A Report ON “INDIAN RAILWAY (Online ticket reservation)” Submitted in partial fulfillment for the degree of Bachelor of Technology IN Computer

Science & Engineering GVSET Guided By: Mr. Kamlesh lakhwani (Faculty of gyan vihar university) Submitted By: Ashish vyas 23 Ayush gupta 26 Computer Science A-1 iv sem Gyan vihar ,jaipur GYAN VIHAR SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY MAHAL,JAGATPURA.JAIPUR (I) ABSTRACT

Dot net dealt as a framework signifies the foundation for software development. The dot net framework consists of the common language runtime, which provides many of the core services required for program execution. This project includes the contents of dot net base class library, which exposes a set of predeveloped classes to facilitate program development. The common language specifications (CLS) defines a minimum set of standards that all language using the dot net frame work must support, and the common type system (CTS) ensures type compatibility between components developed in different languages. A dot net executable is stored as a Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) file. Here we have chosen the concept of disconnected architecture for our programming purpose, data set an in memory representation of the table and data tables objects independent of data adapters objects fill them programmatically. Data relation objects represent parent child relationship between columns of different tables .we used data relation objects to enforce constraints and retrieve related rows of data. Data binding and data viewing concept are also provided in the scene referring relationship between a data provider and data consumer receive data and display or otherwise process it, in the data binding process two sort of bindings are described: simple binding and complex binding .A simple bound controls bind a singe record at a time, where as complex bound

bind all available records at once. Data viewing an object that is associated with a data table and provides a filterable, sortable subset of the data contained by the underlying data. Table of Contents CHAPTER NO TITLE PAGE NO ABSTRACT (II) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT (IV) LIST OF FIGURE (VI) 11 1.1 .net 1 1.2 Principal 2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 interoperablity common runtime engine language independent design feature technology Introduction

1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 1.3

base class library security portability language infrastructure

common 3

1.4 6 1.5 Features 9 1.6 The 14 1.7 Common 14 1.8 1.9 Classes Service 15 1.10 .net 16 221 of















Software requirement specification

233 5.3635 736 838 Use case reports Use case modeling use case diagrams for reservation system enquiry to issue of tickets passenger reservation system objective of prs impact of prs implementation Growth of Total Passenger Traffic on Indian project at a glance appendix refrences .327 430 4.1 30 4.132 5.2 31 532 5.

They deserve more credit than I can give for instilling in me a good work ethic and a desire to always learn more.(iv) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I feel highly privileged to express my sincere thanks and deepest sense of gratitude to Mr. who has spared his precious time to complete this project. Director. I could not have completed this work without the guidance of my parents. Jaipur for clearing my doubts at any time of need and valuable inspiration during the project work.gyan vihar. for giving us opportunity to complete the software engineering lab projectunder guidance fo mr. Naveen hemrajani HOD Department of Computer Science.kamlesh . My thanks are extended to all staff members and persons who directly or indirectly helped me in achieving my goals. I express my deepest sense of gratitude towards Mr. . gyan vihar university. sunil sharma.

(v) Table of figure Figure’s name 1-Visual overview of the CLI 2-Class library 3-.My thanks are extended to all friends who gave me nice company and kept my spirit high throughout this work.net frame stack 4-Layer architecture 5-Two tier architecture 6-Three tier architecture 7-N tier architectures 8-use cases 9-issue of tickets 10-growth of passenger in india page no .

INTRODUCTION:.people. . The . ASP.NET was build by Microsoft from one of their big technologies and web programmers can make use of any encoding language they want to write ASP. It includes a large library of coded solutions to prevent common programming problems and a virtual machine that manages the execution of programs written specifically for the framework. .NET Framework is a key Microsoft offering and is intended to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform.NET Framework.Microsoft's . from Perl to C Sharp (C#) and of course VB.NET run quicker and with fewer errors.NET technology is a technology intended to connect.NET Technology.NET technology are that it creates construction Websites.NET technology.NET infrastructure. Web applications and Web services very simple and with fewer code those older languages.NET Framework is a software framework that can be installed on computers running Microsoft Windows operating systems. As well. structures. What are Web Services and their profit? Well they can be called enhancements that assist businesses expand and connect by their clients and partners. the applications compiled in ASP. What to connect? Well the whole thing that can be linked through software . A main part of the . and extra things as well as devices. .Net technology and structure is the ASP.The Microsoft .NET can grasp servers that offer web services or the tools wanted to generate these services.NET and a few extra language unspoken with the . Their profits are that they create the communication among business partners a lot easier and still increase the profits by creation a business known and accessible to much more people through the assist of the Internet.NET. These web development technologies are used in the making of Websites and net services working on the . The advantages of the ASP.net set of technologies. computers.

