chenkang asked Boyu (Confucius' son): ―Have you heard anything from your father different than we disciples have?‖ Boyu replied. ―If you don't learn propriety you will have no structure. ‗Have you learned the Record of Propriety yet?‘ I said. I have only heard these two things. [16-12] 齊景公有馬千駟、死之日、民無德而稱焉。伯夷、叔齊餓於首陽之 下、民到于今稱之。其斯之謂與 。 [16:12] Duke Ching of Qi had a thousand teams of horses.‘ He said.‖ 17. I passed by the hall quickly. ‗Not yet. Bo Yi and Shu Qi died of starvation at the foot of Shouyang mountain.

‖ Confucius said. I'll take the job. ―Hiding one's treasure in one's bosom and letting one's country lose its way — can such a one be called truly humane?‖ Confucius responded. [17-2] 性相近也、習相遠也。子曰、唯上知與下愚不移。 [17:2] The Master said: ―People are similar by nature. he can't. ―No. he laughed a bit and said. so he sent Confucius a piglet as a present.‖ ―The days and months slip away. ―My disciple. ―If the Noble Man learns the Way.‖ Confucius said: ―Only the most wise and the most foolish do not change. I heard you saying. and time is not on our side. Confucius timed his visit of thanks when Yang Huo was not at home. If regular people learn the Way. as Confucius clearly loses the argument to a higher moral ground. I want to have a word with you.‖ Confucius said. ―Ok. ―Why would one need an oxcleaver to kill a chicken?‖ Zi Yu replied.‖ Comment: A somewhat unusual narrative in the Analects. he will care about people.‖ [17-3] 子之武城、聞弦歌之聲、夫子莞爾而笑曰。割鷄焉用牛刀。子游對曰 。昔者、偃也聞諸夫子曰。君子學道則愛人。小人學道則易使也。 子曰。二 三子、偃之言是也。前言戲之耳 。 [17:3] When the Master went to Wu Cheng he heard the sound of singing accompanied by lutes.‖‖ [17-4] 公山弗擾以費畔、召、子欲往。子路不說、曰、末之也已、何必公山 氏之之也。子曰。夫召我者、而豈徒哉。如有用我者、吾其爲東周乎。 . ―Come.[17:1] Yang Huo wanted to see Confucius but Confucius would not see him. Yan is right. he can't.‖ And he said.‖ ―Liking to be involved in public affairs but always missing the timing — can he be called wise?‖ ―No. ―In the past. accepting judgment. but through habituation become quite different from each other. at the same time admitting his deep desire to serve the government. What I said before was only a joke. They happened to meet on the road. they become easy to employ. and Yang said to Confucius.

then your wisdom will be distorted into aimlessness. ―and I will tell you. have you heard the six phrases about the six distortions?‖ You answered that he hadn't. persistence.‖ [17-6] 子曰。由也、女聞六言六蔽矣乎。對曰、未也。居、吾語女。好仁不 好學、其蔽也愚。好知不好學、其蔽也蕩。好信不好學、其蔽也賊。好直不 好學、其蔽也絞。好勇不好學、其蔽也亂。好剛不好學、其蔽也狂。 [17:6] The Master said: ―You. you can be called a fundamentally good person. and the Master wanted to go. said. ―If you can practice these five things with all the people. Zi Lu. displeased with this.‖ Confucius said. people will rely on you. generosity. then your trust will be distorted into harm. . If you love trustworthiness.‖ Zi Zhang asked what they were. ―Then stay a moment. but don't like to study. sent an invitation to Confucius. you can employ people. honesty. if you are generous. but why must we go to see Gongshan?‖ Confucius said.[17:4] Gongshan Furao. ―Courtesy. then your kindness will be distorted into simplicity. ―If some invites me. but don't like to study. Confucius said. If you are kind. If you are courteous. how could it be a total waste? If there is someone who is willing to make use of me. you will not be disrespected. staging a rebellion from Bi [against the Ji family]. If you are persistent you will get results. If you are honest. shall I not make his land an Eastern Zhou?‖ [17-5] 子張問仁於孔子。孔子曰。能行亓者於天下、爲仁矣。請問之 曰。 恭、寛、信、敏、惠。恭則不侮、寛則得衆、信則人任焉、敏則有功、惠則 足以使人。 [17:5] Zi Zhang asked Confucius about fundamental human goodness. and kindness. you will gain everything.‖ If you love being kind to others. If you love wisdom. ―Indeed we may have nowhere to go. but don't like to study. Confucius said.

so how can the Master go there?‖ Confucius said. plants. You can learn much about the names of birds. and Confucius wanted to go. and trees. your candor will be distorted into rudeness. can help you to get along with people. the Master said: ―Have you studied the Zhou Nan and Shao Nan chapters? Isn't the one who does not learn the Zhou Nan and Shao Nan chapters just like someone who stands directly facing a wall?‖ .If you love candor. you can serve your father. If you love boldness. but don't like to study. but don't like to study. [17-7] 佛肸召、子欲往。子路曰。昔者由也聞諸夫子曰。親於其身爲不善者 、君子不入也。佛肸以中牟畔、子之往也如之何。子曰。然、有是言也。不 曰堅乎、磨而不磷。不曰白乎、涅而不緇。吾豈匏瓜也哉、焉能繫而不食。 [17:7] Bi Xi invited Confucius [to come and serve in his administration]. Zi Lu said. it won't change color? Shall I be like a gourd that can be hung. you can serve your ruler. I did say such a thing. applied at a distance. can make you observant. beasts. can help you to use your anger [in a proper way]. it will not wear thin? And it is not said that if something is truly white. your boldness will be distorted into unruliness.‖ [17-9]子謂伯魚曰。女爲周南召南矣乎。人而不爲周南、召南、其猶正牆面 而立也與。 [17:9] Addressing Bo Yu. Applied near at hand. why not study the Book of Odes? The Odes can uplift you. your persistence will be distorted into rashness. ―Indeed. If you love persistence. But is it not said that if you polish something hard. but don't like to study. if you try to dye it black. but never eaten?‖ [17-8] 子曰。小子、何莫學夫詩。詩可以興、可以觀、可以群、可以怨。邇 之事父、遠之事君。多識於鳥、獸、草、木之名。 [17:8] The Master said: ―My disciples. ―Didn't I once hear you say that the Noble Man will not enter the place of one who has associated himself with evil? Bi Xi has taken Zhongmou 49 against its will.

like a thief burrowing through the walls. ‗ritual. but are weak inside.‖ [17-11] 子曰。鄕原、德之賊也 。 [17:11] The Master said: ―The ‗conventional townsman‘ is a thief of virtue. The wild (guang) 52 of antiquity were unbounded.‘ they say: is nothing more than jade and silk? 50 ‗Music‘ they say.‖ 51 [17-12] 子曰。道聽而塗說、德之棄也 。 [17:12] The Master said: ―To apprehend the Way and lecture on it before actualization is to throw away your accumulation of virtue. you are a miserable fellow.‖ [17-15] 子曰。攷言令色、鮮矣仁。 . The proud of antiquity were gallant.‘ they say. the proud of today are hot-tempered. Once they get it. they go nuts about losing it. they make themselves miserable in getting it.‖ [17-13] 子曰。鄙夫。可與事君也與哉。其未得之也、患得之。旣得之、患 失之。苟患失之、無所不至矣。 [17:13] The Master said: ―These low-lifes! How can they ever serve a ruler?! When they don't have something. the simpleminded of today are liars. there is nothing they won't do.[17-10] 子曰。禮云禮云。玉帛云乎哉。樂云樂云。鍾鼓云乎哉。 [17:10]The Master said: ―‗Ritual.‖ [17-14] 子曰。古者民有三疾、今也或是之亡也。古之狂也肆、今之狂也蕩 。古之矜也廉、今之矜也忿戻。古之愚也直、今之愚也詐而已矣。 [17:14] The Master said: ―The ancients had three kinds of shortcomings. The simple-minded of antiquity were straightforward. the wild of today are dissipated. some aspects of which are now lost. ‗Music‘ they say: is it nothing more than bells and drums?‖ [17-10] 子曰。色厲而內荏、譬諸小人、其猶穿窬之盜也與 。 [17:10] The Master said: ―If you show a tough face. Once they are worried about losing it.

Does Heaven speak?‖ [17-18] 孺悲欲見孔子、孔子辭以疾、將命者出戶、取瑟而歌、使之聞之。 [17:18] Ru Bei wanted to see Confucius. it will certainly vitiate. ―Master. [17-19] 宰我問。三年之喪期已久矣。君子三年不爲禮、禮必壞。三年不爲 樂、樂必崩。舊穀旣沒、新穀旣升。鑽燧改火、期可已矣。子曰、食夫稻、 衣夫錦、於女安乎。 曰、安。女安、則爲之。夫君子之居喪、食旨不甘、聞 樂不樂、居處不安、故不爲也。今女安、則爲之。宰我出。子曰、予之不仁 也。子生三年、然後免於父母之 懷。夫三年之喪、天下之通喪也。予也、有 三年之愛於其父母乎。 [17:19] Zai Wo asked: ―Isn't the three-year mourning period [for parents] too long? If the Noble Man does not exercise ritual for three years. if music is not played for three years.[17:15] The Master said: ―Skillful speech and flattering expressions are seldom indicative of true goodness. When his messenger went to the door. what would we disciples have to pass on?‖ Confucius said. ―Does Heaven speak? Yet the four seasons continue to change. 53 because it is are confused with the classical music 54 [17-17] 子曰。予欲無言 子貢曰。子如不言、則小子何述焉 子曰。天何言 哉。四時行焉、百物生焉。天何言哉。 [17:17] The Master said: ―I wish I could avoid talking. the rituals will certainly deteriorate. this years' grain has already sprouted. One year is enough.‖ Zi Gong said. the master picked up his lute and began to sing so that Bei could hear him. And the seasonal cycle for the use of wood 55 for producing fire by friction has already passed through. and all things are born. I hate the music of Zheng. but Confucius excused himself on the grounds of illness. ―Are you comfortable with eating good rice and . Last year's grain is already gone. ‖ [17-16] 子曰。惡紫之奪朱也。惡鄭聲之亂雅樂也。惡利口之覆邦家者。 [17:16] The Master said: ―I hate purple because it steals the role of red. ‖ Confucius said. if you didn't speak.

‖ Zai Wo left. cannot enjoy the sound of music. ―How inhumane Zai Wo is! It is only after three years that a child avoids his parent's embrace. The three-year period of mourning is observed throughout society.‖ ―If you are OK with it. He hates those who are bold without propriety.‖ [17-22] 子貢曰。君子亦有惡乎。子曰。有惡。惡稱人之惡者、惡居下流而 訕上者、惡勇而無禮者、惡果敢而窒者。曰。賜也亦有惡乎。惡徼以爲知者 、惡不孫以爲勇者、惡訐以爲直者。 [17:22] Zi Gong asked. Now. He could at least play cards or chess or something. How about you. When the Noble Man is in mourning. I am fine with it. without exercising his mind. If the inferior man is brave without fairness.wearing fine silk [soon after your parents have died]?‖ ―Yes. It would be better than nothing. ―The noble man puts fairness first. Confucius said. he will become an outlaw. he will be rebellious. if you are comfortable with it. then do it. and closed off to anything else.‖ [17-21] 子路曰。君子尚勇乎。子曰。君子義以爲上。君子有勇而無義爲亂 、小人有勇而無義爲盜。 [17:21] Zi Lu said: ―Does the noble man esteem bravery?‖ Confucius said. Wasn't Zai Wo loved three years by his parents?‖ [17-20] 子曰。飽食終日、無所用心、難矣哉。不有博奕者乎。爲之猶賢乎 已 。 [17:20] The Master said: ―What can be done with a man who stuffs his face with food all day. he cannot enjoy the taste of delicious food. and therefore he won't do such a thing. ―Does the noble man also have things that he hates?‖ Confucius said. ―He does. If the noble man is brave without fairness. then go ahead and do it. and cannot be comfortable in his own home. He hates those who abide in lowliness and slander the great. He hates those who are convinced of their own perfection. what do you hate?‖ . He hates those who advertise the faults of others.

I can employ him somewhere between the .Zi Gong said. if you are distant.‖ [17-24] 子曰。年四十而見惡焉、其終也已 。 [17:26] The Master said: ―One who has reached the age of forty and is disliked. Jizi was enslaved by him. why should I bother leaving the land of my parents?‖ [18-3] 齊景公待孔子、曰。若季氏則吾不能、以季、孟之間待之。曰。吾老 矣。不能用也。孔子行。 [18:3] Duke Jing of Qi was trying to decide what to do with Confucius. He said.‖ [17-23] 子曰。唯女子與小人爲難養也。近之則不孫、遠之則怨。 [17:23] The Master said: ―Girls and inferior men are hard to get along with. sir?‖ He said. Someone said. I hate those who take disobedience as courage. will be disliked to the end. 微子 [18-1] 微子去之。箕子爲之奴。比干諫而死。孔子曰。殷有三仁焉 。 [18:1] Weizi left him. ―I can't treat him the way the Ji family did. ―Why don't you just leave. where can I go where this will not happen? If I can be satisfied with handing out injustice. ―There were three Good Men in the Yin. they lose their humility. ―If I want to give justice in serving people. Confucius said. and was fired three times. and died for it.‖ ‖ 18. they resent it. If you get familiar with them. ‖ [18-2] 柳下惠爲士師、三黜。人曰。子未可以去乎。曰。直道而事人、焉往 而不三黜 枉道而事人、何必去父母之邦 。 [18:2] Hui Liuxia was chief criminal judge. Bi Gan admonished him. ―I hate those who take a little bit of clarity as wisdom. I hate those who take disclosing people's weak points to be straightforwardness.

Ji Huan (ruler of Lu) received them. But your future is yet to come. Confucius jumped down. wanting to talk to him. I can't use him. [18-6] 長沮桀溺耦而耕。孔子過之、使子路問津焉。長沮曰。夫執輿者爲誰 子路曰。爲孔丘。曰。是魯孔丘與 曰。是也。曰。是知津矣。問於桀溺、桀 溺曰。子爲誰 曰。爲仲由。曰。是魯孔丘之徒與 對曰。然。曰。滔滔者、 天下皆是也、而誰以易之 且而與其從辟人之士也、豈若從辟世之士哉。耰而 不輟。子路行以吿、夫子憮然曰。鳥獸不可與同群 吾非斯人之徒與而誰與 天下有道、丘不與易也。 .status of Ji or Meng(Sun). and for three days did not hold court. Give up! Give up! Those who involve themselves in Government now Will be in danger.‖ He said again. ―I am already old. [18-5] 楚狂接輿、歌而過孔子、曰。鳳兮 何德之衰 往者不可諫、來者猶可 追。已而 已而 今之從政者殆而 孔子下、欲與之言。趨而辟之、不得與之言 。 [18:5] Jieyu. so Confucius couldn't talk to him. passed by Confucius. singing: Phoenix! Phoenix! How your virtue has declined! Your past cannot be corrected. [18-4] 齊人歸女樂、季桓子受之、三日不朝、孔子行。 [18:4] The people of Qi sent Lu a present of girl musicians.‖ Confucius left. the madman of Chu. but he ran away. Confucius left.

if that's the case.‖ [18-7] 子路從而後、遇丈人、以杖荷蓧子路問曰。子見夫子乎。丈人曰。四 體不勤、亓穀不分、孰爲夫子 植其杖而芸。子路拱而立。止子路宿、殺雞爲 黍而食之、見其二子焉。明日、子路行以吿。子曰。隱者也。使子路反見之 。至、則行矣。子路曰。不士無義。長幼之 節、不可廢也。君臣之義、如之 何其廢之 欲潔其身、而亂大倫。君子之仕也、行其義也。道之不行、已知之 矣。。 [18:7] Zi Lu.‖ ―The follower of this Confucius of Lu?‖ ―Right. then who will I associate with? If the Way prevailed in the realm. Zi Lu went back and reported this to Confucius.‖ Zi Lu then asked Jie Ni who said. I would not try to change anything. said. then he knows the ford. Confucius sighing. Zhang Zuo said. he went back to his hoeing and wouldn't stop.‖ Jie said. ―The Confucius of Lu?‖ ―Yes. ―I can't form associations with the birds and beasts. ―Who is that holding the carriage?‖ Zi Lu said. ―Disorder. ―Who are you?‖ ―I am Zi Lu. disorder throughout the realm! And who can change it? Rather than following a shi who avoids people.[18:6] Zhang Zuo and Jie Ni were working together in the fields when Confucius was passing by.‖ ―Well. So if I don't associate with people. He sent Zi Lu to ask them where he could ford the river. ―It is Confucius‖ Zhang said. having fallen behind the group. He asked him: ―Have you seen my master?‖ . you should follow one who escapes from the world!‖ With that. met an old man carrying a basket on a pole.

‖ [18-8] 逸民:伯夷、叔齊、虞仲、夷逸、朱張、柳下惠、少連。子曰。不降 其志、不辱其身、伯夷叔齊與 謂柳下惠、少連。降志辱身矣。言中倫、行中 慮、其斯而已矣。謂虞仲、夷逸。隱居放言、身中淸、廢中權。我則異於是 、無可無不可。 [18:8] Among men who have abandoned society are Bo Yi. and Shao Lian. The old man had him stay overnight. he disrupts the great bonds of society. ―Your four limbs have not toiled. ―Those who would not surrender their wills or humiliate themselves were Bo Yi and Shu Qi. prepared millet and fed him. When fairness is not being done. The Master said. The next day. and then introduced him to his two sons. Zi Lu left. they were pure in their personal activities. The noble man practices his fairness from his place in society.Yiyi. and in their seclusion cast off speech.‖ Concerning Yu Zhong and Yi Yi: ―They left society. Zi Lu said.‖ I am different than this. their words were based on solid principles and they thought before acting. I have no ―shoulds‖ or ―should nots‖. nonetheless. Zi Lu stood there with his arms folded. he is the one who is aware of it. ―He is a recluse. The Master said. he said.‖ Regarding Liuxia Hui and Shao Lian. and their abandonment of official position was adjusted according to the circumstances. That is about all that can be said of them. [18-9] 大師摯適齊。亞飯干適楚。三飯繚適蔡。四飯缺適秦。鼓方叔、入於 河。播鼗武、入於漢。少師陽、擊磬襄、入於海。 . ―If you don't have a position in society. how can you practice fairness? If the relationship between young and old cannot be abandoned.The old man said. Zhu Zhang. Yu Zhong.‖ and sent Zi Lu back to see him. how can the relationship between ruler and minister be abandoned? Desiring to keep his own purity. He killed a chicken. ―They surrendered their wills and humiliated themselves. the man was gone. and he told Confucius. Shu Qi. Hui Liu Xia. When he arrived. and you can't distinguish among the five grains— who is your master?‖ He planted his staff in the ground and began to weed.

and he does not seek to squeeze everything out of one man. Liao. Wu. the musician for the fourth meal. the Duke of Lu. Yang. Zhong Tu. Shu Ye. Zhong Hu.[18:10] The head musician Zhi. What can you gain? And what can you get rid of?‖ [19-3] 子夏之門人、問亣於子張。子張曰。子夏云何 對曰。子夏曰。可者 與之、其不可者拒之。』 子張曰。異乎吾所聞:君子尊賢而容衆、嘉善而矜 . Therefore. and Xiang. Gan. the musician for the second meal. went to the area of the Yellow River. the player of the spinning hand-drum. He said: ―The noble man does not neglect his relatives and does not let the High Minister develop resentment about not being utilized. Que. [18-10] 周公謂魯公曰。君子不施其親、不使大臣怨乎不以。故舊無大故、 則不棄也。無求備於一人。 [18:10] The Duke of Zhou was talking to his son. Bo Kuo. went to Qi. the assistant musician. 19. trusting the Way without enriching it.‖ [19-2] 子張曰。執德不弘、信道不篤、焉能爲有 焉能爲亡 。 [19:2] Zi Zhang said: ―Keeping one's virtue without extending it. who at rituals is reverent and who at funerals is sorrowful: he is worth something.‖ [18-11] 周有八士:伯達、伯适、仲突、仲忽、叔夜、叔夏、季隨、季騧。 [18:11] . the musician for the third meal. the drummer Fang Shu. went to Cai. 子張 [19-1] 子張曰。士見危致命、見得思義、祭思敬、喪思哀、其可已矣。 [19:1] Zi Zhang said: ―The shi who faced with danger can abandon his life. Shu Xia. the player of the stone chimes. went to Chu. Ji Sui. when to the Han River. went to Qin. he has never fired anyone unless there was a really good reason. thinks of fairness. went to the sea. who seeing an opportunity for gain. There were eight Gentlemen in the Zhou: Bo Da. and Ji Gua.

shall people cast me aside? How can you just push people away like this?‖ [19-4] 子夏曰。雖小道、必有可觀者焉。致遠恐泥、是以君子不爲也。 [19:4] Zi Xia said. ―If somewhat has just a small attainment of the way. it can be observed.‖ [19-7] 子夏曰。百工居肆以成其事。君子學以致其道。 [19:7] Zi Xia said: ―The artisans stay in their shops in order to accomplish their works. it will lose its functioning. Therefore.‖ Zi Zhang asked in response: ―What does your teacher tell you?‖ One replied.‖ [19-5] 子夏曰。日知其所亡、月無忘其所能、可謂好學也已矣。。 [19:5] Zi Xia said: ―Someone who is aware every day of what he lacks. and every month does not forget what he has developed. questioning earnestly and reflecting on things at hand: ren lies in this. can be called ‗a lover of learning. the noble man does not do this. He praises the good and pities the incapable.‘‖ [19-6] 子夏曰。博學而篤志、切問而近思。仁在其中矣。 [19:6] Zi Xia said: ―Studying widely and thickening your will.不能。』 我之大賢與、於人何所不容。我之不賢與、人將拒我、如之何其拒 人也 。 [19:3] The disciples of Zi Xia were asked Zi Zhang about ―associations. The noble man studies in order to actualize his Way. But if he tries to extend it too far. Now if I were a worthy.‖ [19-8] 子夏曰。小人之過也必文。 [19:8] Zi Xia said: ―The inferior man always glosses over his errors. whom should I not accept? If I am unworthy. The noble man venerates the worthy but accepts everyone.‖ [19-9] 子夏曰。君子有三變。望之儼然、卽之也溫、聽其言也厲。 . ―This is different from what I have heard.‖ Zi Zhang said. ―Associate with the capable and keep away from the incapable.

he will take their criticism as backstabbing. you may utilize small virtues freely. he appears majestic. and those who are late fall away. If he doesn't have their trust. 56 It is like the various plants that are categorized by their species. he seems warm.‖ [19-14] 子游曰。喪致乎哀而止。 [19:14] Zi Lu said: ―When mourning has expended itself in grief. Only after gaining his trust will they criticize him openly.‖ [19-10] 子夏曰。君子信而後勞其民。未信、則以爲厲己也。信而後諫。未 信、則以爲謗己也。 [19:10] Zi Xia said: ―After the ruler has the trust of the people. it should end.‖ [19-12] 子游曰。子夏之門人小子、當洒掃、應對、進退、則可矣、抑末也 。本之則無。如之何 子夏聞之曰。噫、言游過矣。君子之道、孰先傳焉、孰 後倦焉。譬諸草木、區以別矣。君子之道、焉可誣也。有始有卒者、其惟聖 人乎。 [19:12] Zi Yu said: ―The disciples of Zi Xia can clean the floor. and come forward and retire. After you have accomplished your studies. then study.‖ . From afar. can both take the initiative and bring matters to their completion?‖ [19-13] 子夏曰。仕而優則學。學而優則仕。 [19:13] Zi Xia said: ―After you have accomplished your job. respond to questions. How can the Way of the Noble Man be deceptive? Who. those who advance first are summoned. but a sage. Why is it so?‖ Zi Xia. ‖ [19-11] 子夏曰。大德不踰閑。小德出入可也。 [19:11] Zi Xia said: ―As long as you don't transgress the norm of great virtue. he seems polished. listening to his speech. ―What? Isn't this a bit of an exaggeration? In the Way of the Noble Man. If he doesn't trust them. but these are trivial matters — when it comes to the essentials. close up. hearing of it said. they will regard him as oppressive.[19:9] Zi Xia said: ―The noble man has three appearances. they will toil for him. then get a job. they are lost.

‖ [19-17] 曾子曰。吾聞諸夫子:人未有臩致者也必也、親喪乎。』 。 [19:17] Ceng Zi said: ―I have heard this from our master: ‗If a man has not yet fully experienced himself.‖ [19-20] 子貢曰。紂之不善、不如是之甚也。是以君子惡居下流、天下之惡 皆歸焉。 [19:20] Zi Gong said. the filial piety of Ming Zhong Zi was nothing special. he will when his parents die. the people will scatter from them. then you should be sorrowful.‖ [19-16] 曾子曰。堂堂乎張也 難與竝爲仁矣。 [19:16] Ceng Zi said: ―How imposing Zhang is. where all the evil of the world accumulates. When you are aware of their suffering. never joyful. Tseng said.‘‖ [19-18] 曾子曰。吾聞諸夫子:孟莊子之孝也、其他可能也、其不改父之臣 與父之政、是難能也。』 。 [19:18] Ceng Zi said: ―I heard our Master say.‖ . Therefore the Noble Man dislikes residing in the lower reaches. It is difficult to practice ren with him. but is not yet perfect in ren. ―When those in power lose their sense of justice. consulted with Ceng Zi. ―Zhou could not really have been that bad. But his running his government without changing his father's ministers or systems— this was quite difficult.‘‖ [19-19] 孟氏使陽膚爲士師、問於曾子。曾子曰。上失其道、民散久矣。如 得其情、則哀矜而勿喜。 [19:19] Yangfu. ‗In other matters. and it will be a long time before they return.[19-15] 子游曰。吾友張也、爲難能也。然而未仁。 [19:15] Zi Lu said: ―My friend Zhang can handle difficulty. having been appointed Minister of Justice by the Meng clan.

