The Characters of Terence Author(s): G. Kenneth G. Henry Source: Studies in Philology, Vol. 12, No. 2 (Apr., 1915), pp.

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VOLUMEXLI

APRIL, 1915

NUMBER

2

STUDIES IN PHILOLOGY
A QUARTERLY JOURNAL PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTON OF THE

PHILOLOGICALCLUB OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA

THE CHARACTERSOF TERENCE
By

G. KENNETH

G. HENRY,

PH.D.

(AssistantProfessorof Latin in the University of NorthCarolina)

CHAPEL HLL PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY

THE CHARACTERS OF TERENCE The following paper embodies some of the chief results of an investigation of the charactersthat appear in the six plays of Terence. Before these results were reached, a very close examination was made of the characters in each play, and an attempt made to interpret characters of every kind, including mutes and even those characters that do not appear on the stage, in their relation to the story of the play. The present paper seeks to gather together the features of Terence's technique in character portrayal, as illustrated in that analysis. Of course this involves a change of method from the exami. nation by plays, drawing its illustrations, as it does, from various parts of Terence's work. To what extent Terence restricts himself to the characters of Menander and the other writers of the New Greek Comedy, goes beyond the limits of this paper. Such an inquiry involves a complete examination of the charactersin the available material of Menander's work, and the commentators who had access to the larger literature. Neither is it possible here to state, with any degree of authority, how far Terence is restricted by convention in the choice of his characters. A more or less cursory examination of the commentaries of Donatus and Eugraphius and of the prologues of Terence himself strengthens the belief that a convention restricting the characters was a very strong restraining influence on the Latin poet. The present investigator, however, has not yet had the opportunity to make the necessary examination of the literature. Unfortunately the names of characters in Terence are repeated, in the various plays, to the point of monotony. The name of Chremes, for example, is given to the character of the old man in the Andria, the Hauton Timorumenos,the Phormio, and to a young man in the Eunuchus. So also we find Sostrata in the Hauton Timorumenos, Hecyra, and Adelphoe. If we make mention of the heroine, we must label Pamphila or Philumena by one of the plays in which she appears. We find three courtesans by the name of Bacchis. This regrettable fact faces us, too, in the case of the young men, the slaves, the nurse. This very monotony of names indicates on the part of the author that these characters are types, a view commonly held regarding the characters of Plautus and Terence. In the main,

58

of Terence The Characters

such a general conception is doubtless true; but we find also that it does not do to dismiss the charactersof Terence, at least, with such a generalization. Within these types there are clear evidences that the author is not satisfied with mere types. In many cases we are aware that he pictures and portrays in clear and well-definedfeatures such original people, that the character is defined more accurately as individualistic than as typical. I We shall select certain characters of the plays for a comparative study. Some of the best material for such a comparison is to be found in the old men. Here we find, at the outset, a rather interesting variety. The old man is presented, now as the father, now as the lawyer, now as the patron. The patron appears in the Andria in the person of Crito, and in the person of Hegio in the Adelphoe. Crito is a stranger to Athens, a kinsman of the foreign mistress of the story. Hegio, too, appears as the protector of the women. In each case they have a sort of semiofficial character. Both are members of the old school of gentlemen who are chivalrous by nature, and see to it that justice is done the women of the play. Each might pass for the family lawyer who calls on his friends at a most opportune moment, though in fact one is a citizen, the other an Andrian. One comes on personal business of his own, the other is summonedby the slave, Geta. " Hospes, " however, in its comprehensive usage, describes each. "Gentlemen of the old school" mark a type. They are in general alike. So Hegio and Crito could each play the other's part. They are charactersnot at all differentiated,-each upright, independent, benevolent, men of a stern sense of justice, stoical. Really professional men are presented in the Phormio alone. These are the three lawyers, Hegio, Cratinus and Crito. Their namesakes of the Andria and Adelphoe also may be classified as semiprofessional characters, patrons who could easily pass for lawyers. They are, however, quite unlike the lawyers of the Phormio. The latter speak in legal phraseologyand with amusing dignity and severity. The former are, to be sure, very serious minded, sententious gentlemen, but they come on a mission to which they are equal; the