The class library is used by programmers. cryptography. web application development. Principal design features Interoperability : Because interaction between new and older applications is commonly required. access to other functionality is provided using the P/Invoke feature. Access to COM components is provided in the System.NET environment. numeric algorithms.1 The framework's Base Class Library provides a large range of features including user interface. Also part of the . The CLR also provides other important services such as security. data and data access. database connectivity. memory management.InteropServices and System. and network communications. Common Runtime Engine: .Runtime. and exception handling.NET Framework provides means to access functionality that is implemented in programs that execute outside the . who combine it with their own code to produce applications.NET Framework execute in a software environment that manages the program's runtime requirements. the . this runtime environment is known as the Common Language Runtime (CLR). Programs written for the .EnterpriseServices namespaces of the framework. The CLR provides the appearance of an application virtual machine so that programmers need not consider the capabilities of the specific CPU that will execute the program. The class library and the CLR together constitute the .NET Framework.NET Framework.

2 Language Independence : The . the . The CTS specification defines all possible datatypes and programming constructs supported by the CLR and how they may or may not interact with each other.NET languages.NET framework.The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is the virtual machine component of the . Security: .NET Framework introduces a Common Type System. This is discussed in more detail in Microsoft . security. All .NET Framework. The BCL provides classes which encapsulate a number of common functions. or CTS. Simplified Deployment: The . including file reading and writing. database interaction and XML document manipulation.NET Languages.NET Framework supports the exchange of instances of types between programs written in any of the . Because of this feature. is a library of functionality available to all languages using the . Base Class Library : The Base Class Library (BCL). graphic rendering. guaranteeing certain properties and behaviors in the areas of memory management.NET programs execute under the supervision of the CLR.NET framework includes design features and tools that help manage the installation of computer software to ensure that it does not interfere with previously installed software. part of the Framework Class Library (FCL). and that it conforms to security requirements. and exception handling.

and the Common Intermediate Language).NET assemblies. Assemblies . The complete name of an assembly (not to be confused with the filename on disk) contains its simple text name. such as buffer overflows. Common Type System. The public key . garbage collection. a program written to use the framework should run without change on any type of system for which the framework is implemented.The design is meant to address some of the vulnerabilities. assemblies are stored in the Portable Executable (PE) format. including functions for exception handling. one of which must contain the manifest. Portability:The design of the .NET assembly The intermediate CIL code is housed in . and interoperability. and the 3 Xbox 360. security.[7] and the C+ +/CLI language[8] to both ECMA and the ISO. that have been exploited by malicious software.NET provides a common security model for all applications. The purpose of the CLI is to provide a language-neutral platform for application development and execution. Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) The core aspects of the .[4][5][6] the C# language. version number.NET Framework allows it to theoretically be platform agnostic. Microsoft's implementation of the CLI is called the Common Language Runtime or CLR. and public key token. or CLI. That is.NET Framework lie within the Common Language Infrastructure. which has the metadata for the assembly. Windows CE. common on the Windows platform for all DLL and EXE files. Additionally. The assembly consists of one or more files. Microsoft's commercial implementations of the framework cover Windows. and thus cross-platform compatible. Microsoft submits the specifications for the Common Language Infrastructure (which includes the core class libraries. As mandated by specification. culture. . In addition.

token is a unique hash generated when the assembly is compiled. 4 . thus two assemblies with the same public key token are guaranteed to be identical from the point of view of the framework.

Architecture Visual overview of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) 5 .

CodeDom System. Collections System.RegularExpressions 6 . Resources System.Class library Namespaces BCL[9] System in the System. IO System. Globalization System. Text. Diagnostics System. Text System.

