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It has been suggested that List of shotokan techniques be merged into this article. (Discuss)Proposed since August 2012.
Date founded 1939 Country of origin Founder Gichin Funakoshi (1868–1957) Yoshitaka Funakoshi (1906–1945) Arts taught Ancestor schools Karate Shōrei-ryū, Shōrin-ryū Japan
Hitotsubashi (Shodai).2 Common terms 2. internal disagreements (in particular the notion that competition is contrary to the essence of karate) led to the creation of different organizations—including an initial split between the Japan Karate Association(headed by Masatoshi Nakayama) and the Shotokai (headed by Motonobu Hironishi and Shigeru Egami). Waseda. developed from various martial artsby Gichin Funakoshi (1868–1957) and his son Gigo (Yoshitaka) Funakoshi (1906–1945). Funakoshi had many students at the university clubs and outside dojos. Gakushuin. However. Chuo.3 Ranks 2.Descendant schools
Wadō-ryū • Shōtōkai • Chitō-ryū •Shindō jinen-ryū • Yoseikan Karate • Kyokushin
Shotokan (松濤館 Shōtōkan?) is a style of karate. Being the biggest school.1 Philosophy 2. Gichin was born in Okinawa and is widely credited with popularizing "karate do" through a series of public demonstrations.5 Kumite 2.6 Kihon
3. Shotokan is considered a traditional and influential form of karate do. who continued to teach karate after his death in 1957. although they all bear Funakoshi's influence. and Hosei.Takushoku. followed by many others—so that today there is no single "Shotokan school". including those at Keio. and by promoting the development of university karate clubs.1 Origins
4 Major Shotokan organizations 5 Famous practitioners 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 Sources
.4 Kata 2.
1 Etymology 2 Characteristics
o o o o o o
kata (forms or patterns of moves). meaning "pine-waves" (the movement of pine needles when the wind blows through them). long stances that provide stability. based heavily
. Techniques in kihon and kata are characterized by deep.
Gichin Funakoshi laid out the Twenty Precepts of Karate. and strengthen the legs. The Japanese kan (館 kan?) means "house" or "hall". Shoto (松濤 Shōtō?). which they placed above the entrance of the hall where Funakoshi taught. Funakoshi's students created a sign reading shōtō-kan.
Shotokan training is usually divided into three parts: kihon (basics). more flowing motions. and destroyed in 1945 as a result of an allied bombing. which he used in his poetic and philosophical writings and messages to his students.
9 Further reading 10 External links
Shotokan was the name of the first official dojo built by Gichin Funakoshi. (or Niju kun) which form the foundations of the art. Gichin Funakoshi never gave his system a name. in 1936 at Mejiro. before some of his students established the JKA. Within these twenty principles. with a focus instead on speed and efficiency. which can be found in the black belt katas. and kumite(sparring). Kumite techniques mirror these stances and movements at a basic level. but are less structured. Initially strength and power are demonstrated instead of slower. was Funakoshi's pen-name. enable powerful movements. Shotokan is often regarded as a 'hard' and 'external' martial art because it is taught that way to beginners and coloured belts to develop strong basic techniques and stances. just calling itkarate. In honor of their sensei. Those who progress to brown and black belt level develop a much more fluid style that incorporates grappling and some aikido-like techniques.
and some shotokan clubs recite the Dojo kun at the beginning and/or end of each class to provide motivation and a context for further training.
Rank is used in karate to indicate experience.g. Most Shotokan schools use the kyū / dan system but have added other belt colors. The order of colors varies widely from school to school. refrain from violent behavior. lies the philosophy of Shotokan. For example the KUI (Karate Union of Ireland). with some schools using stripes to denote various ranks of black belt. many schools of JKA (Japan Karate Association) affiliated Shotokan Karate used the full terminology on a daily basis. The Dojo kun is usually posted on a wall in the dojo. Many terms are seldom used in daily life. Gankaku). respect others. The principles allude to notions of humility. utilises the full and proper Japanese name for each move and kata in training. others are exclusive to martial arts (e. Shotokan uses a system of colored belts to indicate rank. The Japanese form is often retained in schools outside of Japan to preserve the Okinawan culture and Funakoshi's philosophies. However. such as zenkutsu dachi.
Main article: Kata
. As with many martial arts. compassion. and to a lesser degree."