while in the Phormio these gentlemen furnish the choicest bit of humor of the play. In Micio and Demea each plays off the other. Demipho and Chremes are different types of the old man character. They go in pairs as foils to each other. Again. Simo is a suspicious.-extravagance against moderation. in the satirization of their uselessnessas counselors to which they are subjected. In the Phormio. on the contrary.G. He is modest. KennethG. Life holds no joy now that his son. deceptive. Chremes is the moderate. The play and counterplay of their opposing theories of life forms the basis of the drama-the pessimist over against the optimist. who has a son safe and sound at home. frankspoken. miserly. though not so evidently foils as in the Hauton Timorumenosand the Adelphoe. The Adelphoe. In the Phormio. He is in the depths of despair. These three in their serious demeanor are individualizedas lawyers. scheming. is gone. The Adelphoeand the Hauton Timorumenosexhibit a marked contrast in treatment between Micio .erratic scheming individual. more strongly than any other play. the two are working together for a common interest as they do in the Andria. well balanced. is full of the activities of life: talkative. Menedemus and Chremes are exponents of entirely different philosophies of life. for Cratinusand Hegio hand down divergent opinions while Crito reserves his judgment. too. Although these characters in general are thus paired off in the play. Chremes. As the play opens we have Menedemus before us with his great mattock in hand breaking the earthen clods in his field. generous. In the Hecyra these old gentlemen are for the most part opponents but are almost duplicates of each other. Henry 59 lawyers only make themselves ridiculous and leave poor Demipho in more perplexity than he was before. There is no satirization of their namesakes in the Andria and Adelphoe. In the Andria. The fathers who represent life more widely portray men in their different phases of character. Their professional character is written boldly in their legal formality. weighs the old men in the balances. unselfish father. each piece has its own people. The Eunuchus alone has but one old man and here Laches is subordinated and characterizedhardly at all. in their politeness. the apple of his eye. in the Hauton Timorumenosthese characters are most stronglv contrasted.

and thus arriving at the key to the whole situation. Micio is patient and long-suffering. but one is an old hypocrite. So also Demea and Chremesare the stern fathers. Chremes is a steady. dominated by circumstances and by fear of his wife. but they could hardly be more unlike. a pattern of virtue. Chremes of the Hauton Timorunenosand Demea of the Adelphoe. . But the varieties so far distinguished are differentiated only by the outward circumstancesof the old men in their relations to the story. in each case. responsiblecharacter. he muddles matters by his propensity to meddle and scheme. Terence goes still further in his portrayal of the individuals who make up the various groups. his daughter must be disposed of. finding that Clinia has returned from abroad. Yet each is the lenient father. Menedemus is impatient and a pessimist. He misrepresents to the young men the father's feelings: he persuades Menedemus to keep his son at a distance. he with his neighbor on his manner of feels called upon to renmonstrate life. In the first place the problem that each has to solve is different.and examine them in greater detail. He is a weak individual. Menedemus cares not at all for theory: all he wants is the restoration of Clinia. of good judgment. In the second place they themselves exemplify differenttypes of mind.60 The Characters of Terence and Menedemus. between Demea and Chremes. Chremes of the Phormio furnishes likewise a study in contrast when compared with Chremes of the Andria. In the Andria. fair-minded. Their interests are centered. for example. in direct antithesis to this." Though knowing Menedemus ever so slightly. Such then are the varieties within the type of old man. He is happy only when indulging in some underhandedness. Micio is concerned with the pedagogic question of what theory it is best to adopt in training his boy. and an optimist. in a daughter. and though knowing he can restore his neighbor to happiness by restoring the son. his double life is exposed. If a title were to be given to Chremes it would be the "meddler" or "busybody. a bigamist. To illustrate the distinct personality which Terence gives to these characters it will be well worth while to take two who fill largely the same part in their respective plavs. He had invited Phania. A few moments later. who is trying to cover up his tracks. In the end.