[9] The classes in mscorlib. Microsoft Silverlight and Mono.* or Microsoft.core.NET Framework as well as its alternative implementations including .The .dll and some of the classes in System.NET. ASP.NET.NET languages. including WinForms. These class libraries implement a large number of common functions.NET Framework class library is divided into two parts: the Base Class Library and the Framework Class Library.NET Framework includes a set of standard class libraries. Language Integrated Query. graphic rendering. database interaction.dll and System. The class library is organized in a hierarchy of namespaces. The Base Class Library (BCL) includes a small subset of the entire class library and is the core set of classes that serve as the basic API of the Common Language Runtime. The . It includes an expanded set of libraries. Most of the built in APIs are part of either System.NET Compact Framework. The FCL is much larger in scope than standard libraries for languages like C++. The BCL classes are available in both .dll are considered to be a part of the BCL. Windows Presentation Foundation. Windows Communication Foundation among others. The . ADO. The Framework Class Library (FCL) is a superset of the BCL classes and refers to the entire class library that ships with .NET Framework. such as file reading and writing. among others. and XML document manipulation. and comparable in scope to the standard libraries of Java 7 Versions .NET class libraries are available to all .* namespaces.

NET Windows Server 2003 2.0 Studio 3. . The .30 2006-11- .Visual 2 07 2005 3.1 Visual 1.NET Framework stack. Versi Version on Number Release Visual Date Studio 2002-02.50727.NET Default in Windows 1.0 were released.0.Microsoft started development on the .4 2005-11.0 Windows Vista.Visual 13 Studio .NET Framework in the late 1990s originally under the name of Next Generation Windows Services (NGWS).0 1.0 1.57 2003-04Studio 3 24 2003 2.0.1. By late 2000 the first beta versions of .4506.4322.0.3705.NET 1.

06 2007-11.5.NET FRAMEWORK IN CONTEXT:- Windows Server 2008 Studio Windows 7.8 .Visual 19 2008 8 . Windows Server 2008 R2 3.5 3.21022.

This means that managed code can consume other managed types and instances. depending on a number of factors that include their origin (such as the Internet. users can trust that an executable embedded in a Web page can play an animation on screen or sing a song. and other system • 9 services. The security features of the runtime thus enable legitimate Internet-deployed software to be exceptionally feature rich. file system. even if it is being used in the same active application. managed components are awarded varying degrees of trust. code safety verification. enterprise network. These features are intrinsic to the managed code that runs on the common language runtime. The runtime enforces code access security. With regards to security. code execution. registryaccess operations. or network.The following sections describe the main components and features of the . This means that a managed component might or might not be able to perform file-access operations. The various Microsoft and third-party language compilers generate managed code that conforms to the CTS. The runtime also enforces code robustness by implementing a strict type-and-codeverification infrastructure called the common type system (CTS). or other sensitive functions. or local computer). • Features of the Common Language Runtime The common language runtime manages memory. but cannot access their personal data. compilation. while strictly enforcing type fidelity and type safety . The CTS ensures that all managed code is self-describing. For example.NET Framework in greater detail. thread execution.

Language compilers that target the . This automatic memory management resolves the two most common application errors. Interoperability between managed and unmanaged code enables developers to continue to use necessary COM components and DLLs. The runtime is designed to enhance performance. . 11 A feature called just-in-time (JIT) compiling enables all managed code to run in the native machine language of the system on which it is executing.10 In addition.NET Framework available to existing code written in that language. Although the common language runtime provides many standard runtime services. managed code is never interpreted. the class library. memory leaks and invalid memory references. programmers can write applications in their development language of choice. For example. it also supports software of today and yesterday. the managed environment of the runtime eliminates many common software issues. Any compiler vendor who chooses to target the runtime can do so. yet take full advantage of the runtime. greatly easing the migration process for existing applications. the runtime automatically handles object layout and manages references to objects. The runtime also accelerates developer productivity. and components written in other languages by other developers. releasing them when they are no longer being used. For example.NET Framework make the features of the . While the runtime is designed for the software of the future.