Main article: List of karate terms Many terms used in karate stem from Japanese culture. and both an inward and outward calmness. the karateka would improve their person. seniority. such as rei. while others appear routinely. kata.on Bushido and Zen. The Dojo kun lists five philosophical rules for training in the dojo. It was Funakoshi's belief that through karate practice and observation of these 20 principles.g. seek perfection of character. Funakoshi also wrote: "The ultimate aim of Karate lies not in victory or defeat. kumite). Master Gichin Funakoshi himself never awarded a rank higher than Godan (5th degree black belt/5th Dan). providing translations also. respect. Dan level belts are invariably black. grading and competition. but in the perfection of the character of the participant. endeavor to excel. patience. but kyu belts are denoted with colors that in some schools become darker as a student approaches shodan. expertise. Heian. be faithful. While many are names (e.
turning. with every technique potentially a killing blow (ikken hisatsu)—while paying
. Body movement in various kata includes stepping. In Shotokan. The kata consists of kicks. strikes and blocks. twisting. dropping to the ground. sweeps.Gichin Funakoshi executing Kanku dai(観空大) kata
Embusen of Heian Shodan (from Best Embusen: Shotokan)
Kata is often described as a set sequence of karate moves organized into a pre-arranged fight against imaginary opponents. punches. kata is a performance or a demonstration. and jumping.
this exercise is more advanced because it involves a greater variety of
. of one. Gojūshiho dai (五十四歩大). Kankū shō (観空小). three or five attacks to the head (jodan) or body (chudan) with the defender stepping backwards whilst blocking and only countering on the last defence.When the JKA was formed. Beginners first learn kumite through basic drills.Unsu (雲手). the formalities of kumite in Shotokan karate were first instituted by Masatoshi Nakayamawherein basic. The standard JKA kata are: Taikyoku shodan (sometimes termed Kata Kihon or Kihon Kata. Meikyō/Rōhai (明鏡). Bassai dai (披塞大). Bassa i shō (披塞小).4th) and advanced (5th onwards) level practitioners. and Ji'in (慈陰). Kata bunkai then matures into controlled kumite. promoting fitness while keeping the body soft. Heian godan (平安五段). As the karateka grows older. While the techniques used in sparring are only slightly different than kihon. Nijūshiho (二十四步). Nakayama laid down 27 kata as the kata syllabus for this organization. Kumite is the third part of the Shotokan triumvirate of kihon. Tekki sandan (鉄騎三段). Gankaku (岩鶴). rather than three or five. Heian sandan (平安三段). Empi (燕飛). kata and kumite. Heian yondan (平安四段). Dai Nihon Karate-do Shotokai is the official representative of Shotokan karate. Wankan (王冠). discontinued in most of today's Shotokan dojos) (太極初段). supple. Kumite is taught in ever increasing complexity from beginner through low grade blackbelt (1st . Jion (慈恩). more emphasis is placed on the health benefits of practicing kata. Tekki shodan (鉄騎初段).2nd) to intermediate (3rd . Shotokan practitioners first learn how to apply the techniques taught in kata to hypothetical opponents by way of kata bunkai. or sparring (lit. intermediate.particular attention to form and timing (rhythm).
Main article: Kumite Kumite. At around purple belt level karateka learn one-step sparring (ippon kumite). These drills use basic (kihon) techniques and develop a sense of timing and distance in defence against a known attack. Kanku dai (観空大). and agile. The original Shotokan kata syllabus is introduced in Funakoshi's book Karate-do Kyohan. Though there is only one step involved. Heian nidan (平安二段). Sōchin (壯鎭). Gojūshiho shō (五十四歩小). is the practical application of kata to real opponents. which is the Master Text of Shotokan karate. Tekki nidan (鉄騎二段). Several Shotokan groups have introduced kata from other styles into their training.Jitte (十手). Japan Shotokai's kata syllabus is the same as established in "Karate-do Kyohan" added Gigo Funakoshi's staff kata Matsukaze No Kon. Chinte (珍手). Hangetsu (半月). thousands of Shotokan dojo only practice 26 of these 27 kata. Even today. Meeting of hands). Heian shodan (平安初段). and advanced sparring techniques and rules were formalized.
knife hand strikes. Counter-attacks may be almost anything. attacks with that technique. whereas the purpose of training kumite in the dojo is to be prepared to kill or cripple an opponent in a realistic situation. It also requires the defender to execute a counterattack faster than in the earlier types of sparring. Practicing one-step sparring improves free sparring (jiyu kumite) skills. headbutt. the attacker may then be required to block the defender's counter-attack and strike back. locks. have been documented extensively by Nakayama and are expanded upon by the JKA instructor trainee program. certain techniques are valid.
