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Name Task

: Ratu Rahmadani Syamra : Semantic and Pragmatic

A. Connotation and Denotation Connotation and Denotation are two principal methods of describing the meanings of words. Connotation refers to the wide array of positive and negative associations that most words naturally carry with them, whereas denotation is the precise, literal definition of a word that might be found in a dictionary. Connotation is the emotional and imaginative association surrounding a word. Denotation is the strict dictionary meaning of a word Connotation and denotation are not two separate things/signs. They are two aspects/ elements of a sign, and the connotative meanings of a word exist together with the denotative meanings]. Connotation represents the various social overtones, cultural implications, or emotional meanings associated with a sign. Denotation represents the explicit or referential meaning of a sign. Denotation refers to the literal meaning of a word, the dictionary definition.For example, the name Hollywood connotes such things as glitz, glamour, tinsel, celebrity, and dreams of stardom. In the same time, the name Hollywood denotes an area of Los Angeles, worldwide known as the center of the American movie industry Denotation vs Connotation: Common Usage Robert Kiyosaki in The Cashflow Quadrant states, "If you want to be a leader of people, then you need to be a master of words." I say, "if you're going to be a master of words, you better choose them carefully." Understanding denotation and connotation is an important concept in choosing the correct word. Here's a list of words that show connotation and denotation differences. Those who are lonely and detached live in a house. Those who live with loved ones and in happiness live in a home. A mother and father have procreated. A mom and a dad are loving parents. Many wise men have made plans. Many cunning scoundrels have devised a scheme. Pushy salespeople are to be avoided. Aggressive salespeople make a lot of money. I'm sick and tired of listening to politicians, but give me a good statesman any day of the week and we'll get things done. B. Paraphrase Paraphrase is the expression of the meaning of a word, phrase or sentence using other words, phrases or sentences which have (almost) the same meaning (cf. Richards et al.,1992). Paraphrase involves a relation of semantic equivalence between syntactically different phrases or sentences (cf. Quirk et al., 1985. E.g., John wrote a letter to Mary. A dog bit John.

John wrote Mary a letter. John was bitten by a dog. Like synonymy, paraphrase is never perfect; there are always differences in emphasis or focus. There are two kinds of paraphrase: 1. Lexical paraphrase. It is the use of a semantically equivalent term in place of another in a given context. This is also known as synonymy. E.g., John is happy. = John is cheerful. to rejuvenate = to make someone or something appear or feel younger. 2. Structural paraphrase. It is the use of a phrase or sentence in place of another phrase or sentence semantically equivalent to it, although they have different syntactic structure. E.g., John showed the pictures to me. John showed me the pictures. C. Entailment Two sentences in which the truth of the first implies the truth of the second, but the truth of the second does not necessarily imply the truth of the first,Entailment is basically a semantic relation (or logical implication). If sentence A entails sentence B, it must observe that, in terms of truth value, when sentence A is true, sentence B must be also true; when sentence B is false, sentence A must also be false, and that when sentence B is true, sentence A may be true or false. The source of entailment may be lexical or syntactical. Lexical source of entailment can be shown in the example like, (a) The anarchist assassinated the emperor. (b) The emperor died. The relationship of entailment between (a) and (b) derives from the lexical relationship between assassinate and die. In some sense the meaning of assassinate contains the meaning of die. Other sources for entailment are syntactic: for example, active and passive versions of the same sentence will entail one another. Sentences below show this well: (c) The Etruscans built this tomb. (d) This tomb was built by Etruscans. e.g. George killed the spider vs. The spider is dead Contradiction Two sentences such that if one is true, the second must be false, e.g. Dodo is extinct vs. A hunter has just shot a dodo