You can install multiple versions side-by-side to obtain the required combination of features. 12 In addition to Visual Studio. while still enjoying the superior performance of the industry's best enterprise servers that support runtime hosting. Visual Studio is organized into several different versions. debug. and Office-based solutions. such as Microsoft® SQL Server™ and Internet Information Services (IIS).NETFramework. the memory manager removes the possibilities of fragmented memory and increases memory locality-of-reference to further increase performance. The .NET Framework. and others involved in the full life cycle of application development. Visual Studio Development Environment The .NET Framework Class Library (FCL) . Microsoft provides other development environments such as Expression Studio. with some versions targeted at specific groups such as architects. server-side applications. the runtime can be hosted by high-performance. develop. and external libraries that are not included in the. and deploy Windows. testers.Meanwhile. As an integrated development environment (IDE). Finally. Web. This infrastructure enables you to use managed code to write your business logic.NET platform provides a comprehensive development environment known as the Visual Studio Team System. You can use the language of your choice within Visual Studio Team System to write applications that target the . Mobile. it provides all the tools you require to design.

In addition to classes that support Web application development . and Windows NT or Windows 2000 Services. The FCL also contains all classes that make up ASP. which include primitive data types such as Byte. and other network-related functionality. directory. from a rich engine for caching output and data to the ASP. to networking classes that allow easy implementation of DNS resolution. and the Object and String types. Developers can use the base classes directly or derive from these classes to provide customized functionality.NET. as well as classes that provide additional functionality. Windows applications.NET.NET the simplicity of control-based development that has long been available to Visual Basic developers. The Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) .NET Server Control model. and reference types. the FCL provides classes for developing console applications. This functionality brings to ASP. and Boolean. WHOIS lookups. to filesystem utility classes (including file. 13 The Common Type System (CTS) The CTS describes the set of types that are supported by the CLR. Double. Int16. This includes both value types. classes. which include arrays.The FCL is a set of reusable object-oriented classes that provide basic platform functionality. and stream classes). from the data access classes of ADO. These include classes that implement all of the functionality of the ASP intrinsic objects.

the internal implementation of a class can use non-CLS–compliant types (such as the unsigned integer types). Metadata. It contains the definition for how a particular object will be instantiated at runtime. A class is essentially the blueprint for an object.NET language in any other .NET language and crosslanguage debugging. type safety rules.The CLI is a subset of the . The Common Language Specification (CLS) The CLS is a subset of the types supported by the CLR. a Network Library (for simple networking services and access to network ports).NET Framework that has been submitted for standardization through the ECMA standards body. It also includes a subset of the Framework Class Library that includes a Base Class Library (for built-in types and basic runtime functionality). the class can still take full advantage of the interoperability features enabled by the CLS. such as the properties and methods that will be exposed publicly by the object and any internal storage structures. Layers and Tiers Layers .NET languages. For example. the term class may be new to many ASP developers. The purpose of the CLS is to provide robust interoperability between . including the ability to inherit classes written in one . but as long as only CLS-compliant members are exposed publicly. and Floating Point and Extended Array Libraries. a Reflection Library (for examining types and retrieving information about types at runtime). 14 The rules defined by the CLS apply only to publicly exposed features of a class. as well as a set of rules that language and compiler designers must follow. Classes While not a term specific to the . and Intermediate Language.NET platform. an XML Library (for parsing XML). The CLI includes the functionality of the Common Language Runtime. as well as specifications for the Common Type System.

making it easier to create a design that supports reusability of components. and then use this map as a blueprint for your design. and Data Services At the highest and most abstract level. with each sublayer performing a specific type of task. They help to differentiate between the different kinds of tasks performed by the components. as shown in Figure 1. By identifying the generic types of components that exist in most solutions. Presentation. optimize the way that the application works when deployed in different ways. and provide a clear delineation between locations where certain technology or design decisions must be made. 15 Splitting an application into separate layers that have distinct roles and functionalities helps you to maximize maintainability of the code.Layers are the logical groupings of the software components that make up the application or service. . Each logical layer contains a number of discrete component types grouped into sublayers. Business. the logical architecture view of any system can be considered to be a set of cooperating services grouped into the following layers. you can construct a meaningful map of an application or service.

In this scenario. Common tiered design patterns are two-tier. Figure 6 illustrates a common Web application . three-tier. business. the client and server may exist on the same machine. a client and a server. services. or may be located on two different machines. The following sections explore each of these scenarios. and n-tier. Two-Tier The two-tier pattern represents a basic structure with two main components.layer architecture 16 Tiers Tiers represent the physical separation of the presentation. and data functionality of your design across separate computers and systems.