―Let me use a simile of a castle and its wall. My Master's wall is several tens of feet high and if you can't find the door and enter by it.[19-21] 子貢曰。君子之過也、如日月之食焉。過也、人皆見之。更也、人 皆仰之。 [19:21] Zi Gong said: ―The faults of the noble man are like the eclipses of the sun and moon— everyone sees them. My wall is only shoulder high. Are not my Master's words even more difficult to grasp?‖ [19-24] 叔孫武叔毀仲尼。子貢曰。無以爲也 仲尼不可毀也。他人之賢者、 丘陵也、猶可踰也。仲尼、日月也、無得而踰焉。人雖欲臩絕、其何傷於日 月乎。多見其不知量也 。 .‖ Zifu Jingbo told this to Zi Gong. addressing the major officers of his court. The Worthies have assimilated the major points.‖ [19-22] 衞公孫朝問於子貢曰。仲尼焉學 子貢曰。文武之道、未墜於地、在 人。賢者識其大者、不賢者識其小者、莫不有文武之道焉。夫子焉不學、而 亦何常師之有 。 [19:22] Gong Sunchao of Wei asked Zi Gong: ―From whom did Confucius get his learning?‖ Zi Gong said. so how could the Master not learn it? Why would he need to get it from a certain teacher?‖ [19-23] 叔孫武叔語大夫於朝曰。子貢賢於仲尼。子朋景伯以吿子貢。子貢 曰。譬之宮牆:賜之牆也及肩、窺見屋家之好。夫子之牆數仞、不得其門而 入、不見宗廟之美、百官之富。得其門者或寡矣。夫子之云、不亦宜乎。 [19:23] Shusun Wushu. who commented. There is no place where the Way of Wen and Wu does not exist. ―The Way of King Wen and King Wu (the legendary sage-kings of antiquity) has not yet sunk into the ground. Those who find the door are few indeed. and the less-than-worthy have assimilated the minor points. said: ―Zi Gong is superior to Confucius. nor the splendor of its hundred officers. you will not see the beauty of its ancestral temple. which you may look over and see the desirables that lie inside. But when he corrects them. everyone looks up to him.

when he motivated them. which can be climbed over. Shun. The virtue of other men is like a small hill. The level of the Master cannot be reached. the heavenly stipend will disappear forever. Zi Gong said. just as the heavens cannot be ascended to using a stairway. saying. Hence. [Tang] said. If the whole realm falls into dire straits. There is no way they can be climbed over.‖ Shun similarly instructed Yu. In life he was glorious. ―I. in death he is mourned. they worked in harmony. how can you hurt them? It is easy to see that Wushu does not know value. 堯曰 [20-1] 堯曰。咨。爾舜。天之曆數在爾躬、允執其中。四海困窮、天祿永終 。舜亦以命禹。曰。予小子履、敢用玄牡、敢昭吿于皇皇后帝。有罪不敢赦 、帝臣不蔽、簡在帝 心。朕躬有罪、無以萬方。萬方有罪、罪在朕躬。周有 大賚、善人是富。雖有周親、不如仁人。百姓有過、在予一人。謹權量、審 法度、修廢官、四方之政行焉。興 滅國、繼絕世、擧逸民、天下之民歸心焉 。所重、民、食、喪、祭。寛則得衆、信則民任焉。 敏則有功、公則說。 [20:1] Yao said. ―By a single word the Noble Man shows his intelligence.[19:24] Shusun Wushu's disparaged Confucius. they came. ―It is ridiculous talking this way. Hold firm to the center. due to his gentleness. If our master had attained control of the state or clan. one must be careful when choosing one's words. Confucius is like the sun and the moon. Even if you want to cut yourself off from the sun and moon. they followed. it would have been as it is said: ‗By his establishment they took their positions. Confucius cannot be slandered. and by a single word he shows his ignorance. ―Ah. How could Zhongni (Confucius) be more worthy than you?‖ Zi Gong said. the .‖ [19-25] 陳子禽謂子貢曰。子爲恭也、仲尼豈賢於子乎。子貢曰。君子一言 以爲知、一言以爲不知。言不可不愼也。夫子之不可及也、猶天之不可階而 升也。夫子之得邦家者、所謂立之斯立、道之斯行、綏之斯來、動之斯和。 其生也榮、其死也哀。如之何其可及也。 [19:25] Chen Ziqin addresses Zi Gong. ―You are too humble.‘ Who could attain to such a level?‖ 20. when he led. the heavenly succession has fallen on you.

saying ―How should one best handle the affairs of government?‖ The Master said.‖ Zi Zhang said. is proud without being arrogant. and restore offices that have fallen into disuse — then all the lands in the four directions will be well-governed. re-establish broken lineages. If you can follow these. food. empower those had avoided service.inconsequential Lü. I will not dare to pardon it.‖ Zi Zhang asked. If you are generous you will gain the hearts of the people. to be generous without being wasteful?‖ The Master said. When I am guilty of a fault. they will rely on you. I will not blame it on all the people. and they are at fault. and ritual sacrifice.‖ Zhou had great gifts. [20-2] 子張問於孔子、曰、何如斯可以從政矣。子曰。尊亓美、屛四惡、斯 可以從政矣。子張曰。何謂亓美。子曰。君子惠而不費、勞而不怨、欲而不 貪、泰而不驕、威而 不猛。子張曰。何謂惠而不費。子曰、因民之所利而利 之、斯不亦惠而不費乎。擇可勞而勞之、又誰怨。欲仁而得仁、又焉貪。君 子無衆寡、無小大、無敢慢、斯不 亦泰而不驕乎。君子正其衣冠、尊其瞻視 、儼然人望而畏之、斯不亦威而不猛乎。子張曰。何謂四惡。子曰。不教而 殺謂之虐。不戒視成謂之暴。慢令致期謂之賊。 猶之與人也、出納之吝、謂 之有司。 [20:2] Zi Zhang asked Confucius. which he used to enrich good men. they will be happy. If there are faults among the officials. desires without being avaricious. strict without being severe. Place value on the common people. Be careful with weights and measures. Raise up failed states. ―If you see a way to bring . works hard without resentment. mourning for the dead. you will get results. ―There are five points of excellence to be respected. and four bad points to be avoided. When a crime is done. if you are trustworthy. you can handle the affairs of government. ―The Noble Man is generous without being wasteful. and dare to report to the illustrious Lord. ―What does it mean. I will take responsibility myself. but leave the decision up to your discretion. they were not treated on a par equal with the Good. 57 I will take the blame myself. dare to sacrifice the black bull. scrutinize well the legal code. Although he was surrounded by close relatives. if you are diligent. I will I cover up for your servants. if you are fair. and all the common people in the realm will put their trust in you. ―What are the five points of excellence?‖ The Master said.

In other words: ―I give him a hint and he gets the whole point. The Book of Odes. Is this not indeed the meaning of being proud but not being arrogant? The Noble Man.‖ Notes 1. there is no way for you to be established. 2.benefit to the common people and you carry it out. is respectful in his gaze. ―To execute someone without explaining what they did wrong is cruelty. It is believed that Confucius selected 305 from more than 3. also commonly referred to in Chinese as the Mao shi 毛詩. he is severe in the gazes of the people. yet is in awe of them. Shijing. 3. It is a collection of poems. is this not being generous without being wasteful? If you select the matters where it is appropriate to work and have people work hard at them. to be late in giving orders yet expecting punctuality is injurious. the Noble Man does not dare to be conceited. Is this not the meaning of being strict without being severe?‖ Zi Zhang said. who will be resentful? If you desire Goodness and attain it. the young or the old. where will there be greed? Whether dealing with the many or the few.‖ . to be stingy in bestowing on people their due remuneration is petty officiousness. One of the five Chinese classics 五經. Also translated as the Book of Poetry. each is usually known by its title. there is no way you will be regarded as a Noble Man. there is no way for you to understand people.000 pieces and edited them into a book to be used for education. which are drawn from phrases found in its opening passage. This simile for the process of self-perfection is found often in Confucian texts. or Book of Songs. straightening his robe and cap. written during the 500 years between the beginning of the Zhou dynasty and the middle of the Spring and Autumn period. ―What are the four bad points?‖ The Master said. If you do not understand propriety. Of the 305 poems.‖ [20-3] 子曰。不知命、無以爲君子也。不知禮、無以立也。不知言、無以知 人也。 [20:3] The Master said: ―If you do not understand destiny. to expect achievements without admonishment is tyrannical. If you do not understand words.

‖ indicating agreement. on the west. 管仲: Guan Zhong. styled Zhong 仲. and thus: ―I grant you. and Huan would go on to become known as one of the Five Hegemons 五覇. (Waley. Lin Pang. thus also known as Guan Zingzhong 管敬仲 and Guanzi 管子. The Guanju ( ―The Cry of the Ospreys‖) is the first poem in the Book of Odes. It was based upon the recommendation of his friend Bao Shu 鮑叔 that Duke Huan took him into his service.‖ 8. Arthur Waley tries — rightly I think — to maintain continuity with the previous passage by saying ―He whose heart is in the smallest degree set on Goodness will dislike no one. Legge translates: ―If the will be set on virtue.‖ 9. — see chap. . For the meaning of ―wild‖ here. He the prime minister 宰相 who switched loyalties after the assassination of his original lord to serve Duke Huan 桓公 of Qi 齊. 7. the reading of Bruce Brooks: ―If once he sets his mind on ren. there will be no practice of wickedness. to sacrifice to the Tai mountain was a great usurpation. and have always received religious honors. one could do no wrong. and is now third. According to the ritual of China. It begins by describing a lover's grief at being separated from his lady and ends by describing their joyful union. It was in Lu. therefore. He is considered to be responsible for many of the duke's administrative achievements. He entered the service of the Ji family. Ames and Rosemont say: ―If indeed one's purposes are set on authoritative conduct. to be ugly. also known as Jing 敬. . .4.‖ But we rarely see 惡 as an entity of ―evil‖ or ―wickedness‖ in texts of this period. Legge's note to this passage says (with conversion to Pinyin): ―The Tai mountain is the first of the ‗five mountains‘ which are celebrated in Chinese literature. sacrifice could only be offered to those mountains by the sovereign. ‖ 5. from which the reason of this reference to him may be understood. you are not equal to him. James Legge takes 與 as ―I grant . and was a man of ability and resource. he will have no hatred. or rather on the borders between Lu and Ji. or hated. hatefulness.‖ It usually means ugliness. be hateful. Ran You was one of the disciples of Confucius.‖ But 惡 is not generally used to indicate ―wrongdoing. etc. (? –645 BCE) Spring and Autumn period 春秋時代 statesman. about two miles north of the present department city of Tai-an in Shandong. please see the discussion of the term guang in the comment on 13:21. iv. Familiar name was Yi Wu 夷吾. For the chief of the Ji family. 99) 6. and by the princes in whose States any of them happened to be. He is reputed to be the author of the Guanzi 管子.‖ I prefer (as I usually do). originally from the area of Yingshui 潁水. in the hall.

who died young. 13.‖ 18. This is probably a reference to Yanhui. he wanted. 11. 22. According to Zhu Xi 朱煕. ‖ (Comment to passage 9:9) 20.10. which drew forth Confucius' remark. the logograph 瓜 here is a corruption of 必.. 16. King Wen was traditionally recognized as a teacher of culture to the ancient Chinese. number 67. A high official of the Song. ―The noble man is not a utensil. rather than doing what was wrong. Confucius' favorite among his disciples. a symbol of universal dominion. it was plain he could not approve of a son's holding by force what was the rightful inheritance of the father. I. Commentators and translators understand this chart/diagram variously. and Confucius.. and the River Diagram (the reference is to the Yellow River). for it to appear that Confucius had been of high status. .e. 15. fit the specifications for a sacrificial animal. Which was out of the range of Qi's influence. and finally their lives. in the late 4c it may have been a 3 x 3 array representing the nine parts of China in Dzou Yen's geography. Legge says: ―The father of Zhong Gong (See V. Legge says (p. I have diverged from Legge and Waley in taking ―completely empty-like‖ to refer positively to the condition of Confucius' mind. The most thorough and convincing explanation that I have found is that by Bruce Brooks which says: ―… the phoenix omen. rather than negatively to the mind of the simple man who is questioning. . 17. 19.) was a man of bad character and some would have visited this upon his son. fully approving of their conduct. who was trying to assassinate Confucius.‖ (186) 12.‖ 14. Book of Poems.e. The latter is not interpreted as the magic square of order three until Han times (we are grateful to Nathan Sivin for this clarification). ii. 199): ―[Bo Yi and Shu Qi] having given up their throne. in the case of Confucius' death. ―Wen‖ means literature or culture. 21. I. .

25. 阼階: The steps leading to the eastern door of the hall. this is written as 不客. p. 24. There is no doubt that Confucius himself sought the employment of a king to help bring peace to the world. (Legge 250) This rendering damages the force of the passage even further by interpreting the word gui (which clearly means ―return‖ in Chinese) as ―ascribe to him. Wing-tsit Chan translates: ―If a man (the ruler) can for one day master himself and return to propriety.23. But there is also no indication that he is speaking to a king here. I take it as an episode in the midst of an excursion (perhaps for the explicit purpose of hunting. (Lau 112) .C.‖ a thoroughly unnatural reading of the word. but nothing can be done for a flaw in one's words. Following Bruce Brooks. nor does the word wang appear in the sentence. James Legge says: If a man can for one day subdue himself and return to propriety. all under heaven will ascribe virtue to him. The place where the host stands when greeting guests. This passage is given a wide range of interpretations by commentators and translators. 26. For example. 27. then the whole Empire would consider benevolence to be his. In a Tang stone engraving.‖ 28. A verse from the Book of Odes (256): ―A flaw in a white jade tablet may be polished away. all under heaven will return to humanity‖ (Source Book. Lau stays fairly close to Legge when he translates: If for a single day a man could return to the observance of rites through overcoming himself. 38) This rendering makes the assumption that the only way to make the people ―humane‖ is through the enforcement of political power. D. or not) by Zi Lu and Confucius where the opportunity shows itself for them to catch a hen pheasant.

昔). Rather. Other translations. Commentators suggest that Confucius was disillusioned to find that things in Wei were no better than in Lu. See. for example. it means to maintain an activity over a long period of time. Also called 晉文 and often paired with Duke Huan 桓公 of Qi 齊 as 齊桓晉文.‖ 30. Confucius.29. As duke. Furthermore. However. and on the fact that Tzu-lu. 36. throughout the Analects. Analects 4:2: 不仁者、不可以久處約. 35.‖ I based my interpretation on a more literal reading of the text. The rulers of Lu and Wei ( Zhougong Jidan 周公姫旦 and Kang Shu 康叔) were actually brothers. we feel that this interpretation accords more closely with the thought of Confucius. 晉文公: Jìn Wen Gong. is shown to be a person who speaks his mind immediately and directly. whose military tactics were similar. following Chu-hsi. 故. the words ―government‖ 政 and ―to rectify‖ 正 are pronounced the same (zhèng). 32. The second son of Duke Xian 獻公. he went into exile for 19 years to avoid the plots of his mother-in-law Concubine Li 驪姫. the logograph 久 is not commonly used to represent something ―old‖ or ―former‖ (古. 31. he established the supremacy of Jin as the leader of the states in central China to oppose Chu 楚. The second of the Five Hegemons 五覇 of the Spring and Autumn period 春秋時代. Yi and Ao are ancient legendary figures famous for their superhuman feats. render this last line as ―he never slept on a promise. Waley (166) indicates that this line comes from the Book of Odes #105. Confusion on the part of modern interpreters may be influenced by the homophony of 久 and 舊. . Translators and interpreters of the Analects are divided into the group that takes 久要 as ―an old promise‖ and those who take it as ―enduring difficulty‖ with a slightly greater number preferring the former interpretation. (Reign 637-628 BCE) Duke Wen of Jin 晉. 33. Please see discussion of da in reference to 12:20. with the assistance of able ministers as Zhao Cui 趙衰 and Gu Yan 狐偃. 34. from a tale of a man who leaves his wife for another woman: an example of ―confusion. Here Confucius is punning on the fact that in Chinese.

微管仲、吾其被 髪左衽矣論語. Younger brother of Xiang Gong 襄公. It is not clear why Confucius is quoted as having said this here. 論語. 憲問 (DDB) 40. first name Xiao Bai 小白. A man of Qi 齊 during the Spring and Autumn period. but he does not provide textual support for this interpretation. Xiao Bai was asked to return to take the throne. See note on 3:22 for bio of Guan Zhong. He was originally loyal to the older brother of Duke Huan 桓公. the younger brothers escaped from the country. He was one of the ―five hegemons‖ 五霸 who held power in the 7th century. he vanquished Yi Qiu 夷秋. 召忽: Zhao Hu. the younger brothers escaped to neighboring states. 憲問 38.‖ Arthur Waley departs from the other translators by taking it to be the name of a great horse of antiquity. and take up the throne. so how much more in the case of human beings? . 左氏、荘、八 39. In the end. with Jiu 糾 going to Lu 魯 and Xiao Bai 小白 going to Ju 莒. The Chinese (as well as Koreans and Japanese) fastened their garments on the right side. 齊桓公: Qi Huan Gong. At the recommendation of Bao Shuya 鞄叔牙 he took the clever Guan Zhong 管仲 as his prime minister. the people of Lu killed Zi Jiu in Shengdu 笙瀆. but perhaps he would like to imply that even an animal has this kind of inner fortitude and dedication. and assembling all the nobles. and we have not been able to locate it ourselves. 左衽: Fastening one's garment on the left side. and Lu raised a force and sent Jiu away. he took his own life as well. a colleague of Guan Zhong 管仲. When Xiang Gong was assassinated by his people. 論語. a style of the nomadic tribes on the fringes of China. In Analects 14:16. Duke Huan of Qi 齊. Confucius seems to be saying that he was killed by his older brother Huang Gong. he was invited to return. unified the realm. The dictionaries gloss 驥 as ―a horse that can run a thousand li in a single day. who died in 643 BCE. Respecting the royal house of Zhou 周室. with Huan taking refuge in Ju 莒. allowing Xiao Bai to arrive to Qi first and take the throne as Huan Gong 桓公. Young brother of Xiang Gong 襄公. also known as Huan 桓. This seems to be to make sense. A grandmaster of Qi 齊 during the Spring and Autumn period 春秋時代. When Xiang began executing those around him. 憲問 [左袵] 42. so when his lord was assassinated by Huan. 41. Since his older brother Xiang Gong was in the business of assassinating those around him.37. 公子糾:Gong Zijiu. When Xiang was assassinated by his people.

. because it undermines the state and the clans. These three influential families were all the descendents of Huangong 桓公. I. also called San Huan. In antiquity. 45. Shusun 叔孫. 53. 改 火. a formal gift when the feudal lords met each other or the king. 51. as ―rightness. Also translated elsewhere.‖ 44. Most translators render 兕 according to its modern meaning of ―rhinoceros‖. For a discussion of this saying. The Xia. A town in Wei. the logographs 寡 and 貧 have obviously been transposed here. We can also no doubt presume that there were not all that many rhinoceroses in ancient China during the Warring States period. They are Mengsun 孟孫. captured by the Jin. the music of Ya 雅樂. The ―sounds of Zheng‖ 鄭聲 are also criticized in Analects 15-11. the Yin and the Zhou. 50. mulberry in late summer. 54. these three major families controlled the political power of the state of Lu. by context.. 48. Jade and silk clothing. This is called a full cycle. and as can be discerned by the context. jujube or apricot tree in early summer. As commentators and other translators have noted. 52. and Jisun 季孫. Also used as an offering to gods. see Mencius 7B:37. The stronghold of the Ji family. After the death of Wengong 文公. Three chief ministers 三卿 in the state of Lu 魯 during the Spring and Autumn 春秋 periods.e. oak in autumn. please see the discussion connected to 13:21.43. The early Chinese used elm or willow in spring. This refers to the various kinds of wood used traditionally as drill for making fire. 47. 49. 46. I hate clever speech. and pagoda or sandalwood tree in winter. 55. in early classical Chinese this refers to a wild bovine beast with a single horn. For the meaning of guang.

"Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application? . as its position at the head of the phrase makes it obvious that its basic meaning of ―who‖ is implied. Analects of Confucius Introduction The Analects is the original "Confucius says:" except that fortune cookies rarely offer actual Confucius quotes. Since we are speaking of Yao and Shun. During earlier periods. 57. The Master said. With the other half I help you to preserve it. Those translators who read 孰 here as ―mature. and so used that of their local lord or official.‖ However. first perfecting his knowledge. The whole work and achievement of the learner. this is certainly one of the earliest recorded periods in Chinese history. There is probably no better endorsement of its influence than this store told in the . The Song Emperor Taizong asked his Grand Secretary Zhao Pu why he was reading the Analects. the earlier meaning of this term is 百 官. the common people did not have their own surnames.56. and finally complete in himself. Most translators take 百姓 as ―the common people. Book 1 Chapter I. There is no obvious organization to the "books". but each book is in fact a very small chapter. a book commonly taught to kids." The Analects is a small but transcendental work put put together by the disciples of Confucius. It does not read as a grand treatise of Confucius' teaching but more like assorted recollections by disciples trying to record their master's teachings before they forget. Zhao replied: "With half of this book I helped your father gain the empire. then attracting by his fame like-minded individuals. 1. The Analects do and was therefore required reading for Chinese school children. The complete work is divided into 20 "books".‖ seem to be ignoring basic Chinese grammatical sensibilities.

Filial piety and fraternal submission! -. in transacting business for others. There have been none. there must be reverent attention to business. and sincerity." . and love for men." Chapter 4.2.whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher. "The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. "Is he not a man of complete virtue. not liking to offend against their superiors." Chapter 5. Fair appearances are suspicious. I may have been not faithful. "I daily examine myself on three points:-. "They are few who. The Master said.whether. to guard against his being guilty of any imposition. That being established. "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue. How the philosopher Tsang daily examined himself. economy in expenditure. "Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters? 3. The philosopher Tsang said. are fond of offending against their superiors. who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?" Chapter 2. "To rule a country of a thousand chariots. Filial piety and fraternal submission are the foundation of all virtuous practice. The philosopher Yû said. Fundamental principles for the government of a large state.whether.-. being filial and fraternal. in intercourse with friends. who. 1. The Master said. and the employment of the people at the proper seasons. I may have been not sincere.are they not the root of all benevolent actions?" Chapter 3. all practical courses naturally grow up. 2. have been fond of stirring up confusion.-.

when at home. "When you have faults. The good effect of attention on the part of superiors to the offices of the dead:-.although men say that he has not learned. should be filial." Chapter 9." Chapter 8. Characteristics of Confucius. "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty. after the performance of these things. The Master said." Chapter 7. and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous.then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence. and. "When our master comes to any country. Tsze-hsiâ's views of the substance of learning. Tsze-hsiâ said. saying. He should be earnest and truthful.Chapter 6. and his learning will not be solid. and their influence on the princes of the time. 2. Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung. in serving his prince. "If the scholar be not grave. "A youth. 1. he should employ them in polite studies. do not fear to abandon them. He should overflow in love to all. "Have no friends not equal to yourself. his words are sincere:-." Chapter 10. and cultivate the friendship of the good. he can devote his life. 3. Rules for the training of the young:-. admonition of Tsâng Shan. Principles of self-cultivation.duty first and then accomplishments. "Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?" .-. The philosopher Tsang said. respectful to his elders. The Master said. he can exert his utmost strength. I will certainly say that he has. in his intercourse with his friends. When he has time and opportunity. abroad. in serving his parents. he does not fail to learn all about its government. and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice. if. if. he will not call forth any veneration. "Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles. 1. if.

and in things small and great we follow them. "In practicing the rules of propriety. 2. "When agreements are made according to what is right." Chapter 12. one keeps far from shame and disgrace. -. and complaisant and thus he gets his information.2. The philosopher Yû said. With what mind one aiming to be a Chun-tsze pursues his learning. Tsze-kung said. when his father is dead. without regulating it by the rules of propriety. The Master said. he is earnest in what he is doing. we must be careful in our first steps." Chapter 14. To save from future repentance. he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified:-. 1. manifests it. temperate. look at his conduct. this likewise is not to be done. he can make them his guides and masters. On filial duty. "While a man's father is alive. "He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite. "Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. In ceremonies a natural ease is to be prized. When respect is shown according to what is proper. a natural ease is to be prized. The philosopher Yû said. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father. nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of it not different from that of other men?" Chapter 11. knowing how such ease should be prized. "Our master is benign. The Master said. The master's mode of asking information! -. what is spoken can be made good. he may be called filial. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with. courteous. and careful in his speech. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings. and yet to be subordinate to the end of ceremonies. If one." . upright.the reverential observance of propriety." Chapter 13. look at the bent of his will. this is the excellent quality.such a person may be said indeed to love to learn.