7 ll. 1. 1012 f. 51. Bacchis. A father. St. to dine with him on this the feast of the Dionysia. 6 U. 499 ff. KennethG. has outwitted him. with the aid of Syrus. is his son's mistress and not Clinia's. Henry 61 a neighbor."' Yet in these very qualities of poise and open dealing Chremes shows himself absolutely lacking. 63. so the legend goes. but he has almost forgotten his guest in his interest in his neighbor'sfarming."2 "One touch of nature makes the whole world kin. Cic. humaninihil a me alienumputo. shouted and applauded to the echo. Fleckeisen." at which pretty speech the audience. tu illum numquam ostendistiquanti penderes nec tibi illest credereausus qux est xquom patri. He had counselled moderation for Menedemus4in handling a son. Finding that his son. de Leg. 153 ff. vid. 440. 940-960.tantumneab re tuast oti tibi aliena ut cures. 19. but he shows himself a man of violent passion.G. 95. ibi non uere uiuitur. 2 ll. 75-77. Cf. hoc ubi fit.ea quid nihil ad te attinent?" To which Chremesanswers: "Homo sum. 1. 3 4 Referencesare to the Teubnertext of A. 11U.7 It is possible to reconcile the Chremes who meets Menedemus in his field with the Chremes of the fifth act only on the assumption that he I U. he all but disinherits the boy. Says Menedemus: "Chremes. He is the mediator in a boundary dispute' between his neighbors Simeo and Crito. Syrus. that the expensive lady. 12. .6 he is willing to make his son out a changeling. Seneca Ep. but he gets excused so that he may engage in a plot with his slave. too. de Fin. In the final act his philosophy is put to the test.3 Chremespreaches a fine philosophy of life but when the test comes he does not practice it for himself. August. 52. Ep. should be sincere that no misunderstandingmay come between them: "Uerumnec illum tu satis noueras nec te ille. III.

Non si ex capite sis meo natus. 0 1.1033 ff. " 13 * 11. item ut Minervamesse aiunt ex love. sua quaenarratfacinora As to the frankness which he once counselled. . ubi adbibitplus paulo. Ch.on comic anger: "Interdum tamen et vocem Comcediatollit 93-04) Iratusque Chremestumido delitivat ore.qui heri tantumbiberis. ea causa magis patiar. 12 1. aquilx senectus. Non sunt hac parentisdicta.518-521.9 And it is the real Chremes. though it sets his tongue to wagging. Nil nimis. fraus.helluo ganeo's. Horace. Menedemusin his confession made out a clear case of oversevere treatment of his son. in the morning he represents to Menedemus that he has not been able to close his eyes because of interest in him and his affairs."8 This is the pater iratus with a vengeance. 220.flagitiistuis me infamemfieri. Again we have him sermonizing to his son. Aks Poetica. He is a gentleman who can drink deeply and stand up under the influence of the wine. but Chremes's failings are well known to his offspring: I"" "is mi. His deceitfulness goes hand and glove with his propensity to meddle and scheme. Cl.quod dici solet.iners.sedulo.Chremes. Deos nescio: ego quod potero. another with the son.damnosus:credeet nostrumte esse credito. He acts one part with Menedemus. 13 11. Ch. Sy. tam mane.'2 Syrus twits the old man on his drinking capacity: "sed te miror.62 of Terence The Characters does not practice his own philosophy. ego dicam.he is a stranger to it entirely.gerro.Clitipho. 220. Di istlec prohibeant! Ch. His lies are only more glossed over than Syrus's bold falsifications. 9 Cf. Before he was only preaching. 11 1I 99 ff. 'Nil' narras?uisast uero. Though he has been up late drinking with Bacchis and her retinue the night before." (11.1' but Chremes a few moments later represents quite another case to Clitipho. So. Addressing his son in his passion: "Si scirevis.

uin tu homini stulto mi auscultare? "20 These details form a real portrait of an old man's foibles. fleeced in the very 1411."" Many instances of Chremes's susceptibility to flattery are offered by Syrus: on his lusty. forgives the plotters. hearty old age exhibited by his standing so well such a drinkingbout. finally pays all the bills.gnatus eius profugitinopia. 9 II. KennethG. complimenting him on his opulence: "omneste inlautumesse in bene parta re putent. The whole counterplot of Syrus in which Chremes joins to his own undoing is built up on this stinginess of his master. Syrus plays on this characteristic of the old man. as they used to be (olim).'9 Syrus. 584.18on his sense in censuring Clitipho's seeming disloyalty to Clinia. ."'" When Chremes discovers his long lost daughter he counts up the expense she has been to him: "ten minaefor board. and confesses himself the butt of his own scheming. 5 ll. too. no doubt has his master in mind when he describes to Chremes the character of Menedemus: " (Clinia)habet patremquendamauidummisereatque aridum. Syrus. humors Chremes by minimizing his own abilities and thus flatters the old man's estimate of himself: " Chremes. 581-582 201. Professedly his object in entering into the plot is to help his neighbor save the money that he will have to pay Clinia to gratify Bacchis's extravagant tastes. another ten for clothes. who credulously accepts her as Clinia's mistress. 798. 17 II. 521 ff.G. 518-521."7 on his correct judgment of women. and she will need two talents for her portion": "I "quammulta iniustaac prauafiunt moribus. The stupidity of Chremesis finely characterizedby the boldness of that part of the plot which introduces Bacchis into her lover's home under the very eyes of the father. ' 1. Henry 63 Chremes has the miserliness of the old man of comedy. sly dog. 18 I.526-528. uicinumhunc: nostin? at quasi is non ditiis abundet. 835-839.