. and the application server interacts with a database that is also located on a separate server. This tier contains the presentation layer logic and any required business layer logic. The two-tier deployment pattern 17 Three-Tier In a three-tier design.scenario where the client interacts with a Web server located in the client tier. the client interacts with application software deployed on a separate server. which contains the data layer logic. Figure 7 illustrates the three-tier deployment pattern. This is a very common pattern for most Web applications and Web services. The Web application communicates with a separate machine that hosts the database tier.

This usually occurs for security reasons.The three-tier deployment pattern N-Tier In this scenario. Figure 8 illustrates the n-tier deployment pattern. where the Web server is deployed within a perimeter network and accesses the application server located on a different subnet through a firewall. It is also common to implement a firewall between the client and the Web tier. the Web server (which contains the presentation layer logic) is physically separated from the application server that implements the business logic. 18 .

passwords.The n-tier deployment pattern ASP. connection strings.NET architecture 19 Encrypting Configuration Configuration Information Using Protected Part of securing an application involves ensuring that highly sensitive information is not stored in a readable or easily decodable format. Examples of sensitive information include user names. Storing sensitive information in a non-readable format improves . and encryption keys.

in a Web application configuration file such as the Web.02) Software . which enables you to encrypt sensitive information in a configuration file.2) Scope: 1.NET application is the Web.config file. 20 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION 1) Introduction: 1. One of the primary places that sensitive information is stored in an ASP.NET provides a feature called protected configuration. or other storage location. Overview of Protected Configuration You can use protected configuration to encrypt sensitive information.5) Technologies: 2)Overall Description: 2. Encrypting configuration information can improve the security of your application by making it difficult for an attacker to gain access to the sensitive information even if the attacker gains access to your configuration file. database connection strings.3)Abbreviations 1.1) Purpose: 1.the security of your application by making it difficult for an attacker to gain access to the sensitive information. including user names and passwords. To help secure information in configuration files.01) Product Perspective: 2.4) References: 1. database. and encryption keys.config file. ASP. even if an attacker gains access to the file.

email addresses of all the passenger from one central location.11) Assumptions and Dependencies: 3) Specific Requirements: 3.05) Product Function 2.10) Database design: 2. source.09) Architecture diagram 2.1) Purpose: The online railway reservation establishing and sustaining the goal of to provide the easiest and quickly way to get a much awaited online railway ticket.06) User Characteristics 2. ? Maintain the services provided to the passenger through Service Level Agreements. destination.04) Communication Interface 2.03) Hardware Interface: 2.07) Constraints: 2.08) Use-Case Model Survey 2. address of the passenger.2. ? Manage all the account details such as passenger name.2) Supplementary Requirements: 21 1) Introduction: 1. To provide the facility to get the ticket as well as cancellation and check the status of passenger.2) Scope: ? Create different system users and assign different roles with related permissions. . ? Track all the passenger and their contact details.1) Use-Case Reports 3. 1. ? Track all the payment details of the customer and their ticket ownership detail.

? Maintain history of each customer and their related information about the ticket. ? Microsoft sql server: Microsoft sql server Database is the database management system that delivers a flexible and cost effective database platform to build robust on demand business applications.3) Abbreviations: ? Support transaction: Communication between support manager and customer /passenger regarding service provided. chats. ? HTML: Hypertext Markup Language is a markup language used to design static web pages. ? Activities like updations. and services calls in asingle system. ? Confirmation of end user identity and will verify which users are authorized to receive support. ? TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. 1. query & feedback for the product. View and edit all passenger transactions. ? HTTPS: Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol is a HTTP over SSL (secure socket layer). including email. address etc. 22 ? Payment transaction: Transaction between account manger and customer for all the payment of it’s purchase of ticket and services. phone number. e mail id. ? Personal details: Details of customer such as username. TCP/IP uses several protocols. . ? Capture.? Group the contacts together in a single account according to some criteria. ? View all the details of all the interactions made with the traveller. ? HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol is a transaction oriented client/server protocol between web browser & a Web Server. the suite of communication protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet. the two main ones being TCP and IP. creations done in the system by the system users will be maintained in the form of logs for auditing and maintaining the integrity of the system.

