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CALCULUS

STUDY MATERIAL

B.Sc. MATHEMATICS III SEMESTER


CORE COURSE
(2011 ADMISSION)

UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
CALICUT UNIVERSITY P.O. MALAPPURAM, KERALA, INDIA - 673 635

351

School of Distance Education

UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

S TU D Y MA TE RI A L
B.Sc. MATHEMATICS III SEMESTER
C O R E C O U R S E - CA L CU L U S

Lessons prepared by: Sri.Nandakumar M., Assistant Professor Dept. of Mathematics, N.A.M. College, Kallikkandy.

Lay out & Settings Computer Section, SDE Copyright Reserved

Calculus

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CALCULUS
CONTENTS

Module I 1 Foundations of Calculus 2 The Rolles and Mean Value Theorems Module II 3 Asymptotes 4 Optimizations 5 Integration Part One Module III 6 Integration Part Two Module IV 7 Integration Part Three 8 Moments and Work 77 85 65 34 44 54 5 26

Calculus

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Calculus

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MODULE - I
CHAPTER 1

FOUNDATIONS OF CALCULUS
1. Quick Review of Functions
In this chapter we first discuss function, one of the most important concepts in mathematics.
Definition Let A and B be two non-empty sets. A function (map, mapping or transformation) from A to B is a rule which assigns to each element of A a unique element of B. The set A is called the domain of the function, and the set B is called the target set. Notations/Definitions/Remarks Functions are ordinarily denoted by symbols. Let f denote a function from A into B. Then we write
f :A B

which is read: f is a function from A into B, or f takes A into B, or f maps A into B. Suppose f : A B and a A . Then f (a ) [which is read f of a] will denote the unique element of B which f assigns to a. This element f (a ) in B is called the image of a under f or the value of f at a. We also say that f sends or maps a into f (a ) . The set of all such image values is called the range or image of f , and it is denoted by Ran (f ), Im (f) or f ( A) . That is
Im( f ) = {b B : there exists a A for which f (a) = b}

Im( f ) is a subset of the target set B.


Frequently, a function can be expressed by means of a mathematical formula: Consider the function which sends each real number into its square. We may describe this function by writing
f ( x) = x 2 or x a x2 or y = x2

In the first notation, x is called a variable and the letter f denotes the function. In the second notation, the barred arrow a is read goes into. In the last notation, x is called the independent variable and y is called the dependent variable since the value of y will depend on the value of x. Furthermore, suppose a function is given by a formula in terms of a variable x. Then we assume, unless otherwise stated, that the domain of the function is or the largest subset of for which the formula has meaning and that the target set is . Suppose f : A B . If A ' is a subset of A , then f ( A ') denotes the set of images of elements in A ' and if B ' is a subset of B , then f -1 ( B ') denotes the set of elements of A each whose image belongs to B '. That is,

f ( A ') = { f (a) : a A '} and f -1 ( B ') = {a A : f ( a) B '}.


We call f ( A ') the image of A ' , and call f -1 ( B ') the inverse image or preimage of B ' . Example Consider the function f ( x) = x3 , i.e., f assigns to each real number its cube. Then the image of 2 is 8, and so we may write f (2) = 8 . Similarly, f (-3) = -27 , and f (0) = 0 .

Identity Function
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Consider any set A . Then there is a function from A into A which sends each element into itself. It is called the identity function on A and it is usually denoted by 1A or I A or simply 1. In other words, the identity function 1A : A A is defined by
1A (a) = a

for every element a A .

Composition of Functions
Consider functions f : A B and g : B C , that is, where the target set B of f is the domain of g. This relationship can be pictured by the following diagram:
A f B g C Let a A ; then its image f ( a ) under f is in B which is the domain of g. Accordingly, we can

find the image of f (a ) under the function g, that is, we can find g (f (a) ). Thus we have a rule which assigns to each element a in A an element g (f (a) ) in C or, in other words, f and g gives rise to a well defined function from A to C. The new function is called the composition of f and g, and it is denoted by go f More briefly, if f : A B and g : B C , then we define a new function g o f : A C by

( g o f )(a) g ( f (a ))
Here is used to mean equal by definition. Note that we can now add the function g o f to the above diagram of f and g as follows:
A

ONE TO ONE, ONTO AND

gof

INVERTIBLE FUNCTIONS

Definition A function f : A B is said to be one-to-one (written 1-1 ) if f (a ) = f (a ') implies a = a ' . That is, f : A B is 1-1 if different elements in the domain A have distinct images. Definition A function f : A B is said to be an onto function if
" b B , $a A f ( a ) = b .

That is, f : A B is onto if every element of B is the image of some elements in A or, in other words, if the image of f is the entire target set B. In such a case we say that f is a function of A onto B or that f maps A onto B. Remarks The term injective is used for for a one-to-one function, surjective for an onto function, and bijective for a one-to-one correspondence. If f : A B is both one-to-one and onto, then f is called a one-to-one correspondence between A and B. This terminology comes from the fact that each element of A will correspond to a unique element of B and vice versa.

2. LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS
Notation
Calculus
x x0

lim f ( x ) = L denotes f ( x) approaches the limit L as x approaches x0 .


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Limits of Powers and Algebraic Combinations


Theorem 1 : Properties of Limits The following rules hold if lim x c f ( x) = L and lim x c g ( x) = M (L and M real numbers). 1. Sum Rule:
lim[ f ( x) + g ( x )] = L + M
x c

i.e., the limit of the sum of two functions is the sum of their limits. 2. Difference Rule: lim[ f ( x) - g ( x )] = L - M
x c

i.e., the limit of the difference of two functions is the difference of their limits. 3. Product Rule:

lim f ( x) g ( x) ]= L M
x c

i.e., the limit of the product of two functions is the product of their limits. 4. Constant Multiple Rule: lim kf ( x ) = kL (any number k)
x c

i.e., the limit of a constant times a function is that constant times the limit of the function. f ( x) L 5. Quotient Rule: , M 0 = lim x c g ( x) M i.e., the limit of the quotient of two functions is the quotient of their limits, provided the limit of the denominator is not zero. 6. Power Rule: If m and n are integers, then

lim[ f ( x)] n = Ln , provided Ln is a real number.


x c

i.e., the limit of any rational power of a function is that power of the limit of the function, provided the latter is a real number. Example Find

x3 + 4 x 2 - 3 . x c x2 + 5 Solution We note that lim x c x = c and lim x c k = k , where k is a constant (we will prove this in Example 2 of Chapter 2). Now we use various parts of Theorem 1 for the evaluation of the required limit. lim
lim( x3 + 4 x 2 - 3) x3 + 4 x 2 - 3 x c , using quotient rule lim = x c lim( x 2 + 5) x2 + 5
x c

lim x3 + lim(4 x 2 ) + lim(-3) = x c


3

x c x c
2

x c x c

lim x 2 + lim 5

, using sum rule

lim x + 4 lim x + lim(-3) x c x c , using rule 4 = x c lim x 2 + lim 5


x c x c

c + 4c - 3 , since c2 + 5
x c x c

( )( ) and lim x = (lim x ) = c , using power rule.


x c

lim x 2 = lim x lim x = c c = c 2 , using product rule


3 3 3

x c

x c

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Example 2 Evaluate lim Solution


lim
x -2

x -2

4x2 - 3 .
1/ 2

4 x 2 - 3 = lim 4 x 2 - 3
x -2

= lim 4 x 2 - 3 x -2

1/ 2

, using power rule with n = 1 2

lim 4 x 2 - 3
x -2

= 4 lim x 2 - lim 3 = 4 lim x


x -2 x -2
x -2

) -3

= 4( -2) 2 - 3

= 16 - 3 = 13

Theorem 2: Limits of Polynomials by substitution If P( x) = an x n + an -1 x n-1 + L + a0 , then

lim P( x) = P(c) == an c n + an -1c n -1 + L + a0 .


x c

Theorem 3: Limits of Rational Functions by substitution (if the limit of the denominator is not zero) If P ( x ) and Q ( x) are polynomials and Q(c) 0 , then
lim P ( x ) P (c ) = . Q (c ) x c Q( x)

Example

3 2 x3 + 4 x 2 - 3 (0) + 4(0) - 3 3 = =- .. 5 x 0 x2 + 5 (0) 2 + 5

lim

This is the limit in Example 1 with c = -1 , now done in one step.

Identifying common factors


It can be shown that if Q ( x) is a polynomial and Q(c) = 0, then ( x - c) is a factor of Q ( x) . Thus, if the numerator and denominator of a rational function of x are both zero at x = c , then ( x - c) is a common factor.

Eliminating Zero Denominators Algebraically


Theorem 3 applies only when the denominator of the rational function is not zero at the limit point c . If the denominator is zero, canceling common factors in the numerator and denominator will sometimes reduce the fraction to one whose denominator is no longer zero at c . When this happens, we can find the limit by substitution in the simplified fraction.

x2 + x - 2 . x 1 x2 - x Solution We cannot just substitute x = 1 , because it makes the denominator zero. However, we can factor the numerator and denominator and cancel the common factor to obtain x 2 + x - 2 ( x - 1)( x + 2) x + 2 = = , if x 1 . x( x -1) x x2 - x
Example Evaluate lim Thus, by applying Theorem 3, we obtain
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lim
x 1

x2 + x - 2 x + 2 1+ 2 = lim = =3. x 1 x 1 x2 - x

Example Find lim


h 0

2+h - 2 . h Solution We cannot find the limit by substituting h = 0 , and the numerator and denominator do not have obvious factors. However, we can create a common factor in the numerator by multiplying it (and the denominator) by the so-called conjugate expression 2 + h + 2 , obtained by changing the sign between the square roots: 2+h - 2 h
= 2+h - 2 h 2+h + 2 2+h + 2

= =
=

2+h -2 h( 2 + h + 2) h , with a common factor of h h( 2 + h + 2)


1 , cancelling the factor h 2+h + 2

Therefore, we obtain

2+h - 2 1 (The denominator is no longer 0 at h = 0 , so we can = lim h 0 h 2+h + 2 use Theorem 3 and can substitute h = 0) 1 1 = = 2 +0 + 2 2 2 Theorem 4: The sandwich Theorem Suppose that g ( x) f ( x) h( x) for all x in some open interval containing c, except possibly at x = c itself. Suppose also that lim g ( x ) = lim h ( x ) = L . lim
h 0
x c x c

Then lim f ( x ) = L .
x c

Example Given that 1 Solution

x2 x2 for all x 0 . Find lim u ( x ) . u ( x) 1 + x 0 4 2

x2 x2 Since lim 1 - = 1 - 0 = 1 and lim 1 + = 1 + 0 = 1 , the Sandwich Theorem 4 2 x 0 x 0 implies that lim u ( x) = 1 .
x 0

Example Show that if lim | f ( x ) | = 0, then lim f ( x ) = 0 .


x c x c

Solution

By assumption lim | f ( x ) | = 0, so that - | f ( x) | and | f ( x) | both have limit 0 as x


x c x c

approaches c . This combining with the fact - | f ( x) | f ( x) | f ( x) | gives lim f ( x ) = 0 by the Sandwich Theorem.

Exercises
Find the limits in Exercises 1-8. 1.
x 12

lim(10 - 3 x)

2.

x -2

lim ( x 3 - 2 x 2 + 4 x + 8)

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3. 5. 7.

x 2 / 3

lim 3s (2 s - 1)

4. lim
x 5

4 x -7

lim
y 2

y +2 y2 + 5 y + 6

6. 8.

x -4

lim ( x + 3)1984 lim


h 0

lim(2 z - 8)1/ 3
z 0

5 5h + 4 + 2

Find the limits in Exercises 9-15 9.


x +3 x -3 x - 4 x + 3 lim
2

10. lim 12. 14.

x 2 + 7 x + 10 x 2 x -2 lim 5 y3 + 8 y 2 y 0 3 y 4 - 16 y 2

11. lim 13. lim 15. lim

t 2 + 3t + 2 t -1 t 2 - t - 2 v3 - 8 v 2 v 4 - 16 x2 + 8 - 3 x +1

lim

4 x - x2 x 4 2 - x

x -1

16. Suppose lim x 4 f ( x) = 0 and lim x 4 g ( x) = -3 . Find a) lim( g ( x ) + 3)


x 4

b) lim xf ( x )
x 4

c) lim( g ( x)) 2
x 4
x -2

d) lim
x 4

g ( x) f ( x) -1
x -2

17. Suppose that lim p( x) = 4 , lim r ( x) = 0 , and lim s ( x) = 7 . Find


x -2

a) lim ( p ( x ) + r ( x ) + s ( x))
x -2

b) lim p ( x ) r ( x ) s ( x )
x -2

c) lim

x -2

(-4 p( x) + 5r ( x)) s ( x)

Evaluate the limit for the given value of x and function f . 18. f ( x) = x 2 , x = -2 20. f ( x) = 3x + 1 , x = 0 21. If 2 - x 2 g ( x) 2cos x for all x , find lim x 0 g ( x) . 22. The inequalities 19.

1 f ( x) = , x = -2 x

1 x 2 1 - cos x 1 - < < 2 24 2 x2

hold for all values of x close to


lim
x 0

1 - cos x ? x2 23. Suppose that g ( x) f ( x) h( x) for all x 2 and suppose that lim g ( x ) = lim h( x ) = -5 . Can

zero. What if anything, does this tell you about

x 2

x 2

we conclude anything about the values of f , g , and h at x = 2 ? Could f (2) = 0 ? Could lim x 2 f ( x) = 0 ? Give reasons for your answers. 24. If lim

f ( x) f ( x) = 1 , find (a) lim f ( x ) and (b) lim . 2 x 2 x 2 x x f ( x) f ( x) . 25. If lim 2 = 1 , find (a) lim f ( x) and (b) lim x 0 x x 0 x 0 x
x -2

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3. FORMAL DEFINITION OF LIMIT


Definition (A formal Definition of Limit) Let f ( x) be defined on an open interval about x0 , except possibly at x0 itself. We say that lim f ( x) = L , if, for every number e > 0 , there exists a corresponding number d > 0 such that
x x0

for all x with 0 < | x - x0 | < d

| f ( x) - L | < e .

Example Using the Definition, show that lim x 1 (5 x - 3) = 2.

f ( x) = 5 x - 3 , Solution Set x0 = 1, and L = 2 in the definition of limit. For any given e > 0 we have to find a suitable d > 0 so that if x 1 and x is within distance d of x0 = 1 , that is, if 0 <| x - 1|< d ,

then f ( x) is within distance e of L = 2 , that is


| f ( x) - 2 | < e .

We find d by working backwards from the e -inequality. | f ( x) - L | = | (5 x - 3) - 2 | = | 5 x - 5 | < e


5 | x - 1| < e

| x -1| <
Thus we can take d =

e
5

e
5

. If 0 < | x -1| < d =

e
5

, then

e | (5 x - 3) - 2 | = | 5 x - 5 | = 5 | x -1| < 5 5 =e. This proves that lim x 1 (5 x - 3) = 2 .


is not the only value that will make 5 0 < | x -1| < d imply | 5 x - 5 | < e . Any smaller positive d will do as well. The definition does not ask for a best positive d, just one that will work. Remark In the above Example, the value of d =
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Example Verify the following two important limits: (a) lim x = x0 (b) lim k = k (k constant).
x x 0 x x 0

Solution a) Let e > 0 be given. We must find d > 0 such that for all x 0 < | x - x0 | < d implies

| x - x0 | < e .
The implication will hold if d = e or any smaller positive number. This proves that lim x x0 x = x0

b) Let e > 0 be find d > 0 such that for all x, 0 < | x - x0 | < d implies | k - k | < e .

given. We must

Since k - k = 0 , we can use any positive number for d and the implication will hold. This proves that lim x -x0 k = k .

Finding Deltas Algebraically for Given Epsilons In the above examples, the interval of values about x0 for which | f ( x) - L | was less than e was symmetric about x0 and we could take d to be half the length of the interval. When such symmetry is absent, as it usually is, we can take d to be the distance from x0 to the intervals nearer endpoint.
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Example

For the limit lim x 5 x -1 = 2 , find a d > 0 that works for e = 1 .

Solution We have to find a d > 0 such that for all x

0 < | x - 5 | < d | x -1 - 2 | < 1 .


We organize the search into two steps. First we solve the inequality | x -1 - 2 | < 1 to find an interval (a, b) about x0 = 5 on which the inequality holds for all x x0 . Then we find a value of d > 0 that places the interval 5 - d < x < 5 + d (centered at x0 = 5 ) inside the interval (a, b) . Step 1 : We solve the inequality | x -1 - 2 | < 1 to find an interval about x0 = 5 on which the inequality holds for all x x0 .

| x -1 - 2 | < 1

-1 < x -1 - 2 < 1 1 < x -1 < 3


1 < x -1 < 9 2 < x < 10

The inequality holds for all x in the open interval (2, 10) , so it holds for all x 5 in this interval as well. of d > 0 that places the Step 2 : We find a value centered interval 5 - d < x < 5 + d inside the interval (2, 10) . The distance from 5 to the nearer endpoint of (2, 10) is 3. If we take d = 3 or any smaller positive number, then the inequality 0 < | x - 5 | < d will automatically place x between 2 and 10 to make | x -1 - 2 | < 1 .
0 < | x -5| < 3

| x -1 - 2 | < 1 .

Example

Prove that lim x 2 f ( x) = 4 if

x2 , x 2 f ( x) = 1, x = 2. Solution Our task is to show that given e > 0 there exists d > 0 such that for all x 0 < | x - 2 | < d | f ( x) - 4 | < e .
Step 1 : We solve the inequality | f ( x) - 4 | < e which the inequality holds for all x x0 . to find on open interval about x0 = 2 on

For x x0 = 2, we have f ( x) = x 2 , and the inequality to solve is | x 2 - 4 | < e :

| x2 - 4 | < e
-e < x 2 - 4 < e

4 - e < x2 < 4 + e

4 - e < | x | < 4 + e here we 1assume that e < 4

4 -e < x < 4 + e

this is an open interval about x0 = 2 that solves the inequality


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The inequality f ( x) - 4 < e holds for all x 2 in the open interval interval ( 4 - e, 4 + e ) : Take d to be the distance from x0 = 2 to the nearer endpoint of words, take

( 4 - e,

4 +e .

Step 2 : We find a value of d > 0 that places the centered interval (2 - d , 2 + d ) inside the

( 4 - e,

4 +e .

In other

d = min 2 - 4 - e , 4 + e - 2 ,
the minimum (the smaller) of the two numbers 2 - 4 - e and 4 + e - 2 . If d has this or any smaller positive value, the inequality 0 < | x - 2 | < d will automatically place x between

4 - e and

4 + e to make | f ( x) - 4 | < e . For all x ,


0 <| x -2| <d

| f ( x) - 4 | < e .

This completes the proof. 1 We can assume e < 4 due to the following reason: In finding a d such that for all x , 0 < | x - 2 | < d implied | f ( x) - 4 | < e < 4 , we found a d that would work for any larger e as well. Finally, notice the freedom we gained in letting d = min{2 - 4 - e, 4 + e - 2} . We did not have to spend time deciding which, if either, number was the smaller of the two. We just let d represent the smaller and went on to finish the argument. Example Given that lim x c f ( x) = L and lim x c g ( x) = M , prove that
lim( f ( x) + g ( x )) = L + M .
x c

Solution Let e > 0 be given. We want to find a positive number d such that for all x 0 < | x -c | < d | f ( x) + g ( x) - ( L +M ) | < e . Regrouping terms, we get | f ( x ) + g ( x) - ( L + M ) = | ( f ( x) - L) + ( g ( x) - M ) |

| f ( x) - L | + | g ( x) - M | , using the
triangle inequality | a + b | | a | + | b | Since lim f ( x) = L , there exists a number d1 > 0 such that for all x
x c

0 < | x - c | < d1
Similarly, since

. 2 lim x c g ( x) = M , there exists a number d2 > 0 such that for all x

| f ( x) - L | <

0 < | x - c | < d2

| g ( x) - M | <

Let d = min{d1 , d2 } , the smaller of d1

. 2 and d2 . If 0 < | x - c | < d then | x - c | < d1 , so

| f ( x) - L | <

e
2

, and | x - c | < d2 , so | g ( x) - M | <

e
2

. Therefore

| f ( x) + g ( x) - ( L + M ) | < | f ( x) - L | + | g ( x) - M | <
This shows that
Calculus
x c

e
2

e
2

=e.

lim (f ( x) + g ( x) )= L + M .
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Exercises Each of Exercises 1-8 gives a function f ( x) and numbers L , x0 , and e > 0 . In each case, find an open interval about x0 on which the inequality | f ( x) - L | < e holds. Then give a value for d > 0 such that for all x satisfying 0 < | x - x0 | < d the inequality | f ( x) - L | < e holds. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
f ( x) = 2 x - 2, L = -6, x0 = -2, e = 0.02

1 1 f ( x) = x , L = , x0 = , e = 0.1 2 4

f ( x) = x - 7, L = 4, x0 = 23, e = 1
f ( x) = x 2 , L = 3, x0 = 3, e = 0.1

1 f ( x) = , L = -1, x0 = -1, e = 0.1 x 120 f ( x) = , L = 5, x0 = 24, e = 1 x f ( x) = mx, m > 0 L = 3m, x0 = 3, e = c > 0


f ( x) = mx + b, m > 0 L = m + b, x0 = 1, e = 0.05

Each of Exercises 9-11 gives a function f ( x) , a point x0 , and a positive number e . Find L = lim f ( x) . Then find a number d > 0 such that for all x
x x0

0 < | x - x0 | < d

| f ( x) - L | < e .