' -. How rulers should prefer moral appliances. The Master said. they will have the sense of shame." Book 2 Chapter I. Tsze-kung replied. though rich. 1. I apprehend. though poor. The Master said. but they are not equal to him. they will try to avoid the punishment." Chapter 2. The pure design of the Book of Poetry. who.The meaning is the same. "With one like Ts'ze. who. Tsze-kung said. but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence -. as that which you have just expressed." .Chapter 15. which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it. but have no sense of shame. and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master replied. and moreover will become good." 2. and he knew its proper sequence. "I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me. The Master said. The Master said. An illustration of the successive steps in self-cultivation. "If the people be led by laws." Chapter 16. and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments. Personal attainment should be our chief aim. "If they be led by virtue. 'As you cut and then file. and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety. The influence of virtue in a ruler.'" Chapter 3.'Having no depraved thoughts. 1. I can begin to talk about the odes. "It is said in the Book of Poetry. "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star. is yet cheerful. "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces. I told him one point. The Master said. "They will do." 3. and to him. I will be afflicted that I do not know men. "What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter. as you carve and then polish. 2. loves the rules of propriety.

when alive." Chapter 5. they should be buried according to propriety. The Master said. Mang Î asked what filial piety was. "At fifteen.'not being disobedient." Chapter 7. "At thirty. "At fifty. I had my mind bent on learning. 5. 6. "At forty. that. when dead. and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety. The Master said. I stood firm. without transgressing what was right. 3.-. "Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick. "It is not being disobedient. 2. 1. as Fan Ch'ih was driving him.without reverence. Filial piety must be shown according to the rules of propriety. "What did you mean?" The Master replied. Soon after. -. what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?" ." 2. saying. I could follow what my heart desired. I had no doubts. "The filial piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. I knew the decrees of Heaven. 1. Fan Ch'ih said. How there must be reverence in filial duty. The anxiety of parents about their children an argument for filial piety. the Master told him. "At sixty. The Master said. "At seventy. Confucius's own account of his gradual progress and attainments. Tsze-yû asked what filial piety was. Mang Wû asked what filial piety was.Chapter 4. The Master said. "That parents. and I answered him. 4. my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth. "Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was. be served according to propriety. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support.'" 3." Chapter 6.

"Mark his motives.Chapter 8. The Master said." Chapter 10. The Master said. The Master said. How to determine the characters of men. The duties of filial piety must be performed with a cheerful countenance. "How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?" Chapter 11. "See what a man does. when their elders have any troublesome affairs. when the young have wine and food. The quiet receptivity of the disciple Hûi. and if. he may be a teacher of others.-. and he has not made any objection to anything I said. Tsze-hsiâ asked what filial piety was. "The difficulty is with the countenance. and I have examined his conduct when away from me. "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge. The Master said. Hûi! if he were stupid. "I have talked with Hûi for a whole day." Chapter 12.He is not stupid. they set them before their elders. The Master said. so as continually to be acquiring new. The general aptitude of the Chün-tsze. 4. "Examine in what things he rests. To be able to teach others one must from his old stores be continually developing things new. 2. If. He has retired. and found him able to illustrate my teachings. "The accomplished scholar is not a utensil. 3. is THIS to be considered filial piety?" Chapter 9. the young take the toil of them. 1." .

"If a man be without the virtues proper to humanity.the son of heaven looks profound and grave'. it is better that there be deep sorrow than a minute attention to observances.what application can these words have in the hall of the three families?" Chapter 3. 1. Again against usurped rites. The Master said. Lin Fang asked what was the first thing to be attended to in ceremonies. while the vessels were being removed. In the ceremonies of mourning.against formalism.Chapter 13. "'Assisting are the princes. 2." Book 3 Chapter I. at the conclusion of the sacrifice. "A great question indeed! 3. what may he not bear to do?" Chapter 2. what has he to do with music?" Chapter 4. How with the superior man words follow actions. Confucius's indignation at the usurpation of royal rites. Ceremonies and music vain without virtue.-. it is better to be sparing than extravagant. and afterwards speaks according to his actions. The object of ceremonies should regulate them:-. who had eight rows of pantomimes in his area. what has he to do with the rites of propriety? If a man be without the virtues proper to humanity. The three families used the YUNG ode." . The Master said. Confucius said of the head of the Chî family. The Master said. The Master said. "If he can bear to do this. Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man.-. "In festive ceremonies. "He acts before he speaks.

"Can you not save him from this?" He answered. but Sung cannot sufficiently attest my words. The anarchy of Confucius's time. thus he ascends the hall. If it be said he cannot avoid them. shall this be in archery? But he bows complaisantly to his competitors. and exacts the forfeit of drinking. Ceremonies are secondary and merely ornamental. If those were sufficient. The Master said. I could adduce them in support of my words. 1. Now I can begin to talk about the odes with him. The Master said. In his contention. "It is Shang who can bring out my meaning." Chapter 8. "Alas! will you say that the T'âi mountain is not so discerning as Lin Fang?" Chapter 7. The superior man avoids all contentious striving. "The student of virtue has no contentions. but Chî cannot sufficiently attest my words. The chief of the Chî family was about to sacrifice to the T'ai mountain. he is still the Chün-tsze. The Master said. "The rude tribes of the east and north have their princes.Chapter 5." . "What is the meaning of the passage -. The decay of the monuments of antiquity." Confucius said. "I could describe the ceremonies of the Hsiâ dynasty. and are not like the States of our great land which are without them. The Master said." Chapter 9." Chapter 6. The Master said to Zan Yû. (They cannot do so) because of the insufficiency of their records and wise men. Tsze-hsiâ asked. saying. "I cannot.'The pretty dimples of her artful smile! The well-defined black and white of her eye! The plain ground for the colors?'" 2." 3. I could describe the ceremonies of the Yin dynasty. "Ceremonies then are a subsequent thing?" The Master said. "The business of laying on the colors follows (the preparation of) the plain ground. descends. On the folly of usurped sacrifices.

Some one asked the meaning of the great sacrifice. 'It is better to pay court to the furnace than to the southwest corner?'" 2. The Master.Chapter 10. That there is no resource against the consequences of violating the right. The Master said. when he entered the grand temple." Chapter 14. "Not so. "At the great sacrifice. He sacrificed to the spirits. saying. How complete and elegant are its regulations! I follow Châu. "I consider my not being present at the sacrifice. after the pouring out of the libation.pointing to his palm. Chapter 12. Wang-sun Chiâ asked. 1. "Who say that the son of the man of Tsâu knows the rules of propriety! He has entered the grand . "Châu had the advantage of viewing the two past dynasties." Chapter 11. Some one said. "What is the meaning of the saying. as if they were present. He sacrificed to the dead. "I do not know. The Master said." Chapter 13. I have no wish to look on. 1." Chapter 15. The sage's dissatisfaction at the want of propriety in ceremonies. asked about everything. He who knew its meaning would find it as easy to govern the kingdom as to look on this" -. The completeness and elegance of the institutions of the Châu dynasty. as if the spirits were present. He who offends against Heaven has none to whom he can pray. Confucius in the grand temple. The profound meaning of the great sacrifice. The Master said. Confucius's own sincerity in sacrificing. The Master said. as if I did not sacrifice. The Master said. 2.

The praise of the first of the odes." Chapter 18. 2. "This is a rule of propriety. The duke Ting asked how a prince should employ his ministers." Chapter 17." ." The Master heard the remark. ministers should serve their prince with faithfulness. 1." Chapter 16. How the ancients made archery a discipline of virtue. How Confucius cleaved to ancient rites. Confucius replied. "The full observance of the rules of propriety in serving one's prince is accounted by people to be flattery. "A prince should employ his minister according to according to the rules of propriety." Chapter 20. "The Kwan Tsü is expressive of enjoyment without being licentious. The Master said. and said. you love the sheep. and of grief without being hurtfully excessive. I love the ceremony.-because people's strength is not equal. The Master said. How the princes should be served:-. "Ts'ze. and how ministers should serve their prince. The Master said. The Master said.temple and asks about everything. Tsze-kung wished to do away with the offering of a sheep connected with the inauguration of the first day of each month. This was the old way." Chapter 19. "In archery it is not going through the leather which is the principal thing.against the spirit of the times. The guiding principles in the relation of prince and minister.

saying. all the parts should sound together." . and thus on to the conclusion. who does not know them?" Chapter 23. The Master instructing the Grand music master of Lü said. it is needless to speak about. did Kwan Chung know the rules of propriety?" The Master said. "How to play music may be known. As it proceeds. had a stand on which to place their inverted cups. "Was Kwan Chung parsimonious?" "Kwan." Chapter 24. At the commencement of the piece. On the playing of music. If Kwan knew the rules of propriety. "My friends. things that are past. meaning thereby to cause the people to be in awe. it is needless to blame. "Small indeed was the capacity of Kwan Chung!" 2. he said. "Then. Some one said. he said. 1. things that have had their course." was the reply. "Things that are done. The duke Âi asked Tsâi Wo about the altars of the spirits of the land." Chapter 22. Heaven is going to use your master as a bell with its wooden tongue. the men of the Yin planted the cypress. Tsâi Wo replied. how can he be considered parsimonious?" 3. "When men of superior virtue have come to this." The followers of the sage introduced him. and when he came out from the interview. A rash reply of Tsai Wo about the altars to the spirits of the land. "had the San Kwei." 2. Confucius's opinion of Kwan Chung:-.against him. Kwan had likewise a screen at his gate. The princes of States on any friendly meeting between two of them. 1. and his officers performed no double duties. A stranger's view of the vocation of Confucius.Chapter 21. The Master said. "The princes of States have a screen intercepting the view at their gates. "The Hsiâ sovereign planted the pine tree about them. and the men of the Châu planted the chestnut tree. I have never been denied the privilege of seeing them. and lament of Confucius thereon. When the Master heard it. they should be in harmony while severally distinct and flowing without break. Kwan had also such a stand. it is needless to remonstrate about. why are you distressed by your master's loss of office? The kingdom has long been without the principles of truth and right. The border warden at I requested to be introduced to the Master.

-. The virtuous rest in virtue. Rule for the selection of a residence. "It is virtuous manners which constitute the excellence of a neighborhood. "Those who are without virtue cannot abide long either in a condition of poverty and hardship.Chapter 25. Only in the good man are emotions of love and hatred right. and to be depended on. others. Only true virtue adapts a man for the varied conditions of life. The comparative merits of the music of Shun and Wû. mourning conducted without sorrow. the wise desire virtue. If a man in selecting a residence." Chapter 4. The Master said. do not fix on one where such prevail. The Master said. He said of the Wû that it was perfectly beautiful but not perfectly good. how can he be wise?" Chapter 2. The disregard of what is essential vitiates all services. The Master said of the Shâo that it was perfectly beautiful and also perfectly good.wherewith should I contemplate such ways?" Book 4 Chapter I. "If the will be set on virtue. "High station filled without indulgent generosity. or who can hate." Chapter 3. or in a condition of enjoyment. The Master said. ceremonies performed without reverence. there will be no practice of wickedness." . The virtuous will preserves all from wickedness. who can love. "It is only the (truly) virtuous man. Chapter 26. The Master said. The Master said.

" . 3. they should not be avoided. "If a man in the morning hear the right way. If it cannot be avoided in the proper way. would practice virtue in such a way that he would not allow anything that is not virtuous to approach his person. they should not be held.Chapter 5. The Master said. The Master said. In seasons of danger. The Master said. is not fit to be discoursed with. 2. 2. it may be known that he is virtuous. would esteem nothing above it. He who loved virtue. "Riches and honors are what men desire." Chapter 7. The importance of knowing the right way. I have not seen it. he cleaves to it. whose mind is set on truth. By observing a man's faults. "If a superior man abandon virtue." Chapter 9. Poverty and meanness are what men dislike." Chapter 6. A man is not to be utterly condemned because he has faults. "The faults of men are characteristic of the class to which they belong. "A scholar. The Master said. and who is ashamed of bad clothes and bad food. and encouragement to practice virtue. The Master said. "I have not seen a person who loved virtue. even for the space of a single meal. act contrary to virtue. "Is any one able for one day to apply his strength to virtue? I have not seen the case in which his strength would be insufficient. how can he fulfill the requirements of that name? 3. "The superior man does not. "Should there possibly be any such case. If it cannot be obtained in the proper way. He who hated what is not virtuous. A lament because of the rarity of the love of virtue. he cleaves to it. 1. or one who hated what was not virtuous. In moments of haste. 1. he may die in the evening without regret. The pursuit of truth should raise a man above being ashamed of poverty. The devotion of the Chün-tsze to virtue." Chapter 8.

I am not concerned that I have no place. The Master said. The different mindings of the superior and the small man. the small man thinks of favors which he may receive. The Master said. 1. or against anything. I am not concerned that I am not known. the small man thinks of comfort." Chapter 12. "A man should say. "The superior man thinks of virtue. Advising to self-cultivation. The Master said. "Shan." Chapter 11. The Master said. I am concerned how I may fit myself for one. in the world.Chapter 10. what difficulty will he have? If he cannot govern it with that complaisance. my doctrine is that of an all-pervading unity." The disciple Tsang replied. The Master said: "He who acts with a constant view to his own advantage will be much murmured against. I seek to be worthy to be known. Righteousness is the rule of the Chün-tsze's practice. The influence in government of ceremonies observed in their proper spirit. The superior man thinks of the sanctions of law. The Master said. what has he to do with the rules of propriety?" Chapter 14." Chapter 15." . "If a prince is able to govern his kingdom with the complaisance proper to the rules of propriety. "The superior man. "Yes." Chapter 13. what is right he will follow. does not set his mind either for anything. The consequence of selfish conduct. Confucius's doctrine that of a pervading unity.

and the other disciples asked. The Master said. he shows an increased degree of reverence. "The doctrine of our master is to be true to the principles of our nature and the benevolent exercise of them to others." Chapter 20. the son may not go abroad to a distance. The Master said. The Master said. he may be called filial. saying. "The mind of the superior man is conversant with righteousness. How a son may remonstrate with his parents on their faults. Chapter VI. when we see men of a contrary character. but does not abandon his purpose. "When we see men of worth. "In serving his parents. -. A son not ought to go to a distance where he will not be able to pay the due services to his parents. "While his parents are alive. and should they punish him. a son may remonstrate with them. See Book I." Chapter 17. The lessons to be learned from observing men of different characters. The Master said." Chapter 19." . we should think of equaling them. the mind of the mean man is conversant with gain. he must have a fixed place to which he goes. we should turn inwards and examine ourselves. The Master said. The Master went out. If he does go abroad." Chapter 18. he does not allow himself to murmur." Chapter 16. How righteousness and selfishness distinguish the superior man and the small man. "If the son for three years does not alter from the way of his father.2. when he sees that they do not incline to follow his advice. but gently. "What do his words mean?" Tsang said.this and nothing more. On filial duty.

A lesson to counsellors and friends. frequent reproofs make the friendship distant. he had not been guilty of any crime. "The cautious seldom err. Between encouragement to virtue. . Accordingly. He who practices it will have neighbors. The virtue of the ancients seen in their slowness to speak. frequent remonstrances lead to disgrace. as an occasion at once for joy and for fear." Book 5 Chapter I." Chapter 23. Advantage of caution. he gave him his own daughter to wife. "The superior man wishes to be slow in his speech and earnest in his conduct. 1. The Master said. The Master said. "Virtue is not left to stand alone. Rule of the Chün-tsze about his words and actions. "The years of parents may by no means not be kept in the memory. Tsze-yû said." Chapter 24. The Master said of Kung-Yê Ch'ang that he might be wived. was that they feared lest their actions should not come up to them. although he was put in bonds." Chapter 22. The Master said. What effect the age of parents should have on their children. "In serving a prince." Chapter 26. The Master said. The Master said." Chapter 25.Chapter 21. Confucius in marriage-making was guided by character and not by fortune. "The reason why the ancients did not readily give utterance to their words. The virtuous are not left alone:-.

he would escape punishment and disgrace. how could this man have acquired this character?" Chapter 3. He gave him the daughter of his own elder brother to wife." . "Yung is truly virtuous. "You are a utensil.a lesson to Tsze-lû. "Yû is fonder of daring than I am. Of Nan Yung he said that if the country were well governed he would not be out of office. and float about on the sea. He replied. 1. He does not exercise his judgment upon matters.2.readiness with the tongue no part of virtue. I know not whether he be truly virtuous. "What do you say of me. The Master said of Tsze-chien. but he is not ready with his tongue. The Master said. Of Zan Yung:-." Chapter 4. I dare to say. Whereto Tsze-kung had attained." The Master was pleased. "What is the good of being ready with the tongue? They who encounter men with smartness of speech for the most part procure themselves hatred. and if it were ill governed. upon which the Master said. He that will accompany me will be Yû. I will get upon a raft. Ch'î-tiâo K'âi's opinion of the qualifications necessary to taking office." "What utensil?" "A gemmed sacrificial utensil. Chapter 2. Ts'ze!" The Master said. "My doctrines make no way. The Master said." 2. Confucius proposing to withdraw from the world:-. "Of superior virtue indeed is such a man! If there were not virtuous men in Lû. The Master was wishing Ch'î-tiâo K'âi to enter an official employment. Tsze-kung asked. The Chün-tsze formed by intercourse with other Chün-tsze. "I am not yet able to rest in the assurance of THIS. but why should he show readiness of the tongue?" Chapter 5. Chapter 6." Tsze-lû hearing this was glad. Some one said.

" "Ch'ang. Ch'iû might be employed as governor. but I do not know whether he be perfectly virtuous. Ch'ih might be employed to converse with the visitors and guests. yourself or Hûi?" 2. This Yü! -. Tsâi Yü being asleep during the daytime. "And what do you say of Ch'iû?" The Master replied. I hear one point. The Master said. "In a city of a thousand families. "With his sash girt and standing in a court. "At first.Chapter 7. "Rotten wood cannot be carved. whether he was perfectly virtuous. 1. Yû might be employed to manage the military levies. the Master said." Chapter 8. and know a second. and look at their conduct." Chapter 10. you are not equal to him. It is from Yü that I have learned to make this change. Tsze-kung replied. or a clan of a hundred chariots. "How dare I compare myself with Hûi? Hûi hears one point and knows all about a subject. but I do not know whether he is perfectly virtuous." Chapter 9. Unbending virtue cannot co-exist with indulgence of the passions. "You are not equal to him." said the Master. "I have not seen a firm and unbending man. but I do not know whether he is perfectly virtuous.what is the use of my reproving him?" 2. when the Master replied. "I do not know. The Master said. "is under the influence of his passions." 3. The Master said. my way with men was to hear their words. "There is Shan Ch'ang. He asked again." 2. Of Tsze-Lû. 1. "Which do you consider superior. how can he be pronounced firm and unbending?" ." 3. The Master said to Tsze-kung. The Master said. Tsze-yû. I grant you. 1. and give them credit for their conduct." Some one replied. and Tsze-hwâ. The idleness of Tsâi Yü and its reproof. a wall of dirty earth will not receive the trowel. Superiority of Yen Hûi to Tsze-kung." 4. Mang Wû asked about Tsze-lû. "What do you say of Ch'ih?" The Master replied. Now my way is to hear their words. "In a kingdom of a thousand chariots.

The Master his conduct of himself. Tsze-kung asked. cannot be heard.Chapter 11. saying. and the way of Heaven. in nourishing the people. How to maintain friendship. The acquaintance might be long. he was kind. The Master said of Tsze-ch'an that he had four of the characteristics of a superior man -." The Master said. The difficulty of attaining to the not wishing to do to others as we wish them not to do to us. "Ts'ze.On these grounds he has been styled WAN. An example of the principle on which honorary posthumous titles were conferred. he was just. he was only afraid lest he should hear something else. The excellent qualities of Tsze-ch'an. in serving his superior. I also wish not to do to men. His discourses about man's nature. and he was not ashamed to ask and learn of his inferiors! -. "On what ground did Kung-wan get that title of WAN?" The Master said. Tsze-kung said." Chapter 12. he was humble. Chapter 14. The gradual way in which Confucius communicated his doctrines. he was respectful. "Yen P'ing knew well how to maintain friendly intercourse. in ordering the people." ." Chapter 15. "What I do not wish men to do to me. but he showed the same respect as at first. When Tsze-lû heard anything. you have not attained to that. Tsze-kung said. "The Master's personal displays of his principles and ordinary descriptions of them may be heard. if he had not yet succeeded in carrying it into practice. Chapter 16." Chapter 13. "He was of an active nature and yet fond of learning. The ardour of Tsze-lû in practising the master's instructions.

" Chapter 20. The Master said.-. "Tsang Wan kept a large tortoise in a house. He came to a second state. -. he said. and then acted. The praise of perfect virtue is not to be lightly accorded. Ch'ûi. saying." . Ning Wû acted the part of a wise man. "He was pure. on the capitals of the pillars of which he had hills made. When his country was in disorder. he said. and with representations of duckweed on the small pillars above the beams supporting the rafters. "When the officer Ch'ûi killed the prince of Ch'î." Chapter 21. Others may equal his wisdom. "He was loyal. Tsze-chang proceeded. "Let me return! Let me return! The little children of my school are ambitious and too hasty. The uncommon but admirable stupidity of Ning Wû.-. The superstition of Tsang Wan. How can he be pronounced perfectly virtuous?" Chapter 19. Chî Wan thought thrice. He made it a point to inform the new minister of the way in which he had conducted the government. he acted the part of a stupid man. "When good order prevailed in his country. and manifested no joy in his countenance.Of what sort was his wisdom?" Chapter 18. When the Master was in Ch'an. abandoned them and left the country. he said. When the Master was informed of it. "The minister Tsze-wan thrice took office. but they cannot equal his stupidity.what do you say of him?" The Master replied. Tsze-chang asked. How can he be pronounced perfectly virtuous?" 2. "Twice may do.what do you say of him?" The Master replied. 'They are here like our great officer. Ch'an Wan. but they do not know how to restrict and shape themselves. though he was the owner of forty horses. They are accomplished and complete so far." "Was he perfectly virtuous?" "I do not know. Thrice he retired from office. and with the same observation left it also.Chapter 17. Prompt decision good.' and left it. and manifested no displeasure." "Was he perfectly virtuous?" "I do not know. The Master said. 1. The anxiety of Confucius about the training of his disciples. Coming to another state.

in regard to friends. The Master said.Tso Ch'iˆu-ming was ashamed of such conduct. and inwardly accuse himself. Small meanness inconsistent with uprightness. to show them sincerity. The Master said. an insinuating appearance. "Po-î and Shû-ch'î did not keep the former wickednesses of men in mind. nor to make a display of my meritorious deeds. 1. and Confucius. I also am ashamed of it." 2. The Master said. and he begged it of a neighbor and gave it to the man. The Master said. and light fur clothes. I also am ashamed of them. and hence the resentments directed towards them were few." 3. having chariots and horses. Yen Yüan said. Praise of sincerity." Chapter 26. I would not be displeased." Chapter 23. "Come.Tso Ch'iˆuming was ashamed of them. in regard to the young. "They are. to hear your wishes. and appear friendly with him. "It is all over. Tsze-lû." Chapter 25. sir. let each of you tell his wishes. A lament over men's persistence in error. in regard to the aged. "Who says of Wei-shang Kâo that he is upright? One begged some vinegar of him.Chapter 22. The generosity of Po-î and Shû-ch'î. to give them rest. to share them with my friends. to treat them tenderly. "I should like. To conceal resentment against a person. and of Tso Ch'iû-ming." The Master said. I have not yet seen one who could perceive his faults.-. Tsze-lû then said." . and excessive respect." Chapter 24. Yen Yüan and Chî Lû being by his side. Tsze-lû said. "Fine words." 4. and though they should spoil them. "I should like not to boast of my excellence. the Master said to them. "I should like. The different wishes of Yen Yüan.-.

is not such an easymode of procedure excessive?" 4. Tsze-hwâ being employed on a mission to Ch'î. 2. Confucius replied to him." Yen requested more." Chapter 2. "There was Yen Hûi. "If a man cherish in himself a reverential feeling of the necessity of attention to business. his appointed time was short and he died. " He may pass. He does not mind small matters." Book 6 Chapter I. "Give her an yü. Discrimination of Confucius in rewarding or salarying officers. the disciple Zan requested grain for his mother. But if he cherish in himself that easy feeling. The Master said. The Master said. Hûi's superiority to the other disciples. as regards their aptitude for government.He might occupy the place of a prince. "Yung's words are right. "In a hamlet of ten families. but not so fond of learning. Chung-kung said. 1. that may be allowed. "There is Yung! -.Chapter 27. he did not repeat a fault. though he may be easy in small matters in his government of the people. The Master said. The humble claim of Confucius for himself. 1. Unfortunately." said the Master. I have not yet heard of any one who loves to learn as he did. and also carry it out in his practice. Yen gave her five ping. "Give her a fû. 1. The Master said. and now there is not such another." 3. Chung-kung asked about Tsze-sang Po-tsze." Chapter 3. The characters of Zan Yung and Tsze-sang Po-tsze. The Duke Ai asked which of the disciples loved to learn. . He did not transfer his anger. The Master said." 2. The rarity of a true love to learn. there may be found one honorable and sincere as I am. HE loved to learn.

but does not add to the wealth of the rich. "Do not decline them. I shall be obliged to go and live on the banks of the Wan. "Yû is a man of decision. "Decline the offer for me politely. what difficulty would he find in being an officer of government?" And to the same question about Ch'iû the Master gave the same reply. The Master said. "Is Ts'ze fit to be employed as an officer of government?" and was answered. but Sze declined them. The others may attain to this on some days or in some months. The qualities of Tsze-lû. The Master said. said. "Ts'ze is a man of intelligence. towns. The vices of a father should not discredit a virtuous son. would the spirits of the mountains and rivers put it aside?" Chapter 5. 4. The Master said. what difficulty would he find in being an officer of government?" K'ang asked. "When Ch'ih was proceeding to Ch'î. The Master. I have heard that a superior man helps the distressed. The chief of the Chî family sent to ask Min Tsze-ch'ien to be governor of Pî. Min Tszech'ien said. "Ch'iû is a man of various ability. "Such was Hûi that for three months there would be nothing in his mind contrary to perfect virtue. The Master said. and wore light furs. The superiority of Hûi to the other disciples. although men may not wish to use it." . and their competency to assist in government. Tsze-kung. but nothing more. speaking of Chung-kung. saying. hamlets." Chapter 7. May you not give them away in the neighborhoods." 3. Yuan Sze being made governor of his town by the Master. he gave him nine hundred measures of grain. If any one come again to me with a second invitation. whether he was fit to be employed as an officer of government. Min Tsze-ch'ien refuses to serve the Chî family. and Tsze-Yû. Chî K'ang asked about Chung-yû." Chapter 6. he had fat horses to his carriage.2. "If the calf of a brindled cow be red and horned. and villages?" Chapter 4.

