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HCTL Open Int. J.

of Technology Innovations and Research (IJTIR) Special Edition on Advanced Technique of Estimation Applications in Electrical Engineering, June 2013 e-ISSN: 2321-1814 ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-478-0

MTM Resonant Antennas


Mohammad Alibakhshi Kenari
Naeem.alibakhshi@yahoo.com

Abstract

n this paper, two novel ultra wideband (UWB) minimized antennas based on the composite right/left-handed transmission line (CRLH-TL) structures are designed.

Keywords
Ultra wide band (UWB) antennas, Minimized antennas, Metamaterial (MTM).

Introduction
Transmission lines (TLs) are fundamental ingredients in modern communication systems, being applied to connect antennas to transceivers. When the electrical wavelengths are shorter than or comparable to the physical dimensions of a network, the length becomes important and transmission line theory should be applied instead of standard circuit analysis. Therefore high frequency TLs can be specied as TLs which are modelled for transport electromagnetic waves whose wavelengths are shorter than or comparable to the length of the line. The general TL approach furnishes insight into the physical phenomena of LH materials and provides an ecient design tool for LH applications. The LH/TL structures with lower loss and broader bandwidth have led to the development of recent microwave devices.

Electrical Engineering Department of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran

Mohammad Alibakhshi Kenari MTM Resonant Antennas.

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HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research (IJTIR) Special Edition on Advanced Technique of Estimation Applications in Electrical Engineering, June 2013 e-ISSN: 2321-1814 ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-478-0

Metamaterials are articially made materials which have electromagnetic specications not found in nature. The concept of MTMs with simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability, more commonly referred to as left/handed materials. In fact, a purely left/handed TL is not physical and can never be realized because of the parasitic eects. MTMs with left/handed properties have inevasible right/handed properties, known as composite right/left hand MTMs. During the past years, composite right/left/handed materials made by inserting periodic inclusions [1] with dimensions smaller than the guided wavelength, p << g , have attracted considerable attention in view of minimizing antenna size [2], which may lead to the development of new applications. In this paper, we proposed UWB minimized antennas based on CRLH MTM/TLs for communication units, radars and location tracing. In design proposed antennas structures recommending and utilizing of the novel methodologies for antennas size reduction based on MTMTLs and printed planar and for antennas bandwidth and radiation properties enhancement based on select and optimize of the inductive and capacitive elements, as presented approaches detailed at next section. The paper is categorized as follows. We will propose and designing two MTM antennas which have smaller size, broader bandwidth and superior radiation properties in comparison to conventional and UWB antennas, in Section II, and nally discussion and conclusion are raised.

Design Procedures of Recommended Antenna Prototype


The proposed antennas are based on the CRLH MTM/TL unit cells. These planar antennas are designed on a Rogers RT Duroid5880 substrate with dielectric constant of 2.2 and 1.6 mm thickness. These antennas are based on simplied planar mushroom structure unit cells. The unit cells are consists of host TLs with /shaped gaps printed into radiation patches and rectangular and spiral inductors connected to ground plane through metallic via holes as set ups series capacitances CL and shunt inductances LL . Even if we provide only CL and LL , parasitic series inductance LR and shunt capacitance CR eects will unavoidably befall owing to currents owing in the metallization and voltage gradients expanding between the metal patterns of the trace and the ground, that infers that the LR and CR cannot be relinquished, hence a purely

Mohammad Alibakhshi Kenari MTM Resonant Antennas.

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HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research (IJTIR) Special Edition on Advanced Technique of Estimation Applications in Electrical Engineering, June 2013 e-ISSN: 2321-1814 ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-478-0 left/handed transmission line cannot be physically. Thus, the CRLH model represents the most general MTM structure possible. Antenna structures are excited by external port (i.e.; port 1) and their port 2 are matched to 50 load impedance. CRLH propagation along a given direction can be modelled by the 8-parameter unit cell lumped element circuit shown in gures [?] and [?]. These models essentially exhibits a series capacitance CL and a shunt inductance LL [left/handed (LH)], corresponding to negative permeability and negative permittivity, respectively, but also includes a series inductance LR and a shunt capacitance CR [right/handed (RH)] associated with the magnetic and electric uxes, respectively, intrinsic to any TL structures, and corresponding to positive permeability and permittivity, respectively. In addition to these four reactive parameters, one has the conventional lossy parameters RR and GR (RH), and the lossy parameters GL and RL (LH), which account for the dielectric loss associated with CL and the ohmic loss associated with LL , respectively, and which mostly represent radiation in antenna applications. In these designs, we presented a new theory based on employing printed planer methodology and CRLH MTM/TL for downsizing of proposed antennas and also we utilizing approaches based on designing useful capacitive and inductive elements for antenna bandwidth enhancement and maximizing of the radiation properties of the proposed antennas.