9. f ( x) = -3 x - 2, x0 = -1, e = 0.03 10. f ( x) =


x2 + 6 x + 5 , x0 = -5, e = 0.05 x +5 4 11. f ( x) = , x0 = 2, e = 0.4 x Prove the limit statements in Exercises 12-18

12. lim(3 x - 7) = 2
x 3

13. lim 4 - x = 2
x 0

14. lim f ( x) = 4
x -2

if

x , x -2 f ( x) = 1, x = -2
2

15. lim
x

1 1 = 2 3 x 3

16. if

lim
x 1

x 2 -1 =2 x -1

17. lim f ( x ) = 0
x 0

2 x, x < 0 f ( x) = x , x 0 2

18. lim x 2 sin


x 0

1 =0 x

x2 , x < 2 20. Let h( x) = 3, x = 2 2, x > 2


Show that a) lim h( x ) 4
x 2

b) lim h( x ) 3
x 2

c) lim h( x ) 2 .
x 2

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4. EXTENSIONS OF LIMIT CONCEPTS


One-Sided Limits
Definition (Informal Definition of Right-hand and Left-hand Limits) Let f ( x) be defined on an interval (a, b) where a < b. If f ( x) approaches arbitrarily close to L as x approaches a from within that interval, then we say that f has right-hand limit L at a , and we write lim+ f ( x) = L .
x a

Let f ( x) be defined on an interval (c, a) where c < a . If f ( x) approaches arbitrarily close to M as x approaches a , from within the interval (c, a ) , then we say that f has left-hand limit M at a , and we write lim- f ( x) = M .
x a

Example For the x f ( x) = in Fig.6, we have | x|


x 0+

function

lim f ( x) = 1

and

x 0-

lim f ( x) = -1 .

A function cannot have an ordinary limit at an endpoint of its domain, but it can have a one-sided limit (This is illustrated in the following Example).

-2
Calculus

0 Fig. 7

x
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Example The domain of f ( x ) = 4 - x 2 is [ -2, 2] ; its graph is the semicircle in Fig. 7 We

4 - x 2 = 0 and lim 4 - x2 = 0 have lim + x 2 x 2

The function does not have a left-hand limit at x = -2 or a right-hand limit at x = 2. It does not have ordinary two-sided limits at either -2 or 2. One-sided limits have all the limit properties listed in Theorem 1, Chapter 1. The righthand limit of the sum of two functions is the sum of their right-hand limits, and so on. The theorems for limits of polynomials and rational functions hold with one-sided limits, as does the Sandwich Theorem. The connection between one-sided and two-sided limits is stated in the following theorem. Theorem 5 (One-sided vs. Two-sided Limits) A function f ( x) has a limit as x approaches c if and only if it has left-hand and right-hand limits there, and these one-sided limits are equal: lim f ( x) = L and lim f ( x) = L lim f ( x) = L +
x c

x c

x c

Infinite Limits As x 0+ , the values of f grow without bound, eventually reaching and surpassing every positive real number. That is, given any positive real number B , however large, the values of f become larger still (Fig.10). Thus f has no limit as x 0+ . It is nevertheless convenient to describe the behavior of f by saying that f ( x) approaches as x 0+ . We write 1 = . lim f ( x) = lim x 0+ x 0+ x In writing this, we are not saying that the limit exists. Nor are we saying that there is a real 1 number , for there is no such number. Rather, we are saying that lim x 0+ x does not exist 1 because becomes arbitrarily large and positive as x 0+ . x

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1 become arbitrarily large and negative. Given any x negative real number -B , the values of f eventually lie below -B . (See Fig. 10 ) We write
As x 0- , the values of f ( x) =

1 = - . x Again, we are not saying that the limit exists and equals the number - . There is no real number - . We are describing the behavior of a function whose limit as x 0- does not exist because its values become arbitrarily large and negative. Example (One-sides infinite limits) 1 1 and lim Find lim + x 1 x -1 x 1 x -1 1 1 Geometric Solution: The graph of y = is the graph of y = shifted 1 unit to the right. x -1 x 1 1 behaves near 1 exactly the way y = behaves near 0: Therefore, y = x -1 x 1 1 = = - . lim lim and x 1+ x - 1 x 1- x - 1
x 0-

lim f ( x) = lim x 0

Think about the number x - 1 and its reciprocal. As x 1+ , we have 1 1 ( x - 1) 0+ and . As x 1- , we have ( x - 1) 0- and - . x -1 x -1 Example (Two-sided infinite limits) Discuss the behavior of 1 a) f ( x) = 2 near x = 0 , x 1 b) g ( x) = near x = -3 . ( x + 3) 2 Analytic Solution: Solution a) As x approaches zero from either side, the values of arbitrarily large (Fig.12). Hence b) The graph of g ( x) =
lim f ( x) = lim
x 0 x 0

1 are positive and become x2

1 = x2

1 1 is the graph of f ( x) = 2 shifted 3 units of the left. ( x + 3) 2 x Therefore, g behaves near -3 exactly the way f behaves near 0. Hence
x -3

lim g ( x) = lim

x -3

1 = . ( x + 3) 2

1 1 shows no consistent behavior as x 0 . We have if x 0+ , x x 1 1 but - if x 0 . All we can say about lim x 0 is that it does not exist. The function x x
The function y =

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1 is different. Its values approach infinity as x approaches zero from either side, so we x2 1 can say that lim x 0 2 = . x Example (Rational functions can behave in various ways near zeros of their denominators) y=

a) lim b) lim
x 2

( x - 2) 2 ( x - 2) 2 x -2 = lim = lim =0. 2 x 2 x - 4 x 2 ( x - 2)( x + 2) x 2 x + 2 x -2 x -2 1 1 = lim = lim = . 2 2 2 x x ( x 2)( x 2) x 2 4 + + x -4 x -3 x -3 = lim = - , as the values are negative for x > 2, x near 2. x 2 - 4 x 2+ ( x - 2)( x + 2) x -3 x -3 = lim = , as the values are positive for x < 2, x near 2. x 2 - 4 x 2- ( x - 2)( x + 2)

c)

x 2+

lim

d) limx 2

e) lim
x 2

x -3 x -3 = lim does not exist, as, by (c) and (d), the left hand and right hand 2 x 2 x ( 2)( x + 2) x -4 limits at x = 2 are not equal. -( x - 2) 2-x -1 = lim = lim = - f) lim x 2 ( x - 2) 3 x 2 ( x - 2)3 x 2 ( x - 2) 2

In parts (a) and (b) the effect of the zero in the denominator at x = 2 is canceled because the numerator is zero there also. Thus a finite limit exists. This is not true in part (f), where cancellation still leaves a zero in the denominator.

Precise Definitions of One-sides Limits


The formal definition of two-sided limit in Chapter 2 is readily modified for one-sided limits. Definition (Right-hand Limit) We say that f ( x) has right-hand limit L at x0 , and write
+ x x0

lim f ( x) = L

if for every number e > 0 there exists a corresponding number d > 0 such that for all x x0 < x < x0 + d | f ( x) - L | < e (1) Definition (Left-hand Limit) We say that f has left-hand limit L at x 0 , and write
x x0

lim f ( x) = L

if for every number e > 0 there exists a corresponding number d > 0 such that for all x x0 - d < x < x0 | f ( x) - L | < e (2) Definitions (Infinite Limits) 1. We say that f ( x) approaches infinity as x approaches x0 , and write
x x0

lim f ( x ) = ,

if for every positive real number B there exists a corresponding d > 0 such that for all x 0 < | x - x0 | < d f ( x) > B .
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2. We say that f ( x ) approaches minus infinity as x approaches x0 , and write


x x0

lim f ( x ) = - ,

if for every negative real number -B there exists a corresponding d > 0 such that for all x 0 < | x - x0 | < d f ( x ) < -B . Exercises 1. Which of the following statements about the function y = f ( x) graphed here are true, and which are false? a) lim+ f ( x) = 1
x -1

b) lim f ( x) does not exist.


x 2

y = f( x ) 2 1 o

c)

lim f ( x ) = 2
x 2

d) lim f ( x) = 2 x 1

-1

e) g)

x 1+

lim f ( x) = 1 lim f ( x) = lim- f ( x)


x 0

f)

lim f ( x) does not exist.


x 1

x 0+

h) lim f ( x) exists at every c in the open interval ( -1, 1) .


x c

i) j)

lim f ( x) exists at every c in the open interval (1, 3) .


x c

x -1-

lim f ( x) = 0

k)

x 3+

lim f ( x) does not exist.

Find the limits in Exercises 2-6 2. 4.


x 1

lim +

x -1 x+2

3.

1 x + 6 3 - x lim x 7 x 1 x + 1

h 0

lim -

6 - 5h 2 + 11h + 6 h
2 x ( x - 1) | x - 1|

5. a) lim +
x 1

b) b)

x 1-

lim

2 x ( x - 1) | x - 1|

6. a) lim (t - t ) +
t 4

t 4-

lim ( t - t )
-1 x ( x + 1)
2

Find the limits in Exercises 7-12 5 1 3x 7. lim8. lim 9. limx 0 2 x x 3+ x - 3 x -5 2 x + 10 11. a)


x 0+

10. lim
x 0

2 2 1 b) lim- 1 12. lim 2 1 x 0 3 x 0 x5 x5 x Find the limits in Exercises 13-14. sec x 14. lim(2 - cot q ) 13. lim p + lim
x ( - 2 )

q 0

Find the limits in Exercises 15-17. x as 15. lim 2 x -1 a) x 1+


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16. lim a) 17. lim

x 2 -1 as 2x + 4
x -2+

b) x -2- c)

x 1+

d)

x 0-

x 2 - 3x + 2 as x3 - 4 x

d) x 1+ a) x 2+ b) x -2+ c) x 0e) What, if anything, can be said about the limit as x 0 ? Find the limits in Exercises 18-19.

1 18. lim 3 + 7 as 5 t
1 1 19. lim 1 x 3 ( x - 1) 4 3
a)

a)

t 0+ b)

t 0-

as
c)

x 0+

b) x 0-

x 1+

d)

x 1-

20. Given e > 0 , find an interval I = (4 - d , 4), d > 0 , such that if x lies in I , then 4 - x < e . What limit is being verified and what is its value? x -2 =1 21. Use the definitions of right-hand and left-hand limits to prove that lim x 2+ | x - 2 |

2 1 x sin x , x < 0 Find (a) lim x 0+ f ( x) and (b) lim x 0- f ( x) ; then use limit 22. Let f ( x) = x, x >0 definitions to verify your findings. (c) Based on your conclusions in (a) and (b), can anything be said about lim x 0 f ( x) ? Give reasons for your answer.
Use formal definitions to prove the limit statements in Exercises 23-24 -1 1 24. lim 23. lim 2 = - = x 0 x x -5 ( x + 5) 2 Use formal definitions from Exercise 25 in Set A to prove the limit statements in the following Exercises 25-27. 1 1 1 = = - 26. lim27. lim 25. lim = - 2 x 0+ x x 2 x - 2 x 1+ 1 - x

5. CONTINUITY
Continuity at a point
In practice, most functions of a real variable have domains that are intervals or unions of separate intervals, and it is natural to restrict our study of continuity to functions with these domains. This leaves us with only three kinds of points to consider: interior points (points

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that lie in an open interval in the domain), left endpoints, and right endpoints. Definition A function f lim f ( x) = f (c) .
x c

is continuous at an interior point x = c of its domain if

The function in Fig.1 is continuous at x = 0 . The function in Fig.2 would be continuous if it had f (0) = 1 . The function in Fig.3 would be continuous if f (0) were 1 instead of 2. The discontinuities in Fig.2 and Fig.3 are removable. Each function has a limit as x 0 , and we can remove the discontinuity by setting f (0) equal to this limit.
1 has an infinite discontinuity. Jumps and infinite discontinuities x2 are the ones most frequently encountered, but there are others. Definition A function f is continuous at a left endpoint x = a of its domain if lim+ f ( x) = f (a) and continuous at a right endpoint x = b of its domain if lim f ( x) = f (b) . -

The function f ( x) =

x a

x b

In general, a function f is right-continuous (continuous from the right) at a point x = c in its domain if lim x c+ f ( x) = f (c) . It is left-continuous (continuous from the left) at c if

lim x c- f ( x) = f (c) . Thus, a function is continuous at a left endpoint a of its domain if it is


left-continuous at b . A function is continuous at an interior point c of its domain if and only if it is both right-continuous and left-continuous at c . Example 1 The function f ( x ) = 4 - x 2 is continuous at every point of its domain [ -2, 2] . This includes x = -2 , where f is right-continuous, and x = 2 , where f is left-continuous.

Continuity Test
A function f ( x) is continuous at x = c if and only if it meets the following three conditions. 1. 2. 3.
f (c) exists

( c lies in the domain of f ) ( f has a limit as x c ) (the limit equals the function value)

lim x c f ( x) exists lim x c f ( x) = f (c)

Theorem 6 : Continuity of Algebraic Combinations If functions f and g are continuous at x = c , then the following functions are continuous at x =c: 1. f + g and f - g 2. 3. 4. 5.
fg kf , where k is any number f (provided g (c) 0) g

(f ( x) )n

(provided ( f ( x)) n is defined on an interval containing c , and m and n are

integers) As a consequence, polynomials and rational functions are continuous at every point where they are defined. Theorem 7 : Continuity of Polynomials and Rational Functions
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Every polynomial is continuous at every point of the real line. Every rational function is continuous at every point where its denominator is different from zero. Example The following functions are continuous everywhere on their respective domains. a) b)

y= x

Using Theorems 6 and 7 (rational power of a polynomial)

y = x 2 - 2 x - 5 Using Theorems 6 and 7, (power of a polynomial)

Example The functions f ( x) = x 4 + 20 and g ( x) = 5 x( x - 2) are continuous at every value of x . The function f ( x) x 4 + 20 r ( x) = = g ( x) 5 x( x - 2) is continuous at every value of x except x = 0 and x = 2 , where the denominator is 0. Example The function f ( x) = | x | is continuous at every value of x . If x > 0 , we have f ( x) = x , a polynomial. If x < 0 , we have f ( x ) = - x, another polynomial. Finally, at the origin, lim x 0 | x | = 0 = | 0 | = f (0) . Example (Continuity of trigonometric functions) The functions sin x and cos x are continuous at every value of x . Accordingly, the quotients sin x cos x tan x = cot x = cos x sin x 1 1 sec x = csc x = cos x sin x are continuous at every point where they are defined. Theorem 8 tells us that continuity is preserved under the operation of composition. Theorem 8 : Continuity of Composites If f is continuous at c , and g is continuous at f (c) , then g o f is continuous at c . Example The following functions are continuous every where on their respective domains. a) b)
y = x2 - 2x - 5

Using Theorems 7 and 8 (composition with the square root) Using Theorems 6, 7, and 8 (power, composite, product, polynomial and quotient)

y=

x cos( x ) 1 + x4 x -2 x2 - 2

2 3

c)

y=

Using Theorems 7 and 8 (composite of absolute value and a rational function)

Continuous Extension to a Point


As we saw in Chapter 1, a rational function may have a limit even at a point where its denominator is zero. If f (c) is not defined, but lim x c f ( x) = L exists, we can define a new function F ( x) by the rule

f ( x) if x isin the domain of f F ( x) = if x = c. L The function F is continuous at x = c . It is called the continuous extension of f to x = c . For rational functions f , continuous extensions are usually found by canceling common factors.
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Example

Show that

x2 + x - 6 x2 - 4 is not continuous at x = 2 , but has a continuous extension to x = 2 , and find that extension. Solution Since f (2) is not defined, f is not continuous at x = 2. Although f (2) is not defined, if x 2 we have x 2 + x - 6 ( x - 2)( x + 3) x + 3 . f ( x) = 2 = = ( x - 2)( x + 2) x + 2 x -4 f ( x) =
Here note that The function
lim f ( x ) = 2 + 3 = 5 . x 2 2+2 2

F ( x) =

x +3 x +2 5 . Thus 4

is equal to f ( x) for x 2 , but is also continuous at x = 2 , having there the value of

F is the continuous extension of f to x = 2 , and


lim x2 + x - 6 5 = lim f ( x) = . x 2 x 2 4 x2 - 4

Continuity on Intervals
A function is called continuous if it is continuous everywhere in its domain. A function that is not continuous throughout its entire domain may still be continuous when restricted to particular intervals within the domain. A function f is said to be continuous on an interval I in its domain if lim x c f ( x) = f (c) at every interior point c and if the appropriate one-sided limits equal the function values at any endpoints I may contain. A function continuous on an interval I is automatically continuous on any interval contained in I . Polynomials are continuous on every interval, and rational functions are continuous on every interval on which they are defined. Example

The function y = 4 - x 2 is continuous on the interval [ -2, 2] . The function y =

1 is continuous on the intervals (- , 0) and (0, ) . x The function y = cos x is continuous on the interval (- , ) .

Theorem 9 : The Intermediate Value Theorem Suppose f ( x) is continuous on an interval I , and a and b are any two points of I . Then if y0 is a number between f ( a ) and f (b) , there exists a number c between a and b such that f (c) = y0 . Exercises At what points are the functions in Exercises 1-8 continuous?
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1. y =

x +1 x2 - 4x + 3 x tan x 5. y = csc 2 x 6. y = 2 x +1 Find the limits in Exercises 9-11

1 - 3x x -2

2. y =

3. y =| x -1| + sin x 7. y = 2 x + 3

4.

y=

cos x x
1

8. y = (2 x - 1) 3

9. lim sin( x - sin x)


x p

10. lim sec( y sec 2 y - tan 2 y - 1)


y 1

p 11. limcos t 0 19 - 3sec 2t


12. Define g (3) in a way that extends g ( x) = 13. Define f (1) in a way that extends f ( s ) =

( x 2 - 9) to be continuous at x = 3 . ( x - 3)
( s 3 -1) to be continuous at s = 1 . ( s 2 -1)

x 2 - 1, x < 3 14. For what value of a is f ( x) = continuous at every x ? x 3 2ax, Answers 1. All x except x = 2 2. All x except x = 3, x = 1 3. All x 4. All x except x = 0
5. All x except x = 7. All x >

np , n any integer 2
8. All x 9. 0 13. f (1) =

6. All x except 10.1 14. a =

np , n an odd integer 2

-3 2

11.

2 2

12. g (3) = 6

3 2

4 3

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CHAPTER 2

THE ROLLES AND MEAN VALUE THEOREMS


EXTREME VALUES OF FUNCTIONS Theorem 1 If f is continuous at every point of a closed interval I , then f assumes both an absolute maximum value M and an absolute minimum value m somewhere in I . That is, there are numbers x1 and x2 in I with f ( x1 ) = m, f ( x2 ) = M , and m f ( x ) M for every other x in I .
p p Example 1 On - 2 , 2 , the function f ( x) = cos x takes on a maximum value of 1 (once) and a minimum value of 0 (twice). The function g ( x) = sin x takes on a maximum value of 1 (once) and a minimum value of 1 (once) (Fig. 2).