His moderation is turned to passion. He thought he was an ideal of moderation and tact. tristis. "23 211. though no one owned her. with young fellows. leaden. we note that he likewise is in sharp contrast to the other old man of the play. The old gentleman's financial finesse has cost him an expensive banquet for Bacchis and her retinue. He believed he could make money go a long way in dealing turnisthe tables completely. 22 Sbuckljurg's translation of I1. his brother Micio.stipes. for he goes beyond all these by his folly. stubborn": "ego ille agrestis. cross. 866-871.874-878.blockhead. of the Adelphoe. assinus. rigid. plumbeus)but none of them can apply to him. parcus. ass. whose head he couldn't but stroke." He is a pessimist: "Duxi uxorem: quam ibi miseriam uidi! nati filii: alia cura. (candex. But the denouemenzt Menedemus is no longer the self-tormentor-but Chremes. 761-763. opinionated. given to extravagance of speech. He is a man of passion. for whose cleverness he had openly expressed his admiration. Menedemus now has the satisfaction of comparing his own poor mental faculties with those of Chremes: "I know well I am not so very acute or so sharp witted: but this Chremes who undertakes to assist and advise and point out results to me. he outdoes me in this. contriui in quarundo uitam atque etatem meam: nunc exacta etate hoc fructi pro labore ab eis fero."22 Turning our analysis of character to Demea. odium. He becomes but the tool of Syrus. truculentus. Against me anv of those terms which are the epithets of fools. . miserly. 23 11. heia autem. When he finally comes to a knowledge of himself he describes himself as "rough. apply. His self-sufficiency is all gone and he can vent his ill temper only on his wife.log.2" The art of the poet in character portrayal is manifested in revealing the real man underneath the flattering opinion he has of himself. He calculates her wardrobe will amount to ten mina and her dowry will call for two talents more. self-centered.64 of Terence The Characters manner he had recommended for his neighbor Mlenedemus. He has paid a thousand drachmmto buy his own daughter. sauos. dum studeo illis ut quam plurimum facerem. He thought he could manage Menedemus's affairs better than his neighbor himself could. tenax.

. is pathetic. is solus nescit omnia: rideo hunc. 871-876. "28 "Oh. but one could not laugh at her. Sostrata."29 24 11. pathetic because he is made a target for ridicule by everybody. Supposing himself a fountain of wisdom he invites flattery and is moved to tears when Syrus praises the moral virtues of his beloved Ctesipho: "0 lacrumo gaudio. Henry 65 Then contrasting Micio's easy life with his." says Syrus. "' It. " "I use that selfsame method myself. apud illum sunt ambo. illum amant. ego miseriam omnem capio. I must look to those fish at once. illum ut uiuat optant. 413-432. of course. me fugitant. Yet if Micio judges rightly he's no father at all: "Natura tu illi pater es. 409412. hic potitur gaudia. 2s 11.G. KennethG. "28 Demea is the pathetic character of the play. Playing into the hands of Syrus he becomes a pitiable object. 26 1. and his grief becomes quite touching when in the climax his whole philosophy of life is shattered."27 He has been proud of the results of his education of Ctesipho to be a copy of himself. while Demea is satirized even by his brother's slaves. illi credunt consilia omnia. meam autem mortem exspectant scilicet. He has been honest in the belief that his brother Micio is a weakling."2' As Micio says. Nothing is right but what he has done himself. 79-80. ego dedertus sum." "Saluos sit spero: est similis maiorum suiom. I bid him look into the mirror of other men's lives and instruct him what to avoid and what to choose. As Syrus says: "Primum ait se scire. 27 1." " Syre. that it is Aeschinus who more nearly approaches the model son. 126. and his whole world tumbles down when he finds he has been deceived. Demea always comes to wrangle-' and criticize. he exhibits his jealousy: "ille alter sine labore patria potitur commoda. 548. illum deligunt. I know how to train a boy. "I instruct my fellow servants to look into their saucepans as into a mirror and suggest what they ought to do. consiliis ego. prwceptorum plenest istorum ille. 2111.