4) References: ? IEEE SRS Format ? Problem Definition (Provided by guide) 1. ? The Client Software is to provide the user interface on system user client side and for this TCP/IP protocols are used. 2. Operating System (any) Client on Intranet: Client Software. interconnection and external interfaces.NET programming language ? Microsoft sql server: Database ? Rational: Design Tool 23 1. 2) Overall Description: Describe the general factors that affect the product and its requirements. ? Specific Requirements will describe the functions of actors.02) Software Interface: Client on Internet: Web Browser. Operating System (any) Web Server: Operating System (any) .1.01) Product Perspective: ? The web pages (XHTML/ASP) are present to provide the user interface on customer client side.5) Technologies: ? ASP. their role in the system and constraints. Communication between customer and server is provided through HTTP/HTTPS protocols. Web Browser. 2.6) Overview: SRS will include two sections: ? Overall Description will describe major components of the system.

05) Product Function: ? Track Account Level Data: In this module. Contact.0 Pentium IV at 500MHz 64 MB Server Side Web sphere application serverV5.03) Hardware Interface: Client Side Processor RAM Internet Explorer 6. ? User Contact Information: It maintains all the details (Personal. receivables from customer are maintained. ? Track Support Transactions: Maintenance of transactions related to the services providedto the customer in the form of support.0 Pentium IV at 1GHz DiskSpace 1 GB 512 MB 2 GB 2. 2.04) Communication Interface: ? Client on Internet will be using HTTP/HTTPS protocol. ? Product Ownership Details: It maintains the information that does which customer own which product. Operating System (any) 24 2. Official.Data Base Server: Microsoft sql server. and Company) of the customer. . ? Client on Intranet will be using TCP/IP protocol. ? Service Level Agreements: It contains the agreements of providing the services related to product and customer.

which is maintained by the system. ? Login and password is used for identification of customer and there is no facility for guest. 2.06) User Characteristics: Every user should be comfortable of working with computer and net browsing. ? There is no maintainability of back up so availability will get effected.07) Constraints: ? GUI is only in English. 2. 26 Use case reports: . ? Limited to HTTP/HTTPS. ? This system is working for single server. He must have basic knowledge of English too.25 ? Maintaining Logs: Activities of the System Users can be tracked through the logs.

Alternate flow of events: None. More than one task and permissions can be granted or revoked from the system users. The system users will be created and will be assigned with the different roles. tasks and permissions assigned to one will be displayed and if role is selected then list of system users assigned to that role will be displayed). # Manage Standard Groups: Standard groups will be created and updated by the administrator. purchase details. Name of use case: View System Users Description: View the list of system users in a role and view the details of roles. ? System users have already been created and assigned some roles. # View Logs: Responsible for checking the logs of different system user for auditing and maintaining the integrity of the system. Preconditions: ? Administrator is already logged in. which will be visible to all the system users. daily service transaction details. tasks and permissions.i) Administrator: Responsible for managing system users. tasks and permissions assigned to a system user. Query will be submitted. . # Manage System Users: The Administrator will create different roles. #View All Details: View the customer details. payment details. viewing logs and managing standard groups of the system. Relevant output will be displayed (If system user is selected then roles. 27 Normal flow of events: The system user or a role will be selected.

tasks and permissions to them). . 28 Name of use case: Create System Users Description: To create system users (Giving them a login name.Post Condition: None. password and assign roles. Preconditions: Administrator is already logged in.

Save the details. roles.Normal flow of events: New Login name. Alternate flow of events: A message appears for duplicate login name. tasks and permissions will be entered. Post condition: A login id is generated with its details. The administrator has to fill the details again. 29 Use case modeling- . details. password.

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Enquiry to issue of tickets- .

Internet and phone. 2. Objectives of PRS* Objectives of PRS 1. Reduction in time and expense involved in ticketing b. Possibility of unethical practices largely eliminated . Better working environment for staff 3. 2. since the waitlist information is not universally available. Possibility of mistake very high as details written manually in register. 3. since information access is restricted. From other stations request sent through telegram.31 Passnger reservation system(PRS) Exhibit 1. 5. Quick and easy availability of information regarding trains and accommodation availability 2. Shorter queues because of availability of large number of universal PRS counters. Quicker service to passengers c. Possibility of mistakes reduced as the information printed on the ticket can be checked by the passenger. possible from any PRS counter. 5. 3. Long queues and long waiting time for passengers. 4. leading to passenger inconvenience. Information regarding availability status is universally available over touch screens. Immediate reservation from any station to any station over IR. Service to Public a. Reduction in scope for unethical practices in reserving ccommodation * from official documents Exhibit 2. Possibility of unethical practices while allotting reservation. Impact of PRS Implementation Before PRS Implementation 1. Possibility of booking clerk not giving correct ‘availability position’. After PRS implementation 1. Reservation possible only at the train originating station. 4.