Remark The requirements that the interval be closed and the function continuous are key ingredients of Theorem 1. On an open interval, a continuous function need not have either a maximum or a minimum value. For example, the function f ( x) = x has neither a largest nor a smallest value on (0, 1) . Even a single point of discontinuity can keep a function from having either a maximum or a minimum value on a closed interval. Definition Let f be a function with domain D . Then f has an absolute maximum value on D at a point c if f ( x ) f (c ) for all x in D and an absolute minimum value on D at c if f ( x ) f (c ) for all x in D . Absolute maximum and minimum values are called absolute extrema (or global extrema). Definition A function f has a local maximum value at an interior point c of its domain if
f ( x ) f (c )

for all x in some open interval containing c . A function f has a local minimum value at an interior point c of its domain if
f ( x) f (c) for all x in some open interval containing c .

Remarks We can extend the definitions of local extrema to the endpoints of intervals by defining f to have a local maximum or local minimum value at an endpoint c if the appropriate inequality holds for all x in some half-open interval in its domain containing c . In Fig. 5, the function f has local maxima at c and d and local minima at a , e and b .

An absolute maximum is also a local maximum. Being the largest value overall, it is also the largest value in its immediate neighborhood. Hence, a list of all local maxima will automatically include the absolute maximum if there is one. Similarly, a list of all minima will include the absolute minimum if there is one.

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Theorem 2 If f has a local maximum or minimum value at an interior point c of its (c ) = 0 domain, and if f is defined at c, then f Definition An interior point of the domain of a function f where f is zero or undefined is a critical point of f . Remark The only domain points where a function can assume extreme values are critical points and endpoints. Example Find the absolute maximum and minimum values of f ( x) = x 2 on [ -2,1]. Solution The function is differentiable over its entire domain, so the only critical point is where f '( x) = 2 x = 0, namely x = 0 . We need to check the functions values at x = 0 and at the endpoints x = -2 and x = 1: Critical point value: f (0) = 0 ; Endpoint values:
f (-2) = 4 ; f (1) = 1.

The function has an absolute maximum value of 4 at x = -2 and an absolute minimum value of 0 at x = 0.

Example Find the absolute extrema values of g (t ) = 8t - t 4 on [ -2,1].


Solution The function is differentiable on its entire domain, so the only critical point occur where g '(t ) = 0 . Solving this equation gives
8 - 4t 3 = 0

or

t 3 = 2 or t = 21/ 3 ,

a point not in the given domain. The functions local extrema therefore occurs at the endpoints, where we find
g (-2) = -32 (Abs. minimum); g (1) = 7 (Abs. maximum)

Example Find the absolute extrema of h( x) = x 2 / 3 on [ -2,3].


( x) = 2 x -1/ 3 = 2 Solution The first derivative h 3 3x1/ 3 has no zeros but is undefined at x = 0. The values of h at this one critical point and at the endpoints x = -2 and x = 3 are
h(0) = 0 ;

h( -2) = ( -2) 3 = 4 3
1

and

h(3) = (3) 3 = 9 3 .

The absolute maximum value is 9 3 , assumed at x = 3 ; the absolute minimum is 0, assumed at x = 0 .

THE ROLLES AND MEAN VALUE THEOREMS


Theorem 1 (Rolles Theorem) Suppose that y = f ( x) is continuous at every point of the closed interval [ a, b] and differentiable at every point of its interior (a, b) . If
f (a ) = f (b) = 0,

then there is at least one number c in (a, b) at which

f (c) = 0.

Remark Instead of f (a ) = f (b) = 0, if f (a ) = f (b) = l 0, then also Rolles theorem holds.

The hypothesis of Rolles Theorem are essential. If they fail at even one point, the graph may not have a horizontal tangent.

Example Verify Rolles Theorem for the function f defined by


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(x) = (x - a)m (x - b)n, where m and n being positive integers and x [a, b]. Solution (x) = (x - a)m (x - b)n is a polynomial function in the variable x and since every polynomial function in the variable x is continuous, is continuous on [a, b]. Now differentiating with respect to x, we get, f ( x) = m( x - a ) m -1 ( x - b) n + n( x - a ) m ( x - b) n -1 i.e., (x) = (x - a)m - 1(x - b) n - 1 [(m(x - b) + n (x - a)], (1) again a polynomial function, so that (x) exists at every point in the open interval (a, b). Also (a) = 0 = (b). (c) = 0. Next to verify whether there exists a point C(c,(c)) at which f From (1), (x) = 0 implies (x - a)m 1(x - b) n - 1 [(m(x - b) + n (x - a)] = 0, which implies m(x - b) + n (x - a) = 0, since (x- a) 0, (x- b)0, as a < x < b, which implies that c =
mb + na , a point within the interval (a, b) dividing the interval m+n

in the ratio m : n. (c) = 0. Hence The conclusion is that there is a point c such that a< c< b, where f Rolles theorem is verified. Example Examine whether Rolle`s theorem can be applied to the function (x) = tan x for the interval [0, ]. Solution There is a discontinuity at x = p to the function f ( x) = tan x.
2

Also

f ( x) = sec 2 x

which does not exist at x = p .


2

HenceRolle`s theorem cannot be applied to f ( x) in [0, p ]. Theorem 2 (The Mean Value Theorem) Suppose y = (x) be a function of x subject to the conditions (1) is continuous in the closed interval [a, b]. (2) f is differentiable in the open interval (a, b) Then there is a point c in the open interval (a, b) at which
f (b) - f (a) (c). = f (2) b -a Proof We picture the graph of f as a curve in the plane and draw a line through the point A( a, f ( a )) and B (b, f (b)) The line is the graph of the function

f (b) - f (a) ( x - a) b -a (point-slope equation). The vertical difference between the graphs of f and g at x is h( x ) = f ( x ) - g ( x ) g ( x) = f ( a ) +
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f (b) - f (a ) (3) ( x - a ). b -a The function h satisfies the hypotheses of Rolles theorem on [ a, b] : It is continuous on [ a, b] and differentiable on (a, b) because both f and g are. Also, h(a ) = h(b) = 0 because the graphs of f and g both pass through A and B . Therefore, h ' = 0 at some point c in (a, b) . This is the point we want for equation (2). To verify equation (2), we differentiate both sides of equation (3) with respect to x , and obtain = f ( x) - f (a) -

( x) = f ( x) h
Setting x = c, we obtain f (b) - f (a) h (c ) = f (c ) b -a

f (b) - f (a) . b -a

f (b) - f (a) b -a f (b) - f (a) f (c ) = , implies b -a and the proof is complete.


implies

0= f (c ) -

Remark If satisfies the two conditions as in Theorem 2, then ( a + h) = (a) + h (a + h), where b - a = h and c = a+ h, where 0< q <1. Example 6 Verify Lagranges mean value theorem for the function (x) = ex on [0, 1]. SolutionHere (x) = ex. Since the exponential function is continuous at every point on the real line, in particular is continuous in the closed interval [ 0,1]. Also (x) = x e exists in the open interval (0, 1). Hence by Lagranges mean value theorem , we have
(c ) = f f (1) - f (0) 1-0

i.e., ec = e - 1 so that c = log (e - 1), which lies in the open interval (0, 1). Hence Lagranges mean value theorem is verified for the given function. Example In the mean value theorem (a + h) = (a) + h (a + qh), show that q = (x) is a quadratic expression. Solution: Suppose f be the quadratic expression (x) = a x2 + b x + c, a 0 Then (x) = 2 ax + b By the mean value theorem, (a + h) = (a) + h (a + qh), 2 2 or a (a+h) + b(a + h) + c = aa + b a + c +h [2a (a+ q h) + b]
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1 . 2 Example If a car accelerating from zero takes 8 sec to go 352 ft, its average velocity for the 8sec interval is 352/8 = 44 ft/sec. At some point during the acceleration, the Mean Value Theorem says, the speedometer must read exactly 30mph (44 ft/sec). Corollary 1 If f '( x) = 0 at each point of an interval I , then f ( x) = C for all x in I , where C is a constant. Proof We want to show that f has a constant value on I . We do so by showing that x1 and x2 are any two points in I , then f ( x1 ) = f ( x2 ).

i.e.,

ah2 = 2 ah2q Hence

q =

Suppose that x1 and x2 are two points in I , numbered from left to right so that x1 < x2 . Then f satisfies the hypotheses of the Mean Value Theorem on [ x1 , x2 ]: It is differentiable at every point of [ x1 , x2 ], and hence continuous at every point as well. Therefore,

f ( x2 ) - f ( x1 ) (c ) = f x2 - x1
f ( x2 ) - f ( x1 ) = 0, or f ( x2 ) - f ( x1 ) = 0, x2 - x1

(4)

at some point c between x1 and x2 . Since f = 0 throughout I , (4) becomes

implies

f ( x1 ) = f ( x2 ).

Remark We know that if a function f has a constant value on an interval I , then f is differentiable on I and f '( x) = 0 for all x in I . Corollary 1 provides the converse. Corollary 2 If f '( x ) = g '( x ) at each point of an interval I , then there exists a constant C such that f ( x) = g ( x) + C for all x in I . Proof At each point x in I the derivative of the difference function h = f - g is
h '( x) = f '( x) - g '( x) = 0.

Thus, h( x) = C on I (Corollary 1). That is, f ( x) - g ( x) = C on I , so f ( x) = g ( x) + C . Remark Corollary 2 says that functions can have identical derivatives on an interval only if their values on the interval have a constant difference. We know, for instance, that the derivative of f ( x) = x 2 on (- , ) is 2x. Any other function with derivative 2x on (- , ) must have the formula x 2 + C for some value of C . Example Find the function f ( x) whose derivative is sin x and whose graph passes through the point (0, 2). Solution Since f ( x) has the same derivative as g ( x) = - cos x, we know that f ( x) = - cos x + C for some constant C . The value of C can be determined from the condition that f (0) = 2 (the graph of f passes through (0, 2) ). f (0) = - cos(0) + C = 2, or -1 + c = 2 so C = 3. The formula for f is f ( x ) = - cos x + 3. Definitions Let f be a function defined on an interval I and let x1 and x2 be any two points in I . 1. f increases on I if x1 < x2 f ( x1 ) < f ( x2 ).
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2.

f decreases on I if x1 < x2 f ( x2 ) < f ( x1 ).

Corollary 3 Suppose that f is continuous on [ a, b] and differentiable on (a, b) If f ' > 0 at each point of (a, b) then f increases on [ a, b] . If f ' < 0 at each point of (a, b) , then f decreases on [ a, b] . Proof Let x1 and x2 be two points in [ a, b] with x1 < x2 . The Mean value Theorem applied to f on [ x1 , x2 ] says that

f ( x2 ) - f ( x1 ) = f (c)( x2 - x1 )

(5)

for some c between x1 and x2. The sign of the right- hand side of equation (5) is the same as the sign of f '(c ) because x2 - x1 is positive. Therefore, f ( x2 ) > f ( x1 ) if f is positive on (a, b) , and f ( x2 ) < f ( x1 ) if f is negative on (a, b). Example 11 The function f ( x) = x 2 decreases on ( - ,0) , where f '( x) = 2 x < 0. It increases on (0, ) , where f '( x) = 2 x > 0 . Exercises

1. Verify Rolle`s Theorem for the following functions: (i) f (x) = x2 , x [ 2, 3] (ii) f (x) = 2 + (x - 1) 2/3, x [0,1] (iii) f (x) = x (x - 1) on the interval [0, 1]. 2. Verify Lagranges mean value theorem for the function (i) f (x) = 2x3 - 3x2 - x , x [1,2]. (ii) f (x) = x2 - 2x + 3, x (a, b). (iii) f (x) = x2 + 2x + 9, x [1,5].
In Exercise 3-4, find the value or values of c that satisfy the equation f (b) - f (a) = f (c ) b -a in the conclusion of the Mean Value Theorem for the functions and intervals 3.
f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x -1, [0, 1]

4. f ( x) = x + 1 , 1 , 2 2 x

THE FIRST DERIVATIVE TEST FOR LOCAL EXTREME VALUES


This chapter shows how to test a functions critical points for the presence of local extreme values.
Theorem 1 (The First Derivative Test for Local Extreme Values) The following test applies to a continuous function f ( x). At a critical point c : 1. If f ' changes from positive to negative at c ( f ' > 0 for x < c and f ' < 0 for x > c ), then f has a local maximum value at c. 2. If f ' changes from negative to positive at c ( f ' < 0 for x < c and f ' > 0 for x > c ), then f has a local minimum value at c.
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3. If f ' does not change sign at c ( f ' has the same sign on both sides of c), then f has no local extreme value at c . At a left endpoint a : If f ' < 0 ( f ' > 0) for x > a, then f has a local maximum (minimum) value at a. At a right endpoint b : If f ' < 0( f ' > 0) for x < b, then f has a local minimum (maximum) value at b. Example 1 Find the critical points of
1 4 1

f ( x) = x 3 ( x - 4) = x 3 - 4 x 3

Identify the intervals on which f is increasing and decreasing. Find the functions local and absolute extreme values. Solution The function f is defined for all real numbers and is continuous. The first derivative
1 1 -2 4 f '( x) = d x 3 - 4 x 3 ) = 4 x 3 - 4 x 3 3 dx 3

3x 3 is zero at x = 1 and undefined at x = 0 . There are no endpoints in f ' s domain, so the critical points, x = 0 and x = 1 , are the only places where f might have an extreme value of any kind. These critical points divide the x - axis into intervals on which f ' is either positive or negative. The sign pattern of f ' reveals the behavior of f both between and at the critical points. We display the information in a picture like the following.

= 4 x 3 ( x - 1) = 3

-2

4( x - 1)
2

To make the picture, we marked the critical points on the x - axis, noted the sign of each factors of f ' on the intervals between the points, and multiplied the signs of the factors to find the sign of f ' . We then applied Corollary 3 of the Mean Value Theorem to determine that f decreases (

) on

(- ,0), decreases on (0,1), and increases (

) on

(1, ). Theorem

1 tells us that f has no extreme at x = 0 (as f ' does not change sign) and that the f has a local minimum at x = 1 f ' changes from negative to positive ).
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The value v of the local minim mum is f (1) = 13 (1 - 4) = -3. This is al lso an absolu ute minimum m because the t function ns values fall towards it from the lef ft and rise aw way from it on o the right. . Example 2 Find the intervals i on which
g ( x) = - x 3 + 12 x + 5, -3 x 3

is increas sing and dec creasing. Wh here does th he function assume a extre eme values and what ar re these val lues? Solution The function f is co ontinuous on n its domain n, [-3, 3] . Th he first deriv vative

g '( x) = -3 x 2 + 12 1 = -3( x 2 - 4) 4
= -3( x + 2)( 2 x - 2),

a all points s of [-3,3] , is i zero at x = -2 and x = 2 . These critical poin nts divide th he defined at domain of g into in ntervals on which g is either po ositive or ne egative. We e analyze th he : behavior r of g by pic cturing the sign s pattern of g

We conclude that g has local maxima m at x = -3 and x = 2 and loc cal minima at a x = -2 an nd he correspon nding values of g ( x) = -x 3 + 12 x + 5 are a x = 3 . Th Local l maxima: Local l minima:
g (-3) = -4, g (-2) = -11, g (2) ) = 21 g (3) = 14 .

Since g is defined on o a closed interval, we e also know w that g(-2) i is the absolu ute minimum m and g(2) is the absolu ute maximum m shows the ese values in n relation to the function ns graph.

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MODULE - II
CHAPTER 3

ASYMPTOTES Concavity and Convexity


A curve is said to be concave upwards (or convex downwards) at or near P when at all points near P on it lies above the tangent at P . A curve is said to be concave downwards (or convex upwards) at or near P when at all points near P it lies below the tangent at P (Fig. 3 and Fig. 4) . The Second Derivative Test for Concavity Let y = f ( x) be twice differentiable on an interval I . 1. If y " > 0 on I , the graph of f over I is concave up. 2. If y " < 0 on I , the graph of f over I is concave down.

Example The curve y = x3 is concave down on ( - ,0) where y " = 6 x < 0 and concave up on (0, ) where y " = 6 x > 0
= 2 > 0. Example The parabola y = x 2 is concave up on every interval because y
Example For what values of x is the curve y = 2 ax concave or convex to the foot of the ordinate. Solution Here by successive differentiation we obtain
d2y dx 2 =1 a . 2 x3/ 2

Hence

d2y dx 2

is negative for all positive values x (and negative values of x are not admissible)

so that the curve in the neighbourhood of any specified point is concave downward (i.e., concave to the foot of the ordinate of that point). Points of Inflection A point of a curve at which the curve changes its direction from concave upwards to concave downwards as at P in Fig.7 or from concave downwards to concave upwards as at P1 in Fig.8, is called a point of inflection. The tangent at the point is called an inflectional tangent. Remark The curve crosses its tangent at a point of inflection. On the graph of a twice-differentiable function, y " = 0 at a point of inflection.

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Example

For the function s = 2 + cos t , t 0 , s " = - cos t and s " = 0 when cos t = 0 i.e., t = p , 3p , ... Hence the graph of s = 2 + cos t , t 0 changes concavity at when 2 2 p 3 p , K i.e., the points of inflection are t = p , 3p ,K t= , 2 2 2 2
a2x and show that they lie on a x2 + a2

Example Find the points of inflection on the curve y = straight line . Solution Here

dy a 2 a 2 - x 2 = . 2 dx x2 + a2

d y - 2a x 3a 2 - x 2 = 3 dx 2 x2 + a2

At the point of inflection, we must have

d2y =0.. dx 2

x 3a 2 - x 2 = 0 .

x = 0 or x = 3a .

When x = 0 , y = 0 ;when x = 3a , y =

3a . 4

3a 3a Hence the points of inflection are (0,0), 3a, 4 and - 3a, - 4 . These three points obviously lie on the straight line x = 4 y .

x Example Prove that for the curve y = c sin , every point at which it meets the x - axis is a a point of inflection. Solution c sin
Now

x x = o or = np or x = anp a a
2

c x d3y dy c x d y c x = sin = cos , , = - 3 cos . dx a a dx 2 a a a dx 3 a2

For points of inflection Also when x = anp ,

d2y =0. dx2

\ sin = 0 or x = anp .

x a

d3y c = - 3 cos np 0. 3 dx a \ x = anp gives the point of inflection .These are same as the points were the curve meets the x -axis.

2 2 Example Show that the points of inflection of the curve y = ( x - a) ( x - b) lie on the line 3x + a = 4b .

Given curve is y = ( x - a) ( x - b) . Hence


Calculus
y = ( x - a ) ( x - b) and
dy ( x - a ) + 2( x - b) 1 = ( x - a) + ( x - b) = dx 2 ( x - b) 2 x -b

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and

-3 -1 d2y 1 1 = ( 3 x - 2b - a ) - ( x - b) 2 + 3( x - b) 2 dx 2 2 2

= 1 ( x - b) 2

-3

- 1 (3x - 2b - a ) + 3( x - b) = 3x + a - 4b 2 4( x - b) 3 2

For points of inflection ,

d2y =0 ; hence dx 2
3 x + a - 4b = 0 or 3 x + a = 4b .

Hence the point of inflection lie on the line 3x + a = 4b . Example Prove that the curve y = Given curve is y =

x has three points of inflection and they are collinear 1 + x2

x . 1 + x2

\
2

2 dy = 1- x dx 1 + x 2

and

d 2 y 2 x3 - 6 x . = 3 dx 2 1 + x2

At the point of inflection

d y 3 = 0 . i.e., 2 x( x - 3) = 0 . dx 2

\ x = 0 or x = 3 ,
when x = 0 , y = 0 and when x = 3 , y =

3 . 4

Hence the point of inflection are (0, 0), 3,

3 - 3 and - 3 , . 4 4

Obviously, the above points lie on the line x = 4 y . Hence the points of inflection are collinear.

' y

" y

Graphing with
Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5:

and

Algorithm for Graphing y = f(x) Step 1: Find y ' and y " . Find the rise and fall of the curve. Determine the concavity of the curve. Make a summary and show the curves general shape. Plot specific points and sketch the curve. Graph the function y = x 4 - 4 x 3 + 10.