Po-niû being ill. He took hold of his hand through the window. It is the appointment of Heaven. and living in his mean narrow lane. he did not allow his joy to be affected by it. "It is killing him. the Master said to him. A high aim and perseverance proper to a student.Chapter 8." Chapter 12. "It is not that I do not delight in your doctrines. and not after that of the mean man. saying." The Master said. The character of Tan-tâi Mieh-ming. a single gourd dish of drink. How learning should be pursued. The Master said. My horse would not advance. when they were about to enter the gate. "Those whose strength is insufficient give over in the middle of the way but now you limit yourself. but my strength is insufficient. Yen Ch'iû said. excepting on public business. he whipped up his horse." Chapter 11." Chapter 13. The happiness of Hûi independent of his poverty. The Master said to Tsze-hsiâ. and said. "Do you be a scholar after the style of the superior man. and never comes to my office.'" . alas! That such a man should have such a sickness! That such a man should have such a sickness!" Chapter 9. Admirable indeed was the virtue of Hûi!" Chapter 10. 'It is not that I dare to be last. Tsze-yû being governor of Wû-ch'ang. The virtue of Mang Chih-fan in concealing his merit. while others could not have endured the distress. The Master said. who never in walking takes a short cut. "Mang Chih-fan does not boast of his merit. "Admirable indeed was the virtue of Hûi! With a single bamboo dish of rice. "Have you got good men there?" He answered. Being in the rear on an occasion of flight. the Master went to ask for him. Lament of Confucius over the mortal sickness of Po-niû. "There is Tan-t'âi Mieh-ming.

" Chapter 17. it is difficult to escape in the present age. Teachers must be guided in communicating knowledge by the susceptivity of the learners. and cannot be calculated on. To those who are below mediocrity. The Master said. "Who can go out but by the door? How is it that men will not walk according to these ways?" Chapter 16. The Master said." . his escape from death is the effect of mere good fortune. "They who know the truth are not equal to those who love it. and yet live. the highest subjects may not be announced. If a man lose his uprightness. the highest subjects may be announced. When the accomplishments and solid qualities are equally blended.Chapter 14." Chapter 18. Different stages of attainment. we have rusticity. "Man is born for uprightness." Chapter 19. A lament over the waywardness of men's conduct. "To those whose talents are above mediocrity. we then have the man of virtue. The Master said. The Master said. "Without the specious speech of the litanist T'o and the beauty of the prince Châo of Sung. The equal blending of solid excellence and ornamental accomplishments in a complete character. Life without uprightness is not true life. "Where the solid qualities are in excess of accomplishments. where the accomplishments are in excess of the solid qualities." Chapter 15. and they who love it are not equal to those who delight in it. The Master said. The Master said. The degeneracy of the age esteeming glibness of tongue and beauty of person. we have the manners of a clerk.

the virtuous are tranquil.-. The Master said." Chapter 21. by one change. to keep aloof from them. "A benevolent man. Contrasts of the wise and the virtuous. the virtuous find pleasure in hills. Chief elements in wisdom and virtue. but he cannot be fooled. The Master said. Lû. The wise are active. The Master said. "To give one's self earnestly to the duties due to men. The happy effect of learning and propriety combined. I suppose. may be called wisdom." . and.Chapter 20. The wise are joyful. the virtuous are long-lived." Chapter 25. -. -. The Master said. The condition of the States Chî and Lû. He may be imposed upon. The name without the reality is folly.A strange cornered vessel! A strange cornered vessel!" Chapter 24. may thus likewise not overstep what is right. "The superior man. and success only a subsequent consideration." Chapter 23. "Ch'î.this may be called perfect virtue. extensively studying all learning. The benevolent exercise their benevolence with prudence. saying. Fan Ch'ih asked what constituted wisdom." Chapter 22. and keeping himself under the restraint of the rules of propriety. but he cannot be made to go down into it.'There is a man in the well" will go in after him. "Why should he do so? A superior man may be made to go to the well. would come to the State of Lû. would come to a State where true principles predominated." He asked about perfect virtue. "The man of virtue makes the difficulty to be overcome his first business. "A cornered vessel without corners. though it be told him. "The wise find pleasure in water. by one change. The Master said." Confucius said. while respecting spiritual beings. The Master said. Tsâi Wo asked.

3." Chapter 28. The Master said. on which the Master swore. "Now the man of perfect virtue. "To be able to judge of others by what is nigh in ourselves. Confucius vindicates himself for visiting the unworthy Nan-tsze. The Master having visited Nan-tsze. saying. and able to assist all. "The silent treasuring up of knowledge. and instructing others without being wearied:-. Tsze-kung said. "Why speak only of virtue in connection with him? Must he not have the qualities of a sage? Even Yâo and Shun were still solicitous about this. 2. learning without satiety." Book 7 Chapter I. The Master said. wishing to be established himself. "Wherein I have done improperly. believing in and loving the ancients." Chapter 2. may Heaven reject me! may Heaven reject me!" Chapter 27. "Suppose the case of a man extensively conferring benefits on the people. he seeks also to enlarge others. "A transmitter and not a maker. Confucius disclaims being an originator or maker. what would you say of him? Might he be called perfectly virtuous?" The Master said. wishing to be enlarged himself. seeks also to establish others. The true nature and art of virtue. 1. "Perfect is the virtue which is according to the Constant Mean! Rare for a long time has been its practice among the people.-.which one of these things belongs to me?" .this may be called the art of virtue. I venture to compare myself with our old P'ang. Confucius's humble estimate of himself.Chapter 26. The Master said. The defective practice of of the people in Confucius's time. Tsze-lû was displeased.

and he looked pleased. The Master said. "Let the will be set on the path of duty. the not thoroughly discussing what is learned. Confucius's anxiety about his self-cultivation:-.another humble estimate of himself. not being able to move towards righteousness of which a knowledge is gained. that I saw the duke of Châu.Chapter 3. 1.these are the things which occasion me solicitude. as I was wont to do. The Master said. "Let every attainment in what is good be firmly grasped. The readiness of Confucius to impart instruction. "Let relaxation and enjoyment be found in the polite arts. How the disappointment of Confucius's hopes affected even his dreams. Chapter 5. "Extreme is my decay. "Let perfect virtue be accorded with. The manner of Confucius when unoccupied." Chapter 4." ." Chapter 6. 3. "From the man bringing his bundle of dried flesh for my teaching upwards. The Master said." Chapter 7. "The learning virtue without proper cultivation. I have never refused instruction to any one. 2. his manner was easy. Rules for the full maturing of character. The Master said. For a long time. 4. When the Master was unoccupied with business. I have not dreamed. and not being able to change what is not good:-.

When I have presented one corner of a subject to any one. who is fond of adjusting his plans. dying without any regret. and sickness. The Master said to Yen Yuan. to undertake its duties. who will unarmed attack a tiger. "If you had the conduct of the armies of a great state.fasting.-. Chapter 10. When the Master was eating by the side of a is only I and you who have attained to this. though I should become a groom with whip in hand to get them." Chapter 9. I will do so. and then carries them into execution." Chapter 12. He did not sing on the same day in which he had been weeping. "I would not have him to act with me. "If the search for riches is sure to be successful. The Master said. What things Confucius was particularly careful about. Confucius required a real desire and ability in his disciples. Confucius's sympathy with mourners. I do not repeat my lesson. The excessive boldness of Tsze-lû. The Master said. "I do not open up the truth to one who is not eager to get knowledge. when not so called.Chapter 8. 1. The Master said. war. or cross a river without a boat. he never ate to the full. 2. I will follow after that which I love. The uncertainty and folly of the pursuit of riches. . My associate must be the man who proceeds to action full of solicitude. "When called to office. to lie retired. Tsze-lû said. nor help out any one who is not anxious to explain himself. As the search may not be successful. and he cannot from it learn the other three." 2." Chapter 11. whom would you have to act with you?" 3. The things in reference to which the Master exercised the greatest caution were -. 1. The attainments of Hûi like those of Confucius.

the History. The Master's frequent themes of discourse were -. On all these he frequently discoursed. Chapter 18. Tsze-kung went out and said. The effect of music on Confucius. earnest learner.the Odes. The joy of Confucius independent of outward circumstances. and my bended arm for a pillow. The value which Confucius set upon the study of the Yî. "Did they have any repinings because of their course?" The Master again replied. and Tsze-lû did not answer him. and the maintenance of the Rules of Propriety. "If some years were added to my life." said the Master. what was there for them to repine about?" On this. "Oh! I will ask him.Chapter 13. He went in accordingly. as being simply a cheerful." Chapter 14. "I did not think'" he said. and they did so. "that music could have been made so excellent as this. 1. The Duke of Sheh asked Tsze-lû about Confucius. The Master said. Yen Yû said. and for three months did not know the taste of flesh. 1. and said. Confucius's most common topics." Chapter 17." Chapter 15. "Is our Master for the ruler of Wei?" Tsze-kung said. "What sort of men were Po-î and Shû-ch'i?" "They were ancient worthies. I would give fifty to the study of the Yî. he heard the Shâo. "Our Master is not for him. "With coarse rice to eat. are to me as a floating cloud.-I have still joy in the midst of these things." Chapter 16. When the Master was in Ch'î. . with water to drink." 2. The Master said. Riches and honors acquired by unrighteousness. Confucius did not approve of a son opposing his father. and then I might come to be without great faults. Confucius's description of his own character. "They sought to act virtuously.

. The subjects of Confucius's teaching. The Master said.that is my way. "I am not one who was born in the possession of knowledge. their bad qualities and avoid them. my disciples. The subjects on which the Master did not talk. The Master said. devotion of soul. "Why did you not say to him. Confucius calm in danger.2. There were four things which the Master taught. were -. Chapter 21. and earnest in seeking it there. Hwan T'ûi -. but the result of his study of antiquity. through the assurance of having a divine mission. and who does not perceive that old age is coming on?" Chapter 19. The Master said. "Heaven produced the virtue that is in me. There is nothing which I do that is not shown to you." Chapter 20.-. "Do you think.letters. Confucius practised no concealment with his disciples." Chapter 24. -. Subjects avoided by Confucius in his conversation. How a man may find instructors for himself. who in the joy of its attainment forgets his sorrows.what can he do to me?" Chapter 23. they may serve me as my teachers. my disciples. that I have any concealments? I conceal nothing from you. and spiritual beings. who in his eager pursuit of knowledge forgets his food. The Master said.extraordinary things. I am one who is fond of antiquity. Confucius's knowledge not connate. I will select their good qualities and follow them." Chapter 22. The Master said. "When I walk along with two others. and truthfulness.He is simply a man. -. ethics. disorder. feats of strength. is difficult with such characteristics to have constancy." Chapter 28. The Master said. The humanity of Confucius.this is the second style of knowledge. The Master said. "Is virtue a thing remote? I wish to be virtuous. Why must one be so severe? If a man purify himself to wait upon me. It was difficult to talk (profitably and reputably) with the people of Hû-hsiang. 1. The Master said. that would satisfy me. Hearing much and selecting what is good and following it. empty and yet affecting to be full.but did not use a net." . The Master said. Virtue is not far to seek. and the pretentiousness of. without guaranteeing his past conduct." Chapter 29. "I admit people's approach to me without committing myself as to what they may do when they have retired. The paucity of true men in. and lo! virtue is at hand. He shot.but not at birds perching. The Master said.Chapter 25. Chapter 27. the disciples doubted. could I see a man of real talent and virtue. I receive him so purified. -. straitened and yet affecting to be at ease:-. "Having not and yet affecting to have. Against acting heedlessly. "There may be those who act without knowing why. The Master angled. 2. I do not do so. 3. 1. "A sage it is not mine to see. seeing much and keeping it in memory:-. and a lad of that place having had an interview with the Master." 2. The readiness of Confucius to meet approaches to him though made by the unlikely. could I see a man possessed of constancy. that would satisfy me. Confucius's time. "A good man it is not mine to see." Chapter 26.

and called her. "In letters I am perhaps equal to other men. and the Master said. cannot imitate you in. In the Eulogies it is dare I rank myself with them? It may simply be said of me. and Confucius said. 1. "This is just what we. The Master said. "I am fortunate! If I have any errors. How Confucius acknowledged his error. and said. "The sage and the man of perfect virtue. carrying out in his conduct what he professes. 'Prayer has been made for thee to the spirits of the upper and lower worlds.Chapter 30." 2. He said." Kung-hsî Hwâ said. -. The Master said. "My praying has been for a long time. people are sure to know them." Chapter 34. When the Master was in company with a person who was singing. he would make him repeat the song. the minister bowed to Wû-mâ Ch'î to come forward.'The elder Tsze of Wû.' If the prince knew propriety. Chapter 32. that I strive to become such without satiety. What Confucius declined to be considered. and what he claimed. who does not know it?" 3. Wû-mâ Ch'î reported these remarks. while he accompanied it with his own voice. and teach others without weariness. "He knew propriety. "I have heard that the superior man is not a partisan. The minister of crime of Ch'an asked whether the duke Châo knew propriety. the disciples.-. of the same surname with himself. Confucius declines to be prayed for. is what I have not yet attained to. May the superior man be a partisan also? The prince married a daughter of the house of Wû." Chapter 33.'" The Master said. Tsze-lû asked leave to pray for him." . Acknowledgement of Confucius in estimating himself. The good fellowship of Confucius. Confucius having retired. but the character of the superior man. "May such a thing be done?" Tsze-lû replied. if he sang well. The Master being very sick. "It may." Chapter 31.

and yet not fierce. without the rules of propriety. the mean man is always full of distress. Meanness not so bad as insubordination. "When those who are in high stations perform well all their duties to their relations. "Extravagance leads to insubordination. The Master said. 1. The exceeding virtue of T'âi-po. When old friends are not neglected by them. respectful. Book 8 Chapter I." Chapter 37. becomes insubordination. without the rules of propriety. and yet dignified.Chapter 35. and of example in those in high stations. How various elements modified one another in the character of Confucius. and parsimony to meanness. and the people in ignorance of his motives could not express their approbation of his conduct. without the rules of propriety. and yet easy. becomes timidity. becomes rudeness. majestic. without the rules of propriety. boldness. The Master said. becomes laborious bustle. carefulness. 2. The Master said. the people are preserved from meanness. the people are aroused to virtue." Chapter 36. straightforwardness. "The superior man is satisfied and composed. "Respectfulness. The Master said. "T'âi-po may be said to have reached the highest point of virtuous action." . Contrast in their feelings between the Chün-tsze and the mean man. The value of the rules of propriety. Thrice he declined the kingdom. The Master was mild. It is better to be mean than to be insubordinate." Chapter 2.

and yet counting himself as empty. as though he had not. Meng Chang went to ask how he was. he cared to him the disciples of his school." Chapter 4. "Gifted with ability. as if treading on thin ice. and can be commissioned with authority over a state of a hundred lî. that in regulating his countenance he keep near to sincerity. formerly I had a friend who pursued this style of conduct." Chapter 5. 'We should be apprehensive and cautious. uncover my hands. 2." . as if on the brink of a deep gulf. The philosopher Tsang's filial piety seen in his care of his person. "Uncover my feet. when a man is about to die. there are the proper officers for them. and that in his words and tones he keep far from lowness and impropriety. The philosopher Tsang's dying counsels to a man of high rank. The philosopher Tsang being ill.that in his deportment and manner he keep from violence and heedlessness. Tsang said to such a man a superior man? He is a superior man indeed. having. A combination of talents and virtue constituting a Chün-tsze. "Suppose that there is an individual who can be entrusted with the charge of a young orphan prince. offended against." Chapter 6. full. my little children. 3. and yet putting questions to those possessed of little. The philosopher Tsang said. I know my escape from all injury to my person. and yet putting questions to those who were not so. It is said in the Book of Poetry. The philosopher Tsang being ill. possessed of much. and said. its notes are mournful. Now and hereafter. The admirable simplicity and freedom from egotism of a friend of the philosopher Tsang. The philosopher Tsang said.Chapter 3. his words are good. O ye. "There are three principles of conduct which the man of high rank should consider specially important:-. 1. I and so have I been. and whom no emergency however great can drive from his principles:-. "When a bird is about to die. and yet entering into no altercation. As to such matters as attending to the sacrificial vessels.

Chapter 7. yet if he be proud and niggardly. proprieties. those other things are really not worth being looked it not long? Chapter 8." Chapter 10.-. when you carry your dislike of him to an extreme. His burden is heavy and his course is long. So will the man who is not virtuous." Chapter 9. "Though a man have abilities as admirable as those of the duke of Châu. "It is by the Rules of Propriety that the character is established. Different causes of insubordination. "It is from Music that the finish is received." Chapter 11. "It is by the Odes that the mind is aroused. The Master said. The philosopher Tsang said. The Master said. The Master said. "The man who is fond of daring and is dissatisfied with poverty.a lesson to rulers. The necessity to the officer of compass and vigor of it not heavy? Only with death does his course stop. The worthlessness of talent without virtue. 1. and what may not be attained to with the people." . "The people may be made to follow a path of action. The Master said.-. 3. "The officer may not be without breadth of mind and vigorous endurance. 1. but they may not be made to understand it. What may. and music. will proceed to insubordination. 2. "Perfect virtue is the burden which he considers it is his to sustain. The effects of poetry. 2.

such persons I do not understand. the finish of the Kwan Tsu was magnificent. "When a country is well governed. "It is not easy to find a man who has learned for three years without coming to be good. When a country is ill governed." . A lamentation over moral error added to natural defect. The Master said." Chapter 13.-." Chapter 14. poverty and a mean condition are things to be ashamed of. "When the music master Chih first entered on his office. Every man should mind his own business. who will always act right in accepting and declining office. nor dwell in a disorganized one. "With sincere faith he unites the love of learning. The Master said." Chapter 15. when they are prostrated. The praise of the music-master Chih. he will keep concealed. 1. "He who is not in any particular office has nothing to do with plans for the administration of its duties. holding firm to death. The Master said. simple and yet not sincere:-. 3. he is perfecting the excellence of his course. "Such a one will not enter a tottering state. When right principles of government prevail in the kingdom. 2. The Master said. "Ardent and yet not upright. The Master it filled the ears!" Chapter 16. How quickly learning makes men good. stupid and yet not attentive. The qualifications of an officer. he will show himself.Chapter 12. riches and honor are things to be ashamed of.

were they more abundant than in this of Châu. "How majestic was the manner in which Shun and Yü held possession of the empire. "Great indeed was Yâo as a sovereign! How majestic was he! It is only Heaven that is grand. He used himself coarse food and drink.Chapter 17. Shun had five ministers. as if it were nothing to them!" Chapter 19. The Master said." Chapter 21. 2. and were always fearing also lest you should lose it. but displayed the utmost filial piety towards the spirits. The praise of Yâo. The lofty character of Shun and Yü. and only Yâo corresponded to it. Confucius said. 1. and the empire was well governed. His ordinary garments were poor. true? Only when the dynasties of T'ang and Yü met. King Wû said. 4. How vast was his virtue! The people could find no name for it. The scarcity of men of talent. The able ministers were no more than nine men. "Learn as if you could not reach your object. and praise of the house of Châu." Chapter 18. The praise of Yü. 2. The Master said. yet there was a woman among them. . "King Wan possessed two of the three parts of the empire. The virtue of the house of Châu may be said to have reached the highest point indeed. "Is not the saying that talents are difficult to find. With what earnestness and continuousness learning should be pursued. The Master said. and with those he served the dynasty of Yin. "I can find no flaw in the character of Yü. 1. "How majestic was he in the works which he accomplished! How glorious in the elegant regulations which he instituted!" Chapter 20. The Master said." 3. "I have ten able ministers.

but he displayed the utmost elegance in his sacrificial cap and apron. He lived in a low, mean house, but expended all his strength on the ditches and water channels. I can find nothing like a flaw in Yü." Book 9
Chapter I. Subjects seldom spoken of by Confucius.

The subjects of which the Master seldom spoke were -- profitableness, and also the appointments of Heaven, and perfect virtue.
Chapter 2. Amusement of Confucius at the remark of an ignorant man about him.

1. A man of the village of Tâ-hsiang said, "Great indeed is the philosopher K'ung! His learning is extensive, and yet he does not render his name famous by any particular thing." 2. The Master heard the observation, and said to his disciples, "What shall I practice? Shall I practice charioteering, or shall I practice archery? I will practice charioteering."
Chapter 3. Some common practices indifferent and others not.

1. The Master said, "The linen cap is that prescribed by the rules of ceremony, but now a silk one is worn. It is economical, and I follow the common practice. 2. "The rules of ceremony prescribe the bowing below the hall, but now the practice is to bow only after ascending it. That is arrogant. I continue to bow below the hall, though I oppose the common practice."
Chapter 4. Frailties from which Confucius was free.

There were four things from which the Master was entirely free. He had no foregone conclusions, no arbitrary predeterminations, no obstinacy, and no egoism.
Chapter 5. Confucius assured in a time of danger by his conviction of a divine mission.

1. The Master was put in fear in K'wang.

2. He said, "After the death of King Wan, was not the cause of truth lodged here in me? 3. "If Heaven had wished to let this cause of truth perish, then I, a future mortal, should not have got such a relation to that cause. While Heaven does not let the cause of truth perish, what can the people of K'wang do to me?"
Chapter 6. On the various ability of Confucius:-- his sagehood not therein.

1. A high officer asked Tsze-kung, saying, "May we not say that your Master is a sage? How various is his ability!" 2. Tsze-kung said, "Certainly Heaven has endowed him unlimitedly. He is about a sage. And, moreover, his ability is various." 3. The Master heard of the conversation and said, "Does the high officer know me? When I was young, my condition was low, and therefore I acquired my ability in many things, but they were mean matters. Must the superior man have such variety of ability? He does not need variety of ability." 4. Lâo said, "The Master said, 'Having no official employment, I acquired many arts.'"
Chapter 7. Confucius disclaims the knowledge attributed to him, and declares his earnestness in teaching.

The Master said, "Am I indeed possessed of knowledge? I am not knowing. But if a mean person, who appears quite empty-like, ask anything of me, I set it forth from one end to the other, and exhaust it."
Chapter 8. For want of auspicious omens, Confucius gives up the hope of the triumph of his doctrines.

The Master said, "The FANG bird does not come; the river sends forth no map:-- it is all over with me!"
Chapter 9. Confucius's sympathy with sorrow, respect for rank, and pity for misfortune.

When the Master saw a person in a mourning dress, or any one with the cap and upper and lower garments of full dress, or a blind person, on observing them approaching, though they were younger than himself, he would rise up, and if he had to pass by them, he would do so hastily.

Chapter 10. Yen Yüan's admiration of his master's doctrines; and his own progress in them.

1. Yen Yüan, in admiration of the Master's doctrines, sighed and said, "I looked up to them, and they seemed to become more high; I tried to penetrate them, and they seemed to become more firm; I looked at them before me, and suddenly they seemed to be behind. 2. "The Master, by orderly method, skillfully leads men on. He enlarged my mind with learning, and taught me the restraints of propriety. 3. "When I wish to give over the study of his doctrines, I cannot do so, and having exerted all my ability, there seems something to stand right up before me; but though I wish to follow and lay hold of it, I really find no way to do so."
Chapter 11. Confucius's dislike of pretension, and contentment with his condition.

1. The Master being very ill, Tsze-lû wished the disciples to act as ministers to him. 2. During a remission of his illness, he said, "Long has the conduct of Yû been deceitful! By pretending to have ministers when I have them not, whom should I impose upon? Should I impose upon Heaven? 3. "Moreover, than that I should die in the hands of ministers, is it not better that I should die in the hands of you, my disciples? And though I may not get a great burial, shall I die upon the road?"
Chapter 12. How the desire for office should be qualified by self-respect.

Tsze-kung said, "There is a beautiful gem here. Should I lay it up in a case and keep it? or should I seek for a good price and sell it?" The Master said, "Sell it! Sell it! But I would wait for one to offer the price."
Chapter 13. How barbarians can be civilized.

1. The Master was wishing to go and live among the nine wild tribes of the east. 2. Some one said, "They are rude. How can you do such a thing?" The Master said, "If a superior man dwelt among them, what rudeness would there be?"

Chapter 14. Confucius's services in correcting the music of his native State and adjusting the Book of Poetry.

The Master said, "I returned from Wei to Lû, and then the music was reformed, and the pieces in the Royal songs and Praise songs all found their proper places."
Chapter 15. Confucius's very humble estimate of himself.