Growth of Total Passenger Traffic on Indian Year 1950-51 1960-61 1970-71 1980-81 1990-91 1997-98 1998-99 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Number of Passenger (millions) 1284 1594 2431 3613 3858 4348 4411 4833 5093 4971 5112 5516 5886 33 .Exhibit 3.

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about us reservation .PROJECT AT A GLANCE-This “Indian railway “ the online reservation project describes the several items in detail.train fare.NET Framework: . to verify the reservation status. children etc. 35 APENDIX Introduction to the C# Language and the .maps and many more pages related with the information and facility which are provided by this project. rules . Maps-it has the maps of Indian railway with their zonal distribution. Web pages are-home page.senior citizen. Train schedule-this web page gives the information about the schedule of the trains across all over india according to the their respective station for up and down both. blind person. Pnr status-it has the facility to check the status of their reservation . Train fare-the train fare is according to the distance covered by the train . It requires the 17 digit pnr no. It includes many of the web pages which depicts the required information and ticket generating facility in less time as compare to the counter booking. pnr status train schedule .it generates the fare according to the category like handicapped persns.

All variables and methods. delegates. Developers who know any of these languages are typically able to begin to work productively in C# within a very short time. much more. database applications. and iterators.NET Framework. client-server applications. As an object-oriented language. C# syntax simplifies many of the complexities of C++ and provides powerful features such as nullable value types. enumerations. lambda expressions and direct memory access. C# Language C# syntax is highly expressive. XML Web services. In C# 3. C++ or Java. Language-Integrated Query (LINQ) expressions make the strongly-typed query a first-class language construct. convenient user interface designers. The curly-brace syntax of C# will be instantly recognizable to anyone familiar with C. the application's entry point.0 of the C# language and version 3. are encapsulated within class definitions. C# supports the concepts of encapsulation. which are not found in Java. distributed components. yet it is also simple and easy to learn. integrated debugger. and many other tools to make it easier to develop applications based on version 3. and polymorphism. 36 .5 of the .NET Framework.0. which enable implementers of collection classes to define custom iteration behaviors that are simple to use by client code.C# is an elegant and type-safe object-oriented language that enables developers to build a variety of secure and robust applications that run on the . inheritance. Visual C# 2008 provides an advanced code editor. You can use C# to create traditional Windows client applications. which provide increased type safety and performance. and much. C# supports generic methods and types. including the Main method.

Methods that override virtual methods in a parent class require the override keyword as a way to avoid accidental redefinition. Properties. it is a stack-allocated type that can implement interfaces but does not support inheritance. Inline XML documentation comments. but it may implement any number of interfaces. which serve as accessors for private member variables. including the following: • • Encapsulated method signatures called delegates. In addition to these basic object-oriented principles.A class may inherit directly from one parent class. Attributes. which enable type-safe event notifications. C# makes it easy to develop software components through several innovative language constructs. • • • . a struct is like a lightweight class. which provide declarative metadata about types at run time. Language-Integrated Query (LINQ) which provides built-in query capabilities across a variety of data sources. In C#.

3 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING. Vol.learnvisualstudio.81–94. Pramana – Journal of Physics Vol. (1980) ‘Applications of Convolution Operators to Problems in Univalent Function Theory’. PRESSMAN • Microsoft .0 By Bill Evjen Scott Hanselman • www.37 REFERENCES 1. J. Michigan Mach.NET FRAMEWORK 2. 2. No.com . S.W. pp. S. (1994) ‘Transport Phonomena of Sm Sel – X Asx’.com • www.42. Ariponnammal.27. Barnard. A PRACTITIONER’S APPROACH By ROGER S.0 Web-Based Client Development By Glenn Johnson and Tony Northrup • ASP.421-425. R. and Kellogg. pp.NET 2.microsoft. C. and Natarajan.1..

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