Example

Solution Step 1 Find y ' and y " .

y = x 4 - 4 x3 + 10 Critical points: x = 0 , x = 3

y = 4 x 3 - 12 x 2 = 4 x 2 ( x - 3)

y " = 12 x 2 - 24 x = 12 x( x - 2) Possible inflection points x = 0, x = 2.

Step 2 (Rise and fall) Sketch the sign pattern for y ' and use it to describe the behavior of y.

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Step 3 (Concavity) ( S Sketch the si ign pattern for y " and use u it to des scribe the way w the grap ph bends.

Step 4 (Summary y and genera al shape) Sum mmarize the information n from steps 2 and 3. Sh how the shap pe over each h interval. Th hen combine the shapes s to show the e curves gen neral form. Step 5 (Specific points and curve) Plot the curves intercepts (if ( convenien nt) and the points wher re y ' and y " are zero. Indicate any y local extre eme values and a inflectio on points. Us se the general shape in step 4 as a guide g to sket tch the curve e. (Plot addi itional points s as needed. .)

Example 15 Graph y = x 3 - 5 x 3 . Solution Step 1 :


5 2

Find y ' and y ".


2

y = x 3 - 5 x 3 = x 3 ( x - 5)
Calculus

Th he x - interce epts are at

x = 0 and x = 5.

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C poin nts: y ' = 5 x 3 - 10 x 3 = 5 x 3 ( x - 2) Critical 3 3 3


-1 -4 -4

-1

-1

x = 0 and x = 2.

0 x 3 + 10 x 3 = 10 x 3 ( x + 1) y " = 10 1 Possible in nflection poi int: x = 0 and x = -1. 9 9 9 Step 2 (Rise and fall) Sketch th he sign patte ern for y ' an nd use it to d describe the behavior of f y.

St tep 3(Concavity) the sign pattern p for y " and use it t to describe the way the e graph bend ds.

Sketc ch

From th he sign patt tern for y ", we see th hat there is an inflectio on points a at x = -1 , bu ut not x = 0. However r, knowing that t 1. 2. the function y = x 3 - 5 x 3 is continuous, c
y ' as x 0- and y ' - as x 0+ (See the fo ormula for y ' in step 2), , and
5 2

3. the co oncavity do oes not chang ge at x = 0 (s step3) tells us u that the gr raph has a cu usp at x = 0 .

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ASYMPTOTES
Definitions 1. We say that f ( x) has the limit L as x approaches infinity and write
lim f ( x ) = L
x

if, for every number e > 0, there exists a corresponding number M such that for all x x>M | f ( x) - L | < e. 2. We say that f ( x) has the limit L as x approaches minus infinity and write
x -

lim f ( x) = L

if, for every number e > 0, there exists a corresponding number N such that for all x x<N | f ( x) - L | < e. Example Show that lim 1 = 0 . x x Solution Let e > 0 be given. We must find a number M such that for all x

1 - 0 = 1 < e. x x The implication will hold if M = 1/ e or any larger positive number. 1 lim = 0. x x Example Show that lim 1 = 0. x - x Solution (Ref. Fig. 2) Let e > 0 be given. We must find a number N such that for all x x>M

x<N

This

proves

1 - 0 = 1 < e. x x The implication will hold if N = -1/ e or any number less than -1/ e. This proves 1 lim = 0. x - x Theorem 1 (Properties of Limit as x ) The following rules hold if lim f ( x) = L and lim g ( x ) = M ( L and M real numbers).

1. Sum rule 2. Difference rule 3. Product Rule 4. Constant Multiple Rule 5. Quotient Rule: 6. Power Rule:
Calculus

lim [ f ( x) + g ( x)] = L + M lim [ f ( x) - g ( x)] = L - M lim f ( x) g ( x)] = L M

lim kf ( x) = kL (any number k )


lim f ( x) L = , if M 0 g ( x) M

If m and n are integers, then


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lim [ f ( x )]m / n = Lm / n provided Lm / n is a real number.

Example Solution

1 Evaluate lim 5 + x x

1 lim 5 + lim 1 , using sum rule 5 + = lim x x x x x =5+0 =5


Evaluate lim p 2 3 x - x
x -

Example Solution

1 1 lim p 23 = lim p 3 x - x x x = lim p 3 lim 1 lim 1 , using product rule x - x - x x - x

= p 3 0 0 = 0. Limits of Rational Function as x


To determine the limit of a rational function as x , we can divide the numerator and denominator by the highest power of x in the denominator. What happens then depends on the degrees of the polynomials involved.

8x - 3 . Example Evaluate lim 5 x + x 3x 2 + 2 Solution

5 + (8 / x) - (3/ x 2 ) , by dividing 3 + (2 / x 2 ) numerator and denominator by x 2 = 5 +0 -0 = 5. 3+0 3 +2 . Example Evaluate lim 11x x - 2 x 3 - 1 Solution 8 x - 3 = lim lim 5 x + x x 3x 2 + 2
2 2 3 + 2 = lim (11/ x ) + (2 / x ) , lim 11x 3 3 x - 2 x - 1 x - 2 - (1/ x ) x2 = 0 + 0 = 0. 2 -0 2 Example Evaluate lim 2 x - 3 .

by dividing numerator and denominator by

x -

7x + 4

Solution
2 2 x - (3/ x) , the numerator now approaches - while the denominator lim 2 x - 3 = lim x - 7 x + 4 x - 7 + (4 / x ) approaches 7, so the ratio approaches - = -

Example
Calculus

Evaluate lim

x -

-4 x3 + 7 x . 2 x 2 - 3x -10
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Solution
x -

lim

-4 x + (7 / x) -4 x3 + 7 x = lim , numerator - , denominator 2, so ratio 2 x - 2 x - 3 x - 10 2 - (3/ x) - (10 / x 2 )


.

Asymptotes
An asymptote of a curve of infinite extent is a line whose position is approached as a limit by a tangent to the curve as the point of contact recedes indefinitely along the curve. Definition If the distance between the graph of a function and some fixed line approaches zero as the graph moves increasingly far from the origin, we say that the graph approaches the line asymptotically and that the line is an asymptote of the graph. Example Consider the hyperbola

x2 y2 = 1 . The equation can be written as a2 b2


. . . (1)

b a2 y = x 1- 2 a x

Therefore, as x tends to infinity, the equation (1) tends to the equations Hence the lines y =

b y = x. a

b b x and y = - x are asymptotes to the curve. a a

2a - x )= x 3 . The given equation can be written as Example Consider the equation y 2 (


x3 and from this it can be seen that as x 2a, y , so that the line x = 2a is an 2a - x asymptote to the given curve (Fig. 1). In Fig. 1, dashed line denotes the asymptote of the curve y 2 (2a - x) = x3 . y2 =
Definitions A line y = b is a horizontal asymptote of the graph of a function y = f ( x) if either lim f ( x ) = b or lim f ( x ) = b.
x x -

A line x = a is a vertical asymptote of the graph if either lim+ f ( x) = or lim- f ( x) = .


x a x a

Example The coordinate axes are asymptotes of the curve y = 1


x
x x 1 left because lim = 0. x - x The y-axis is an asymptote of the curve both above and below because lim 1 = and lim 1 = - . x 0+ x x 0- x Notice that the denominator is zero at x = 0 and the function is undefined. Example Find the asymptotes of the curve y = x +3. x +2

The x - axis is asymptote of the curve on the right because lim 1 = 0 and on the

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Solution We are interested in the behavior as x and as x -2 , where the denominator is zero. By actual division y = x + 3 becomes x +2 y =1 + 1 . x+2 Hence lim f ( x ) = 1 and lim+ f ( x) = , lim- f ( x) = and hence, by the Definition, the
x

x -2

x -2

asymptotes are the lines y = 1 and x = -2.


3 Example Verify that the graph of f ( x) = x2 -1 has a vertical asymptote at x = -1 but not at x -1 x =1 . Solution Since

2 x3 -1 = ( x -1)( x + x + 1) = x 2 + x + 1 , x 2 -1 ( x -1)( x + 1) x +1

x -1

lim f ( x ) = and hence the graph has vertical asymptote x = -1 .


x 1

But

x = 1 is not an

asymptote as lim f ( x ) =

3 2

, a finite limit.

Oblique Asymptotes
If the degree of the numerator of a rational function is one greater than the degree of the denominator, the graph has an oblique asymptotes, that is a linear asymptote that is neither vertical nor horizontal.
2 Example Find the asymptotes of the graph of f ( x) = x - 3 .

2x - 4 Solution We are interested in the behavior as x and also as x 2, where the denominator is zero. By actual division, we obtain
2 f ( x) = x - 3 = x + 1 + 1 2x - 4 { 2 2x 4 1 2 3 linear remainder

(1)

Since lim x 2+ f ( x) = and lim x 2- f ( x) = - , the line x = 2 is a two-sided asymptote. As

x , the remainder approaches 0 and f ( x) ( x / 2) + 1. The line y = ( x / 2) + 1 is an asymptote both to the right and to the left.
GRAPHING WITH ASYMPTOTES AND DOMINANT TERMS
3 Example Graph the function y = x + 1 . x Solution We investigate symmetry, dominant terms, asymptotes, rise, fall, extreme values, and concavity.

Step 1 Symmetry. There is none.


Step 2 Find any dominant terms and asymptotes. polynomial plus remainder: We write the rational function as a

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y = x2 + 1 . x 2 For | x | large, y x . For x near zero, y 1/ x .

(2)

ation (2) rev veals a vertical asymp ptote at x = 0 , where the denomi inator of th he Equa remainde er is zero. Step 3 Find F y ' and analyze a the fu unctions criti ical points. Where W does the e curve rise an nd fall?

The

f first

ve derivativ

3 y ' = 2 x - 12 = 2 x 2-1 x x

is un ndefined at x = 0 and zero when

2 x - 12 = 0 x

i.e.,

whe en

1 2 x3 - 1 = 0 i.e., when x3 = i.e., when x = 31 0.8 2 2 Step 4 Fi ind y " and determine d the curves conca avity.
3 The seco ond derivati ive y " = 2 + 23 = 2 x 3+ 2 is undefined at x = 0 and a zero wh hen 2 + 23 = 0 x x x 3 3 i.e., when n 2 x + 2 = 0 i.e., when x = -1 i.e., when x = -1.

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CHAPTER 4

OPTIMIZATION
Strategy for Solving Optimization Problems We follow the following steps for solving optimization problems (Maximize or minimize problems): 1. Read the problem. Read the problem until you understand it. What is unknown? What is given? What is sought? 2. Draw a picture. Label any part that may be important to the problem. 3. Introduce variables. List every relation in the picture and in the problem as an equation or algebraic expression. 4. Identify the unknown. Write an equation for it. If you can, express the unknown as a function of a single variable or in two equations in two unknowns. This may require considerable manipulation. 5. Test the critical points and endpoints. Use what you know about the shape of the functions graph and the physics of the problem. Use the first and second derivatives to identify and classify critical points (where f = 0 or does not exist). Whenever you are maximizing or minimizing a function of a single variable, we urge you to graph it over the domain that is appropriate to the problem you are solving. The graph will provide insight before you calculate and will furnish a visual context for understanding your answer. Example Find two positive numbers whose sum is 20 and whose product is as large as possible. Solution If one number is x, then the other is (20 - x). Their product is

f ( x) = x(20 - x) = 20 x - x 2 .
We want the value or values of x that make f ( x) as large as possible. The domain of f is the closed interval 0 x 20. We evaluate f at the critical points and endpoints. The first derivative,

f ( x) = 20 - 2 x,
is defined at every point of the interval 0 x 20 and is f ( x ) = 0 only at x = 10. Listing the values of f at this one critical point and the endpoints gives Critical-point value : Endpoint values :

f (10) = 20(10) - (10) 2 = 100


f (0) = 0, f (20) = 0.

We conclude that the maximum value is f (10) = 100. The corresponding numbers are x = 10 and (20 - 10) = 10 (Fig.1). Example 2 A rectangle is to be inscribed in a semicircle of radius 2. What is the largest area the rectangle can have, and what are its dimensions? Solution

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To describe the dimensions of the rectangle, we place the semicircle and rectangle in the coordinate plane (Fig.2). The length, height, and area of the rectangle can then be expressed in terms of the position x of the lower right hand corner:
Length: 2 x
Height: 4 - x 2 Area: 2 x 4 - x2 .

Notice that the values of x are to be found in the interval 0 x 2. Now, our practical problem reduces to the mathematical problem of finding absolute maximum value of the continuous function
A( x ) = 2 x 4 - x 2

on the domain [0, 2]. We do this by examining the values of A at the critical points and endpoints. The derivative

dA = -2 x 2 + 2 4 - x 2 (1) dx 4 - x2 is not defined when x = 2 . The derivative (1) is equal to zero when -2 x 2 + 2 4 - x 2 = 0. 4 - x2
Multiplying both sides by 4 - x 2 . ,we get

-2 x 2 + 2(4 - x 2 ) = 0
8 - 4x2 = 0

x2 = 2

x = 2.
Of the two zeros, x = 2 and x = - 2, only x = 2 lies in the interior of As domain and makes the critical-point list. The values of A at the endpoints and at this one critical point are: Critical-point value: Endpoint values :

( 2 )= 2

2 4-2 =4

A(0) = 0, A(2) = 0.

The area has a maximum value of 4 when the rectangle is

4 - x 2 = 2 units high and

2 x = 2 2 units long. Example An open-top box is to be made by cutting small congruent squares from the corners of a 12-by-12-in. sheet of tin and bending up the sides. How large should the squares cut from the corners be to make the box hold as much as possible?

Solution
We take the corner squares are x inches on a side and hence the height of the open top box is x. Note that the volume of the box is V = hlw , where h is the height, l is the length and w is the width. Here h = x;
l = 12 - x - x = 12 - 2 x;

w = 12 - x - x = 12 - 2 x.

Hence the volume of the box is a function of the variable x:

V ( x) = x(12 - 2 x) 2 = 144 x - 48 x 2 + 4 x3 .
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Since the sides of the sheet of tin are only 12 in. long, 2x cannot exceed 12 and hence x 6 and the domain of V ( x) is the interval 0 x 6. A minimum value of 0 at x = 0 and x = 6 and a maximum near x = 2. To locate the exact point, we examine the first derivative of with respect to x : dV = 144 - 96 x + 12 x 2 = 12(12 - 8 x + x 2 ) = 12(2 - x ) (6 - x ). dx At the critical point dV = 0 , which gives x = 2 and x = 6 . Only x = 2 lies in the interior of dx the function domain and is the required critical- point. Critical-point value: V (2) = 128 . Endpoint values:
V (0) = 0, V (6) = 0

The maximum volume is 128 in3. The cut-out squares should be 2 in. on a side. COST AND REVENUE IN ECONOMICS Here we want to point out two of the many places where calculus makes a contribution to economic theory. The first has to do with the relationship between point, revenue (money received), and cost. Suppose that r ( x ) = the revenue from selling x items
c ( x ) = the cost of producing the x items

p ( x) = r ( x) - c( x) = the profit from selling x items.

The marginal revenue and marginal cost at this production level (items) are dr = marginal revenue dx dc = marginal cost. dx Next theorem is about the relationship of the profit to these derivatives. Theorem Maximum profit (if any) occurs at a production level at which marginal revenue equals marginal cost. Example The cost and revenue functions at a soft drink company are

c( x) = x 3 - 6 x 2 + 15 x, and r ( x) = 9 x
where x represents thousands of soft drink bottles. Is there a production level that will maximize companys profit? If so, what is it? Solution
r ( x ) = 9 x,

c( x) = x3 - 6 x 2 + 15 x

Differentiating with respect to x, we obtain r ( x) = 9, c ( x) = 3x 2 -12 x + 15

( x ) = c ( x) , which implies By the Theorem, maximum profit occurs when r


3 x 2 - 12 x + 15 = 9 3 x 2 - 12 x + 6 = 0

implies implies

3 x 2 - 12 x + 6 = 0 x2 - 4 x + 2 = 0

Solving the above quadratic equation, we obtain x = 4 16 - 4 2 2


Calculus

=2 2
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The possible production levels for maximum profit are x = 2 + 2 thousand units and x = 2 - 2 thousand units. A quick glance at the graphs in (Fig.) or at the corresponding values of r and c shows x = 2 + 2 to be a point of maximum profit and x = 2 - 2 to be a local maximum for loss. Theorem The production level (if any) at which average cost is smallest is a level at which the average cost equals the marginal cost. Example The cost function at a soft drink company is c( x) = x3 - 6 x 2 + 15 x ( x in thousands of units). Is there a production level that minimizes average cost? If so, what is it? Solution Cost : Marginal cost : Average cost :

c( x) = x3 - 6 x 2 + 15 x c ( x) = 3x 2 -12 x + 15

c( x) = x 2 - 6 x + 15 x By the Theorem, the production level is minimum at which average cost equals marginal cost. Hence
x 2 - 6 x + 15 = 3 x 2 - 12 x + 15

implies implies

2x2 - 6x = 0 2 x( x - 3) = 0

x = 0 or x = 3 implies Since x > 0, the only production level that might minimize average cost is three thousand units. We check the derivatives: c( x) Average cost = x 2 - 6 x + 15 x d c( x) = 2 x - 6 dx x

d 2 c( x) = 2 > 0. dx 2 x
The second derivative is positive, so x = 3000 units gives an absolute minimum.

LINEARIZATION AND APPROXIMATIONS


Definitions If f is differentiable at x = a, then the approximating function
L( x) = f ( a ) + f (a)( x - a)

(1)

is the linearization of f at a . The approximation


f ( x) L( x)

of f by L is the standard linear approximation of f at a . The point x = a is the center of the approximation. Example Find the linearization of f ( x) = 1 + x at x = 3 . Solution

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We evaluate Equation (1) for

at a = 3 . With

( x) = 1 (1 + x) -1/ 2 , we have f 2

f (3) = 2, f '(3) = 1 , and the linearization is 4 L( x) = 2 + 1 ( x - 3) = 5 + x . 4 4 4 At x = 3.2 , the linearization in Example 2 gives 1 + x = 1 + 3.2 5 + 3.2 = 1.250 + 0.800 = 2.050 , 4 4

which differs from the true value linearization in Example 1 gives


1 + x = 1 + 3.2

4.2 2.04939 by less than one thousand. The

1 + 3.2 = 1 + 1.6 = 2.6 , 2

a result that is off by more than 25%.

Differentials
Definitions Let y = f ( x) be a differentiable function. The differential dx is an independent variable. The differential dy is
dy = f '( x)dx.

Example Find dy if
a) y = x5 + 37 x Solution a) dy = (5 x 4 + 37)dx b) dy = (3cos3 x ) dx Remark If dx 0 and we divide both sides of the equation dy = f '( x) dx by dx , we obtain the familiar equation b) y = sin 3 x

dy = f '( x). dx This equation says that when dx 0 , we can regard the derivative dy / dx as a quotient of differentials. We sometimes write df = f '( x ) dx in place of dy = f '( x) dx , and call df the differential of f . For instance,
if f ( x) = 3 x 2 - 6 , then

df = d (3 x 2 - 6) = 6 xdx.
Every differentiation formula like has corresponding differential form like d (u + v) = du + dv, obtained by multiplying both sides by dx . Formulas for differentials
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d (u + v) du dv = + dx dx dx

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dc = 0 d (cu ) = cdu
d (u + v ) = du + dv

d (uv ) = udv + vdu

u vdu - udv d = v2 v

d (u n ) - nu n -1du
d (sin u ) = cos u du
d (cos u ) = - sin u du

d (tan u ) = sec 2 u du d (cot u ) = - csc 2 u du


d (sec u ) = sec u tan u du
d (csc u ) = - csc u cot u du

Example
a) d (tan 2 x) = sec 2 (2 x)d (2 x) = 2sec 2 2 xdx

x = ( x + 1)dx - xd ( x + 1) = xdx + dx - xdx = dx . b) d ( x + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 2 x +1

The Differential Estimate of Change


Let f ( x ) be differentiable at x = x0 . The approximate change in the value of f when x changes from x0 to x0 + dx is

df = f '( x0 )dx.