The Master said, "Abroad, to serve the high ministers and nobles; at home, to serve one's father and elder brothers; in all duties to the dead, not to dare not to exert one's self; and not to be overcome of wine:-- which one of these things do I attain to?"
Chapter 16. How Confucius was affected by a running stream.

The Master standing by a stream, said, "It passes on just like this, not ceasing day or night!"
Chapter 17. The rarity of a sincere love of virtue.

The Master said, "I have not seen one who loves virtue as he loves beauty."
Chapter 18. That learners should not cease nor intermit their labours.

The Master said, "The prosecution of learning may be compared to what may happen in raising a mound. If there want but one basket of earth to complete the work, and I stop, the stopping is my own work. It may be compared to throwing down the earth on the level ground. Though but one basketful is thrown at a time, the advancing with it is my own going forward."
Chapter 19. Hûi the earnest student.

The Master said, "Never flagging when I set forth anything to him;-- ah! that is Hûi."

" . then indeed he will not be worth being regarded with respect. How do we know that his future will not be equal to our present? If he reach the age of forty or fifty. but does not unfold their aim. and assents to those. I never saw him stop in his progress." Chapter 21. The Master said. The Master said. "Can men refuse to assent to the words of strict admonition? But it is reforming the conduct because of them which is valuable. The Master said. How and why a youth should be regarded with respect. Have no friends not equal to yourself. If a man be pleased with these words. I can really do nothing with him. but the will of even a common man cannot be taken from him. See Book I Chapter 8. "Alas! I saw his constant advance. The will unsubduable. Confucius's fond recollection of Hûi as a model student. but does not reform his conduct. but the plant does not go on to flower! There are cases where it flowers but no fruit is subsequently produced!" Chapter 22." Chapter 23. "Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles. Can men refuse to be pleased with words of gentle advice? But it is unfolding their aim which is valuable. It is the end which crowns the work. "A youth is to be regarded with respect. When you have faults. The Master said of Yen Yüan. do not fear to abandon them. "There are cases in which the blade springs.Chapter 20. "The commander of the forces of a large state may be carried off. and has not made himself heard of. The hopelessness of the case of those who assent and approve without reformation or serious thought." Chapter 24." Chapter 25. The Master said. The Master said.

Tsze-lû kept continually repeating these words of the ode. then we know how the pine and the cypress are the last to lose their leaves. and not ashamed." Chapter 29. The Master said." Chapter 27.ah! it is Yû who is equal to this! 2. The Master said. The sequences of wisdom.what can he do but what is good!" 3. How is it distant?" Book 10 . "Dressed himself in a tattered robe quilted with hemp. but we shall find them unable to go along with us to principles. he covets nothing. the virtuous from anxiety. Perhaps we may go on with them to principles.-. The necessity of reflection." Chapter 28. The Master said. "How the flowers of the aspen-plum flutter and turn! Do I not think of you? But your house is distant. "There are some with whom we may study in common.-. 1. we shall find them unable to weigh occurring events along with us. when the Master said. The Master said. and bravery." Chapter 30. 1. but we shall find them unable to get established in those along with us. "It is the want of thought about it. "Those things are by no means sufficient to constitute perfect excellence. virtue. "When the year becomes cold. Men are known in times of adversity. "He dislikes none. "The wise are free from perplexities. Or if we may get so established along with them. Tsze-Lû's brave contentment in poverty." 2. but failure to seek the highest aims. and the bold from fear. How different individuals stop at different stages of progress.Chapter 26. yet standing by the side of men dressed in furs. The Master said.

3. his countenance appeared to change. Demeanor of Confucius at the official reception of a visitor. as if it were not sufficient to admit him. and as if he were not able to speak. in the ancestral temple. his manner displayed respectful uneasiness. When he was waiting at court. "The visitor is not turning round any more. but keeping the skirts of his robe before and behind evenly adjusted. and his legs to move forward with difficulty. When he was standing. as their position required. with his arms like the wings of a bird. 4. but cautiously. he did not tread upon the threshold. and his legs to bend under him. 1. 2.Chapter I. in his village. When the ruler was present. When the guest had retired. Confucius. 3. but selfpossessed. and in the court. looked simple and sincere. in speaking with those of the higher grade. Chapter 2. When the prince called him to employ him in the reception of a visitor. and before the prince. When he was in the prince's ancestral temple. Chapter 3. 2." Chapter 4. or in the court. When he was passing the vacant place of the prince. 1. He inclined himself to the other officers among whom he stood. 2. and his words came as if he hardly had breath to utter them. moving his left or right arm. 2. but in a straightforward manner. he did so blandly. 1. he spoke freely. He hastened forward. 1. Demeanor of Confucius in the court at an audience. he would report to the prince. Demeanour of Confucius in his village. it was grave. he seemed to bend his body. he spoke minutely on every point. his countenance appeared to change. Demeanor of Confucius at court with other great officers. . When he entered the palace gate. but precisely. in speaking with the great officers of the lower grade. when he passed in or out. he did not occupy the middle of the gateway.

3. When staying at home. He did not hold it higher than the position of the hands in making a bow. in the ornaments of his dress. He required his sleeping dress to be half as long again as his body. . The superior man did not use a deep purple. When he had got the bottom of the steps. he used thick furs of the fox or the badger. his manner still showed respectful uneasiness. His countenance seemed to change. as if he dared not breathe. Chapter 5. When he came out from the audience. 5. and look apprehensive. and over fox's fur one of yellow. holding in his breath also. In warm weather. nor lower than their position in giving anything to another. but he wore it displayed over an inner garment. and his body bent. or a puce color. over fawn's fur one of white. 1. 9. except when it was required to be of the curtain shape. he wore all the appendages of the girdle. Over lamb's fur he wore a garment of black. and on occupying it. The fur robe of his undress was long. he began to relax his countenance. 2. 1.4. he seemed to bend his body. he looked highly pleased. Chapter 6. 7. When he put off mourning. 6. with the right sleeve short. holding up his robe with both his hands. He ascended the reception hall. 2. Demeanor of Confucius when employed on a friendly embassy. was made of silk cut narrow above and wide below. as if he were not able to bear its weight. he had a single garment either of coarse or fine texture. Rules of Confucius in regard to his dress. At his private audience. 5. In presenting the presents with which he was charged. and he dragged his feet along as if they were held by something to the ground. When he was carrying the scepter of his ruler. His undergarment. 8. 4. he wore a placid appearance. and had a satisfied look. as soon as he had descended one step. he did not wear anything of a red or reddish color. Even in his undress. he advanced rapidly to his place. 3. with his arms like wings.

nor anything which was ill-cooked. He did not wear lamb's fur or a black cap on a visit of condolence. he did not keep the flesh which he received overnight. When fasting. Although his food might be coarse rice and vegetable soup. he thought it necessary to have his clothes brightly clean and made of linen cloth. but he did not allow himself to be confused by it. He was never without ginger when he ate. He did not dislike to have his rice finely cleaned. 2. Though there might be a large quantity of meat. When fasting. Rules of Confucius about his food. It was only in wine that he laid down no limit for himself. When in bed. or was not in season. 3. and presented himself at court. nor what was served without its proper sauce. he would offer a little of it in sacrifice with a grave. 1. he did not speak. 5. 10. 4. respectful air. 7. he would not allow what he took to exceed the due proportion for the rice. When he had been assisting at the prince's sacrifice. 2. Chapter 8. Chapter 7. He did not eat much. He did not eat meat which was not cut properly. The flesh of his family sacrifice he did not keep over three days. When eating. people could not eat it. 8. Rules observed by Confucius when fasting. If kept over three days. He did not eat rice which had been injured by heat or damp and turned sour. He did not partake of wine and dried meat bought in the market. or what was of a bad flavor. He did not eat what was discolored. On the first day of the month he put on his court robes. he did not converse. 9. nor fish or flesh which was gone. he thought it necessary to change his food.10. nor to have his mince meat cut quite small. . 11. 6. and also to change the place where he commonly sat in the apartment. 1.

he would have it cooked. he had his head to the east. Chapter 13. and drew his girdle across them. 1. "I do not know it. and offer it to the spirits of his ancestors. he went out immediately after. 2. he put on his court robes and stood on the eastern steps. Rule of Confucius about his mat. The stable being burned down. 2. he bowed twice as he escorted the messenger away. and then give it away to others. he would keep it alive." Chapter 12. Chapter 11. When the prince sent him a gift of cooked meat. When he was sending complimentary inquiries to any one in another state. when he was at court. saying. When the prince sent him a gift of undressed meat. "Has any man been hurt?" He did not ask about the horses. . the prince only sacrificed. He first tasted everything. Traits of Confucius's intercourse with others. made his court robes be spread over him. How Confucius valued human life. Other ways of Confucius in his village. upon those who carried staffs going out. he would adjust his mat. he bowed and received it. When he was ill and the prince came to visit him. When he was in attendance on the prince and joining in the entertainment. 3. When the villagers were going through their ceremonies to drive away pestilential influences. 1. I dare not taste it. When the prince sent him a gift of a living animal. Chapter 10. first taste it. 2. If his mat was not straight. 1. he did not sit on it. Chi K'ang having sent him a present of physic. Demeanor of Confucius in relation to his prince. on his return he said.Chapter 9. When the villagers were drinking together.

Chapter 17. or a violent wind. 1. 3. Traits of Confucius in the relation of a friend. when he saw any one wearing the cap of full dress. Chapter 16. When he was in the carriage. When a friend sent him a present. On a sudden clap of thunder. though it might be a carriage and horses. When any of his friends died. &c. Chapter 14. When he was about to mount his carriage. 1. he did not point with his hands. he did not turn his head quite round. he asked about everything. though he might be in his undress. When the prince's order called him. The only present for which he bowed was that of the flesh of sacrifice. See Book 3 Chapter 15. 2. he would change countenance. 4. . 1." 2. he would change countenance. he did not put on any formal deportment. In bed. he would say. if he had no relations who could be depended on for the necessary offices. he bowed in the same way to any one bearing the tables of population. 3. 2. At home. at home. 5. or a blind person. To any person in mourning he bowed forward to the crossbar of his carriage. holding the cord. he went at once. hearing thunder. When he was at an entertainment where there was an abundance of provisions set before him. Confucius in bed. Confucius at and in his carriage. he did not talk hastily. he would change countenance and rise up. he did not lie like a corpse. Chapter 15. he would stand straight. "I will bury him. he would salute him in a ceremonious manner. without waiting for his carriage to be yoked. though it might be an acquaintance. he did not bow.4. When he entered the ancestral temple of the state. When he saw any one in a mourning dress.

2. Hûi's silent reception of the Master's teachings. "Hûi gives me no assistance. Zan Yû and Chî Lû." Chapter 4. are accomplished gentlemen. in ceremonies and music. 1. while the men of these latter times. and Chung-kung. Chapter 3. A fragment. it is said." . The filial piety of Min Tsze-ch'ien. there were Yen Yûan. The Master said. Book 11 Chapter I. Tsâi Wo and Tsze-kung. Min Tszech'ien. 1. 1. there are none to be found to enter my door. "Filial indeed is Min Tsze-ch'ien! Other people say nothing of him different from the report of his parents and brothers. 2.Chapter 18." 2. and by and by settles. The Master said. There is nothing that I say in which he does not delight. "Of those who were with me in Ch'an and Ts'âi. Distinguished for their virtuous principles and practice. for their administrative talents.characteristics of ten of the disciples. Confucius's regretful memory of his disciples' fidelity:-. for their ability in speech. Thrice it smelled him and then rose. for their literary acquirements. "The men of former times in the matters of ceremonies and music were rustics." Chapter 2. Confucius's preference of the simpler ways of former times. Tsze-yû and Tszehsiâ. The Master said. It flies round. The Master said. At its season! At its season!" Tsze-lû made a motion to it. Zan Po-niû. I follow the men of former times. Seeing the countenance. which seemingly has no connexion with the rest of the Book. "There is the hen-pheasant on the hill bridge. it instantly rises. "If I have occasion to use those things. The Master said.

" Chapter 7. Confucius gave him the daughter of his elder brother to wife. he had a coffin but no outer shell. Confucius vindicates his great grief for the death of Hûi. Confucius replied to him. for whom should I mourn?" . Chapter 6. Now there is no one who loves to learn. Chî K'ang asked which of the disciples loved to learn. "There was Yen Hûi. whether he has talents or has not talents. How Hûi loved to learn. There was Lî. having followed in the rear of the great officers. the Master said. and the disciples who were with him said. Confucius's approbation of Nan Yung. your grief is excessive!" 2. the Master bewailed him exceedingly. Yen Lû begged the carriage of the Master to sell and get an outer shell for his son's coffin. "If I am not to mourn bitterly for this man. 1. I would not walk on foot to get a shell for him. "Master. When Yen Yüan died. How Confucius would not sell his carriage to buy a shell for Yen Yüan. "Every one calls his son his son." Chapter 8. Nan Yung was frequently repeating the lines about a white scepter stone. The Master said. "Is it excessive?" said he. when he died. and he died. "Alas! Heaven is destroying me! Heaven is destroying me!" Chapter 9. because. When Yen Yüan died. When Yen Yüan died. as he did. Confucius felt Hûi's death as if it had been his own. it was not proper that I should walk on foot. Unfortunately his appointed time was short.Chapter 5. he loved to learn. 3.

Chî Lû asked about serving the spirits of the dead. Confucius avoids answering questions about serving spirits. Wise advice of Min Sun against useless expenditure. and the Master said. Min Tsze-ch'ien said. he is sure to hit the point. The Master was pleased. I have not been able to treat him as my son. 1. The fault is not mine. The disciple Min was standing by his side. looking bland and precise. Some parties in Lû were going to take down and rebuild the Long Treasury. "Suppose it were to be repaired after its old style. The Master said. The Master said. The disciples did bury him in great style. Confucius happy with his disciples about him. when he does. Tsze-lû. "I venture to ask about death?" He was answered. with a free and straightforward manner. Zan Yû and Tsze-kung.-. 1. 2. "Yû there! -. "You may not do so. 1. The Master said. Confucius's admonition and defence of Tsze-lû. the disciples wished to give him a great funeral." Chapter 14." Chapter 11.he will not die a natural death. 3. looking bold and soldierly. how can you know about death?" Chapter 12. When Yen Yüan died. 1. "While you are not able to serve men. it belongs to you. how can you serve their spirits?" Chî Lû added. "This man seldom speaks. 2. The Master said. "While you do not know life." Chapter 13. Confucius's dissatisfaction with the grand way in which Hûi was buried." 2.Chapter 10. "What has the lute of Yû to do in my door?" . He said. "Hûi behaved towards me as his father.why must it be altered and made anew?" 3. O disciples. and about death.

" Chapter 16. "Shih goes beyond the due mean. "There is Hûi! He has nearly attained to perfect virtue. and Yû. "Yû has ascended to the hall. Ch'âi is simple. Shan. Chapter 18. though he has not yet passed into the inner apartments. 3. Confucius's indignation at the support of usurpation and extortion by one of his disciples. My little children. 1. "Ts'ze does not acquiesce in the appointments of Heaven." Chapter 15. Shan is dull. Yet his judgments are often correct. 1. 1. The Master said. 4. Shih. The Master said." Chapter 17. Hûi and Ts'ze contrasted. was the superior." 3. 2. Characters of the four disciples -. "Then. Comparison of Shih and Shang.Ch'âi. beat the drum and assail him. Yû is coarse. He is often in want. Tsze-kung asked which of the two. 1. and increased his wealth. The Master said. 2. The head of the Chî family was richer than the duke of Châu had been. "the superiority is with Shih. and Shang does not come up to it. and yet Ch'iû collected his imposts for him. 2." . Shih is specious. The Master said. Shih or Shang.2. The other disciples began not to respect Tsze-lû. I suppose. and his goods are increased by him. The Master said. Excess and defect equally wrong. "To go beyond is as wrong as to fall short." 2. "He is no disciple of mine." said Tsze-kung.

Yû has more than his own share of energy. and the Master answered. The Master said. "If. and venture to ask you for an explanation. Chî Tsze-zan asked whether Chung Yû and Zan Ch'iû could be called great ministers. whether he should immediately carry into practice what he heard.' Ch'iû asked whether he should immediately carry into practice what he heard. Chung-yû and Zan Ch'iû only ordinary ministers. The Master said. Yen Yûan's attachment to Confucius." Chapter 22. "There are your father and elder brothers to be consulted.' I. The Master.-. and confidence in his mission. how should I presume to die?" Chapter 23. The Master was put in fear in K'wang and Yen Yûan fell behind. on his rejoining him. is he really a superior man? or is his gravity only in appearance?" Chapter 21. We may not hastily judge a man to be good from his discourse. am perplexed. "He does not tread in the footsteps of others. Tsze-lû asked whether he should immediately carry into practice what he heard.Chapter 19. "While you were alive. therefore I kept him back. 2. therefore I urged him forward. we allow him to be a good man. "I thought you would ask about some extraordinary individuals. The Master said. Ch'ih. said." The Master said. An instance in Tsze-lû and Zan Yû of how Confucius dealt with his disciples according to their characters. A great minister. Tsze-chang asked what were the characteristics of the good man. The good man. "Ch'iû is retiring and slow. but moreover." Kung-hsî Hwâ said. he does not enter the chamber of the sage." Hûi replied. 1. 'Carry it immediately into practice. The Master said. "Yû asked whether he should carry immediately into practice what he heard." Chapter 20. "I thought you had died.why should you act on that principle of immediately carrying into practice what you hear?" Zan Yû asked the same. and you only ask about Yû and Ch'iû! . and you said. "Immediately carry into practice what you hear. and you said. because a man's discourse appears solid and sincere. 'There are your father and elder brothers to be consulted.

and music. and Kung-hsû Hwâ.' If some ruler were to know you. there are the altars of the spirits of the land and grain. and to recognize the rules of righteous conduct. Why must one read books before he can be considered to have learned?" 4. Tsze-lû. Tsze-zan said. as to Yû and Ch'iû. 2. Zan Yû. "Though I am a day or so older than three years' time. Tsang Hsî. 1. is one who serves his prince according to what is right.-. Tsze-lû got Tsze-kâo appointed governor of Pî. let it be straitened between other large states. "From day to day you are saying." 3. 3.if I were intrusted with the government of it. I must wait for the rise of a superior man to do that. retires. and when he finds he cannot do so. do not think of that. "In an act of parricide or regicide. what are your wishes?" Ch'iû replied." Chapter 24. or one of fifty or sixty." Chapter 25. 5. Tsang Hsî. The Master said. "Ch'iû. Tsze-lû hastily and lightly replied. they may be called ordinary ministers. The Master said. and Kung-hsû Hwâ were sitting by the Master. Tsze-lû said. He said to them. 4.3. 'We are not known. As to teaching them the principles of propriety. he said. "There are (there) common people and officers. in three years' time I could make the people to be bold. "Suppose a state of sixty or seventy lî square.a reproof of Tsze-lû. "You are injuring a man's son. "What is called a great minister. "It is on this account that I hate your glib-tongued people. "Now.will they?" 6." The Master smiled at him. let it be suffering from invading armies. and to this let there be added a famine in corn and in all vegetables:-." 5. 1. The Master said. The aims of Tsze-lû. and Confucius's remarks about them. Zan Yû. what would you like to do?" 4." . 2. Turning to Yen Yû. "Suppose the case of a state of ten thousand chariots.-. How preliminary study is necessary to the exercise of government:-. they would not follow him. I could make plenty to abound among the people. and let me have the government of it. "Then they will always follow their chief.

" 11. is perfect virtue." he said. Once more." The Master replied." Tien then said. At the services of the ancestral temple. "Yes." . "I do not say that my ability extends to these things. "I beg to ask the steps of that process. or is it from others?" 2." "What harm is there in that?" said the Master. His words were not humble. I will make it my business to practice this lesson. speak out your wishes. pausing as he was playing on his lute. but I should wish to learn them. why did you smile at Yû?" 10. "What do you think of the words of these three friends?" The Master replied. the last month of spring. did you ever see a territory of sixty or seventy lî or one of fifty or sixty. who but princes have to do with ancestral temples. Tsang Hsî remained behind." The Master heaved a sigh and said. "Yes. as well as they." Yen Yüan then said. dressed in the dark square-made robe and the black linen cap. Hsi again said. "Though I am deficient in intelligence and vigor. Ch'ih replied. I should like. and "My wishes. How to attain to perfect virtue:-. "In this." 9. with the dress of the season all complete. while it was yet twanging. "Look not at what is contrary to propriety. therefore I smiled at him. Last of all. Hsî inquired. the Master asked Tsang Hsî. "are different from the cherished purposes of these three gentlemen. what are your wishes?" Tien. I would wash in the Î. The Master said. which was not a state?" 12. "But was it not a state which Ch'iû proposed for himself?" The reply was.6. laid the instrument aside. listen not to what is contrary to propriety. make no movement which is contrary to propriety. 1. "Master.a conversation with Yen Yüan. Is the practice of perfect virtue from a man himself. who could be a great one? Book 12 Chapter I. and return home singing. and with audiences but the sovereign? If Ch'ih were to be a small assistant in these services. speak not what is contrary to propriety. enjoy the breeze among the rain altars. "I give my approval to Tien. If a man can for one day subdue himself and return to propriety. "To subdue one's self and return to propriety. and said. He was answered. "They simply told each one his wishes." 7." said the Master next to Kung-hsî Hwâ. and six or seven boys. to act as a small assistant. and at the audiences of the princes with the sovereign. along with five or six young men who have assumed the cap. all under heaven will ascribe perfect virtue to him. "And was it not a state which Ch'ih proposed for himself?" The Master again replied. Ch'ih. The three others having gone out. Yen Yüan asked about perfect virtue. Hsî pursued. "The management of a state demands the rules of propriety. "Tien." 8. "What are your wishes. "do you also. Yen Yüan said.

" 2. Sze-mâ Niû. "The man of perfect virtue is cautious and slow in his speech. The Master said. Caution in speaking a characteristic of perfect virtue:-. to have no murmuring against you in the country." Chung-kung said. "The superior man has neither anxiety nor fear. anxious about the ways of his brother. what is there to fear?" Chapter 5. The Master said. Sze-mâ Niû asked about the superior man. and none in the family. Wherein perfect virtue is realized:-.' . 2. can he be other than cautious and slow in speaking?" Chapter 4." Chapter 3. Tsze-hsiâ said to him." 2. "Cautious and slow in his speech!" said Niu. Consolation offered by Tsze-hsiâ to Tsze-niû. "When internal examination discovers nothing wrong. and conscious rectitude frees from these. "Being without anxiety or fear!" said Niû. I will make it my business to practice this lesson.a conversation with Chung-kung. Sze-mâ Niû asked about perfect virtue. when you go abroad.a conversation with Tsze-niû. to employ the people as if you were assisting at a great sacrifice. riches and honors depend upon Heaven.-. what is there to be anxious about."is this what is meant by perfect virtue?" The Master said. to behave to every one as if you were receiving a great guest. full of anxiety. said. 1. The Master said.Chapter 2. 1.-. I only have not. not to do to others as you would not wish done to yourself."does this constitute what we call the superior man?" 3." 3. 1. "It is. "Though I am deficient in intelligence and vigor. "'Death and life have their determined appointment. "There is the following saying which I have heard -3. "Other men all have their brothers. How the Chün-tsze has neither anxiety nor fear. Chung-kung asked about perfect virtue. "When a man feels the difficulty of doing. The Master said.