As it is.66 of Terence The Characters Sent to the country on a fruitless search for his son and to the other end of town to find Micio. It is scarcely a growth of character that is here portraved. . as an attempt of the poet to counterbalancethe tragic cast of the four other acts. free Syrus.32 Ribbeck. pay Aeschinus twenty minx. Quite the reverse is evidently the fact. with his son." One might wish that Micio would assert himself and refuse to marry the widow. Every act of Micio's is stultitia and flagitia. 33 Geschickle der Rdmiscken Dicklung. In reality Terence is showing the absurdity of reforminga man of Demea's character. the plot suffers. though he is within calling distance and enters half a minute later. but Demea's characteris maintained. He may change front but the reformationwill be an absurdity. he's an honest slave. and to cap the climax.30 He is "downright ashamed" of Micio and tells his slave so. p. 395-396. whether real or affected. Micio. 312) that Demea is now assuminga middlecourse. Demea cannot take a middle course. "31 "Tear down the garden wall: "Cash will fail: id minume repert. make both houses one. with his brother. He says he could smell out his son's plans six months before the young fellow had begun to think of them. but there the development ends. shall marry Sostrata. expense be hanged. 32 Long and Macleanstate (p. The extravagant cast of the old fellow's mind is illustratedwherever he appears. He never sees things but on the one side-his own-and then as if through a magnifying glass. His actions are as extreme as ever or more so. 881. and his wife Phrygia. Syrus makes a downrightfool of Demea and shows up his remarkablegullibility. The complete conversion of Demea in the final act is genuine.33as also Macleane and Long. give Hegio a plot of ground. by heaven. even with the rascal Syrus. He has changed front. he implies that Micio's is not the ideal after 301l. Perhaps. is all so bold and extravagant that we recognize the same Demea. explains this seemingly strange change of character. He has been a miser: now he is a spendthrift. 311. The excesses to which he goes in endeavoringto be affable still portray the same extravagant cast of mind and temper. too. 152. His newly acquired friendly intimacy with the slaves. too.

. sed ex adsentandoindulgendo et largiendo. id non fieriex uera uita nequeadeo ex iquo et bono. KennethG. The same theme is there as here in the Adelphoe. But we cannot imagine Demea a jovial member of Bacchis's midnight banquet. Demea is a Stoic: Chremes is a loose Epicurean. when in his cups. The contrast in character is maintained throughout the play.35 When Micio asks Demea for the explanation of his sudden change and the meaning of his capricious generosity he replies: "Dicam tibi: ut id ostenderem.985 S. between the too great severity of the one. The turning of the tables is paralleled in the Hauton Timorumenoswhere Chremes and Menedemus change parts. Diderot says. but shows Demea as still onesided and unable to be converted from a persistent bias of mind. "We no longer know which side to take and after having been all along for Micio against Demea.. p. Chremes and Demea are as remarkably unlike as men.11. the moral of the play. One would almost desire a third father to preserve the golden mean between the two characters and to point out the faults of each. or his babbling too freely. . In each play there is a turning of the tables in the climax. to his son concerninghis own earlierescapades. . 3 Andria.61. Demea would 3' Quoted by Colman. is the Horation moderation. And it is the Andria that gives us ne quid nimis.Micio.G. "I' Madame Dacier thinks Terence is giving Micio a lesson: "The opposite characters of these two brothers and the inconveniences resulting from each perfectly point out to fathers the middle way in which they ought to pursue the education of their children. they are both meddlers in others' affairs. 985-988. Vol. and are the dupes of their slaves. though the treatment of the characters is not so bold. . Remarkably alike in their place in the two plots. Henry 67 all. 102. we conclude without knowing whether we are for one or the other. a. They both claim to be ideal fathers. Intemperance is satirized on every page. and the unlimited indulgence of the other. " The ideal theme."I' This can scarcely be the poet's view. they are both miserly. quod te isti facilemet festiuomputant. 2.