Example The radius r of a circle increases from r0 = 10 m to 10.1m. Estimate the increase in the circles area A by calculating dA . Compare this with the true change D A
Solution Since A = p r 2 , the estimated increase is

dA = A '(r0 )dr = 2p r0 dr = 2p (10)(0.1) = 2p m 2 .


The true change is

D A = p (10.1) 2 - p (10) 2 = (102.01 - 100)p = 2 p + 0.01 p. { {


dA error

Absolute, Relative, and Percentage Change As we move from x0 to a nearby point x0 + dx , we can describe the change is f in three ways: True Estimate Df = f ( x0 + dx) - f ( x0 ) df = f '( x0 )dx Absolute change Relative change Percentage change

Df f ( x0 )
Df 100 f ( x0 )

df f ( x0 )
df 100 f ( x0 )

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Example Show that the relative error in computing the volume of a sphere due to an error in measuring the radius is approximately equal to three times the relative error in the radius. Solution Let V be the volume and r be the radius of the sphere. Then they are related by the equation . . . (1) V = 4 p r3 . 3 Taking logarithms on both sides of (1), we obtain
log V = log 4 p + 3 log r 3

( )

Now taking differentials, we get dV = 3 dr , V r since the differential of the constant log 4 p is 0. 3 \ the error relation is D V = 3 Dr , . . . (2) V r DV Dr where is the relative error in computing the volume and is the relative error in V r computing the radius. The error relation (2) simply says that the relative error in computing the volume of a sphere due to an error in measuring the radius is approximately equal to three times the relative error in the radius.

( )

Example About how accurately should we measure the radius r of a sphere to calculate the surface area S = 4p r 2 within 1% of its true value?
Solution We want any inaccuracy in our measurement to be small enough to make the corresponding increment DS in the surface area satisfy the inequality
2 | DS | 1 S = 4p r . 100 100 We replace DS in this inequality with

dS dS = dr = 8p rdr. dr

This gives
2 2 | 8p rdr | 4p r , or | dr | 1 . 4p r = 1 r . 100 8p r 100 2 100 We should measure r with an error dr that is no more than 0.5% of the true value.

Example The volume V of fluid flowing through a small pipe or tube in a unit of time at a fixed pressure is a constant time the fourth power of the tubes radius r. How will a 10% increase in r affect V?
Solution
V = kr 4 . Here we can take The differential of r and V are related by the equation
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dV = dV dr = 4kr 3 dr . dr
Hence,

dV = 4kr 3 dr = 4 dr . V kr 4 r

The relative change in V is 4 times relative change in r, so a 10% increase in r will produce a 40% increase in the flow.
Example The radius of a sphere is found to be 10 cms, with a possible error of 0.02 cms. What is the relative error in the computed volume? Solution If V is the volume and r is the radius of the sphere,
4 V = p r3 3

Taking logarithms, we get, p ) + 3 log r. log V = log ( 4 3 Taking differentials on both sides,
dV dr =3 V r
\

The error relation is

DV Dr =3 V r

approximately.

Given Dr = 0.02, when r = 10.


\

DV 0.02 = 3 = .006 V 10

Hence, relative error in the volume = 0.006. Example ABCD is a regular protractor in which AB = 6 inches, BC = 2 inches and O is the mid-point of AB. An angle BOP is indicated by a mark P on the edge CD . If in 1 setting an angle q degrees, a mark is made of an inch along the edge from the correct 100 9 sin 2 q spot, show that the error in the angle is degrees approximately. 10p Solution Let PC be x inches. From p draw PQ perpendicular to AB. Then OQ = 3 - x.
\

tan q =

PQ 2 = . OQ 3 - x

... (1)

Taking differentials on both sides, 2 \ sec 2 q dq = dx (3 - x) 2 From (1) not that


\

... (2)

3 - x = 2 cot q.

sec 2 q dq =
dq =

2 dx. 4 cot 2 q
sin 2 q dx. 2
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or
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Replacing the differentials dx and dq obtain the approximate error relation,


Dq = sin 2 q Dx. 2

by the increments Dx

and Dq

respectively we

But Dx = degrees.

1 inches and since Dq is measured in degrees, we take 100


Dq =

Dx =

1 100

180

sin 2 q 1 180 degrees, p 2 100 9 sin 2 q degrees. = 10p Example The area of a triangle ABC is determined from the side a and the two angles B and C. If there are small errors in the values of B and C , show that the resulting error (b 2 DC + c 2 DB). in the calculated value of the area will be 1 2

Solution The area of the triangle is given by a b c S = 1 ab sin C where . = = 2 sin A sin B sin C
\

S =

1 2

a2

sin B sin C . sin A

. . . (1)

Taking logarithm on both sides we obtain


2 log S = log ( 1 2 a ) + log sin B + log sin C - log sin A.

Taking differentials on both sides, we get dS cos B cos C cos A = dB + dC dA, S sin B sin C sin A since the differential of a is 0 as there is no error in the measured value of a. we have
A + B + C = 180o , \ dA + dB + dC = 0.

dS cos B cos C cos A = dB + dC + ( dB + dC ) S sin B sin C sin A

cos B cos C cos A cos A = + + dB + dC sin A sin A sin B sin C


= sin A cos B + cos A sin B sin A cos C + cos A sin C dB + dC sin A sin B sin A sin C

= =

sin ( A + B) sin ( A + C ) dB + dC sin A sin B sin A sin C sin C sin B dB + dC. sin A sin B sin A sin C
. . . (2)

since sin ( A + B ) = sin (p - C ) = sin C and sin ( A + C ) = sin (p - B ) = sin B As in (1), the other formulae for S are
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S =
\

1 2 sin A sin C 1 sin A sin B b and S = c 2 2 sin B 2 sin C

sin C 1 sin B 1 = c 2 and = b2 . sin A sin B 2 sin A sin C 2


dS 1 c 2 dB 1 b 2 dC 1 = + , i.e., dS = (c 2 dB + b 2 dC ). S 2 S 2 S 2

2 2 Error is given by DS = 1 2 (c DB + b DC ).

Exercises In exercises 1-3, find the linearization L( x) of f ( x) at x = a 1. 2. 3.


f ( x) = x 4 at x = 1 f ( x ) = x 3 - x at x = 1

f ( x) = x at x = 4

We want linearizations that will replace the functions in Exercise 4-6, over intervals that include the given points x0 . To make our subsequent work as simple as possible, we want to center each linearization not at x0 but at a nearby integer x = a at which the given function and its derivative are easy to evaluate. What linearization do we use in each case? 4. f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x, x0 = 0.1 5. 6.
f ( x) = 2 x 2 + 4 x - 3, x0 = -0.9

f ( x) = 3 x , x0 = 8.5

Answers

1. 4 x - 3 4. 2x

2. 2 x - 2 5. -5

3.

1 x +1 x 1 4 x+ 6. 12 3

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CHAPTER 5

INTEGRATION - I
Sigma Notation for Finite sums
We use the capital Greek letter S (sigma) to write an abbreviation for the sum f (t1 )Dt + f (t2 )Dt + L + f (tn )Dt as

n k =1

f (tk )Dt .

When we write a sum this way, we say that we have written it in sigma

notation. Definitions (Sigma Notation for Finite Sums) The symbol

n k =1

ak denotes the sum a1 + a2 + L + an . The a s are the terms of the sum: a1 is

the first term, a2 is the second term, ak is the k th term, and an is the n th and last term. The variable k is the index of summation. The values of k run through the integers from 1 to n . The number 1 is the lower limit of summation; the number n is the upper limit of summation. Sum Formulas for Positive Integers The first n integers: The first n squares: The first n cubes: Example Solution Evaluate

k =
k =1 n

n(n + 1) . 2 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) . 6


2

k
k =1

(k
k =1 4 2

n(n + 1) k = . 2 k =1
n 3

- 3k ) .

(k 2 - 2k ) = k 2 - 2 k
k =1 k =1 k =1

4(4 + 1)(8 + 1) 4(4 + 1) = - 2 6 2


= 30 - 20 = 10

Riemann Sums
Given an arbitrary continuous function y = f ( x ) on an interval [ a, b] , we partition the interval into n subintervals by choosing n - 1 points, say x1 , x2 , K, xn -1 , between a and b subject only to the condition that a < x1 < x2 < L < xn -1 < b . To make the notation consistent, we usually denote a by x0 and b by xn . The set

P = {x0 , x1 , K, xn }
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is called a partition of [ a, b] . The partition P defines n closed subintervals [ x0 , x1 ], [ x1 , x2 ], K, [ xn -1 , xn ]. The typical closed subinterval [ xk -1 , xk ] is called the k th subinterval of P . The length of the k th subinterval is Dxk = xk - xk -1 . In each subinterval [ xk -1 , xk ] , we select a point ck and construct a vertical rectangle from the subinterval to the point (ck , f (ck )) on the curve y = f ( x ) . The choice of ck does not matter as long as it lies in [ xk -1 , xk ] . If f (ck ) is positive, the number f (ck )Dxk = height base is the area of the rectangle. If f (ck ) is negative, then f (ck )Dxk is the negative of the area. In any case, we add the n products f (ck )Dxk to form the sum

S p = f (ck )Dxk .
k =1

This sum, which depends on P and the choice of the numbers ck , is called a

Riemann

sum for f on the interval [a, b].


As the partitions of [ a, b] become finer, the rectangles defined by the partition approximate the region between the x -axis and the graph of f with increasing accuracy. So we expect the associated Riemann sums to have a limiting value. To test this expectation, we need to develop a numerical way to say that partitions become finer and to determine whether the corresponding sums have a limit. We accomplish this with the following definitions. The norm of a partition P is the partitions longest subinterval length. It is denoted by

(read the norm of P).

The way to say that successive partitions of an interval become finer is to say that the norms of these partitions approach zero. As the norms go to zero, the subintervals become shorter and their number approaches infinity. Example The set P = {0, 0.2, 0.6, 1, 1.5, 2} is a partition of [0, 2] . There are five subintervals of P :[0, 0.2], [0.2,0.6], [0.6, 1], [1, 1.5] , and [1.5, 2]. The lengths of the subintervals are Dx1 = 0.2, Dx2 = 0.4, Dx3 = 0.4, Dx4 = 0.5, and Dx5 = 0.5. The longest subinterval length is 0.5, so the norm of the partition is

P = 0.5 . In this

example, there are two subintervals of this length. Definition (The Definite integral as a Limit of Riemann Sums) Let f ( x ) be a function defined on a closed interval [ a, b] . We say that the limit of the Riemann sums

n k =1

f (ck )Dxk on [ a, b] as P 0 is the number I if the following condition

is satisfied: Given any number e > 0 , there exists a corresponding number d > 0 such that for every partition P of [ a, b]

P <d
Calculus

f (c ) Dx
k k =1

-I < e

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for any choice of the numbers ck in the subintervals [ xk -1 , xk ] . If the limit exists, we write

lim f (ck )Dxk = I .


P 0 k =1

We call I the definite integral of f over [ a, b] , we say that f is integrable over [ a, b] , and we say that the Riemann sums of f on [ a, b] converge to the number I . We usually write I as limit exists,

f ( x) dx , which is read integral of f from a to b . Thus, if the


b

lim f (ck )Dxk = f ( x)dx .


P 0 k =1 a

Remark The amazing fact is that despite the variety in the Riemann sums sums always have the same limit as P 0 as long as f is continuous.

f ( c ) Dx
k

as the

partitions change and the arbitrary choice of ck s in the intervals of each new partition, the Theorem (The Existence of Definite Integrals) All continuous functions are integrable. That is, if a function f is continuous on an interval [ a, b] , then its definite integral over [ a, b] exists.

Functions with No Riemann Integral


The function
1 when x is rational f ( x) = 0 when x is irrational, has no Riemann integral over [0, 1] . For any partition P of [0, 1] , the upper and lower sums are

U = max k Dxk = 1 Dxk = Dxk = 1 , as every subinterval contains a rational number


and hence max k = 1

L = min k Dxk = 0 Dxk = 0 , as every subinterval contains an irrational number and


hence min k = 0 . For the integral of f to exist over [0, 1], U and L would have to have the same limit as

P 0 . But they do not:


lim L = 0
P 0

while

lim U = 1 .
P 0

Therefore, f has no integral on [0,1] . No constant multiple kf has an integral either, unless k is zero. Example Express the limit of Riemann sums
2 lim (3ck - 2ck + 5)Dxk P 0 k =1 n

as an integral if P denotes a partition of the interval [ -1, 3] . Solution The function being evaluated at ck in each term of the sum is f ( x) = 3 x 2 - 2 x + 5 . The interval being partitioned is [ -1, 3] . The limit is therefore the integral of f from -1 to 3:

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2 lim (3ck - 2ck + 5)Dxk = (3x 2 - 2 x + 5)dx . 3 P 0 k =1 -1

Constant Functions
Result : If f ( x) has the constant value c on [ a, b] , then

f (c )Dx
k k =1 n

f ( x)dx = c dx = c(b - a) .
a

Verification: Suppose that f has the constant value f ( x) = c over [ a, b] . Then, no matter how the ck s are chosen,
k

= c Dxk , as f (ck ) always equals c .


k =1

=c

Dx
k =1

= c(b - a ), as

Dx
k =1

= b - a, length of interval [ a, b]

Since the sums all have the value c (b - a ) , their limit is c (b - a ) and the integral value is c (b - a ) . Example a) b)

3dx = 3(4 - (-1)) = (3)(5) = 15


4

-1

(-3) dx = -3(4 - (-1)) = ( -3)(5) = -15

-1

The Area Under the Graph of a Nonnegative Function


Definition Let f ( x ) 0 be continuous on [ a, b] . The area of the region between the graph of f and the x -axis is

A=

f ( x) dx .

Whenever we make a new definition, as we have here, consistency becomes an issue. Does the definition that we have just developed for nonstandard shapes give correct results for standard shapes? The answer is yes, but the proof is complicated and we will not go into it. Example Using an area, evaluate the definite integral

x dx, 0 < a < b .

Solution We sketch the region under the curve y = x , a x b , and see that it is a trapezoid with height (b - a ) and bases a and b . The value of the integral is the area of this trapezoid:

x dx = (b - a )

a + b b2 a 2 = . 2 2 2

In particular,

xdx =

( 5) 2 (1)2 =2. 2 2

x is an antiderivative of x , further evidence of a connection between 2 antiderivatives and summation.

Notice that

Example Use a definite integral to find the area of the region between the parabola y = x 2 and x -axis on the interval [0, b] . Solution We evaluate the integral for the area as a limit of Riemann sums.
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We sketch the region (a nonstandard shape) and partition [0, b] into n subintervals of (b - 0) b = . The points of the partition are length Dx = n n x0 = 0, x1 = Dx, x2 = 2Dx, K , xn -1 = (n -1)Dx, xn = nDx = b . We are free to choose the ck s any way we please. We choose each ck to be the right-hand endpoint of its subinterval, a choice that leads to manageable arithmetic. Thus, c1 = x1 , c2 = x2 , and so on. The rectangles defined byFig. these 8 choices have areas

f (c1 )Dx = f (Dx)Dx = (Dx) 2 Dx = (12 )(Dx)3 f (c2 )Dx = f (2Dx)Dx = (2Dx) 2 Dx = (22 )( Dx)3
M f (cn ) Dx = f (nDx) Dx = (nDx) 2 Dx = (n 2 )(Dx)3
The sum of these areas is

Sn =

f ( c ) Dx
k k =1

k
k =1

( Dx ) 3

= ( Dx ) 3
=

k
k =1

, as ( Dx)3 is a constant.

b b3 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) , as Dx = 3 6 n n 3 b (n + 1)(2n + 1) = 6 n2


3 2 3n + 1 = b 2n + 2 6 n

b3 3 1 2+ + 2 . 6 n n We can now use the definition of definite integral =

(6)

f ( x)dx = lim

P 0

f (c ) Dx
k k =1

to find the area under the parabola from x = 0 to x = b as

x 2 dx = lim S n
n

In this example,

P 0

is equivalent to n .

= lim
=

b3 3 1 2 + + 2 , using equation (6) n 6 n n

b3 b3 (2 + 0 + 0) = . 6 3 With different values of b we get

Calculus

x 2 dx =

13 1 = , 3 3

1.5

x 2 dx =

(1.5)3 3.375 = = 1.125, and so on. 3 3


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Exercises Write the sums in Exercises 1-3 without sigma notation. Then evaluate them. 1.

k +1
k =1

6k

2.

cos kp
k =1

3. ( -1) k +1 sin
k =1

p k

4. Which of the following express 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 - 32 in sigma notation? a)

2
k =1

k -1

b)

2
k =0
2

c)

k =-1

2
1

k +1

5. Which formula is not equivalent to the other two? a)

(-1) k -1 k =2 k - 1
4

b)

k +1
k =0

(-1) k

c)

k =-1

k +2

(-1) k

Express the sums in Exercises 6-8 in sigma notation. The form of your answer will depend on your choice of the lower limit of summation. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7. + + + 8. 1 - + + + 6. 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 2 3 4 5 2 4 8 16 9. Suppose that a) d)

a
k =1

= -5 and
b)

b
k =1

= 6 . Find the values of


c)

3a
k =1 n k =1

k =1 n k =1

bk 6
k

(a
k =1

+ bk )

(a
k
k =1 10

- bk )

e)

(b
c)

- 2ak )

Evaluate the sums in Exercises 10-14. 10. a) 12.


7

b)

k
k =1

10

k
k =1

10

11. 14.
5 3

(-2k )
k =1

(3 - k 2 )
k =1

13. k (3k + 5)
k =1

5 k +k k =1 225 k =1

In Exercises 15-16, graph each function f ( x) over the given interval. Partition the interval into four subintervals of equal length. Then add to your sketch the rectangles associated with the Riemann sum

4 k =1

f (ck ) Dxk , given that ck is the (a) left-hand endpoint, (b) right-

hand endpoint, (c) midpoint of the k th subinterval. (Make a separate sketch for each set of rectangles.) 15. f ( x) = x 2 -1 , [0, 2] 16. f ( x) = sin x, [ -p , p ] 17. Find the norm of the partition P = [0, 1.2, 1.5, 2.3, 2.6, 3] . Express the limits in Exercises 18-21 as definite integrals. 18. lim
P 0

c Dx
2 k k =1 n

where P is a partition of [0, 2]

19. lim

P 0

(c
k =1

2 k

- 3ck )Dxk , where P is a partition of [ -7, 5]

20. lim
P 0

1 Dxk , where P is a partition of [2, 3] ck 1 k =1


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21. lim

-p where P is a partition of , 4 Evaluate the integrals in Exercises 22-24.

(sec ck )Dxk P 0 k =1
1

22.

-2

5dx

23.

( -160) dt

24.

3.4

-2.1

0.5ds

In Exercises 25-28, graph the integrands and use areas to evaluate the integrals. 25. 27.

x + 3 dx -2 2
4
1

26. 28.

9 - x 2 dx
1

-3

| x | dx

(2- | x |)dx

-2

-1

Use areas to evaluate the integrals in Exercises 29-30 29.

xdx, b > 0

30.

2s ds,
b a

0 <a <b

Use the results of Examples 5 and 6 to evaluate the integrals in Exercises 31-36. 31.

34. t dt
2 1
1 2 2

xdx

32. 35.

2p

q dq
2a

xdx

36.
33.

37

x 2 dx
3b

x 2 dx

In Exercises 37-38, use a definite integral to find the area of the region between the given curve and the x -axis on the interval [0, b] , as in Example B. 37. y = 3 x 2 38. y = 2 x

39. What values of a and b maximize the value of

( x - x )dx ?
b 2 a

(Hint: Where is the integrand positive?) 40. Upper and lower sums for increasing functions a) Suppose the graph of a continuous function f ( x ) rises steadily as x moves from left to right across an interval [ a, b] . Let P be a partition of [ a, b] into n subintervals of (b - a ) . Show by referring to the accompanying figure that the difference length Dx = n between the upper and lower sums for f on this partition can be represented graphically as the area of a rectangle R whose dimensions are [ f (b) - f ( a )] by Dx . (Hint: The difference U - L is the sum of areas of rectangles whose diagonals Q0Q1 , Q1Q2 , K, Qn -1Qn lie along the curve. There is no overlapping when these rectangles are shifted horizontally onto R .) b) Suppose that instead of being equal, the lengths Dxk of the subintervals of the partition of [ a, b] vary in size. Show that

U - L | f (b) - f (a) | Dxmax ,


where Dxmax is the norm of P , and hence that

lim P 0 (U - L ) = 0 .