The hide of a tiger or a leopard stripped of its hair. and one of the remaining two must be dispensed with. death has been the lot of an men. show you to be a superior man. "He with whom neither slander that gradually soaks into the mind. "Ornament is as substance. which of them should be foregone?" The Master answered. is like the hide of a dog or a goat stripped of its hair. What constitutes intelligence:-. but four horses cannot overtake the tongue. "If it cannot be helped. he with whom neither soaking slander. are successful. What has the superior man to do with being distressed because he has no brothers?" Chapter 6. Tsze-chang asked what constituted intelligence. "Part with the food. Tsze-kung again asked." said the Master. 3. "Let the superior man never fail reverentially to order his own conduct. Requisites in government:-. substance is as ornament. Tsze-kung asked about government." . "Alas! Your words. there is no standing for the state.4. may be called farseeing.then all within the four seas will be his brothers. may be called intelligent indeed. Tsze-kung said. Tsze-kung said. "In a superior man it is only the substantial qualities which are wanted. The Master said. From of old. and one of these must be dispensed with." Chapter 7." 2." Chapter 8. nor statements that startle like a wound in the flesh.addressed to Tsze-chang. The Master said. sufficiency of military equipment. sir. 1. and let him be respectful to others and observant of propriety:-. Yea. nor startling statements.-why should we seek for ornamental accomplishments?" 2. Substantial qualities and accomplishments in the Chün-tsze. but if the people have no faith in their rulers. which of the three should be foregone first?" "The military equipment. "The requisites of government are that there be sufficiency of food. are successful. Chî Tsze-ch'ang said. 1.a conversation with Tsze-kung. and the confidence of the people in their ruler. "If it cannot be helped. 3.

indeed. their prince will not be left to want alone. "You love a man and wish him to live. The duke Âi inquired of Yû Zo. How to exalt virtue and discover delusions. "if. and the son not son. the not minister. This is a case of delusion. Confucius replied. "Ah! it is Yû." said the duke. their prince cannot enjoy plenty alone. Yû Zo answered.'" Chapter 11. "'It may not be on account of her being rich. . "There is government. although I have my revenue. 3. "Why not simply tithe the people?" 3. and delusions to be discovered. "Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.Chapter 9. and the returns for expenditure are not sufficient. If the people are in want. when the prince is prince. asked Confucius about government. can I enjoy it?" Chapter could I do with that system of one tenth?" 4. the father not father. "If the people have plenty.-. you also wish him to die. -." Chapter 10. yet you come to make a difference. The Master said.-.this is the way to exalt one's virtue. Having wished him to live. Good government obtains only when all the relative duties are maintained. 2. Yû Zo replied to him. 1. the Master said. who could with half a word settle litigations!" 2. "With two tenths. 1. Light taxation the best way to secure the government from embrrassment for want of funds. Tsze-lû never slept over a promise. 1. Tsze-chang having asked how virtue was to be exalted. 1. The duke Ching. of Ch'î. the prince be not prince. "Good!" said the duke.what is to be done?" 2." 3. you hate him and wish him to die. With what ease Tsze-lû could settle litigations. "I find it not enough. "The year is one of scarcity. and the minister is minister. when the father is father. 2. and the son is son. and be moving continually to what is right. saying.

is to cause the people to have no litigations.Chapter 13. Opposite influence upon others of the superior man and the mean man. sir. although you should reward them to do it. The mean man does the opposite of this. "In hearing litigations." Chapter 15. I am like any other body." Chapter 14." . "To govern means to rectify." Chapter 16. who will dare not to be correct?" Chapter 18. and efficient by example. The Master said. "The superior man seeks to perfect the admirable qualities of men. "The art of governing is to keep its affairs before the mind without weariness. one may thus likewise not err from what is right. inquired of Confucius how to do away with them. Hardly diferent from Book 6 Chapter 25. and keeping himself under the restraint of the rules of propriety. The Master said. The Master said. and to practice them with undeviating consistency. The people are made thieves by the example of their rulers. If you lead on the people with correctness. To prevent better than to determine litigations. and does not seek to perfect their bad qualities. Government moral in its end. "By extensively studying all learning." Chapter 17. Tsze-chang asked about government. they would not steal. Chî K'ang. distressed about the number of thieves in the state. were not covetous. The art of governing. What is necessary. "If you. Confucius said. The Master said. Confucius replied. however. Chî K'ang asked Confucius about government.

"What do you say to killing the unprincipled for the good of the principled?" Confucius replied. "That is notoriety. The Master said. correct vice. to correct cherished evil. the effect of their example. who may be said to be distinguished?" 2. and looks at their countenances. Such a man will be distinguished in the country. not distinction. The man of true distinction. Such a man will be heard of in the country. 1. when the wind blows across it. "If doing what is to be done be made the first business. why should you use killing at all? Let your evinced desires be for what is good. "I venture to ask how to exalt virtue. The grass must bend. and success a secondary consideration:-. and the man of true notoriety. Killing not to be talked of by not this the way to exalt virtue? To assail one's own wickedness and not assail that of others. and loves righteousness. and he rests in this character without any doubts about himself. The Master said. 1. He examines people's words. he assumes the appearance of virtue.-. saying. Tsze-chang asked.Chapter 19. "Truly a good question! not this the way to correct cherished evil? For a morning's anger to disregard one's own life. and to discover delusions. Fan Ch'ih rambling with the Master under the trees about the rain altars. "It is to be heard of through the state. and involve that of his parents. How to exalt virtue. but his actions are opposed to it." Chapter 20. 5. 6. Tsze-chang replied. said. "Sir. and discover delusions. to be heard of throughout his clan. He is anxious to humble himself to others. The Master said. "As to the man of notoriety. Chî K'ang asked Confucius about not this a case of delusion?" . he will be heard of in the clan. in carrying on your government. "Now the man of distinction is solid and straightforward. he will be distinguished in his clan. and the people will be good." 2." 4. "What is it you call being distinguished?" 3." Chapter 21. The relation between superiors and inferiors is like that between the wind and the grass. "What must the officer be.

' What did he mean?" 5. and put aside all the crooked." 4. The Master said. 1. About benevolence and wisdom. seeing Tsze-hsiâ. on which all who were devoid of virtue disappeared. selected from among all the people. "A Little while ago. Tsze-kung asked about friendship. and. 'Employ the upright. the crooked will be made to be upright. I had an interview with our Master. "Be not weary (in these things). 1. The Master said.a lesson to Tsze-lû. " this way. and an who were devoid of virtue disappeared. and be laborious in their affairs. The Master said. "Go before the people with your example. "Faithfully admonish your friend. being in possession of the kingdom. Do not disgrace yourself. The Master said. He said. Prudence in friendship. He requested further instruction.-. and asked him about knowledge. "It is to love all men. Fan Ch'ih retired. "The superior man on grounds of culture meets with his friends.Chapter 22. and by friendship helps his virtue." 2. in this way the crooked can be made to be upright. and skillfully lead him on. Fan Ch'ih did not immediately understand these answers." He asked about knowledge.-." Chapter 23." Chapter 24. The secret of success in governing is the unwearied example of the rulers:-. T'ang. selected from among all the people. "Truly rich is his saying! 6. "It is to know all knowledge subserves benevolence. 3. and employed Î Yin. being in possession of the kingdom. The friendship of the Chün-tsze." 2. Fan Ch'ih asked about benevolence. and employed Kâo-yâo. The philosopher Tsang said. he said to him." . If you find him impracticable. stop. "Employ the upright and put aside all the crooked. Tsze-lû asked about government. and was answered. The Master said. Tsze-hsiâ said." Book 13 Chapter I.

1. indeed. "How uncultivated you are. Fan Ch'ih having gone out. The Master replied. The Master said. "How shall I know the men of virtue and talent. Chung-kung said. The duties chiefly to be attended to by a head minister:-. pardon small faults. "When affairs cannot be carried on to success. The Master said." Chapter 4. "You are wide of the mark! Why must there be such rectification?" 4. in regard to what he does not know. and was answered. and raise to office men of virtue and talents. If language be not in accordance with the truth of things. will others neglect them?" Chapter 3." He requested also to be taught gardening. so that I may raise them to office?" He was answered. asked about government. The Master said. 7." 3. "A small man." 2. A ruler has not to occupy himself with what is properly the business of the people. 1. "Raise to office those whom you know. As to those whom you do not know. "I am not so good for that as an old husbandman. affairs cannot be carried on to success. "Employ first the services of your various officers. 6. and also that what he speaks may be carried out appropriately. What will you consider the first thing to be done?" 2." 2. being chief minister to the head of the Chi family. punishments will not be properly awarded. When punishments are not properly awarded. "If names be not correct. language is not in accordance with the truth of things. 5. shows a cautious reserve. Tsze-lû said. Yû! A superior man. "What is necessary is to rectify names. "I am not so good for that as an old gardener. is Fan Hsü! . What the superior man requires is just that in his words there may be nothing incorrect. proprieties and music will not flourish. the Master said.Chapter 2. The supreme importance of names being correct. "The ruler of Wei has been waiting for you. 1. "So! indeed!" said Tsze-lû. When proprieties and music do not flourish.a lesson to Zan Yung. in order with you to administer the government. Fan Ch'ih requested to be taught husbandry. the people do not know how to move hand or foot. "Therefore a superior man considers it necessary that the names he uses may be spoken appropriately. Chung-kung.

"Ha! here is a collection!" When they were a little increased. When he began to have means. Literary acquirements useless without practical ability. he may issue orders. and his indifference on getting rich. yet if.3. "How numerous are the people!" . If his personal conduct is not correct. of what practical use is it?" Chapter 6. The Master said. he said. The Master said of Ching. 1." Chapter 7. The similar condition of the States of Lû and Wei. The Master observed. when intrusted with a governmental charge. the people will not dare not to submit to his example. "Ha! this is admirable!" Chapter 9. If he love good faith. 2. or if. that he knew the economy of a family well. "The governments of Lû and Wei are brothers. he said. the people from all quarters will come to him. but they will not be followed. "When a prince's personal conduct is correct. his government is effective without the issuing of orders. and educated. when sent to any quarter on a mission. notwithstanding the extent of his learning. he said. His personal conduct all in all to a ruler. "Ha! this is complete!" When he had become rich. The Master said. the people will not dare not to be sincere. he cannot give his replies unassisted. a scion of the ducal family of Wei. is the great achievement of government. If he love righteousness. when these things obtain. A people numerous. The Master said. "Though a man may be able to recite the three hundred odes. he knows not how to act. Now. Zan Yû acted as driver of his carriage." Chapter 8.-. bearing their children on their backs.what need has he of a knowledge of husbandry?" Chapter 5. well-off. The contentment of the officer Ching. "If a superior man love propriety. the people will not dare not to be reverent. When the Master went to Wei.

3. Yû said, "Since they are thus numerous, what more shall be done for them?" "Enrich them," was the reply. 4. "And when they have been enriched, what more shall be done?" The Master said, "Teach them."
Chapter 10. Confucius's estimate of what he could do, if employed to administer the government of a State.

The Master said, "If there were (any of the princes) who would employ me, in the course of twelve months, I should have done something considerable. In three years, the government would be perfected."
Chapter 11. What a hundred years of good government could effect.

The Master said, "'If good men were to govern a country in succession for a hundred years, they would be able to transform the violently bad, and dispense with capital punishments.' True indeed is this saying!"
Chapter 12. In what time a royal ruler could transform the kingdom.

The Master said, "If a truly royal ruler were to arise, it would still require a generation, and then virtue would prevail."
Chapter 13. That he be personally correct essential to an officer of government.

The Master said, "If a minister make his own conduct correct, what difficulty will he have in assisting in government? If he cannot rectify himself, what has he to do with rectifying others?"
Chapter 14. An ironical admonition to Zan Yû on the usurping tendencies of the Chî family.

The disciple Zan returning from the court, the Master said to him, "How are you so late?" He replied, "We had government business." The Master said, "It must have been family affairs. If there had been government business, though I am not now in office, I should have been consulted about it."

Chapter 15. How the prosperity and ruin of a country may depend on the ruler's view of his position, his feeling its difficulty, or only cherishing a headstrong will.

1. The Duke Ting asked whether there was a single sentence which could make a country prosperous. Confucius replied, "Such an effect cannot be expected from one sentence. 2. "There is a saying, however, which people have -- 'To be a prince is difficult; to be a minister is not easy.' 3. "If a ruler knows this, -- the difficulty of being a prince, -- may there not be expected from this one sentence the prosperity of his country?" 4. The duke then said, "Is there a single sentence which can ruin a country?" Confucius replied, "Such an effect as that cannot be expected from one sentence. There is, however, the saying which people have -- 'I have no pleasure in being a prince, but only in that no one can offer any opposition to what I say!' 5. "If a ruler's words be good, is it not also good that no one oppose them? But if they are not good, and no one opposes them, may there not be expected from this one sentence the ruin of his country?"
Chapter 16. Good government seen from its effects.

1. The duke of Sheh asked about government. 2. The Master said, "Good government obtains, when those who are near are made happy, and those who are far off are attracted."
Chapter 17. Haste and small advantages not to be desired in governing.

Tsze-hsiâ, being governor of Chü-fû, asked about government. The Master said, "Do not be desirous to have things done quickly; do not look at small advantages. Desire to have things done quickly prevents their being done thoroughly. Looking at small advantages prevents great affairs from being accomplished."

Chapter 18. Natural duty and uprightness in collision.

1. The Duke of Sheh informed Confucius, saying, "Among us here there are those who may be styled upright in their conduct. If their father have stolen a sheep, they will bear witness to the fact." 2. Confucius said, "Among us, in our part of the country, those who are upright are different from this. The father conceals the misconduct of the son, and the son conceals the misconduct of the father. Uprightness is to be found in this."
Chapter 19. Characteristics of perfect virtue.

Fan Ch'ih asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "It is, in retirement, to be sedately grave; in the management of business, to be reverently attentive; in intercourse with others, to be strictly sincere. Though a man go among rude, uncultivated tribes, these qualities may not be neglected."
Chapter 20. Different classes of men who in their several degrees may be styled officers, and the inferiority of the mass of the officers of Confucius's time.

1. Tsze-kung asked, saying, "What qualities must a man possess to entitle him to be called an officer? The Master said, "He who in his conduct of himself maintains a sense of shame, and when sent to any quarter will not disgrace his prince's commission, deserves to be called an officer." 2. Tsze-kung pursued, "I venture to ask who may be placed in the next lower rank?" And he was told, "He whom the circle of his relatives pronounce to be filial, whom his fellow villagers and neighbors pronounce to be fraternal." 3. Again the disciple asked, "I venture to ask about the class still next in order." The Master said, "They are determined to be sincere in what they say, and to carry out what they do. They are obstinate little men. Yet perhaps they may make the next class." 4. Tsze-kung finally inquired, "Of what sort are those of the present day, who engage in government?" The Master said "Pooh! they are so many pecks and hampers, not worth being taken into account."

Chapter 21. Confucius obliged to content himself with the ardent and cautious as disciples.

The Master said, "Since I cannot get men pursuing the due medium, to whom I might communicate my instructions, I must find the ardent and the cautiously-decided. The ardent will advance and lay hold of truth; the cautiously-decided will keep themselves from what is wrong."
Chapter 22. The importance of fixity and constancy of mind.

1. The Master said, "The people of the south have a saying -- 'A man without constancy cannot be either a wizard or a doctor.' Good! 2. "Inconstant in his virtue, he will be visited with disgrace." 3. The Master said, "This arises simply from not attending to the prognostication."
Chapter 23. The different manners of the superior and the mean man.

The Master said, "The superior man is affable, but not adulatory; the mean man is adulatory, but not affable."
Chapter 24. How, to judge of a man from the likings and dislikings of others, we must know the characteristics of those others.

Tsze-kung asked, saying, "What do you say of a man who is loved by all the people of his neighborhood?" The Master replied, "We may not for that accord our approval of him." "And what do you say of him who is hated by all the people of his neighborhood?" The Master said, "We may not for that conclude that he is bad. It is better than either of these cases that the good in the neighborhood love him, and the bad hate him."
Chapter 25. Difference between the superior and the mean man in their relation to those employed by them.

The Master said, "The superior man is easy to serve and difficult to please. If you try to please him in any way which is not accordant with right, he will not be pleased. But in his employment of men, he uses them according to their capacity. The mean man is difficult to serve, and easy to please. If you try to please him, though it be in a way which is not accordant with right, he may be pleased. But in his employment of men, he wishes them to be equal to everything."

The Master said." Book 14 Chapter I.among his friends. The Master said. the simple. to be thinking only of salary. "Let a good man teach the people seven years. The different air and bearing of the superior and the mean man. Natural qualities which are favorable to virtue. is to throw them away. to prepare them for war. the enduring. and they may then likewise be employed in war. The Master said." . The Master said. saying. earnest and urgent. urgent. The Master said. "To lead an uninstructed people to war. and." Chapter 29. in the same way. Qualities that mark the scholar in social intercourse. "When good government prevails in a state. "What qualities must a man possess to entitle him to be called a scholar?" The Master said. "The superior man has a dignified ease without pride.earnest. -. when bad government prevails." Chapter 28. How the government of a good ruler will prepare the people for war.this is shameful. only of salary.-. bland. to be thinking. "The firm." Chapter 27. That people must be taught. among his brethren. "He must be thus. Hsien asked what was shameful. and bland:-." Chapter 30. The mean man has pride without a dignified ease. Tsze-lû asked.Chapter 26. It is shameful in an officer to be caring only about his emolument. and the modest are near to virtue.

eminent virtue leading to dignity. but those who are bold may not always be men of principle." Chapter 3. "The scholar who cherishes the love of comfort is not fit to be deemed a scholar. Yü and Chî personally wrought at the toils of husbandry. he said. but those whose speech is good may not always be virtuous.a lesson of prudence. but the language may be with some reserve. and Âo could move a boat along upon the land. The praise of perfect virtue is not to be allowed for the repression of bad feelings. submitting an inquiry to Confucius." Chapter 5. The Master said. resentments. Men of principle are sure to be bold. "A superior man indeed is this! An esteemer of virtue indeed is this!" . The Master said. But I do not know that it is to be deemed perfect virtue. and actions the same. but neither of them died a natural death. The Master said. and covetousness are repressed. "Î was skillful at archery." Chapter 6. what one feels need not always be spoken:-. We may predicate the external from the internal. "This may be regarded as the achievement of what is difficult. A scholar must be aiming at what is higher than comfort or pleasure. language may be lofty and bold." 2. Nan-kung Kwo. The modesty of Confucius. When bad government prevails. the actions may be lofty and bold. this may be deemed perfect virtue. "When the love of superiority. said. Eminent prowess conducting to ruin. and they became possessors of the kingdom. boasting. "The virtuous will be sure to speak correctly. "When good government prevails in a state. but not vice versa. What one does must always be right. 1." Chapter 4. The Master said. but when Nan-kung Kwo went out." The Master made no reply.Chapter 2.

with three hundred families. virtuous. and yet not always virtuous. 1. finally. "To be poor without murmuring is difficult. Tsze-ch'ân of Tung-lî gave it the proper elegance and finish. To be rich without being proud is easy. and. at the same time. The highest virtue not easily attained to." Chapter 8. there have been. The judgement of Confucius concerning Tsze-ch'ân. then polished the style. The Master said. "Superior men. "That man! That man!" 3. to the end of his life.Chapter 7. The Master said." Chapter 11. The Master said. Shî-shû examined and discussed its contents. though. and. P'î Shan first made the rough draft. that they must be strict and decided. It is harder to bear poverty aright than to carry riches. A lesson for parents and ministers. "For him." 2. The Master said. The Master said. he had only coarse rice to eat. He asked about Tsze-hsî. Tsze-hsî. "In preparing the governmental notifications. and Kwan Chung." . owing to the ability of four of its officers. The Master said. alas! But there never has been a mean man. The excellence of the official notifications of Chang. and incompatible with meanness." Chapter 10. Some one asked about Tsze-ch'ân. who did not utter a murmuring word. was taken from the chief of the Po family. "Can there be love which does not lead to strictness with its object? Can there be loyalty which does not lead to the instruction of its object?" Chapter 9. Tsze-yü. He asked about Kwan Chung. the manager of foreign intercourse. "the city of Pien." said the Master. "He was a kind man.

"Tsang Wû-chung. He takes when it is consistent with righteousness to do so. Kung-ming Chiâ replied. asked of the duke of Lû to appoint a successor to him in his family." Chapter 13. Of the complete man:-. and so men do not get tired of his laughing.-. add to these the accomplishments of the rules of propriety and music. laughs not." The Master said.such a one might be reckoned a COMPLETE man. I believe he was.Chapter 12.a conversation with Tsze-lû. and so men do not get tired of his taking. "Mang Kung-ch'o is more than fit to be chief officer in the families of Châo and Wei. who in the view of gain. thinks of righteousness. 1." ." Chapter 14. The Master asked Kung-ming Chiâ about Kung-shû Wan. saying. and so men do not get tired of his speaking. and takes not?" 2.such a man may be reckoned a COMPLETE man. and who does not forget an old agreement however far back it extends:-. "Suppose a man with the knowledge of Tsang Wû-chung. the freedom from covetousness of Kung-ch'o. Condemnation of Tsang Wû-chung for forcing a favour from his prince.My master speaks when it is the time to speak. "This has arisen from the reporters going beyond the truth. The Master said. who was said neither to speak. He then added. "But what is the necessity for a complete man of the present day to have all these things? The man. The character of Kung-shû Wan. He laughs when there is occasion to be joyful. "Is it true that your master speaks not." 2. who in the view of danger is prepared to give up his life. The capacity of Mang Kung-ch'o. but he is not fit to be great officer to either of the States Tang or Hsieh. nor take. The Master said. "So! But is it so with him?" Chapter 15. 1. the bravery of Chwang of Pien. The Master said. Tsze-lû asked what constituted a COMPLETE man. and the varied talents of Zan Ch'iû. keeping possession of Fang. nor laugh. -. Although it may be said that he was not using force with his sovereign.

The different characters of the dukes Wan of Tsin and Hwan of Ch'î. Whose beneficence was like his? Whose beneficence was like his?" Chapter 18. Down to the present day. The great officer. a man of worth. "The duke Hwan caused his brother Chiû to be killed. "The duke Wan of Tsin was crafty and not upright. we should now be wearing our hair unbound. was wanting in virtue. "He deserved to be considered WAN (the accomplished). But for Kwan Chung. 3. Moreover. who had been family minister to Kung-shû Wan. and the lappets of our coats buttoning on the left side. having heard of it. he became prime minister to Hwan.a conversation with Tsze-kung. Hsien. made him leader of all the princes. the people enjoy the gifts which he conferred. while in an inferior position. May not I say that he was wanting in virtue?" 2. no one knowing anything about them?" Chapter 19. who would commit suicide in a stream or ditch. Tsze-kung said. The merit of Kwan Chung:-. The merit of Kung-shû Wan in recommending to high office.a conversation with Tsze-lû." . said. "Kwan Chung." 2.Chapter 16. I apprehend. The merit of Kwan Chung:-. The was all through the influence of Kwan Chung. and united and rectified the whole kingdom. Tsze-lû said. when Shâo Hû died with his master." Chapter 17. When the Duke Hwan caused his brother Chiû to be killed. Kwan Chung was not able to die with him. The Master said. "Will you require from him the small fidelity of common men and common women. The duke Hwan of Ch'î was upright and not crafty. 1. "Kwan Chung acted as prime minister to the duke Hwan. 1. and that not with weapons of war and chariots:-. but Kwan Chung did not die. ascended to the prince's court in company with Wan. The Master said. The Master said. "The Duke Hwan assembled all the princes together. 2. 1.

'Inform the chiefs of the three families of it. saying. "Following in the rear of the great officers. how should he lose his state?" Chapter 21. The importance of good and able ministers:-. 2. The duke said. T'o. "Following in the rear of the great officers. How Confucius wished to avenge the murder of the duke of Ch'î:-. and my prince says. The Master was speaking about the unprincipled course of the duke Ling of Wei." . I did not dare not to represent such a matter. how is it he does not lose his state?" 2. "Chan Hang has slain his sovereign. Extravagant speech hard to be made good. I beg that you will undertake to punish him. withstand him to his face.with such officers as these. The Master said. Confucius bathed. 1. moreover. went to court and informed the duke Âi. Confucius said." Chapter 23. Chan Ch'ang murdered the duke Chien of Ch'î. when Ch'î K'ang said." 3." Chapter 22." 4. "He who speaks without modesty will find it difficult to make his words good. I did not dare not to represent such a matter. The Master said. 1.his righteous and public spirit. How the minister of a prince must be sincere and boldly upright. "Since he is of such a character. and. Tsze-lû asked how a ruler should be served. the litanist. He went to the chiefs. and informed them. "Inform the chiefs of the three families of it.'" 5. and Wang-sun Chiâ has the direction of the army and forces:-. has the management of his ancestral temple.Chapter 20. "Do not impose on him. but they would not act. "The Chung-shû Yü has the superintendence of his guests and of strangers.seen in the State of Wei. and said. Confucius retired. Confucius then said.

the progress of the mean man is downwards. The different motives of learners in old times. The thoughts of a superior man in harmony with his position. and in the times of Confucius. The different progressive tendencies of the superior man and the mean man. "A messenger indeed! A messenger indeed!" Chapter 27. but exceeds in his actions. "My master is anxious to make his faults few." Chapter 28." Chapter 25. and questioned him. The Master said. men learned with a view to their own improvement. An admirable messenger." Chapter 29. men learn with a view to the approbation of others. in his thoughts." Chapter 26. Nowadays." said he! "is your master engaged in?" The messenger replied." . Chü Po-yü sent a messenger with friendly inquiries to Confucius. "The superior man is modest in his speech.Chapter 24. The Master said. "He who is not in any particular office has nothing to do with plans for the administration of its duties. The superior man more in deeds than in words. does not go out of his place. "What. 1. and the Master said. but he has not yet succeeded. Confucius sat with him." He then went out. "In ancient times. 2. The Master said. See Book VIII Chapter XIV. "The progress of the superior man is upwards. The philosopher Tsang said. "The superior man. The Master said.

The Master said. Virtuous." Chapter 33. Virtue. 1." Chapter 35. and not strength. he is free from anxieties. The Master said." . but I am not equal to it. Wei-shang Mâu said to Confucius. "A horse is called a ch'î." Chapter 32. I have not leisure for this. One's work is with one's self:-. Tsze-kung was in the habit of comparing men together. Confucius's humble estimate of himself. The Master said. but because of its other good qualities. Confucius said." Chapter 31. "Ch'iû. he is free from perplexities. the fit subject of praise. Confucius not self-willed. "I do not dare to play the part of such a talker. "The way of the superior man is threefold. "He who does not anticipate attempts to deceive him. "Tsze must have reached a high pitch of excellence! Now. and yet no glib-tongued talker:-. that is what you yourself say. "I will not be concerned at men's not knowing me. Quick discrimination without suspiciousness is highly meritorious. 2. nor think beforehand of his not being believed. The Master said. "Master. how is it that you keep roosting about? Is it not that you are an insinuating talker? he not a man of superior worth?" Chapter 34. he is free from fear. The Master said. and yet apprehends these things readily (when they occur). and not about the estimation of others.-. Concern should be about our personal attainment. not because of its strength. wise.against making comparisons.Chapter 30. 1. but I hate obstinacy. bold. I will be concerned at my own want of ability. Tsze-kung said.defence of himself from the charge of an aged reprover. which Tsze-kung denies.