Design Procedure of the UWB Minimized MTM Antenna Based on Four -Shaped Unit Cells
Presented antenna is formed of the four simplied planar mushroom structure psi/shaped unit cells, each of which occupies only 6.2 mm x 9.5 mm or 0.10 x 0.1580 in terms of the free space wavelength at the operation frequency f = 5 GHz. The physical length, width and height of the antenna are 24.8 mm, 9.5 mm, 1.6 mm, respectively, or, 0.410 x 0.1580 x 0.020 . The equivalent circuit model of the antenna for one unit cell and whole layout structure based on the CRLH/TL are shown in gure 1 and 2, respectively. Beside the small size, we utilizing approaches based on designing useful capacitive and inductive elements for antenna bandwidth enhancement and maximizing of the radiation properties of the antennas to good satisfy the severe needs of modern commercial applications. These approaches as following; a smaller value of the loaded series capacitance may be increase bandwidth and this smaller value will be realized by implementation of the /shaped gaps with closely space edges printed into radiation patches. This way result to increase

Mohammad Alibakhshi Kenari MTM Resonant Antennas.

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HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research (IJTIR) Special Edition on Advanced Technique of Estimation Applications in Electrical Engineering, June 2013 e-ISSN: 2321-1814 ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-478-0

Figure 1: Circuit model for one unit cell of a CRLH TL metamaterial structure with RH parameters (LR ; RR ; CR ; GR ) and LH parameters (CL ; GL ; LL ; RL ).

the bandwidth of the antenna as providing a ultra wideband (UWB) antenna with 9 GHz bandwidth, from 2.8/11.8 GHz, for V SW R < 2, which corresponding to 123.28% bandwidth and also with employing rectangular inductor with one turn that through a via hole with suitable dimension connected to ground plane, the aperture eciency of the antenna can extend, thus, the antenna gain and radiation eciency are increased. The antenna gain and radiation eciency at resonance frequency 8 GHz are 5.29 dBi and 30.83%, respectively. The simulated reection coecient (S 11 < /10dB ) and radiation gain pattern at 8 GHz are plotted in gure 3 and 4, respectively.

Figure 2: Geometry of the antenna structure composed of four unit cells.

Mohammad Alibakhshi Kenari MTM Resonant Antennas.

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HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research (IJTIR) Special Edition on Advanced Technique of Estimation Applications in Electrical Engineering, June 2013 e-ISSN: 2321-1814 ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-478-0

Figure 3: Simulated reection coecient (S11 parameter).

Figure 4: Simulated gain pattern in elevation plane ( = 0o ) at fr = 8 GHz.

Extended Bandwidth Design for CRLH-TL Based Small Antenna


In this section, we present the printed /shaped antenna structure that constructed of three unit cells with extended bandwidth in comparison to proposed antenna in previous section. The design procedures of both proposed antennas are completely similar together, but number of unit cells contribution in antennas structures, circuit models and layout structures of two antennas are dierent with together. These proposed dierence caused which later proposed antenna providing enhancement bandwidth than designed rst antenna. Equivalent circuit model for the unit cell and entire structure of this antenna are shown in

Mohammad Alibakhshi Kenari MTM Resonant Antennas.

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HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research (IJTIR) Special Edition on Advanced Technique of Estimation Applications in Electrical Engineering, June 2013 e-ISSN: 2321-1814 ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-478-0 gure 5 and 6, respectively. As obviously in design of later antenna for extend the bandwidth, arrangement

Figure 5: Circuit model for one unit cell of a CRLH TL metamaterial structure.