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RULES FOR INTEGRATION


Rules for definite integrals 1. Zero: 2. Order of Integration: 3. Constant Multiples:

f ( x) dx = 0
a

f ( x)dx = b

f ( x)dx
b

kf ( x)dx = k
b

f ( x)dx (Any number k )


b

- f ( x) dx = -

f ( x)dx

(k = -1)

4. Sums and Differences: 5. Additivity:


b a

( f ( x) g ( x)) dx =

f ( x)dx

g ( x)dx

f ( x) dx +

f ( x)dx =

f ( x)dx

6. Max-Min Inequality: If max f and min f are the maximum and minimum values of f on [ a, b] , then

min f (b - a )
7. Domination: f ( x ) g ( x ) on [ a, b] In particular, Example Suppose that

f ( x)dx max f (b - a)

f ( x)dx

g ( x)dx

f ( x) 0 on [ a, b]

f ( x) dx 0

-1 f ( x)dx = 5 ,
Then 1. 2.

1 1
4

f ( x )dx = -2 ,

-1 h( x)dx = 7 .
Using Rule 2

f ( x )dx = -

f ( x )dx = -(-2) = 2

-1
4

[2 f ( x ) + 3h( x )]dx = 2

-1
4

f ( x )dx + 3

-1 h( x)dx
Using Rules 3 and 4 Using Rule 5

= 2(5) + 3(7) = 31

3.

-1 f ( x)dx =-1 f ( x)dx +1


b

f ( x )dx = 5 + ( -2) = 3

We know the three general integrals:

a cdx = c(b - a)
Calculus

(Any constant c )

(1)

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2 2 xdx = b - a 2 2 2

(0 < a < b)
(b > 0)

(2) (3)

0 x dx = 3
Example Solution Evaluate
2 t2

b3

The rules for definite integrals enable us to build on these results.


- 7t + 5 dt . 0 4 =1 4

- 7t + 5 dt 0 4

2 t2

0 t dt - 70 tdt +0 5dt
2

Rules 3 and 4

(2)3 (2)2 (0)2 = 1 - 7 + 5(2 - 0) , using equations (1) - (3) 4 3 2 2 = 2 - 14 + 10 = - 10 3 3


Example Evaluate

2 x dx .
2

Solution We cannot apply equation (3) directly because the lower limit of integration is different from 0. We can, however, use the Additivity Rule to express of two integrals that can be evaluated with equation (3):

2 x dx as a difference
2

0 x dx +2 x dx =0 x dx
2 2 2

Rule 5
2 2

2 x dx =0 x dx -0 x dx
2 2

Solve for

2 x dx
2

(3)3 (2)3 3 3 = 27 - 8 = 19 . 3 3 3

Eq. (3) now applies

In the next chapter, we will see how to evaluate

2 x dx in a more direct way.


2

The Max-Min Inequality for definite integrals (Rule 6) says that min f (b - a ) is a lower bound for the value of Example

a f ( x)dx and that max


0
1

f (b - a ) is an upper bound.

Show that the value of

1 + cos xdx cannot possibly be 2.

Solution The maximum value of

1 + cos x on [0, 1] is

1 + 1 = 2 , so

1 + cos xdx max 1 + cos x (1 - 0) , using max-min inequality

2 1= 2 .
The integral cannot exceed

2 , so it cannot possibly equal 2.

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Example

2 Use the inequality cos x 1 - x 2

, which holds for all x , to find a lower bound

for the value of Solution

0 cos xdx . 0
1

cos xdx

2 1 - x dx 2 0

Rule 7
2

1dx - 1 2 0

0 x dx

Rules 3 and 4

(1)3 5 1 (1 - 0) - 1 = 0.83 . The value of the integral is at least 5 . 2 3 6 6 The Average Value of an Arbitrary continuous Function Definition If f is integrable on [ a, b] , its average (mean) value on [ a, b] is av( f ) = 1 b -a

a f ( x)dx .

Example Find the average value of f ( x ) = 4 - x 2 on [0, 3] . Does f actually take on this value at some point in the given domain? Solution
av( f ) = 1 b -a

a f ( x)dx = 3 - 0 0 (4 - x
b

)dx = 1 3

0 4dx -0 x dx
2

(3)3 1 = 1 4(3 - 0) = (12 - 9) = 1 3 3 3


The average value of f ( x ) = 4 - x 2 over the interval [0, 3] is 1. The function assumes this value when 4 - x 2 = 1 or x = 3 . Since one of these points, x = 3 lies in [0, 3] , the function does assume its average value in the given domain (Fig.11 ) The Mean Value Theorem for Definite Integrals Theorem (The Mean value theorem for Definite Integrals) If f is continuous on [ a, b] , then at some point c in [ a, b] ,
b f (c ) = 1 f ( x )dx b -a a The continuity of f is important here. A discontinuous function can step over its average value.

Example Show that if f is continuous on [ a, b], a b , and if least once in [ a, b] . Solution The average value of f on [ a, b] is
b av( f ) = 1 f ( x )dx = 1 0 = 0 . b -a a b -a By Theorem, f assumes this value at some point c in [ a, b] .

a f ( x)dx = 0 , then

f ( x ) = 0 at

Exercises
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1. Suppose that f and g are continuous and that

1
a) c) e)

f ( x )dx = -4 ,

f ( x )dx = 6 ,

1 g( x)dx = 8 5 g( x)dx
2 f ( x)dx
5 1

Use the rules at the beginning of this Chapter to find

2 g( x)dx
1 3 f ( x)dx
2

b) d) f)

1 [ f ( x) - g( x)] dx 1
2

1 [4 f ( x) - g( x)] dx

2. Suppose that a) c)

f ( x )dx = 5 . Find

f (u)du

b) d)

3 f ( z )dz

2 f (t )dt 3 f (z)dz
5.
z
4

1 [- f ( x)]dx

3. Suppose that f is continuous and that a) b)


3

0 f (z)dz = 3 and 0 f (z)dz = 7 . Find

4 f (t )dt
6. 9.

Evaluate the integrals in Exercises 4-9 4. 7.

3 7dx

0 5x dx

0 (2t - 3)dt

2 (1 + 2 )dz
b) -8 b) 5 3 5. 10

8.

1 3u du
2

0 (3x

+ x - 5)dx

Answers 1. a) 0 2. a) 5 4.

c) -12 c) -5 6. -2

d) 10 d) -5 7. - 7 4

e) -2 3. a) 4

f) 16 b) -4

-14

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MODULE - III
CHAPTER 6

INTEGRATION - II
FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMS OF CALCULUS
In this chapter we discuss two parts of fundamental theorem of calculus. Theorem (The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Part 1) If f is continuous on [ a, b] , then F ( x) = and Example
x

a f (t )dt

has a derivative at every point of [ a, b] (1)

dF = d dx dx d dx d dx

a f (t )dt = f ( x) ,

a x b.

-p cos t dt = cos x
0 1 + t 2 dt = 1 + x2
1 1
Find
dy if y = dx
x

Eq. (1) with f (t ) = cos t Eq. (1) with f (t ) =


x2

1 1+ t2

Example

cos t dt .
dy we must dx

Solution Notice that the upper limit of integration is not x but x 2 . To find therefore treat y as the composite of
u

y=

1 cos t dt

and

u = x2

and apply the Chain Rule: dy dy du = dx du dx

Chain Rule

= d du
Calculus

1 cos t dt

du Substitute the formula for y . dx


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= cos u du dx

Eq. (1) with f (t ) = cos t

= cos x 2 2 x

u = x2

= 2 x cos x 2
Example Express the solution of the following initial value problem as an integral. dy Differential equation: = tan x dx y (1) = 5 Initial condition : Solution The function

F ( x) =

1 tan t dt

is an antiderivative of tan x . Hence the general solution of the equation is

y=

1 tan t dt + C

As always, the initial condition determines the value of C :

5=

1 tan t dt + C

y (1) = 5

5 =0 +C C = 5.

(2)

The solution of the initial value problem is y =

1 tan t dt + 5 .

How did we know where to start integrating when we constructed F ( x ) ? We could have started anywhere, but the best value to start with is the initial value of x (in this case x = 1 ). Then the integral will be zero when we apply the initial condition (as it was in Eq. 2) and C will automatically be the initial value of y .

The Evaluation of Definite Integrals using FTC2


Theorem (The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Part 2) If f is continuous at every point of [ a, b] and F is any antiderivative of f on [ a, b] , then

a f ( x)dx = F (b) - F (a) .


Example a) b) c)

(3)

0 cos x dx = [sin x]0 = sin p - sin 0 = 0 - 0 = 0


p

0
-p 4

sec x tan x dx = [ sec x ] = sec 0 - sec - p = 1 - 2 -p 4 4


0

( )

3 4 x3 2 + 4 2 x - 2 dx = x 1 x

3 3 = (4) 2 4 - (1) 2 + 4 4 1 = [8 + 1] - [5] = 4 .

We can now see that without any restriction on the signs of a and b ,
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2 2 2 x dx = x = b - a 2 2 a 2

Because Because

x2 2

is an antiderivative of x is an antiderivative of x 2

3 3 3 x 2 dx = x = b - a 3 3 a 3

x3 3

Example Find the area of the region between the 3 2 f ( x) = x - x - 2 x, -1 x 2 . Solution First find the zeros of f . Since

x -axis and the graph of

f ( x) = x 2 - x 2 - 2 x = x( x 2 - x - 2) = x( x +1)( x - 2) ,
the zeros are x = 0, -1, and 2 The zeros partition [-1, 2] into two subintervals: [-1, 0] , on which f 0 and [0, 2] , on which f 0 . We integrate f over each subinterval and add the absolute values of the calculated values. Integral over [-1, 0] :

3 4 ( x3 - x 2 - 2 x)dx = x - x - x 2 3 -1 4 -1

= 0 - 1 + 1 -1 = 5 4 3 12
Integral over [0, 2] :

3 4 8 8 ( x3 - x 2 - 2 x)dx = x - x - x 2 = 4 - - 4 - 0 = 3 3 4 3 0 0 2

Enclosed area: Total enclosed area

= 5 + - 8 = 37 12 3 12

Example We model the voltage in our home wiring with the sine function V = Vmax sin120p t , which expresses the voltage V in volts as a function of time t in seconds. The function runs through 60 cycles each second (its frequency is 60 hertz, or 60 Hz). The positive constant Vmax is the peak voltage. The average value of V over a half-cycle (duration 1 sec) 120

Vav

( )
Vmax

1 -0 120

1 120

Vmax sin120p t dt
1

120 = 120Vmax - 1 cos120p t 120p 0

[ - cos p + cos 0]

2Vmax

The average value of the voltage over a full cycle is zero. If we measured the voltage with a standard moving-coil galvanometer, the meter would read zero. To measure the voltage effectively, we use an instrument that measures the square root of the average value of the square of the voltage, namely.
Vrms = (V 2 )av
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The subscript rms (read the letters separately) stands for root mean square. Since the average value of V 2 = (Vmax )2 sin 2 120p t over a cycle is
(V 2 )av =
1 - 0 0 (60 )

1 60

(Vmax ) 2 sin 2 120p t dt =

(Vmax ) 2 , 2

(4)

the rms voltage is

Vrms =

(Vmax ) 2 Vmax = 2 2

(5)

The values given for household currents and voltages are always rms values. Thus, 115 volts ac means that the rms voltage is 115. The peak voltage,

Vmax = 2Vrms = 2 115 163 volts,


Obtained from Eq. (5), is considerably higher. Exercises Evaluate the integrals in Exercises 1-13. 1. 5. 9. 13.

-2 (2 x + 5)dx 0 sin x dx

p 2
-p 2

2.
p

3x - dx 0 4

x3

3. 7. 11.

0 (x

3p 4 4

+ x dx

4. 8.

p
2

32 - 6 5

x dx
dt

6.

0 2sec
3

x dx

cscq cot q dq

0 1 + cos 2t

2
2

(8 y 2 + sin y )dy 10.

-1

( r + 1) 2 dr

u7 1 - 5 du 2 2 u

12.

s 2 + s ds s2

-4 | x | dx
0 (1 - 2 x) dx
3 1

In Exercises 14-17, use a substitution to find an antiderivative and then apply the Fundamental Theorem to evaluate the integral. 14. 16. 15. 17.

0 t
p

t 2 + 1dt
2

x cos x dx 4 4 In Exercises 18-20, find the total area between the region and the x -axis.
2

0 sin

(1 + q2 )dq

0 sin

18. y = -x 2 - 2 x, -3 x 2 19. y = x3 - 3x 2 + 2 x , 0 x 2 20. y = x 3 , -1 x 8 Answers 1. 6 6. 2 3 11. - 3 4 2. 8 7. 0 12. 3. 1 8. - p 4 4. 5 2


3 9. 2p 3
1

5. 2 10. - 8 3 14. 0

2 - 4 8 +1
16. p + sin 2 2

13. 16 17.

15. 1 (2 2 - 1) 3
Calculus

2 3
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18. 28 3

19. 1 2

20. 51 4

APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRATION
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES
Definition If f and g are continuous with f ( x) g ( x) throughout [a, b], then the area of the region between the curves y = f ( x) and y = g ( x) from a to b is the integral of [ f - g ] from a to b :

A=

[ f ( x) - g ( x)]dx.
b a

(1)

To apply Eq. (1) we take the following steps. Algorithm : Finding the area between two curves Step 1. Graph the curves and draw a representative rectangle. This reveals which curve is f (upper curve) and which is g (lower curve). It also helps find the limits of integration if we do not already know them. Step 2. Find the limits of integration. Step 3. Write a formula for f ( x) - g ( x). Simplify it if we can. Step 4. Integrate [ f ( x) - g ( x)] from a to b. The number we get is the area. Example 1 Find the area between y = sec 2 x and y = sin x from 0 to p / 4.

Solution Step 1: We sketch the curves and a vertical rectangle (Fig.1). The upper curve is the graph of f ( x) = sec 2 x; the lower is the graph of g ( x) = sin x. Step 2: The limits of integration are already given a = 0, b = p / 4. Step 3:

f ( x) - g ( x) = sec 2 x - sin x.
Step 4:

A=

p /4

/4 (sec 2 x - sin x)dx = [tan x + cos x]p 0

2 2 = 1 + . - [0 + 1] = 2 2

Example 2 Find the area of the region enclosed by the parabola y = 2 = x 2 and the line y = -x. Solution In this example the limits of integration is not explicitly given. But, since the region is determined by curves that intersect, the intersection points give the limits of integration. Step 1 Sketch the curves and a vertical rectangle. Identifying the upper and the lower curves, we take f ( x) = 2 - x 2 and g ( x) = - x. The x - coordinates of the intersection points are the limits of integration.
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Step 2 We find the limits of integration by solving y = 2 - x 2 and y = -x simultaneously for x :


2 - x 2 = -x

implies implies implies Step 3

x2 - x - 2 = 0 ( x + 1)( x - 2) = 0 x = -1, x = 2.

The region runs from x = -1 to x = 2. The limits of integration are a = -1, b = 2.

f ( x) - g ( x) = (2 - x 2 ) - ( -x) = 2 - x 2 + x
= 2 + x - x2 .

Step 4
x 2 x3 A = [ f ( x) - g ( x)]dx = (2 = x - x ) dx = 2 x + - a -1 2 3 -1

4 8 1 1 = 4 + - - -2 + + 2 3 2 3 3 9 9 =6+ - = . 2 3 2
Example 3 Find the area of the region in the first quadrant that is bounded above by y = x and below by the x - axis and the line y = x - 2. Solution Step 1 The regions upper boundary is the graph of f ( x) = x. The lower boundary changes from g ( x) = 0 for 0 x 2 to g ( x) = x - 2 for 2 x 4 (there is agreement at x = 2). We partition the region at x = 2 into subregions A and B and sketch a representative rectangle for each subregion. Step 2 The limits of integration for region A are a = 0 and b = 2. The left-hand limit for region B is a = 2. To find the right-hand limit, we solve the equations y = x and y = x - 2 simultaneously for x :

x = x -2
implies implies implies implies

x = ( x - 2) 2 = x 2 - 4 x + 4
x - 5x + 4 = 0 ( x - 1)( x - 4) = 0
x = 1, x = 4.
2

Only the value x = 4 satisfies the equation x = x - 2. The value x = 1 is an extraneous root introduced by squaring. The right-hand limit is b = 4. Step 3 For 0 x 2 : For 2 x 4 :
Calculus

f ( x) - g ( x ) = x - 0 = x f ( x) - g ( x) = x - ( x - 2) = x - x + 2.
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Step 4 We add the area of subregions A and B to find the total area: Total area

x dx + ( x - x + 2)dx 0 2 1 4 24 3 1442443
area of A
2

area of B

2 x2 2 = x3 / 2 + x3 / 2 - + 2 x 2 3 0 3 2

2 2 2 = (2)3 / 2 - 0 + (4)3 / 2 - 8 + 8 - (2)3 / 2 - 2 + 4 3 3 3

2 10 = (8) - 2 = . 3 3

Integration with Respect to y


If a regions bounding curves are described by y, functions of the approximating rectangles are horizontal instead of vertical and the basic formula has y in place of x. Example By integrating with respect to y , find the area of the region in the first quadrant that is bounded above by y = x and below by the x - axis and the line y = x - 2. Solution Step 1 We sketch the region and a typical horizontal rectangle based on a partition of an interval of y - values (Fig.4). The regions right-hand boundary is the line x = y + 2, so f ( y ) = y + 2. The left-hand boundary is the curve x = y 2 , so g ( y ) = y 2 . Step 2 The lower limit of integration is y = 0. We find the upper limit by solving x = y + 2 and

x = y 2 simultaneously for y : y + 2 = y2
implies implies implies

y2 - y - 2 = 0
( y + 1)( y - 2) = 0

y = -1,

y =2

The upper limit of integration is b = 2. (The value y = -1 gives a point of intersection below the x - axis and we do not consider). Step 3

f ( y) - g ( y) = y + 2 - y 2 = 2 + y - y 2
Step 4

A=

[ f ( y) - g ( y)] dy = [2 + y - y ] dy
b 2 2 a 0

y 2 y3 = 2 y + - 2 3 0

4 8 10 =4+ - = . 2 3 3
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Example Combining integrals with formulas from geometry, find the area of the region in the first quadrant that is bounded above by y = x and below by the x - axis and the line y = x - 2. Solution The area we want is the area between the curve y = x, 0 x 4, and the x - axis, minus the area of a triangle with base 2 and height 2: 4 1 x dx - (2)(2) Area = 0 2

2 = x3/ 2 - 2 3 0
2 10 = (8) - 0 - 2 = . 3 3
Exercises Find the areas of the regions enclosed by the lines and curves in Exercises 1-5. 1. 3. 5. 6. 8.

y = x 2 - 2 and y = 2 y = x 2 and y = -x 2 + 4 x

2. y = x 4 and y = 8 x 4. y = x 4 - 4 x 2 + 4 and y = x 2

y = | x | and 5 y = x + 6 (How many intersection points are there?)


x = 2 y 2 , x = 0, and y = 3 x + y 2 = 0 and x + 3 y 2 = 2
7. 9.

Find the areas of the regions enclosed by the lines and curves in Exercises 6-9.

y 2 - 4 x = 4 and 4 x - y = 16 x = y 2 -1 and x =| y | 1 - y 2

Find the areas of the regions enclosed by the curves in Exercises10-11. 10. 4 x 2 + y = 4 and x 4 - y = 1 11. x + 4 y 2 = 4 and x + y 4 = 1, for x 0 Find the areas of the regions enclosed by the lines and curves in Exercises 12-15. 12. y = 2sin x and y = sin 2 x, 0 x p 13. y = cos (p x / 2) and y = 1 - x 2 14. y = sec 2 x, y = tan 2 x, x = -p / 4, and x = p / 4 15. x = 3sin y cos y and x = 0, 0 y p / 2 Answers 1. 32 / 3 2. 48 / 5 3. 8 / 3 4. 8 5. 5 / 3 (There are three intersection points). 6. 18 7. 243 / 8 8. 8. 8 / 3 9. 10. 104 /15 14. p / 2 11. 56 /15 15. 2 12. 4 13.

