Design for Ka-band Wideband Bandpass Filter with Three-line Microstrip Structures

Hua Zhong , Ruimin Xu and Mingzhou Zhan
School of electronic engineering of UESTC Chengdu, Sichuan 610054, P. R. China

Abstract- Presented in this paper is a systematic procedure for designing wideband bandpass filter based on parallel coupled three-line microstrip structures. An improvement for applying in practice is added. As compared with traditional parallel coupled wideband filters, the proposed three-line design requires less tight line spacing. Two filters with different line spacing are designed on substrates with low dielectric constants. Both of them have a fractional bandwidth (FBW) more than 40% at Kaband.

Since the structure is symmetric, the eigenvoltage matrix for these dominant modes can be written as

[ MV ] =   m1
 1


1  −m3   −1 1   1 0


[ M V ] is the eigenvoltage vector of the matrix product [ L ] [C ] . The matrix [ M V ] is used to derive the relation between port
voltages and port currents defined in Fig.1a as Va   Z a Z b   I a  V  =  Z Z   I   b  b a  b (2)



Most wideband and ultra-wideband filters are designed with the frequency band below 11 GHz, since the Federal Communications Commission’s release of the frequency band from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz for commercial communication. At low frequency band, many methods, like multilayer structure and thick substrates, have been taken to improve the bandwidth of filters. However, at millimeter-wave band, complex structures and thick substrates will introduce more insertion loss so that a new structure is needed. The filters designed in this paper can be used in millimeter-wave wideband frequency multiplier chain to suppress the rich spur and harmonic frequency in the chain. Microstrip realization of parallel coupled-line filters has been widely used because of its simple design procedure. Based on the insertion loss method [1, 2], a filter function of the Butterworth or Chebyshev type can be easily obtained. On most occasions, shrinking the line spacing is required to increase the coupling of couple lines. A new structure in [3] has been added a third line, identical to the coupled line, but on the opposite side of the input line to increase the coupling, thus the line spacing requirement can be relaxed for a specific coupling. Reference [3] was the first using three-line coupling structure to realize a bandpass filter with 40% FBW below 4 GHz. Through improving the structure, a new Ka-band wideband bandpass filter is designed. II. FILTER DESING A. Equivalent circuit of a three-line coupled section The analysis of the three-line coupled section mentioned in [3] is very useful. For the three-line structure, three quasiTEM or dominant modes exist. By using the approach mentioned in [4, 5], the inductance matrix [L] and capacitance matrix [C] per unit length for the structure can be obtained.

where [Vn ] = [V1 , V2 , V3 ]T , [ I n ] = [ I1 , I 2 , I 3 ]T n=a or b, and the impedance matrices can be derived as in [6]: n=a or b (3) [ Z n ] = [ M V ] diag [ − jZ mi cot θi ][ M V ]T In (3),

θi = βi l with βi the phase constant of the ith mode, l
Z mi = Z oi mi2 + 2

the length of the coupled section, and Z mi given by

in which Z oi is the characteristic impedance of mode i according to [6]. In (4), m2 = 0. According to [3] the network can be simplified to a two-port network. The approximations used in [7] are then to establish the equivalence inverter circuits in Fig. 1b and 1c. The three modal phase constants are assumed to be approximately the same, and let β i l = π / 2 at the centre frequency. Comparing the two-port Z-parameters of the circuits in Fig. 1a with those in Fig. 1b, it can be obtained that m1 Z m1 − m3 Z m3 = JZ A Z B (5a)
2 m12 Z m1 + m3 Z m 3 = Z A ( J 2 Z A Z B + 1)


(5c) According to [7], the admittance inverter in Fig1.b can be further approximated by the circuit in Fig.2c with Z 0 = Z A Z B . To realize this, the product of (5b) and (5c) is reduced through taking the following approximation:
2 m12 + m3 = 2m1m3 2

Z m1 + Z m3 = Z B ( J Z A Z B + 1)



Then the following approximation can be obtained:

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Since input and output lines have Figure 2. as shown in fig. is known. The performance of the filter is shown fig 3. for each admittance inverter can be determined from the values of lumped circuit elements of the lowpass filter prototype. Compared with traditional parallel coupled filter. In order to increase the line spacing and meanwhile keep the same bandwidth and high performance. RESULT AND IMPROVMENT Based on the design method introduced above. in order to increase ratio of line wl to line wi. Analysis of a coupled three-line section a Coupled three-line section as a six-port network b Equivalent admittance c Further approximated admittance inverter m1 Z m1 and m3 Z m 3 in three-line coupled section play the same roles as Z oe / 2 and Z oo / 2 play in a two-line coupled section.15mm under the same structure. respectively.15mm. (6) and (7) in this formulation. the width of line wl is increased. the result shows that the bandwidth is narrowed and performance of the filter degenerates. which can greatly simplify the procedure to determine the line width and the line spacing of each coupled section in a three-line bandpass filter. for a pair of coupled microstrip lines. From the design equations for a bandpass filter in [2].15mm is also in good performance. However. and optimize it. The optimized values are presented in table I filter A. Simulated S 21 and S11 responses for filter A .15mm line spacing reaches the bandwidth from 25 to 38GHz with insertion loss less than 0. Once JZ.(7) The key steps. as shown in fig 5. (5a) and (7) can be solved simultaneously to determine the values of m1 Z m1 + m3 Z m3 ≈ Z 0 ( J 2 Z 02 + 1) m1 Z m1 and m3 Z m 3 for each coupled section: m1 Z m1 = ( Z 0 / 2)( J 2 Z 02 + JZ 0 + 1) m3 Z m3 = (Z 0 / 2)( J Z + JZ 0 + 1) B. It is known that the coupling coefficient C of a coupled two-line section of quarter wavelength can be written as [2]: C= Z oe / 2 − Z oo / 2 Z oe / 2 + Z oo / 2 been widened. are (5a). Z oe and Z oo are the even.1mm to 0. we can use the K to design the line width and the line spacing of the filter. IV. However. the value of JZ. the initial values of the filter can be obtained and optimized using EM soft HFSS. The filter with 0.2 on RT/duroid 5880 substrate with ε r =2. the width of line wi before this improvement is taken has been as narrow as 0. Filter A with three-line structure Figure 3. The optimized values are presented in table I filter B. the three-line structure has wider line spacing and narrower line width. a match section needed to be added here as to match the lines to the 50 ohm line.5dB. To realize stronger coupling. CONCLUSION This paper has presented a design approach for wideband bandpass filter with three-line microstrip structures at Ka band. and the improved structure should be more easily realized.4. Trying to increase the s from 0. Filter A is designed as shown in fig.1mm is so narrow as to require very precise fabrication.and odd-mode characteristic impedances. the line spacing s=0. III.2 and thickness h=0. Calculate the coupling coefficients 2 2 0 (8) (9) Figure 1. The filter with line spacing s=0. (11) So the coupling coefficient K of a three-line section can be defined as: K= m1 Z m1 − m3 Z m3 m1 Z m1 + m3 Z m3 (12) When the substrate is chosen. an improvement is taken.254mm.

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