Figure 6: Conguration of the antenna structure composed of three unit cells.

and number unit cells accompanying inductive elements are changed than rst antenna, which result to increasing overall size of this antenna than rst antenna. This antenna covers frequency bandwidth from 2.1/ 11.7 GHz and consist of 9.6 GHz bandwidth which corresponding to 139.13% operational bandwidth. Overall size of antenna is 37.2 x 9.25 x 1.6 mm3 or, 0.620 x 0.1540 x 0.020 in terms of the free space wavelength at the operation frequency f = 5 GHz. The antenna gain and radiation eciency at fr = 5 GHz are 5.55 dBi and 35.22%, respectively. The simulated reection coecient (S11 < -10dB) and radiation gain pattern at 5 GHz are plotted in gure 7 and 8, respectively.

Mohammad Alibakhshi Kenari MTM Resonant Antennas.

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HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research (IJTIR) Special Edition on Advanced Technique of Estimation Applications in Electrical Engineering, June 2013 e-ISSN: 2321-1814 ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-478-0

Figure 7: Simulated S11 parameter.

Figure 8: Simulated radiation gain pattern in ( = 0o ) and at fr = 5 GHz.

Conclusion
In this paper, we have introduced a new concept of antenna size reduction based on MTM design technology and printed planar methodology and also a novel idea of antenna bandwidth enhancement accompanying superior radiation properties based on employing appropriate capacitive and inductive elements attending their optimize values. All results demonstrated that the proposed CRLH/based antennas have wider bandwidth, smaller size and superior radiation properties in comparison to other conventional and UWB antennas. These antennas have the advantages of small size, UWB, lightweight, high gain and eciency, unidirectional radiation patterns, simple implementation and low cost. The simulated results exhibit that the proposed antennas should be potential candidates to use in the modern wireless communication systems, radars and location tracing.

Mohammad Alibakhshi Kenari MTM Resonant Antennas.

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HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research (IJTIR) Special Edition on Advanced Technique of Estimation Applications in Electrical Engineering, June 2013 e-ISSN: 2321-1814 ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-478-0 References

Acknowledgement
The author would like to express his sincere thanks to Research Institute for ICT of Iran (Contract number 6987/500/T).

References
[1] A. Lai, C. Caloz, and T. Itoh, Composite Right/Left/Handed Transmission Line Metamaterials, IEEE Microwave Magazine, Sep. 2004. [2] Jofre, L., Cetiner, B.A., and F. De Flaviis, Miniature Multi/Element Antenna for Wireless Communications, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 50, pp. 658/669, May, 2002. [3] Mohammad Alibakhshi Kenari, A New UWB Small Dimension MTM Antennas Based on CRLH Transmission Lines for Modern Wireless Communication Systems and Portable Devices, HCTL Open International Journal of Technology Innovations and Research, Volume 2, March 2013, Pages 25-55, ISSN: 2321-1814, ISBN: 978-1-62776-111-6. [4] Mohammad Alibakhshi Kenari, Squeeze Broad-Band Patch Antenna Based on Metamaterial Transmission Line for Portable Apparatus, HCTL Open International Journal of Technology Innovations and Research, Volume 2, March 2013, Pages 56-66, ISSN: 2321-1814, ISBN: 978-1-62776-111-6. [5] Mohammad Alibakhshi Kenari, A Novel Compact Ultra Wide Band Planar Antenna Based on the Composite Right/Left-Handed Transmission Line Accompanying Improvement Gain, HCTL Open International Journal of Technology Innovations and Research, Volume 2, March 2013, Pages 67-77, ISSN: 2321-1814, ISBN: 978-1-62776-111-6. [6] Ali. Rostami, Seyed Yousef. Shaei, Farid. Alidoust Aghdam, Optimization of Microstrip Antenna Characteristics Using Photonic Band Gap Structure, HCTL Open International Journal of Technology Innovations and Research, Volume 3, May 2013, ISSN: 2321-1814, ISBN: 978-1-62776-443-8. [7] Arpit Nagar, Aditya Singh Mandloi and Vishnu Narayan Saxena, Electro-magnetic Bandgap of Microstrip Antennas, HCTL Open In-

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HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research (IJTIR) Special Edition on Advanced Technique of Estimation Applications in Electrical Engineering, June 2013 e-ISSN: 2321-1814 ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-478-0 References ternational Journal of Technology Innovations and Research, Volume 3, May 2013, ISSN: 2321-1814, ISBN: 978-1-62776-443-8. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License (http: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). c 2013 by the Authors. Licensed and Sponsored by HCTL Open, India.

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