4 3 p

2 4

Volume of solid of revolution


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Solids of revolution are solids whose shapes can be generated by revolving the plane regions about axes.

Volume of solid of revolution revolution about the x-axis


The volume of the solid generated by revolving about the x-axis the region between the x-axis and the graph of the continuous function y = R ( x), a x b, is
V = p [radius] 2 dx = p [ R ( x)]2 dx. .
a a

Example The region between the curve y = x, 0 x 4, and the x - axis is revolved about the x - axis to generate a solid. Find its volume.

Solution The volume is

V=
4

p[ R( x)] dx
b 2 a

p[
0

x ]2 dx
4

x2 (4) 2 = p xdx = p = p = 8 x. 0 2 2 0 Example 4 Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by y = x and the lines y = 1, x = 4 about the line y = 1.

Solution The volume is

V= =

p[ R( x)] dx
4 2 1

p[
4 1 4 1

x -1]2 dx x + 1]dx
4

R( x) = x -1

=p

[x - 2

x2 2 7p = p - 2 x3 / 2 + x = . 3 6 2 1

Example Find the volume of the solid formed by the revolution about the major axis of an ellipse with axes 2a and 2b (a > b). Solution The equation of the ellipse is

x2 a2

y2 b2

=1

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Since a > b, the major axis is x-axis. Hence, the required volume is obtained by the revolution about the x-axis of the area enclosed by the portion of the ellipse and the x- axis. Since the ellipse is symmetrical about the axes, the required volume is twice that of the volume obtained by revolving the part of the ellipse in the first quadrant about the x-axis. In the portion of the ellipse in the first quadrant x varies from x = 0 to x = a. \ The required volume is given by
b2 V = 2 p y dx = 2 p 2 a a

(
0

b2 x3 4 a - x dx = 2 p 2 a 2 x - = pab 2 . 3 0 3 a
2 2

Example Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the part of the curve x2 (y x2) =3 between x = 1 and x = 2 about the x-axis. Solution: The given equation of the curve can be written as 3 y = x2 + 2 x and here x varies from x = 1 to x = 2. Hence the volume of revolution is given by
2 2 3 x 593 2 3 1 p. V = p y dx = p x + 2 dx = p - 3 = 3 40 x x 1 a 1 1

Example One arch of the sine curve y = sin x revolved round the x-axis. Find the volume of the solid so generated. Solution An arch of the sine curve is the portion between two consecutive contacts of the curve with its base (i.e. x-axis). Since y = 0 at the contact of the curve with the x axis, we have 0 = y = sin x implies x = np, for any integer n. This implies in particular (substituting n = 0 and n = 1) that an arch of the curve lies between x = 0 and x= p. Hence the volume of revolution of this arch is given by

p y 2 dx = p sin 2 x dx = p
a 0

p p sin 2 x p 2 1 - cos 2 x dx = [ x] . = 0 2 2 2 2 0

Example Show that the volume of the segment of a solid sphere of height h and base radius 1 3a - h ). Deduce the volume of a hemisphere. a is ph 2 ( 3

Solution
a x3 2 a V = p y dx = p a - x dx = p a x a -h - 3 a -h a -h a -h 1 = ph 2 ( 3a - h ) . 3 When h = c, the segment becomes a solid hemisphere and its volume is given by 2 substituting h = c in the above and that is pa 3 . 3

[ ]

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Example 9 Find the volume of the solid generated by the revolution about the x-axis of the 3a - x . loop of the curve y 2 = x 2 a+x Solution The loop is formed between x = 0 and x = 3a.
3a

V =p

y
0

3a 2

dx = p x 2
0

3a - x dx a+x

3a

=p

3ax 2 - x 3 dx a+x - x 3 + 3ax 2 dx a+x

3a

=p

4a 3 dx , by the actual division of - x 3 + 3ax 2 by a + x = p - x 2 + 4ax - 4a 2 + + a x 0

3a

- x3 =p + 2ax 2 - 4a 2 x + 4a 3 log( a + x) 3 0

3a

3 =p -27a + 18a3 -12a 3 + 4a3 log (a + 3a )- 4a 3 log a 3

4a =p - 9a 3 + 18a 3 - 12a 3 + 4a 3 log a

=p a 3 ( - 3 + 4 log 4) =p a 3 ( - 3 + 8 log 2 )

Volume of solid of revolution revolution about the y-axis


The volume of the solid generated by the revolution of area between the curve x = R(y), the y axis and two abscissas at the points y = c and y = d is given by the formula
d d 2

V = p [radius] dy = p [ R ( y )]2 dy.


c c

Example Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region between the y-axis 2 and the curve x = , 1 y 4, about the y-axis. y Solution We draw figures showing the region, a typical radius, and the generated solid (Fig.8a and 8b). The volume is

V=
=

p[ R( y)] dy
4 2 1

p dy 1

2 y

R( y ) =

2 y

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=p

1 4 dy = 4p - y2 y 1

3 = 4p = 3p . 4 Example Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region between the parabola x = y 2 + 1 and the line x = 3 about the line x = 3.
Solution We draw figures showing the region, a typical radius, and the generated solid (Fig.9). The volume is
V= =

p [ R ( y )]2 dy p [2 - y 2 ]2 dy
2

- 2
2

R( y ) = 3 - ( y 2 + 1) = 2 - y 2

- 2

=p

[4 - 4 y 2 + y 4 ] dy
2

- 2

4 y5 = p 4 y - y3 + 3 5

64p 2 . 15 Example Find the volume of the solid formed by the revolution about the minor axis of an ellipse with axes 2a and 2b. (a > b) Solution
=
The equation of the ellipse is

x2 a2

y2 b2

=1

Since a > b, the minor axis is the y-axis. Hence, the required volume is obtained by the revolution about the y-axis of the area enclosed by the portion of the ellipse and the y- axis. Since the ellipse is symmetrical about the axes, the required volume is twice that of the volume obtained by revolving the part of the ellipse in the first quadrant about the y-axis In the portion of the ellipse in the first quadrant y varies from y = 0 to y = b. \ The required volume is given by
V = 2 p x 2 dy = 2 p
c

a2 b2

b (
0

- y 2 dy = 2 p

a2 b2

2 y3 4 2 b y = pa b. 3 0 3

Remarks

We have seen that the volumes obtained by revolving the ellipse about the major and minor axes are different.

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Remark 1 The volume of the solid formed by the revolution about the major axis of an
4 3 Remark 2 The volume of the solid formed by the revolution about the minor axis of an ellipse 4 with axes 2a and 2b ( a > b) is p a 2 b. . 3 Special Case We know that the volume of the sphere is obtained by the revolution of the circle about one of its diameter. When a = b, the ellipse in example becomes a circle with radius a. Hence using the result obtained in example, we get the volume of the sphere 4 having radius a as p a 3 . 3

ellipse with axes 2a and 2b. (a > b) is p ab 2 .

MODULE - IV
CHAPTER 7

INTEGRATION - III
LENGTHS OF PLANE CURVES
Definition A function with a continuous first derivative is said to be smooth and its graph is called a smooth curve.
Definition If f is smooth on [ a, b], the length of the curve y = f ( x) from a to b is
L=

2 b dy 2 1 + dx = 1 + (f ( x) ) dx a a dx b

(1)

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Example Find the length of the curve


y = 4 2 x 3 / 2 - 1, 3 0 x 1.

Solution We use equation (1) with


a = 0, b = 1 ,
2

and

y = 4 2 x3 / 2 -1 . 3

Then

dy 1/ 2 = 2 2x dx The length of the curve from x = 0 to x = 1 is dy 4 2 3 1/ 2 = x = 2 2 x1/ 2 3 2 dx


2

) = 8 x.

L=

1 dy 1 + dx = 1 + 8 x dx 0 dx

u du , by taking u = 1 + 8 x, du = 8dx. 8

3/2 = 1 u 8 3/2
= 1 3 . 6

1 (1 + 8 x)3/ 2 = 2 1 , by replacing u = 1 + 8 x, du = 8dx. 0 3 8

Example 2 Find the length of the arc of the semi cubical parabola y 2 = x 3 extending from the origin to the point (1, 1). Solution Differentiating the given equation with respect to x we get
\ 2y dy = 3x 2 dx and dy 3 x 2 . = dx 2 y

\ Length of the arc from (0, 0) to (1, 1) is


s=

2 1 3x 2 dy 1 + dx = 1+ 2y dx x =0

1 9x 4 dx = 1 + dx 2 4 y x =0

x =0

1+

9x 4 9 dx = 1 + x dx 3 4 4x 0

(4 + 9 x )
0

1/ 2

dx =

1 3/ 2 ( 4 + 9x) 27

1 ] = 27 ( 13 13 ) - 8.
1 0

Example 3 Find the length of the curve y = log sec x between the points given by the intersection of the curve with the lines x = 0 and x = p . 3 Solution Differentiating the given equation with respect to x, we get dy 1 . sec x tan x = tan x. = dx sec x \ Length of the curve from x = 0 to x = p/3 is given by
dy 1 + dx = 1 + tan 2 x dx = sec xdx dx x =0 x =0
2

s=
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p /3

p /3

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] =[ log( sec x + tan x ) 0

p /3

p p sec 0 + tan 0) = log sec + tan - log( 3 3

( ) = log( 2 + 3) .

= log 2 + 3 - log( 1 + 0)

x , show that y2 = c2 + s2, where s is the length of the c arc measured from its vertex to the point (x, y).
Example 4 For the catenary y = c cosh Solution The point of intersection of the curve and its axis is called vertex of the x curve. Since replacing x by -x in c cosh does not alter its value, the c given curve is symmetrical about the y-axis. Hence the vertex lies on the yaxis. Hence the x coordinate of the vertex is 0. Differentiating the given curve with respect to x, we obtain
dy x 1 x = c sinh = sinh dx c c c

s=

dy 1 + dx = dx

1 + sinh 2
x

x dx c

cosh

x x dx = c sinh c c 0

= c sinh
\

x x - c sinh 0 = c sinh c c
x x x = c 2 1 + sinh 2 = c 2 cosh 2 = y 2 . c c c

c 2 + s 2 = c 2 + c 2 sinh 2

Example 5 Prove that the length s of the curve x 2 / 3 + y 2 / 3 = a 2 / 3 measured from (0, a) to 3 the point (x, y) is given by s = 3 ax 2 . Also find the entire length. 2 Solution Differentiating the equation of the curve with respect to x, we get
2 -1 / 3 dy + y -1 / 3 x =0 3 dx

implies

3 y dy x -1 / 3 = - -1 / 3 = - 3 dx x y

Hence the length of the arc from (0, a) to the point (x, y) (i.e. abscissa from x = 0 to x = x ) is given by
s=

0
x

dy 1 + dx = dx

3y 1+ 3x

dx

x2/3 + y2/3 dx x2/3


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0
x

a2/3 dx , since x2/3 + y2/3 = a2/3 x2/3


a2/3 2 x 2 / 3 dx
x2/3 33 2 dx = a1 / 3 ax = 2 / 3 0 2
x
1

x 1 / 3 -1 / 3 a x 0

. . . (2)

Finding the entire length of the curve


Since replacing x by -x does not alter the equation x 2 / 3 + y 2 / 3 = a 2 / 3 , the given curve is symmetrical about the y-axis. Similarly, the given curve is symmetrical about the x-axis. That is, the given curve is symmetric about both the axes, and hence there are 4 symmetrical portions. \ The total length of the curve is 4 times the length of the arc in the first quadrant. a, 0) and the yAlso, the given curve x2/3 + y2/3 = a2/3 touches the x-axis at the point ( 0, a ). Hence in the first quadrant arc varies from (0, 0) to (a, 0) i.e. abscissa varies axis at ( from x = 0 to x = a. Hence, substituting x = a in equation (2), we get the length of the arc in 33 2 3 aa = a. first quadrant as = 2 2 3 Hence the entire length of the curve is 4 a = 6a. 2 Formula for the length of a smooth curve x = g(y), c y d
L=
d d 1 + dx dy = 1 + ( g ( y )) 2 dy. c dy

(2)

Example
Find the length of the curve y = ( x / 2) 2 / 3 from x = 0 to x = 2. Solution The derivative

dy 2 x 1 1 2 = = dx 3 2 2 3 x is not defined at x = 0 , so we cannot find the curves length with equation (1) We therefore rewrite the equation to express x in term of y :
x y = 2
2/3

-1/ 3

1/ 3

implies implies

y 3/ 2 = x 2 x = 2 y 3/ 2

From this we see that the curve whose length we want is also the graph of x = 2 y 3/ 2 from y = 0 to y = 1 The derivative

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dx = 2 3 y1/ 2 = 3 y1/ 2 dy 2
is continuous on [0,1]. We may therefore use equation (2) to find the curves length:
L=
d c

1 1 + dx dy = 1 + 9 y dy 0 dy

u du , by taking u = 1 + 9 y , du = 9dy. 9

3/ 2 = 1 u 9 3/ 2 1 =1 2 (1 + 9 y )3/ 2 0 9 3 = 2 (10 10 -1). . 27

Exercises
1. Find the length of the curve y = log sec x between the points given by x = 0 and x =

p/4 . 2. Find the length of the arc of the parabola y2 = 4x from the vertex up to the point (4, 4).
3. Find the length of the curve 27y2 = 4x3 from x = 0 to x = 3. 4. Find the length of the arc of the parabola y2 = 4ax measured from the vertex to one 5. 6. 7. 8.

extremity of the latus rectum. Find the length of the arc of the parabola x2 = 4y from the vertex to an extremity of the latus rectum. Show that the length of the arc of a curve 27y2 = 4x3 measured between the origin and the point (6, 4 2) is equal to 2(3 3 1). Prove that the length of the arc of the parabola y2 = 4ax cut off by the latus rectum is 2a[ +log(1+ 2)]. Find the length of the arc of the following curves: (i) (ii) 3y = (x-3)
x

x between x = 0 and x = 9;

e -1 from x = 1 to x = 2. e x +1 9. Find the length of the loop of the curve 3 ay2 = x (x - a)2 . 10. Find the entire length of the curve 27 y3 = 4 x2 from x = 0 to x = 4. Answers 1. log( 2+1) 2. 2 5+log(2+ 5) 3. 4 2-2 4. a [a +1/2 log(3+2 2)] 1 9883 2 - 64 5. log( 2+1)+ 2 8.(i) 12; (ii) log (e2 + 1 - e) 9. 4a/ 3 10. 1458 y = log

AREAS OF SURFACES OF REVOLUTION


If a plane curve revolves about an axis lying in its own plane, then its perimeter generates a surface of revolution. For example, a sphere is obtained by revolution of a
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semicircle about one of its diameter and a cylinder is obtained by the revolution of a straight line about another parallel line. Consider the surface obtained by revolving about the x-axis the portion of the arc of the curve y = (x) that is intercepted between the points whose x- coordinates are a and b. Then its surface area A is given by
A = 2p

y
a

dy 2 1+ ( x)) dx dx = 2p f ( x ) 1 + (f dx a

Example Find the area of the surface generated by revolving about the x-axis, the arc of the parabola y2 = 4ax from (0, 0) to the point where x = a. Solution Here y2 = 4ax and x varies from 0 to a. Differentiating,

2y

dy = 4a dx
a

or

dy 2a 2a a = = = dx y 2 ax x
2
a

Therefore, required surface area A is given by


a dy A = 2p y 1 + dx = 2p 2 ax 1 + dx dx x 0

= 2p 2 ax
0

x+a dx = 4p a x + a dx x 0

Example

8 2 3/ 2 = 4p a ( a + x) = p a 2 2 2 -1 3 0 3 Find the area of the surface generated by revolving the arc of the catenary

y = c cosh
Solution Here

x from x = 0 to x = c about the x-axis. c

x 1 x dy = c sinh = sinh c c c dx Hence the required area is given by x x dy A = 2p y 1 + dx = 2p c cosh 1 + sinh 2 dx dx c c 0 0

= 2p c cosh 2
0

x dx c

* = 2p c

1 + cosh 2 2

x c dx

c x c c = p c [ + sinh 2 x] 0 2 c 0

c pc = p c c + sinh 2 = 2 2
Calculus

( 2 + sinh 2 )
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Aliter:(after the step *)

A = 2p c

x c

+e 4

-2

x c

x 2x -2 p c e c e c +2 dx = + 2 x 2 2 2 0

2 e -2 1 1 p c ( + 2c - - + 0 = 2 + sinh 2 ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 Example Find the area of the surface generated by revolving about the x-axis, the portion in the first and second quadrants of the circle x 2 + y 2 = a 2 .

p c e2

Solution Differentiating the given equation with respect to x, we get dy 2x + 2 y =0 dx dy x =implies dx y In the first and second quadrants of the portion of the circle, x varies from x = -a to x = a. \ the required area is given by

x2 dy A = 2p y 1 + dx = 2p y 1 + 2 dx y dx -a -a

y2 + x2 = 2p y dx = 2p a 2 dx = 2pa dx = 4pa 2 . 2 y -a -a -a

Example Find the area of the surface generated by revolving the curve y = 2 x , 1 x 2 , about the x -axis.
Solution We evaluate the formula
b dy S = 2p y 1 + dx a dx

with

a = 1,
S =
2

b = 2,

y = 2 x,
2

dy = 1 dx x

2p 2 x 1 + 1 dx x

= 2p 2 x 1 + 1 dx 1 x
2 2 = 2p 2 x x + 1dx 1 x

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= 2p 2 x
2 1

x + 1 dx = 4p 2 x + 1 dx 1 x
2

= 4p . 2 ( x + 1)3/ 2 = 8p (3 3 - 2 2) . 3 3 1
y

Revolution About the

axis

If the arc rotates about the y axis, the area thus formed is obtained by taking x instead of y in the formula. Surface Area Formula for Revolution About the y-axis If x = g ( y ) 0 is smooth on [c, d ] , the area of the surface generated by revolving the curve x = g ( y ) about the y - axis is
d d S = 2p x 1 + dx dy = 2p g ( y ) 1 + ( g '( y )) 2 dy. c c dy

Example The line segment x = 1 - y , 0 y 1 , is revolved about the y - axis to generate a cone. Find its lateral surface area.
Solution
c = 0, d = 1, x = 1 - y, dx = -1, 1 + dx = 1 + ( -1) 2 = 2 dy dy
2

and
d 1 S = 2p x 1 + dx dy = 2p (1 - y ) 2 dy c 0 dy 2

y2 1 = 2p 2 y - = 2p 2 1 - 2 0 2

= p 2.
Aliter:

The above calculation agrees with the formula from geometry;


Lateral surface area =

base circumference slant height = p 2. 2 The Short Differential Form The equations
d dy S = 2p y 1 + dx and S = 2p x 1 + dx dy a c dx dy b

are often written in terms of the arc length differential ds = dx 2 + dy 2 as

S = 2p y ds
a

and

S = 2p x ds
c

In the first of these, y is the distance from the x -axis to an element of arc length ds . In the second, x is the distance from the y-axis to an element of are length ds. Both integrals have the short differential form
S = 2p (radius)(band width) = 2pr ds,
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where r is the radius from the axis of revolution to an element of arc length ds . In any particular problem, we would then express the radius function r and the arc length differential ds in term of a common variable and supply limits of integration for that variable. Example 6 Find the area of the surface generated by revolving the curve y = x 3 ,0 x 1/ 2, about the x - axis . Solution We start with the short differential form:
S = 2pr ds = 2p yds For revolution about the x-axis, the radius function is r = y.

= 2p y dx 2 + dy 2 , as

ds = dx 2 + dy 2

We then decide whether to express dy in terms of dx or dx in terms of dy . The original form of the equation, y = x 3 , makes it easier to express dy in terms of dx , so we continue the calculation with
y = x 3 , dy = 3 x 2 dx, and dx 2 + dy 2 = dx 2 + (3 x 2 dx) 2

= 1 + 9 x 4 dx . With the substitutions, x becomes the variable of integration and


S = =
x =1/ 2 x =0

2p y dx 2 + dy 2

1/ 2

2p x 3 1 + 9 x 4 dx Now substitute u = 1 + 9 x 4 , du / 36 = x 3 dx.