. Kaishu ippon kumite is an additional sparring exercise that is usually introduced for higher grades. Training partners are encouraged to make controlled and focused contact with their opponent. and certain target areas. Some schools prescribe the defences. In this exercise. and also provides an opportunity for practicing major counter-attacks (as opposed to minor counter-attacks). are forbidden. This exercise is often considered more difficult than either freestyle one-step sparring or free sparring. and the defender at any given moment is free to avoid. but to withdraw their attack as soon as surface contact has been made. takedowns. punches. and body) with no padding or protective gloves. two training partners are free to use any karate technique or combination of attacks. counter. This type of kumite. In dojo kumite any and all techniques. and take-down manoeuvres. but maintains a degree of safety for the participants. as the defender typically cannot escape to a safe distance in time to avoid the counter to the counter-attack. Throwing one's partner and performing takedowns are permitted in free sparring. The next level of kumite is freestyle one-step sparring (jiyu ippon kumite). This starts in a similar manner to freestyle one-step sparring. grapples. three directional blocking and attacking pattern. Freestyle one-step sparring is similar to onestep sparring but requires the karateka to be in motion. In competition certain regulations apply. as Shotokan karateka are encouraged to end an encounter with a single attack (ippon). including strikes. are valid. or unnecessary contact in situations where there may be more than one attacker. etc. This allows attacking a full range of target areas (including punches and kicks to the face. and the defender blocks and counters the attack. Unlike freestyle one-step sparring. the attacker names the attack he/she will execute. however. head. The purpose of competition is to score points through the application of kumite principles while creating an exciting and competitive atmosphere. kicks. Kumite within the dojo often differs from competition kumite. most notably the Kase-ha Shotokan-ryū. Free sparring (or free style) (jiyu kumite) is the last element of sparring learned. within reason. avoiding extended periods of conflict. throat. or attack with any karate technique. which uses an eight step. such as the joints or throat. and that it is more realistic than free sparring. and its successor—free sparring. but it is unusual for competition matches to involve extended grappling or ground-wrestling. which develops from yellow belt level through to advanced level.attacks and blocks usually the defenders own choice. block. Tsutomu Ohshima states that freestyle one-step sparring is the most realistic practice in Shotokan Karate. for those clubs under the JKA.
the founder of judo. however. brown. (Yoshitaka also developed Taikyoku Nidan and Sandan) The kata consists of successive restatements of the theme of gedan barai . and black (with ranks within each). This system uses colored belts (obi) to indicate rank. or Taikyoku Shodan. karate had only three belt colors: white. is:
. He never named this system. was developed by Yoshitaka Funakoshi. Funakoshi changed the names of some of the kata in an effort to make the Okinawan kata names easier to pronounce in the Japanese Honshū dialect. Funakoshi adopted the Kyū / Dan rank system and the uniform (keikogi) developed by Kano Jigoro.Kihon
Main article: Kihon Kihon basics is the practice of basic techniques in Shotokan Karate. Originally. the son of Gichin Funakoshi.oi tsuki. including the Heian/Pinan kata series. After years of study in both styles. Funakoshi created a simpler system that combined the ideals of the two.
Shōtōkan-ryū founder Gichin Funakoshi
Gichin Funakoshi had trained in both of the popular styles of Okinawan karate of the time:Shōreiryū and Shōrin-ryū. In 1924. Kihon Kata. still used by many Shotokan schools. as a basic introduction to karate kata. always referring to it simply as "karate." Funakoshi's karate reflects the changes made in the art by Ankō Itosu. The original belt system.
g. John Makdessi. Shimizu. Mark Holst. Bear Grylls and Karate World Champion Luca Valdesi also practice the art.Hironori Ōtsuka (Otsuka). while his brother Shinzo holds a 4th dan and their father Yoshizo Machida holds a 7th dan and was head of the Japan Karate Association's Brazilian branch. Wesley Snipes has a 5th dan black belt in Shotokan.
. Antonio Carvalho. Vitor Belfort.
Major Shotokan organizations
Further information: List of major Shotokan Karate organizations
Further information: List of karateka Former UFC Light Heavyweight champion Lyoto Machida holds a 3rd dan black belt in Shotokan karate.. and Shinyō Kasuya on 10 April 1924. Several other mixed martial artists also have a Shotokan background or utilize Shotokan (e. Akiba. Makoto Gima. Actor and action movie star Michael Jai White is also a practitioner of and black belt in Shotokan alongside seven other distinct martial arts.
8th rising to 4th kyū: white 3rd rising to 1st kyū: brown 1st and higher dan: black
Funakoshi awarded the first 1st dan (初段. Action movie star Jean-Claude Van Damme holds a black belt in Shotokan and used the style when he competed in full contact karatecompetitions in the 1970s and 1980s. shodan) Shotokan karate ranks to Tokuda. Assuerio Silva). Hirose.