4. "Some retire because of contradictory language.-. "I do not murmur against Heaven. Different causes of why men of worth withdraw from public life. My studies lie low. The Master said. lamenting that men did not know him. I do not grumble against men. 1. "Alas! there is no one that knows me. "Recompense injury with justice. The Master said." Chapter 37. But there is Heaven. rests in the thought that Heaven knew him. evil to be met simply with justice. Good is not to be returned for evil. and different extents to which they so withdraw themselves." 2. and expose his corpse in the market and in the court. "What do you mean by thus saying -. "If my principles are to advance." . The Master said. it is so ordered. "What do you say concerning the principle that injury should be recompensed with kindness?" 2. Some one said. saying. Confucius. "Some retire from particular states. 1. 1. What can the Kung-po Liâo do where such ordering is concerned?" Chapter 39. How Confucius rested. The Kung-po Liâo. 2. having slandered Tsze-lû to Chî-sun." 2. on the ordering of Heaven:-. 3. 1.Chapter 36. The Master said.on occassion of Tsze-lû's being slandered. Tsze-kung said. "Some retire because of disrespectful looks. If they are to fall to the ground.that knows me!" Chapter 38.that no one knows you?" The Master replied. and recompense kindness with kindness. but I have still power enough left to cut Liâo off. "Our master is certainly being led astray by the Kung-po Liâo. "Some men of worth retire from the world. it is so ordered. "With what then will you recompense kindness?" 3. as to the progress of his doctrines. Tsze-fû Ching-po informed Confucius of it. and my penetration rises high.

carrying a straw basket. The Master said. The Master was playing. "Whom do you come from?" Tsze-lû said. was for three years without speaking?" 2. shallow water may be crossed with the clothes held up. The number of men of worth who has withdrawn from public life in Confucius's time.said the other. Tsze-lû happening to pass the night in Shih-man. "Why must Kâo-tsung be referred to as an example of this? The ancients all did so. "When rulers love to observe the rules of propriety. Tsze-chang said. -. and said. one day. The judgement of a retired worthy on Confucius's course. the people respond readily to the calls on them for service. "What is meant when the Shû says that Kâo-tsung." Chapter 44. the officers all attended to their several duties. How government was caried on during the three years of silent mourning by the sovereign. "who knows the impracticable nature of the times and yet will be doing in them. "From Mr." 2. The Master said. When the sovereign died. and remark of Confucius thereon. by one who had withdrawn from public life. The Master said. taking instructions from the prime minister for three years. "Those who have done this are seven men.Chapter 40. on a musical stone in Wei. How a love of the rules of propriety in rulers facilitates government. the gatekeeper said to him." Chapter 41. The Master said. "His heart is full who so beats the musical stone. he added." . 1. "How determined is he in his purpose! But this is not difficult!" Chapter 43. he has simply at once to give over his wish for public employment. "How contemptible is the one-ideaed obstinacy those sounds display! When one is taken no notice of. while observing the usual imperial mourning. passed door of the house where Confucius was.'" 3. Condemnation of Confucius's course in seeking to be employed. 'Deep water must be crossed with the clothes on. K'ung. 1. A little while it not?" -." Chapter 42. when a man." "It is he.

2. He cultivates himself so as to give rest to all the people:-. "The cultivation of himself in reverential carefulness.even Yâo and Shun were still solicitous about this. saying. I observe that he walks shoulder to shoulder with his elders." Chapter 46. . he took his departure the next day. Confucius refuses to talk on military affairs. The Master said. When he was in Chan. Confucius's employment of a forward youth. and so waited the approach of the Master." With this he hit him on the shank with his staff. and living on to old age:-. He is not one who is seeking to make progress in learning. Tsze-lû asked what constituted the superior man. "He cultivates himself so as to give rest to others." On this. "I suppose he has made great progress. Confucius's conduct to an unmannerly old man of his acquaintance. 1. doing nothing worthy of being handed down. "In youth not humble as befits a junior. He wishes quickly to become a man. Yüan Zang was squatting on his heels. The Master said. The duke Ling of Wei asked Confucius about tactics. their provisions were exhausted. A youth of the village of Ch'üeh was employed by Confucius to carry the messages between him and his visitors. Reverent self-cultivation the distinguishing characteristic of the Chün-tsze. Chapter 47. "I have heard all about sacrificial vessels." "And is this all?" said Tsze-lû. he shows the disciples how the superior man is above distress. and his followers became so ill that they were unable to rise.this is to be a pest. 1. but I have not learned military matters. Some one asked about him." Book 14 Chapter I.Chapter 45. "He cultivates himself so as to give rest to all the people. in manhood. "And is this all?" again asked Tsze-lû." was the reply. who said to him. Confucius replied. "I observe that he is fond of occupying the seat of a full-grown man." 2. The Master said. In the midst of distress.

" Chapter 4. When he is in a carriage. with evident dissatisfaction. Tsze-chang wrote these counsels on the end of his sash. "May not Shun be instanced as having governed efficiently without exertion? What did he do? He did nothing but gravely and reverently occupy his royal seat." Chapter 3." Chapter 2. "I seek a unity all pervading. "No. 1.such conduct may be practiced among the rude tribes of the South or the North. but the mean man.but perhaps it is not so?" 3. Tsze-lû. and his actions not honorable and careful. even in his neighborhood? 3. when he is in want. "When he is standing. you think. "Has the superior man likewise to endure in this way?" The Master said. . The Master said." 4. Tsze-kung replied." was the answer. I suppose. 2. as it were. will he. Conduct that will be appreciated in all parts of the world. those who know virtue are few. The Master said.3. "Ts'ze. Few really know virtue. "Let his words be sincere and truthful and his actions honorable and careful. gives way to unbridled license.. let him see them attached to the yoke. let him see those two things. 1. with such conduct. The Master said. so as to be everywhere appreciated. be appreciated. How Confucius aimed at the knowledge of an all-pervading unity. fronting him. -. If his words be not sincere and truthful. How Shun was able to govern without personal effort. The Master said. Tsze-chang asked how a man should conduct himself. "Yes. said. that I am one who learns many things and keeps them in memory?" 2. "The superior man may indeed have to endure want. Then may he subsequently carry them into practice. "Yû." Chapter 5.

"The determined scholar and the man of virtue will not seek to live at the expense of injuring their virtue. The wise err neither in regard to their man nor to their words. 1. The Master said. How intercourse with the good aids the practice of virtue. and make friends of the most virtuous among its scholars. Tsze-kung asked about the practice of virtue. he was like an arrow. The Master said." Chapter 9. to speak to him is to err in reference to our words. "The mechanic. When a man may not be spoken with. There are men with whom to speak. 1. must first sharpen his tools. he was like an arrow. When bad government prevails. When bad government prevailed. "A superior man indeed is Chü Po-yü! When good government prevails in his state. 2. Yen Yüan asked how the government of a country should be administered. he can roll his principles up. he is to be found in office. When good government prevailed in his state. not to speak to him is to err in reference to the man. . who wishes to do his work well. "Truly straightforward was the historiographer Yü. The wise know them. The Master said." Chapter 10. "When a man may be spoken with. to be followed in governing:-." Chapter 7.a reply to Yen Yüan. High natures value virtue more than life. The Master said. When you are living in any state. The admirable characters of Tsze-yû and Chü Po-yü. take service with the most worthy among its great officers. "Ride in the state carriage of Yin.Chapter 6." Chapter 8. 3. They will even sacrifice their lives to preserve their virtue complete. The Master said. Certain rules. exemplified in the ancient dynasties. 2. and keep them in his breast. "Follow the seasons of Hsiâ. and men with whom to keep silence.

"Let the music be the Shâo with its pantomimes. The rarity of a true love of virtue. Nothing can be made of people who take things easily. and yet did not procure that he should stand with him in court. The Master said. specious talkers are dangerous. 6. "Wear the ceremonial cap of Châu. "It is all over! I have not seen one who loves virtue as he loves beauty. The songs of Chang are licentious. The Master said. The Master said. "When a man is not in the habit of saying -. will keep himself from being the object of resentment." Chapter 14. not giving themselves the trouble to think. and keep far from specious talkers.the case of Tsang Wan. and Hûi of Liû-hsiâ. he will find sorrow near at hand. "He who requires much from himself and little from others. "If a man take no thought about what is distant. The Master said." Chapter 13. 5." Chapter 12.'What shall I think of this? What shall I think of this?' I can indeed do nothing with him!" . Against jealousy of others' talents:-. The way to ward off resentments. The necessity of forethought and precaution. "Was not Tsang Wan like one who had stolen his situation? He knew the virtue and the talents of Hûi of Liû-hsiâ." Chapter 11. The Master said. "Banish the songs of Chang." Chapter 15.4.

and when they are fond of carrying out the suggestions of a small shrewdness. The approbation of others is the mean man's. the proper business of concern to us. "The superior man dislikes the thought of his name not being mentioned after his death. His own approbation is the superior man's rule. The Master said. He performs it according to the rules of propriety. What the mean man seeks. "The superior man is dignified. courteous. The superior man is dignified and affable. He completes it with sincerity." . "When a number of people are together. without the faults to which those qualities often lead. Our own incompetency.Chapter 16. The superior man wishes to be had in remembrance. The Master said. but does not wrangle. and not our reputation. "What the superior man seeks." Chapter 17. He is not distressed by men's not knowing him." Chapter 18. "The superior man is distressed by his want of ability. He brings it forth in humility. but not a partisan. The Master said. The Master said. The Master said. humble. for a whole day.-. and sincere. This is indeed a superior man. Against frivolous talkers and superficial speculators. "The superior man in everything considers righteousness to be essential. The Master said. is in himself." Chapter 19.theirs is indeed a hard case. He is sociable." Chapter 20. is in others. without their conversation turning on righteousness. The conduct of the superior man is righteous." Chapter 21.

and of impatience. there must be ground for it in my examination of the individual. "Is there one word which may serve as a rule of practice for all one's life?" The Master said." Chapter 25.Chapter 22. nor does he put aside good words because of the man. and he who had a horse would lend him to another to ride. Instances of the degeneracy of Confucius's times. Confucius showed his respect for men by strict truthfulness in awarding praise or censure. saying. The Master said. The Master said. Tsze-kung asked. Want of forbearance in small matters confounds great plans." Chapter 27." Chapter 26. 2. "The superior man does not promote a man simply on account of his words. beyond what is proper? If I do sometimes exceed in praise. The Master said. The superior man is discriminating in his employment of men and judging of statements. it is necessary to examine into the case. Now. "When the multitude hate a man. whose goodness do I praise." Chapter 23. In judging of a man. "Is not RECIPROCITY such a word? What you do not want done to yourself. The great principle of reciprocity is the rule of life. "Specious words confound virtue." . The Master said. it is necessary to examine into the case. a historiographer would leave a blank in his text. 1. whose evil do I blame. "Even in my early days. "In my dealings with men. The danger of specious words. alas! there are no such things. we must not be guided by his being generally liked or disliked. When the multitude like a man." Chapter 24. do not do to others. "This people supplied the ground why the three dynasties pursued the path of straightforwardness. The Master said.

yet if he try to move the people contrary to the rules of propriety:-full excellence is not reached. "When a man's knowledge is sufficient to attain. The fruitlessness of thinking. indeed. It was of no use." ." Chapter 29. whatever he may have gained. when he governs also with dignity. The Master said. "When his knowledge is sufficient to attain. the people will not respect him.occupied with thinking. and the whole night without sleeping:-. -. The better plan is to learn. 2. The Master said. How knowledge without virtue is not lasting.even in that there is sometimes want.emolument may be found in it. "The object of the superior man is truth. The superior man should not be mercenary. should be pronounced having faults." Chapter 30. The Master said. 3. "To have faults and not to reform them. he is not anxious lest poverty should come upon him." Chapter 32. 1. "When his knowledge is sufficient to attain. those principles do not enlarge the man. So with learning. and he has virtue enough to hold fast. but have truth for his object. he will lose again.-. There is plowing. "I have been the whole day without eating.Chapter 28. The culpability of not reforming known faults. The superior man is anxious lest he should not get truth. The Master said. if he cannot govern with dignity.this. and he has virtue enough to hold fast. Priciples of duty an instrument in the hand of man. The Master said.-. "A man can enlarge the principles which he follows. and to knowledge and virtue a ruler should add dignity and the rules of propriety. without reading." Chapter 31. Food is not his object. and his virtue is not sufficient to enable him to hold.

"In teaching there should be no distinction of classes. The Master said. How to know the superior man and the mean man. The faithful minister. and never hurtful to him." .Chapter 33." Chapter 39. "Those whose courses are different cannot lay plans for one another. The comprehensiveness of teaching. The Master said. The Master said. in serving his prince. The Master said. He may not yield the performance of it even to his teacher. but I have never seen a man die from treading the course of virtue. Virtue more to man than water or fire. "A minister. Agreement in principle necessary to concord in plans. The superior man's firmness is based on right. "The superior man cannot be known in little matters." Chapter 38. I have seen men die from treading on water and fire. and makes his emolument a secondary consideration." Chapter 34. The Master said. "The superior man is correctly firm. "Virtue is more to man than either water or fire. reverently discharges his duties. and their capacities." Chapter 37." Chapter 36. The small man may not be intrusted with great concerns. "Let every man consider virtue as what devolves on himself. but he may be intrusted with great concerns. and not firm merely. The Master said. The Master said. Virtue personal and obligatory on every man." Chapter 35. but he may be known in little matters.

The Master said. the Master said. is it not you who are in fault here? 4." Book15 Chapter I. The music master." 6. The music master. moreover. having called upon him." Chapter 41. Zan Yû said." When all were seated. "Here are the steps. long ago. -. "In language it is simply required that it convey the meaning. Zan Yû and Chî-lû had an interview with Confucius." When they came to the mat for the guest to sit upon. Confucius said. and said.What has your chief to do with attacking it?" 5. "Here is the mat. How can he be used as a guide to a blind man. and its ruler is a minister in direct connection with the sovereign:-. Confucius exposes the presumptuous and impolitic conduct of the chief of the Chî family in proposing to attack a minor state. "Is it the rule to tell those things to the music master?" 3. "So and so is here. saying. The Master said. neither of us two ministers wishes it. Mien.Chapter 40. when they came to the steps. nor raise him up when fallen?' . "Ch'iû. Perspicuity the chief virtue of language. "Now. 1. who does not support him when tottering. Chî. he said. "Yes. when he finds himself unable to do so.'When he can put forth his ability. he retires from it. This is certainly the rule for those who lead the blind. a former king appointed its ruler to preside over the sacrifices to the eastern Mang." 3. the Master informed him. he takes his place in the ranks of office. "Our master wishes the thing." 2.a dn rebukes Zan Yû and Tsze-lû for abetting the design. Consideration of Confucius for the blind. it is in the midst of the territory of our state. 1. so and so is here. is going to commence operations against Chwan-yü. Confucius said. "Our chief. having gone out. 2. saying. Mien. in regard to Chwan-yü. there are the words of Châu Zan. Tsze-chang asked. "Ch'iû. The head of the Chî family was going to attack Chwan-yü.

When the subsidiary ministers of the great officers hold in their grasp the orders of the state. "When right principles prevail in the kingdom. "So it is. you speak wrongly. leavings and separations. "But at present.'I want such and such a thing. music. but are troubled with fears of a want of contented repose among the people in their several places. all the influences of civil culture and virtue are to be cultivated to attract them to be so. the case will be few in which they do not lose their power in five generations. Chwan-yü is strong and near to Pî. which is speedier as the rank of the violator is lower. Confucius said.whose is the fault?" 8. 11." 9. but are troubled lest they should not keep their several places.Therefore. the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in ten generations. if remoter people are not submissive. there will be no scarcity of people. 10. Remoter people are not submissive. that they are not troubled with fears of poverty. music. The violation of this rule always leads to ruin. "And further.7. it will hereafter be a sorrow to his descendants. with your help. but will be found within the screen of their own court. 2. When bad government prevails in the empire.I am afraid that the sorrow of the Chî-sun family will not be on account of Chwan-yü. here are you. he cannot preserve it. -. there will be no poverty. if our chief do not now take it. as a rule. he cannot attract them to him. government will not be in the hands of the great officers.' and framing explanations for their conduct. "I have heard that rulers of states and chiefs of families are not troubled lest their people should be few. they must be made contented and tranquil. and. the superior man hates those declining to say -. For when the people keep their several places. as a rule the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in three generations. When a tiger or rhinoceros escapes from his cage. and punitive military expeditions proceed from the princes. and when there is such a contented repose. when a tortoise or piece of jade is injured in its repository:-. The supreme authority ought ever to maintain its power. "And yet he is planning these hostile movements within the state. Yû and Ch'iû. "Ch'iû. ceremonies. Zan Yû said. . as a rule. When they proceed from the great officers of the princes. when harmony prevails. -. Confucius said. "Now. 12. and when they have been so attracted. "When good government prevails in the empire." Chapter 2. and punitive military expeditions proceed from the son of Heaven. ceremonies. 1. there will be no rebellious upsettings. In his own territory there are divisions and downfalls. with your help. When these things proceed from the princes. 13. and. assisting your chief.

"There are three friendships which are advantageous. Friendship with the man of specious airs. Confucius said. "There are three errors to which they who stand in the presence of a man of virtue and station are liable. to find enjoyment in idleness and sauntering. and three which are injurious. The vices which youth. and friendship with the man of much observation:-. the descendants of the three Hwan are much reduced. friendship with the sincere." Chapter 7. Three errors in regard to speech to be avoided in the presence of the great. when the physical powers are not yet settled." Chapter 3. Illustration of the principles of the last chapter. friendship with the insinuatingly soft. The government has been in the hands of the great officers for four generations. and three things they find enjoyment in which are injurious. "There are three things men find enjoyment in which are advantageous.this is called concealment. to find enjoyment in having many worthy friends:-." Chapter 4." Chapter 6. To find enjoyment in extravagant pleasures. to find enjoyment in the pleasures of feasting:-. "When right principles prevail in the kingdom. Confucius said.this is called blindness. there will be no discussions among the common people.-.-." Chapter 5. They may speak when it does not come to them to speak. Confucius said. manhood. They may not speak when it comes to them to speak. In youth. he guards against lust.this is called rashness.these are injurious.these are injurious.these are advantageous.-. Three sources of enjoyment advantageous. and age respectively have to guard against. They may speak without looking at the countenance of their superior. to find enjoyment in speaking of the goodness of others. Confucius said. Friendship with the uplight. and three injurious. and friendship with the glib-tongued:-. To find enjoyment in the discriminating study of ceremonies and music. On this account.these are advantageous. and three injurious. "There are three things which the superior man guards against. Confucius said. When he is strong and the physical . Three friendships advantageous.3. "The revenue of the state has left the ducal house now for five generations.

he is anxious to question others. Contrast of the superior and the mean man in regard to the three things of which the former stands in awe." Chapter 11. "The mean man does not know the ordinances of Heaven. Nine subjects of thought to the superior man:-. he is anxious that it should be sincere. . he is anxious to see clearly. as if they could not reach it. The contemporaries of Confucius could eschew evil. As to those who are dull and stupid and yet do not learn. Confucius said." Chapter 9. He is disrespectful to great men. In regard to his speech.they are the lowest of the people. he is anxious that it should be reverently careful. contemplating evil! and shrinking from it.I have seen such men. and yet compass the learning. he guards against quarrelsomeness. He stands in awe of great men. 1. Those who learn.powers are full of vigor. and pursuing it. he is anxious that it should be respectful. Four classes of men in relation to knowledge. "There are three things of which the superior man stands in awe. In regard to his doing of business. 2. He makes sport of the words of sages. and follow after good. as I have heard such words. and consequently does not stand in awe of them. he guards against covetousness. but no one of the highest capacity had appeared among them. Confucius said. In regard to the use of his ears. In regard to the use of his eyes. are another class next to these. 1. When he is angry." Chapter 10. When he sees gain to be got.various instances of the way in which he regulates himself. When he is old. and so. as they would from thrusting the hand into boiling water:-." Chapter 8. he is anxious that it should be benign. readily. He stands in awe of the ordinances of Heaven. Confucius said. In regard to his countenance.-. and the animal powers are decayed. "Those who are born with the possession of knowledge are the highest class of men. He stands in awe of the words of sages. Those who are dull and stupid. get possession of knowledge. he thinks of the difficulties (his anger may involve him in). he thinks of righteousness. In regard to what he doubts about. Confucius said. are the next. In regard to his demeanor. "Contemplating good. "The superior man has nine things which are subjects with him of thoughtful consideration. he is anxious to hear distinctly.

I have heard these words. "Another day. each of four horses.' I retired and studied the Odes. your character cannot be established. She calls herself HSIÂO T'UNG. Ch'an K'ang asked Po-yü. Wealth without virtue and virtue without wealth. "Have you heard any lessons from your father different from what we have all heard?" 2. The wife of the prince of a state is called by him FÛ ZAN. 'If you do not learn the Odes. The Duke Ching of Ch'î had a thousand teams." 5." Chapter 14. and said to me. "I have heard only these two things from him. "Is not that saying illustrated by this?" Chapter 13. saying. Appellations for the wife of a ruler. you will not be fit to converse with. I have also heard that the superior man maintains a distant reserve towards his son. to the people of other states. 3.' I then retired. and learned the rules of Propriety. "I asked one thing. and.-. said. but on the day of his death. 2." Chapter 12. they call her K'WA HSIÂO CHÜN. but I have not seen such men. 4. and said to me.' he added. . Po-yü replied. He was standing alone once. the people did not praise him for a single virtue. I have heard about the rules of Propriety. and I have got three things. I have heard about the Odes. The people of the state call her CHÜN FÛ ZAN. "No. he was in the same way standing alone. and the people. and practicing righteousness to carry out their principles:-.' he added. and. 1. 'If you do not learn the rules of Propriety.their different appreciations. when I passed by below the hall with hasty steps. when I passed below the hall with hasty steps. Ch'ang K'ang retired. 1. "Living in retirement to study their aims. praise them. Po-î and Shû-ch'î died of hunger at the foot of the Shâu-yang mountain. Confucius's instruction of his son not different from his instruction of the disciples generally.2. The people of other states also call her CHÜN FÛ ZAN. quite delighted. 'Have you learned the Odes?' On my replying 'Not yet. down to the present time. 'Have you learned the rules of Propriety?' On my replying 'Not yet.

2. "Come. "No. but usurping and unworthy. he sent a present of a pig to Confucius. he loves men. The Master said. What I said was only in sport. 1. -." . 2. 1. by practice. "Can he be called benevolent who keeps his jewel in his bosom. who cannot be changed. However small the sphere of government. however." Chapter 2." Chapter 4. he is easily ruled. let me speak with you. The Master said. I heard you say.'" 4. Confucius's polite but dignified treatment of a powerful. having come to Wû-ch'ang. who. and leaves his country to confusion?" Confucius replied. The differences in the characters of men are chiefly owing to habit. who is anxious to be engaged in public employment. Yang Ho wished to see Confucius. and the stupid of the lowest class. He met him." "Can he be called wise. the years do not wait for us. Master." He then asked." Chapter 3. and yet is constantly losing the opportunity of being so?" Confucius again said. went to pay his respects for the gift. "Formerly. officer. Ho said to Confucius. "No. "Right.Book 16 Chapter I. "Why use an ox knife to kill a fowl?" 3. they get to be wide apart. On this. The Master. heard there the sound of stringed instruments and singing. The Master said. Only two classes whom practice cannot change." "The days and months are passing away. men are nearly alike. "My disciples. having chosen a time when Ho was not at home. the highest influences of proprieties and music should be employed." Confucius said. Tsze-yû replied. "By nature. Yen's words are right. he said. "There are only the wise of the highest class. Well pleased and smiling. on the way. I will go into office. when the man of low station is well instructed.'When the man of high station is well instructed. but Confucius would not go to see him.

if a thing be really white. If you are generous. and said. earnestness. a superior man will not associate with him. Chapter 7. if a thing be really hard. Confucius said. it may be ground without being made thin? Is it not said. and in an attitude of rebellion. generosity of soul. 'When a man in his own person is guilty of doing evil. Tsze-chang asked Confucius about perfect virtue. The Master said. and kindness. sincerity. people will repose trust in you. "Can it be without some reason that he has invited ME? If any one employ me. If you are kind. "Yes. The lengths to which Confucius was inclined to go. If you are sincere. if you go to him.' Pî Hsî is in rebellion. you will accomplish much." He begged to ask what they were. 2. But is it not said. may I not make an eastern Châu?" Chapter 6. "Master. I did use these words. Tsze-lû said. If you are grave. you will not be treated with disrespect. 2. inclined to respond to the advances of an unworthy man. formerly I have heard you say. when he was holding Pi. holding possession of Chung-mâu. Pî Hsî inviting him to visit him. 1. Kung-shan Fû-zâo. 1. Confucius. and was told. If you are earnest. to get his principles carried into practice. it may be steeped in a dark fluid without being made black? 4. "Indeed.Chapter 5. that. protests against his conduct being judged by ordinary rules. you cannot go! Why must you think of going to see Kung-shan?" 3. the Master was inclined to go. "Gravity. who was rather inclined to go. you will win all. "To be able to practice five things everywhere under heaven constitutes perfect virtue. this will enable you to employ the services of others. Tsze-lû was displeased. The Master said. that. invited the Master to visit him. what shall be said?" 3. Five things the practice of which constitutes perfect virtue. "Am I a bitter gourd? How can I be hung up out of the way of being eaten?" .