1/ 2

1 2 (1 + 9 x 4 )3/ 2 = 2p 36 3 0
3/ 2 - 1 1+ 9 = p 27 16

25 3/ 2 p 125 = 6 1p . = p - 1 -1 = 1728 27 16 27 64 Exercises 1. Show that the surface area of the curved surface of a hemisphere of radius a is 2pa2. 2. Show that the area of the surface of the solid obtained by revolving the arc of the curve y = sin x from x = 0 to x = p about the x-axis is 2p[ 2+log(1+ 2)]. 3. Find the area of the surface formed by the rotation of the curve y2 = 8x about the axis of x from x = 2 to x = 7. 4. Find the area of the curved surface obtained by revolving about the x-axis the portion of the parabola y 2 = 8ax included between the origin and the ordinate x = 3a.
5. Show that the area of the surface generated by revolving about the x-axis the arc of the parabola y 2 = 4ax from the vertex to the end of a latus rectum is
8 2 3 2 -1 p a2.

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6. Show that the area of the surface formed by revolving the ellipse x2 + 4y2 = 16 about the 4 x-axis is 8p 1 +
3 3

7. Find the area of the curved surface obtained by revolving about the x-axis the curve 6xy = x4 + 3 from x = 2 to x = 7. 8. Find the area of the curved surface obtained by revolving about the x-axis loop of the 2 x - a) . curve 3ay 2 = x( Answers 3. 152 2 p /3

4. 56pa2/3

7. 7615p/64

8. pa2/2

CHAPTER 8

MOMENTS AND WORK Moments and Centers of Mass


Definition If an object of mass m is placed in a location where the acceleration of gravity is g , the objects weight there is F = mg (as in Newtons second law). Masses Along a Line Consider masses m1 , m2 , and m3 on a rigid x - axis supported by a fulcrum at the origin. The resulting system may or may not balance depending on how large the masses are and how they are arranged. Each mass mk exerts a downward force mk g equal to the magnitude of the mass times the acceleration of gravity. Each of these forces has a tendency to turn the axis about the origin, the way you turn a seesaw. This turning effect, called a torque, is measured by multiplying the force mk g by the signed distance xk from the point of application to the origin. Masses to the left of the origin exert negative (counterclockwise) torque. Masses to the right of the origin exert positive (clockwise) torque. The sum of the torques measures the tendency of a system to rotate about the origin. This sum is called the system torque. (1) System torque = m1 gx1 + m2 gx2 + m3 gx3 . The system will balance if and only if its torque is zero. If we factor out the g in Eq. (1), we obtain System torque = g (m1 x1 + m2 x2 + m3 x3 ). (2) Thus the torque is the product of the gravitational acceleration g, which is a feature of the environment in which the system happens to reside, and the number (m1 x1 + m2 x2 + m3 x3 ), which is a feature of the system itself, a constant that stays the same no matter where the system is placed. The number (m1 x1 + m2 x2 + m3 x3 ) is called the moment of the system about the origin. It is the sum of the moments m1 x1 , m2 x2 , m3 x3 of the individual masses.

M O = Moment of system about origin = mk xk


We usually want to know where to place the fulcrum to make the system balance, that is, at what point x to place it to make the torque zero.
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The torque of each mass about the fulcrum in this special location is given by: Torque of mk about x = (signed distance of mk from x ) (downward force)

= ( xk - x ) mk g.
When we write the equation that says that the sum of these torques is zero, we get an equation we can solve for x :

( x - x ) m g = 0, as sum of the torques equals zero g ( x - x ) m = 0, using Constant Multiple Rule for Sums (m x - xm ) = 0, as g divided out, m distributed m x - xm = 0, using difference rule for sums m x = x m , by rearrangement and applying constant Multiple rule again m x . x= m
k k
k k

This last equation tells us to find x by dividing the systems moment about the origin by the systems total mass:

x=

x m m
k k

system moment about origin . system mass

The point x is called the systems center of mass (c.m.). Formula for center of mass of One Dimensional Objectsc.m. of Wires and Thin Rods Imagine a long, thin strip lying along the x - axis from x = a to x = b and cut into small pieces of mass Dmk by a partition of the interval [a, b]. The kth piece is Dxk units long and lies approximately xk units from the origin. Now observe three things. First, the strips center of mass x is nearly the same as that of the system of point masses we would get by attaching each mass Dmk to the point xk .
x system m om ent . system m ass

Second, the moment of each piece of the strip about the origin is approximately xk Dmk , so the system moment is approximately the sum of the xk Dmk : System moment xk Dmk . Third, if the density of the strip at xk is d ( xk ), expressed in terms of mass per unit length, and d is continuous, then Dmk is approximately equal to d ( xk )Dxk (mass per unit length times length): Dmk d ( xk )Dxk . Combining these three observations gives
x system moment xk Dmk xk d ( xk )Dxk . system mass Dmk d ( xk )Dxk

.... (2)

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The sum in the last numerator in Eq. (2) is a Riemann sum for the continuous function xd ( x ) over the closed interval [a, b]. The sum in the denominator is a Riemann sum for the function d ( x) over this interval. We expect the approximations in (2) to improve as the strip is partitioned more finely, and we are led to the equation

xd ( x) dx . This is the formula we use to find the center of mass x= d ( x) dx


a b a

x.

Moment, mass, and Center of Mass of a Thin Rod or Strip Along the x-axis with Density Function d ( x) Moment about the origin : Mass : Center of mass :

M O = xd ( x) dx
b a

(3a)

M = d ( x) dx
b a

(3b)

MO (3c) M Example Show that the center of mass of a straight, thin strip or rod of constant density lies halfway between its two ends. Solution We model the strip as a portion of the x - axis from x = a to x = b . Our goal is to show that x = ( a + b) / 2, the point halfway between a and b. x=

The key is the densitys having a constant value. This enables us to regard the function d ( x) in the integrals in Eqs. (3) as a constant (call it d ), with the result that

M O = d x dx = d
b a

b a

x dx = d 1 x 2 = d (b 2 - a 2 ) 2 a 2
b

M = d dx = d
b a

dx = d [x ] = d (b - a) a

d 2 2 M 0 2 (b - a ) (b + a)(b - a) = = x= d (b - a ) M 2(b - a)
= a +b. 2

Exercises 1. An 80 - lb child and a 100 - lb child are balancing on a seesaw. The 80 - lb child is 5 ft from the fulcrum. How far from the fulcrum is the 100 - lb child? 2. The ends of two thin steel rods of equal length are welded together to make a rightangled frame. Locate the frames center of mass. (Hint : Where is the center of mass of each rod?) Exercises 3-6 give density functions of thin rods lying along various intervals of the x - axis. Use Eqs. (3a-c) to find each rods moment about the origin, mass, and center of mass. 4. d ( x) = 1 + ( x / 3), 0 x 3 3. d ( x) = 4, 0 x 2 9. d ( x) = 1 + (1/ x ), 1 x 4 Answers 1. 4 ft
Calculus

6.

d ( x) =

2 - x, 0 x 1 1 x 2 x,

2.

( L / 4, L / 4)
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3. 5.

M 0 = 8, M = 8, x = 1 M 0 = 73 / 6, M = 5, x = 73 / 30

4. 6.

M 0 = 15 / 2, M = 9 / 2, x = 5 / 3 M 0 = 3, M = 3, x = 1

Masses Distributed over a Plane Region c.m. of Two Dimensional Objects


Suppose we have a finite collection of masses located in the plane, with mass mk at the point ( xk , yk ) . The mass of the system is given by System mass : M = mk . Each mass mk has a moment about each axis. Its moment about the x - axis is mk yk , and its moment about the y - axis is mk xk . The moments of the entire system about the two axes are Moment about x - axis : M x = mk yk , Moment about y - axis : M y = mk xk . The x - coordinate of the systems center of mass is defined to be

x=

M y mk xk = . M mk

(4)

With this choice of x , as in the one-dimensional case, the system balances about the line x=x . The y - coordinate of the systems center of mass is defined to be

y=

M x mk yk = . M mk

(5)

With this choice of y , the system balances about the line y = y as well. The torques exerted by the masses about the line y = y cancel out. Thus, as far as balance is concerned,

. We call this point the the system behaves as if all its mass were at the single point (x , y )
systems center of mass.

Thin, Flat Plates


In many applications, we need to find the center of mass of a thin, flat plate: a disk of aluminum, say, or a triangular sheet of steel. In such cases we assume the distribution of mass to be continuous, and the formulas we use to calculate x and y contain integrals instead of finite sums. The integrals arise in the following way. Imagine the plate occupying a region in the xy - plane, cut into thin strips parallel to one %, y % ). We treat the of the axes (in Fig.8, the y - axis). The center of mass of a typical strip is ( x %, y % ). The moment of the strip about the y strips mass Dm as if it were concentrated at ( x % % Dm. Equations (4) and (5) axis is then xDm. The moment of the strip about the x - axis is y then become

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x=

% Dm My x = M Dm

and

y=

% Dm Mx y == . M Dm

As in the one-dimensional case, the sums are Riemann sums for integrals and approach these integrals as limiting values as the strips into which the plate is cut become narrower and narrower. We write these integrals symbolically as
x=

% dm x dm

and

y=

% dm y . dm

Moments, Mass, and Center of Mass of a Thin Plate Covering a Region in the plane. Moment about the x axis Moment about the y axis Mass : Center of Mass :
% dm Mx = y

(6a) (6b) (6c)

% dm My =x
M = dm

x=

My , M

y=

Mx M

(6d)

Example 4 Find the center of mass of a thin plate of constant density covering the region bounded above by the parabola y = 4 - x 2 and below by the x - axis. Solution Since the plate is symmetric about the y - axis and its density is constant, the distribution of mass is symmetric about the y - axis and the center of mass lies on the y axis. This means that x = 0. It remains to find y = M x / M . A trial calculation with horizontal strips leads to an inconvenient integration

M x = 2d y 4 - y dy.
4 0

We therefore model the distribution of mass with vertical strips instead . The typical vertical strip has

4 - x2 %, y %) = center of mass (c.m.) : ( x x, 2 ,


length : 4 - x 2 ; width : dx; mass : dm = d dA = d (4 - x 2 ) dx,
% = 4-x . distance from c.m. to x - axis: y 2 The moment of the strip about the x - axis is % dm = 4 - x d (4 - x 2 ) dx = d (4 - x 2 ) 2 dx. y 2 2 The moment of the plate about the x - axis is
2 % dm = d (4 - x 2 ) 2 dx Mx = y -2 2 2 = d (16 - 8 x 2 + x 4 ) dx = 256 d. 2 2 15 The mass of the plate is

area : dA = (4 - x 2 ) dx;
2

(7)

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M = dm = d (4 - x 2 ) dx = 32 d. -2 3 Therefore, M (256 /15)d 8 = . y= x = (32 / 3)d 5 M


2

(8)

( x , y ) = 0, 8 . 5 Example Find the center of mass of the plate in Example 4 if the density at the point ( x, y ) is

The plates center of mass is the point

( )

d = 2 x 2 , twice the square of the distance from the point to the y - axis.
Solution The mass distribution is still symmetric about the y - axis, so x = 0. With d = 2 x 2 , Eqs. (7) and (8) become 2 2 % dm = d (4 - x 2 ) 2 dx = x 2 (4 - x 2 ) 2 dx Mx = y -2 2 -2 2 = (16 x 2 - 8 x 4 + x 6 ) dx = 2048 , -2 105
M = dm = d (4 - x 2 ) dx = 2 x 2 (4 - x 2 ) dx
2 2
-2 -2

= (8 x - 2 x ) dx = 356 . -2 15 M y = x = 2048 15 = 8 . 105 256 7 M The plates new center of mass is


2 2 4

( x , y ) = 0, 8 . 7

( )

Example 6 Find the center of mass of a wire of constant density d shaped like a semicircle of radius a. Solution We model the wire with the semicircle y = a 2 - x 2 . The distribution of mass is symmetric about the y - axis, so x = 0. To find y , we imagine the wire divided into short segments. The typical segment has length : ds = a dq , mass : dm = d ds = d a dq , (mass per unit length times length)
% = a sin q. distance of c.m. to x - axis : y

Hence,

% dm a sin q d a dq d a [ - cosq ]p y y= = = p d ap dm a d d q
p
2 0 0 0

= 2 a.

The center of mass lies on the axis of symmetry at the point (0, 2a / p ), about two-thirds of the way up from the origin (Fig.15). Exercises In Exercises 1-6, find the center of mass of a thin plate of constant density covering the given region.
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1. The region bounded by the parabola y = x 2 and the line y = 4. 2. The region bounded by the parabola y = x - x 2 and the line y = -x 3. The region bounded by the y - axis and the curve x = y - y 3 0 y 1. 4. The region bounded by the axis and the curve y = cos x , -p / 2 x p / 2 . 5. The region bounded by the parabolas y = 2 x 2 - 4 x and y = 2 x - x 2 . 6. The triangular region in the first quadrant between the circle x 2 + y 2 = 9 and the lines x = 3 and y = 3. (Hint : Use geometry to find the area.) (0, 0), ( a, 0), (0, b) Answers 1. x = 0, y = 12 / 5 3. x = 16 /105, y = 8 /15 5. x = 1, y = -2 / 5 2. 4. 6.
x = 1, y = -3/ 5 x = 0, y = p / 8 x=y= 2 4 -p

WORK
When a body moves a distance d along a straight line as a result of being acted on by a force of constant magnitude F in the direction of motion, we calculate the work W done by the force on the body with the formula (constant-force formula for work)
W = Fd . . . . (1) Right away we can see a considerable difference between what we are used to calling work and what this formula says work is. If you push a car down the street, you will be doing work on the car, both by your own reckoning and by Eq. (1). But if you push against the car and the car does not move, Eq. (1) says you will do no work on the car, even if you push for an hour. Example If you jack up the side of a 2000-lb car 1.25 ft to change a tire (you have to apply a constant vertical force of about 1000 lb) you will perform 1000 1.25 = 1250 ft-lb of work on the car. In SI units, you have applied a force of 4448 N through a distance of 0.381m to do 4448 0.381 1695 j of work.

Definition The work done by a variable force F ( x ) directed along the x-axis from x = a to x = b is

W = F ( x )dx.
b a

. . . (2)

The units of the integral are joules if F is in newtons and x is in meters, and foot-pound if F is in pounds and x in feet. Example Find the work W done by the force of F ( x) = 1/ x2 N along the x-axis from x = 1m to x = 10 m Solution The required work is given by

W=

10

1 dx = - 1 = - 1 + 1 = 0.9 J 10 x2 x 1

10

x k = F

Hookes Law for Spring:

Hookes law says that the force it takes to stretch or compress a spring x length units from its natural (unstressed) length is proportional to x. In symbols, F = kx . . . (3)
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The constant k, measured in force units per unit length, is a characteristic of the spring, called the force constant (or spring constant) of the spring. Hookes law (Eq. 3) gives good results as long as the force doesnt distort the metal in the spring. We assume that the forces in this section are too small to do that. Example Find the work required to compress a spring from its natural length of 1 ft to a length of 0.75 ft if the force constant is k = 16 lb/ft . Solution We picture the uncompressed spring laid out along the x-axis with its movable end at the origin and its fixed end at x = 1ft (Fig.2). This enables us to describe the force required to compress the spring from 0 to x with the formula F = 16 x . To compress the spring from 0 to 0.25ft , the force must increase from
F (0) = 16 0 = 0lb to F (0.25) = 16 0.25 = 4lb .

The work done by F over this interval is

W =

0.25

16 xdx,
using Eq. (2) with a = 0, b = 0.25, F ( x ) = 16 x

= 8 x2

0.25 0

= 0.5ft lb .

Example A spring has a natural length of 1 m. A force of 24 N stretches the spring to a spring to a length of 1.8 m. a) Find the force constant k. b) How much work will it take to stretch the spring 2m beyond it natural length? c) How far will a 45-N force stretch the spring? Solution a) The force constant: We find the force constant from Eq. (3). A force of 24 N stretches the spring 0.8 m, so 24 = k (0.8) , Eq.(3) with F = 24, x = 0.8
k = 24 / 0.8 = 30 N / m

b) The work to stretch the spring 2m.: We imagine the unstressed spring hanging along the xaxis with its free end at x = 0 (Fig.3). The force required to stretch the spring x m beyond its natural length is the force required to pull the free end of the spring x units from the origin. Hookes law with k = 30 says that this force is F ( x) = 30 x. The work done by F on the spring from x = 0 m to x = 2 m is

W = 30 x dx = 15 x 2 = 60J. 0 0
2

c) How far will a 45-N force stretch the spring? We substitute F = 45m equation F = 30 x to find 45 = 30 x, or x = 1.5m. A 45-N force will stretch the spring 1.5m. No calculus is required to find out. Pumping Liquids from containers How much work does it take to pump all or part of the liquid from a container? To find out, we imagine lifting the liquid out one thin horizontal slab at a time and applying the
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equation W = Fd to each slab. We then evaluate the integral that leads to as the slabs become thinner and more numerous. The integral we get each time depends on the weight of the liquid and the dimensions of the container, but the way we find the integral is always the same. We illustrate this is in the coming examples. The Weight of Water Because of variations in the earths gravitational field, the weight of a cubic foot of water at sea level can vary from about 62.26 lb at the equator to as much as 62.59 lb near the poles, a variation of about 0.5%. The weight of a cubic meter of water is 9800 N. Example How much work does it take to pump the water from a full upright circular cylindrical tank of radius 5m and height 10m to a level of 4m above the top of the tank? Solution The typical slab between the planes at y and y + Dy has volume of

DV = p (radius) 2 (thickness) = p (5) 2 Dy = 25p Dy m3 .


The force F required to lift the slab is equal to its weight,
F = 9800DV , as water weighs 9800 N/ m3 .
= 9800(25p Dy ) = 245,000p Dy N.

The distance through which F must act is about (14 - y ) m, so the work done lifting the slab is about DW = force distance = 245,000p (14 - y ) Dy J. The work it takes to lift all the water is approximately

W DW = 245,000p (14 - y) Dy J.
0 0

10

10

This is a Riemann sum for the function 245,000p (14 - y ) over the interval 0 y 10. The work of pumping the tank dry is the limit of these sums as || P || 0 :

W = 245,000p (14 - y ) dy = 245,000p (14 - y ) dy


10 10 0 0

y2 = 245,000p 14 y - = 245,000p [90] 2 0

10

69, 272,118 69.3 106 J. Example The conical tank in Fig.5 is filled to within 2 ft of the top with olive oil weighing 57 lb/ft 3 . How much work does it take to pump the oil to the rim of the tank?
Solution We imagine the oil divided into thin slabs by planes perpendicular to the y - axis at the points of a partition of the interval [0, 8]. The typical slab between the planes at y and y + Dy has a volume of about
DV = p (radius) 2 (thickness) = p 1 y Dy = p y 2 Dy ft 3 . 2 4 The force F ( y ) required to lift this slab is equal to its weight,
F ( y ) = 57 DV = 57p y 2 Dy lb, 4
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as Weight = weight per unit volume volume The distance through which F ( y ) must act to lift this slab to the level of the rim of the cone is about (10 - y ) ft, so the work done lifting the slab is about
DW = 57p (10 - y ) y 2 Dy ft lb 4

The work done lifting all the slabs from y = 0 to y = 8 to the rim is approximately

W 57p (10 - y ) y 2 Dy ft lb. 4 0


This is a Riemann sum for the function (57p / 4) (10 - y ) y 2 on the interval from y = 0 to y = 8. The work of pumping the oil to the rim is the limit of these sums as the norm of the partition goes to zero: 8 W = 57p (10 - y ) y 2 dy 0 4 8 = 57p (10 y 2 - y 3 ) dy 4 0
10 y 3 y 4 = 57p - 30,561 ft lb. 4 3 4 0
8

Exercises 1. A mountain climber is about to haul up a 50-m length of hanging rope. How much work will it take if the rope weights 0.624N/m ? 2. An electric elevator with a motor at the top has a multistrand cable weighing 4.5 lb/ft. When the car is at the first floor, 180 ft of cable are paid out, and effectively 0 ft are out when the car is at the top floor. How much work does the motor do just lifting the cable when it takes the car from the first floor to the top?

Calculus

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