" 2. The Master said.the beclouding here leads to an injurious disregard of consequences.the beclouding here leads to a foolish simplicity.-. The importance of studying the Châu-nan and Shâo-nan. by preserving the mind from being beclouded. The Master said to Po-yü. and I will tell them to you. 1. "Yû. "I have not. is necessary to the completion of virtue.-. There is the love of straightforwardness without the love of learning.the beclouding here leads to insubordination.-.-.the beclouding here leads to extravagant conduct. 4. "There is the love of being benevolent without the love of learning. 3. beasts. 6. "From them we become largely acquainted with the names of birds. and the remoter one of serving one's prince. There is the love of firmness without the love of learning. Benefits derived from studying the Book of Poetry. The man who has not studied the Châu-nan and the Shâo-nan is like one who stands with his face right against a wall. "Sit down. 3. "The Odes serve to stimulate the mind. have you heard the six words to which are attached six becloudings?" Yû replied. There is the love of being sincere without the love of learning.-. 5. acquired by learning. 7.the beclouding here leads to rudeness. "They teach the art of sociability." Chapter 9. Knowledge. "They show how to regulate feelings of resentment. There is the love of boldness without the love of learning." Chapter 10. Is he not so?" . There is the love of knowing without the love of learning. why do you not study the Book of Poetry? 2. "My children. and plants. "From them you learn the more immediate duty of serving one's father. 1.-.Chapter 8. "Do you give yourself to the Châu-nan and the Shâo-nan. "They may be used for purposes of self-contemplation.the beclouding here leads to dissipation of mind. The Master said.

is like one of the small. as we go along. 3. The Master said. -'It is music. Contentment with vulgar ways and views injurious to virtue. The Master said. Are bells and drums all that is meant by music?" Chapter 12." Chapter 14." . The Master said. "When they are anxious lest such things should be lost. a wall?" Chapter 13. "Your good. The meanness of presumption and pusillanimity conjoined. "To tell. nor the sound of instruments which constitute music. is to cast away our virtue.' they say. is he not like the thief who breaks through. When they have got them.-.' they say. there is nothing to which they will not proceed. 1. The Master said. Are gems and silk all that is meant by propriety? 'It is music.' they say. It is not the external appurtenances which constitute propriety. "He who puts on an appearance of stern firmness. careful people of the villages are the thieves of virtue. while inwardly he is weak. their anxiety is how to get them.'It is according to the rules of propriety.Chapter 11. The case of mercenary officers. Swiftness to speak incompatible with the cultivation of virtue. The Master said. and how it is impossible to serve one's prince along with them. "'It is according to the rules of propriety. "There are those mean creatures! How impossible it is along with them to serve one's prince! 2. "While they have not got their aims. what we have heard on the way. or climbs over.' they say.yea." Chapter 15. -. their anxiety is lest they should lose them. mean people.

Master. 1. See Book I Chapter 3. "Anciently. The defects of former times become vices in the time of Confucius. The Master said. but does Heaven say anything?" Chapter 20. "The high-mindedness of antiquity showed itself in a disregard of small things." 2." and yet give intimation to the visitor of his presence. on the ground of being sick. How Confucius could be "not at home." Chapter 19. "If you. 1. I hate those who with their sharp mouths overthrow kingdoms and families. have to record?" 3. the stern dignity of the present day shows itself in quarrelsome perverseness. . When the bearer of this message went out at the door. Confucius's indignation at the way in which the wrong overcame the right. the stupidity of the present day shows itself in sheer deceit. men had three failings. "I hate the manner in which purple takes away the luster of vermilion. "I would prefer not speaking. "Does Heaven speak? The four seasons pursue their courses." Chapter 17. The Master said. Tsze-kung said. Zû Pei wished to see Confucius." Chapter 18. do not speak. "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with virtue. your disciples. the highmindedness of the present day shows itself in wild license. The actions of Confucius were lessons and laws. The Master said. The stupidity of antiquity showed itself in straightforwardness. I hate the way in which the songs of Chang confound the music of the Ya. which now perhaps are not to be found. and not his words merely. The Master said.Chapter 16. in order that Pei might hear him. 2. The Master said. The stern dignity of antiquity showed itself in grave reserve. what shall we. and all things are continually being produced. but Confucius declined. (the Master) took his lute and sang to it. to see him.

He also does not feel at ease. "If you can feel at ease. The Master said. and wear embroidered clothes. music will be ruined. "The superior man holds righteousness to be of highest importance. The Master said. And the three years' mourning is universally observed throughout the empire. But a superior man. will be guilty of insubordination. without applying his mind to anything good! Are there not gamesters and chess players? To be one of these would still be better than doing nothing at all. does not enjoy pleasant food which he may eat. to eat good rice. if he is comfortably lodged. having valor without righteousness. do it. It is not till a child is three years old that it is allowed to leave the arms of its parents. those observances will be quite lost." Chapter 23. 1. "If you were. "Hard is it to deal with who will stuff himself with food the whole day. But now you feel at ease and may do it. the reason of it." replied Wo." . one of the lower people having valor without righteousness. and the Master said. The Master said. Therefore he does not do what you propose. will commit robbery. "This shows Yü's want of virtue. Tsâi Wo then went out. The hopeless case of gluttony and idleness. nor derive pleasure from music which he may hear. its consequences apart from that. Tsâi Wo asked about the three years' mourning for parents. Did Yü enjoy the three years' love of his parents?" Chapter 22. After a complete year. 3. the mourning may stop." 4. during the whole period of mourning. A man in a superior situation." 6. Tsze-lû said. after a year. in procuring fire by friction. 2. The period of three years' mourning for parents. saying that one year was long enough. "abstains for three years from the observances of propriety." said he. it may not on any account be shortened. would you feel at ease?" "I should. and the new grain has sprung up.Chapter 21. and. "Within a year the old grain is exhausted. "If the superior man. If for three years he abstains from music. 5. Valour to be valued only in subordination to righteousness. we go through all the changes of wood for that purpose. "Does the superior man esteem valor?" The Master said.

have you also your hatreds?" Tsze-kung replied. 1. The viscounts of Wei and Chî. and think that they are valorous. girls and servants are the most difficult to behave to. of contracted understanding. 1. "The Yin dynasty possessed these three men of virtue. The Master said." 2. Some one said to him. "Serving men in an upright way. "Has the superior man his hatreds also?" The Master said. He hates those who proclaim the evil of others. they lose their humility." Chapter 2." Chapter 26. at the same time. If you maintain a reserve towards them.three worthies of the Yin dynasty. was thrice dismissed from his office. The Viscount of Wei withdrew from the court. and Pî-kan:-. Characters disliked by Confucius and Tsze-kung. If you are familiar with them. Confucius said. they are discontented. being in a low station. and. I hate those who are only not modest. He hates the man who." Chapter 25. How Hûi of Liû-hsiâ. slanders his superiors. he will always continue what he is. Tsze-kung said. "Ts'ze. Pî-kan remonstrated with him and died. Hûi of Liû-hsiâ. "I hate those who pry out matters. He hates those who are forward and determined. The Viscount of Chî became a slave to Châu. "He has his hatreds. "Of all people. ." Book 17 Chapter I. thought often dismissed from office. "Is it not yet time for you.Chapter 24. The difficulty of improvement in advanced years. sir. being chief criminal judge. and are unobservant of propriety. The Master said. I hate those who make known secrets. still clave to his country. 2. He hates those who have valor merely. The Master then inquired. The difficulty how to treat concubines and servants. "When a man at forty is the object of dislike. and think that they are straightforward. and ascribe the knowledge to their wisdom. to leave this?" He replied.

"O FANG! O FANG! How is your virtue degenerated! As to the past. Chieh-yü." replied he. How Confucius gave up official service in Lû. spreads over the whole empire. and that given to the chief of the Mang family." was the reply. "Is it not K'ung Ch'iû of Lû?" asked he. sir?" He answered. with reference to the manner in which he should treat Confucius. I will treat him in a manner between that accorded to the chief of the Chî." 3. who blames his not retiring from the world. like a swelling flood. Confucius and the two recluses. Chapter 6. but Chieh-yü hastened away. when the duke could not appreciate and employ him. and who is he that will change its state for you? Rather than follow one who merely withdraws . so that he could not talk with him. Peril awaits those who now engage in affairs of government. 1. The madman of Ch'û. "Yes. what necessity is there for me to leave the country of my parents?" Chapter 3. Ch'ang-tsü and Chieh-nî were at work in the field together. reproof is useless. singing and saying. Confucius took his departure. "Disorder." 2. but the future may still be provided against. why he would not withdraw from the world. said." "Are you not the disciple of K'ung Ch'iû of Lû?" asked the other." Confucius took his departure. and then Chieh-nî said to him. and sent Tsze-lû to inquire for the ford. who said to him. Confucius and the madman of Ch'û. "It is K'ung Ch'iû. "I am. to which the other rejoined. The duke Ching of Ch'î. "He knows the ford. "I cannot treat him as I would the chief of the Chî family. "Who are you. passed by Confucius. Give up your vain pursuit. Chapter 4. 1. Tsze-lû then inquired of Chieh-nî. Ch'ang-tsü and Chieh-nî. which Chî Hwan received. Confucius alighted and wished to converse with him. 2. Ch'ang-tsü said. Chapter 5. How Confucius left Ch'î. "I am old.'. Give up your vain pursuit. "I am Chung Yû. I cannot use his doctrines." He also said. "Who is he that holds the reins in the carriage there?" Tsze-lû told him. and not experience such a thrice-repeated dismissal? If I choose to serve men in a crooked way. when Confucius passed by them.where shall I go to. The people of Ch'î sent to Lû a present of female musicians. and for three days no court was held.

but their words corresponded with reason. the old man was gone. when he met an old man.from this one and that one. 1. without stopping.-such. Tsze-lû went on his way. that they surrendered their wills. sir?" The old man replied. He also introduced to him his two sons. prepared millet. Next day. you cannot distinguish the five kinds of grain:-. Tsze-lû then said to the family. and submitted to taint in their persons. when the Master observed with a sigh." Chapter 8. 4. "It is impossible to associate with birds and beasts. As to the failure of right principles to make progress. were Po-î and Shû-ch'î. and proceeded with his work. 2. If the relations between old and young may not be neglected. Tsze-lû went and reported their remarks. happened to fall behind. If I associate not with these people. The old man kept Tsze-lû to pass the night in his house. and Shâo-lien.who is your master?" With this. and feasted him. he allows that great relation to come to confusion.with whom shall I associate? If right principles prevailed through the empire." Chapter 7. "Not to take office is not righteous. 1. . and reported his adventure. and their actions were such as men are anxious to see. but when he got to the place. how is it that he sets aside the duties that should be observed between sovereign and minister? Wishing to maintain his personal purity. and stood before him. "Refusing to surrender their wills. and of Shâo-lien. and proceeded to weed. -. Tsze-lû said to him. 4. Confucius's judgment of former worthies who had kept from the world. 2. Î-yî. -. "It may be said of Hûi of Liû-hsiâ. Hûi of Liû-hsiâ. Tsze-lû. as if they were the same with us. Shû-ch'î. Tsze-lû's recontre with an old man. killed a fowl. "Your four limbs are unaccustomed to toil. The Master said. following the Master. This is all that is to be remarked in them. "Have you seen my master. The Master said. 3. 5. Yü-chung." and sent Tsze-lû back to see him again. "He is a recluse. he is aware of that. A superior man takes office. a recluse: his vindication of his master's course. carrying across his shoulder on a staff a basket for weeds. he planted his staff in the ground. had you not better follow those who have withdrawn from the world altogether?" With this he fell to covering up the seed. I think. and performs the righteous duties belonging to it. 3. or to submit to any taint in their persons. Tsze-lû joined his hands across his breast. there would be no use for me to change its state. Chû-chang.with mankind. The men who have retired to privacy from the world have been Po-î.

The fruitfulness of the early time of the Châu dynasty in able officers. The dispersion of the musicians of Lû. Wû. and. 5. 2. went to Ch'in. Instructions of Châu-kung to his son about government. 1. they gave a license to their words. they succeeded in preserving their purity. in their retirement. withdrew to an island in the sea. withdrew to the Han. 3. and no course against which I am predetermined. went to Ts'âi." Chapter 9. Without some great cause. Chung-tû. he does not dismiss from their offices the members of old families. Chüeh. 5. Po-kwô. the drum master. went to Ch'û. Shû-hsiâ.4. "It may be said of Yü-chung and Î-yî. the master of the hand drum. and Hsiang. He does not seek in one man talents for every employment. the duke of Lû. The duke of Châu addressed his son." Chapter 11. and Chî-kwa. but in their persons. a generous consideration of others to be cherished. Chî-sui. while they hid themselves in their seclusion. . the band master at the fourth meal. To Châu belonged the eight officers. He does not cause the great ministers to repine at his not employing them. Chapter 10. Fang-shû. Po-tâ. the assistant music master. withdrew to the north of the river. Chung-hwû. they acted according to the exigency of the times. "The virtuous prince does not neglect his relations. Chih. the band master at the third meal. Yang. Shû-yâ. master of the musical stone. that. the master of the band at the second meal. went to Ch'î. saying. I have no course for which I am predetermined. The grand music master. 4. Liâo. Kan. "I am different from all these.

" Chapter 5. what account can be made of his existence or non-existence?" Chapter 3. and from month to month does not forget what he has attained to. his thoughts are reverential. In sacrificing. Put away from you those who cannot do so. Am I possessed of great talents and virtue? -. and pities the incompetent. Tsze-chang said.Book 18 Chapter I. He praises the Tsze-hsiâ. Tsze-chang's opinion of the chief attributes of a true scholar. he thinks of will put me away from them. The indications of a real love of learning:-. seeing threatening danger. and believes in right principles. When the opportunity of gain is presented to him. The superior man honors the talented and virtuous. "Tszehsiâ says: 'Associate with those who can advantage you. "Even in inferior studies and employments there is something worth being looked at. "He. may be said indeed to love to learn. In mourning.'" Tsze-chang observed." . is prepared to sacrifice his life. "The scholar." Chapter 2. Tsze-chang asked. Tsze-hsiâ's opinion of the inapplicability of small pursuits to great objects. his thoughts are about the grief which he should feel. who from day to day recognizes what he has not yet. Tsze-hsiâ said. there is a danger of their proving inapplicable. Tsze-chang on narrow-mindedness and a hesitating faith. Tsze-chang said. What have we to do with the putting away of others?" Chapter 4. and bears with all. The different opinions of Tsze-Hsiâ and Tsze-chang on the principles which should regulate our intercourse with others. "When a man holds fast to virtue. trained for public duty. Tsze-hsiâ said. "What does Tsze-hsiâ say on the subject?" They replied. the superior man does not practice them. "This is different from what I have learned. Therefore. but without firm sincerity. The disciples of Tsze-hsiâ asked Tsze-chang about the principles that should characterize mutual intercourse. but if it be attempted to carry them out to what is remote.who is there among men whom I will not bear with? Am I devoid of talents and virtue? -. Such a man commands our approbation indeed. but without seeking to enlarge it.

" Chapter Tsze-hsiâ. If he have not gained his confidence. "When a person does not transgress the boundary line in the great virtues." Chapter 9. If he have not gained their confidence. "The mean man is sure to gloss his Tsze-hsiâ. in order to accomplish their works. Learning is the student's workshop:-. may then impose labors on his people. Having obtained the confidence of his prince. "There are learning extensively.Chapter 6. Tsze-hsiâ said. he may pass and repass it in the small virtues. Tsze-hsiâ said." Chapter Tsze-hsiâ. he appears stern. The superior man learns. when he is heard to speak.virtue is in such a course. inquiring with earnestness. Tsze-hsiâ said. and reflecting with self-application:-. "The superior man. Tsze-hsiâ said. The great virtues demand the chief attention." Chapter 7. his language is firm and decided. and the small ones may be somewhat violated:-Tsze-hsiâ." Chapter 10. Looked at from a distance. Tsze-hsiâ said. The importance of enjoying confidence to the right serving of superiors and ordering of inferiors:-. they will think that he is oppressing them. having obtained their confidence. he is mild. How learning should be pursued to lead to virtue:-. and having a firm and sincere aim. "Mechanics have their shops to dwell in. Tsze-hsiâ Tsze-hsiâ. Changing appearances of the superior man to others:-. "The superior man undergoes three changes." .by Tsze-hsiâ. Glossing his faults the proof of the mean man:-. in order to reach to the utmost of his principles. the prince will think that he is vilifying him. when approached. one may then remonstrate with him.

and they are left ignorant of what is essential. "The disciples and followers of Tsze-hsiâ.by Tsze-hsiâ. should apply himself to be an officer. who can unite in one the beginning and the consummation of learning?" Chapter 13. and allows himself to be idle about? But as in the case of plants. -. and delivers? what are there which he considers of secondary importance. How can the way of a superior man be such as to make fools of any of them? Is it not the sage alone.How can they be acknowledged as sufficiently taught?" 2. The trappings of mourning may be dispensed with:-. having been carried to the utmost degree of grief. in answering and replying. Tsze-hsiâ said. Tsze-hsiâ said. Tsze-hsiâ said. "Alas! Yen Yû is Tsze-yû. Tsze-hsiâ heard of the remark and said." Chapter 14.against Tsze-yû. "My friend Chang can do things which are hard to be done. But these are only the branches of learning. should stop with that. 1. The officer and the student should attend each to his proper work in the first instance:-. Tsze-yû said. "How imposing is the manner of Chang! It is difficult along with him to practice virtue. which are assorted according to their classes. as too high-pitched for friendship." Chapter 16." . what departments are there which he considers of prime importance. in sprinkling and sweeping the ground. The philosopher Tsang said. as minding high things too much. but yet he is not perfectly virtuous. "Mourning. having completed his learning. Tsze-hsiâ's defence of his own graduated methods of teaching:-. Tsze-yû's opinion of Tsze-chang. The philosopher Tsang's opinion of Tsze-chang. According to the way of the superior man in teaching. "The officer. so he deals with his disciples. The student. having discharged all his duties. in advancing and receding.Chapter 12. are sufficiently accomplished." Chapter 15. should devote his leisure to learning.

Therefore. and do not feel joy at your own ability. When you have found out the truth of any accusation. "I heard this from our Master:-. Tsze-kung said. the superior man hates to dwell in a low-lying situation. nor persist in them:-." . Tsang said. for a long Tsze-kung. Tsang Shan.'" Chapter 19. Tsze-kung said. nor his father's mode of government. he changes again. "The rulers have failed in their duties. was what other men are competent to. The philosopher Tsang said.'Men may not have shown what is in them to the full extent. "I have heard this from our Master:-. "The faults of the superior man are like the eclipses of the sun and Tsze-kung.'The filial piety of Mang Chwang. The superior man does not conceal his errors. be grieved for and pity them." Chapter 21. "Châu's wickedness was not so great as that name implies. and all men see them. in other Tsang Tsang Shan. How a criminal judge should cherish compassion in his administration of justice:-. as seen in his not changing the ministers of his father. and yet they will be found to do so. and the people consequently have been disorganized. How grief for the loss of parents brings out the real nature of man:-. The filial piety of Mang Chwang:-. The chief of the Mang family having appointed Yang Fû to be chief criminal judge." Chapter 20. it is difficult to be attained to. where all the evil of the world will flow in upon him. He has his faults. the latter consulted the philosopher Tsang. The danger of a bad name:-.Chapter 17. The philosopher Tsang said." Chapter 18. and all men look up to him. on the occasion of mourning for their parents.

and see whatever is valuable in the apartments. high above the reach of depreciation:-. saying. "Let me use the comparison of a house and its encompassing wall. Tsze-kung said. Chung-nî cannot be reviled. Tsze-fû Ching-po reported the observation to Tsze-kung. "From whom did Chung-nî get his learning?" 2. nor all the officers in their rich array. which it is not possible to step over. who said. They are to be found among men. remember the Tsze-kung. and others. Chung-nî is the sun or moon. "It is of no use doing so. he cannot see the ancestral temple with its beauties. Kung-sun Ch'âo of Wei asked Tsze-kung.Chapter 22. Tsze-kung repudiates being thought superior to Confucius. "The wall of my Master is several fathoms high. If one do not find the door and enter by it. One may peep over it. Shû-sun Wû-shû having spoken revilingly of Chung-nî. saying. "But I may assume that they are few who find the door. Although a man may wish to cut himself off from the sage. 1. The talents and virtue of other men are hillocks and mounds which may be stepped over. Confucius is like the sun or moon. all possess the doctrines of Wan and Wû. 3. My wall only reaches to the shoulders. Tsze-kung. by the comparison of a house and wall. Was not the observation of the chief only what might have been expected?" Chapter 24. Men of talents and virtue remember the greater principles of them. not possessing such talents and virtue. 1." 2. Tsze-kung replied. "Tsze-kung is superior to Chung-nî. Confucius's sources of knowledge were the recollections and traditions of the priciples of Wan and Wû:-. Thus. Shû-sun Wû-shû observed to the great officers in the court. what harm can he do to the sun or moon? He only shows that he does not know his own capacity. "The doctrines of Wan and Wû have not yet fallen to the ground. . Where could our Master go that he should not have an opportunity of learning them? And yet what necessity was there for his having a regular master?" Chapter 23. shows how ordinary people could not understand the Master. and.

"For one word a man is often deemed to be wise. "Although he has his near relatives. Sincerely hold fast the due Mean. Yü. the Heaven-determined order of succession now rests in your person. "Our Master cannot be attained to. that the sinner I dare not pardon. While he lived. I commit offenses. 3. Ch'an Tsze-ch'in. O most great and sovereign God. the child Lî. and forthwith they would be harmonious. Châu conferred great gifts. they are not to be attributed to you. the Heavenly revenue will come to a perpetual end. 3. and for one word he is often deemed to be foolish. We ought to be careful indeed in what we say. T'ang. restored the discarded officers. and forthwith they would follow him. T'ang said. Shun. Priciples and ways of Yâo. Confucius can be no more equalled than the heavens can be climbed:-. and presume to announce to Thee. "You are too modest. Tsze-kung said to him." 2. and forthwith multitudes would resort to his dominions. If you in the myriad regions commit offenses. the One man. said. he would be glorious. The examination of them is by thy mind. O God.he would plant the people. and thy ministers. If. When he died. he would lead them Tsze-kung. Yâo said. and the good were enriched. 4. presume to use a dark-colored victim. and forthwith they would be established. just in the same way as the heavens cannot be gone up by the steps of a stair. 1. "I." 4. they are not equal to my virtuous men. 5. these offenses must rest on my person. addressing Tsze-kung. How can Chung-nî be said to be superior to you?" 2. he would make them happy. He carefully attended to the weights and measures. Shun also used the same language in giving charge to Yû. in my person. "Were our Master in the position of the ruler of a state or the chief of a family. the people of the myriad regions. and the good government of the kingdom took its course. . If there shall be distress and want within the four seas. How is it possible for him to be attained to?" Book 19 Chapter I." 6. I do not keep in obscurity. we should find verified the description which has been given of a sage's rule:-. 1. he would stimulate them. he would be bitterly lamented. and Wû. The people are throwing blame upon me.Chapter 25. Shun. O God. examined the body of the laws. "Oh! you.

To issue orders as if without urgency. thus dignified. "What are meant by the five excellent things?" The Master not this to be majestic without being fierce?" 3. his achievements were great.a conversation with Tsze-chang. so that. "What is meant by being beneficent without great expenditure?" The Master replied. who will accuse him of covetousness? Whether he has to do with many people or few. when he is majestic without being fierce. "In what way should a person in authority act in order that he may conduct government properly?" The Master replied. "What are meant by the four bad things?" The Master said. And. he is looked at with awe. suddenly.-. who will repine? When his desires are set on benevolent government. at first. by honouring five excellent things. Tsze-chang said. By his justice. Chapter 2. He revived states that had been extinguished. when he lays tasks on the people without their not this being beneficent without great expenditure? When he chooses the labors which are proper. By his generosity.this is called injury." Tsze-chang not this to maintain a dignified ease without any pride? He adjusts his clothes and cap. Tsze-chang asked Confucius. so that throughout the kingdom the hearts of the people turned towards him. Tsze-chang then asked. "To put the people to death without having instructed them. "Let him honor the five excellent. he won all. and putting away four bad things:-. and. and throws a dignity into his looks.-. he does not dare to indicate any disrespect. and he secures it. and sacrifices. "When the person in authority is beneficent without great expenditure.this is called acting the part of a mere official. By his sincerity. 8. 1.this is called oppression. restored families whose line of succession had been broken. 9. when the time comes.then may he conduct government properly. How government may be conducted with efficiency. and makes them labor on them. What he attached chief importance to were the food of the people. when he maintains a dignified ease without being proud.-." .-. when he pursues what he desires without being covetous. in the giving pay or rewards to men. the full tale of work. without having given them warning. generally. all were delighted. By his earnest activity.7. the duties of mourning.-.-. or with things great or small. he made the people repose trust in him. "When the person in authority makes more beneficial to the people the things from which they naturally derive benefit.-. saying. to insist on them with severity. and called to office those who had retired into obscurity." 2. and banish away the four bad.this is called cruelty. things.-. to do it in a stingy way. To require from them.

" . The Master said. 2. The ordinances of Heaven. it is impossible to be a superior man. 3. "Without an acquaintance with the rules of Propriety. "Without knowing the force of words. it is impossible to know men.Chapter 3. the rules of Propriety. and the force of Words. all necessary to be known. it is impossible for the character to be established. "Without recognizing the ordinances of Heaven. 1.

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