in addition to the two lovers. with some variation. for the better of the old men. the A ndria gives us in Sosia. To summarize. In Demipho we have a high-tempered. Thus in general the keynote to each of these ten or twelve o0l(men is different.the Plhormio. In the Eunuchus. Each exhibits individuality.aping Laches's wavs. the country youth Chremes. becomes a passionate individual. Chremes lies outright: Demea is a stickler for the truth. the doctrinaire of an easy-going philosophy. when his purposes are crossed. the friend of Chaerea. the strict Stoic and profound egotist. II As in the case of the old men the youths go in pairs. The comparisonthat we have workedout in the charactersof Chremesand Demea may be extended throughout the series of the fathers. Nor are these differencesof outlook on life demanded by the exigencies of the plot. The Phormio portrays in Chremes the hypocrite and his troubles. The Hecyra affords the portrait of a testy old Laches who dominates his wife. Chremesis sharply defined as an unsophisticated rustic.68 of Terence The Characters never have countenanced the admission of Bacchis and her retinue into his household. while his neighbor. It is evident that Terence did not allow a given plot to restrict him to a single stereotyped character. two other young men appear who are not in love. stand on a higher plane which the cunning of the slave does not reach. who is experiencing for the first time the heady feeling attending the passing from . Speaking and acting like men of average intelligence some of them become stupid when dealing with a wily Davos or Syrus. but who exhibits a good heart in a crisis. the Hauton Timorumenos. The Adelphoe shows up in glaring contrast Micio. a mild-manneredgentleman who. bombastic man of strong character and individuality. The Hauton Timorumenosportrays a hypochondriacon the one hand and on the other a meddling old fellow who becomes the dupe of his own devices. and Demea.the Adelphoehave each two young men. self-confident. Here a proper series of cause and effect accompanies the individual. plays only a poor second as an understudy. the opponent of his neighbor. and Antipho. The Andria. who are of sounder judgment. while Chremes is well balanced.

had there been no proof of citizenship the women would have been the young fellows' mistresses. Only in the Phormi&and the Hauton Timorumenosis there a thoroughly respectablemarriageand even here. the Eunuchus. and who is now making his first acquaintance with the delightful ladies of Athens. Chremes. Touching the primary love intrigue. Kennethi G. the heroine is known to be an Athenian citizen at the outset in the Adelphoeand the Hecyra. He is simply a convenient character-a semi deus ex machina. In the other four.G. In the Andria. Yet most of these young men have some predominating trait that differentiates them to some degree. there is a double love intrigue-a primary and a secondary plot. Henry 69 jolly sober to jolly drunk.-thelatter hardly belonging to the play as the girl and her family are unknown and the arrangementis made in the last lines to mollify the old man. As a rule they are resourceless. with the exception of the Hecyra. the play itself works out the proof of citizenship. laments for their unfortunate lot in love or complaints of their fathers' harsh treatment. In the secondary plot two unions result which moderns would call respectable. Antipho is but a foil to Chaerea and appears to remove Chaerea from the action for the time being that the others may carry on the action. They are all of easy morals except the rustic Chremesin the Eunuchusand his inexperienceis fully counterbalanced by the racy part played by Chaerea.relying on their slave or good fortune to mend their troubles-but living in a sort of fools' paradise. Pamphilus of the Andria exem- . They are all passionately in love. who equals any other two of Terence's characters. In the other four plays each young fellow retains his mistress at the close of the play. All the other young men portrayed in Terence are in love. Generally their speech consists of words of adoration for their mistresses. the Hecyra. Often they exemplify their bringingup and are either a replica of or a contrast to their stern or complaisant parent. In each play.-that of Charinus and Philumena in the Andria and that of Clinia with a neighbor's daughter in the Hauton Timnorumenos.the heroine has been outraged by the hero. Thus the part assigned to these youths is very similarin the various plays: and as a rule their characters are very much alike. and Adelphoe.

" says Bacchis. As to their morals." Ribbeck calls him. the slave merchant. In the Phormio Antipho is a pessimistic. puts his brother completely in the shade from the moment he appears. frank. which looked on such vice as they exhibit as a matter largely of convenience. Youths will stray. he gave up his Bacchis before the play began. rashness. passion. Phaedriaand Chaereain the Eunuchusare foils. In judging these young men. most engaging man on earth. and marriage seems to bring seriousness. strong character. though even here the arrangement hardly belongs to the play. The loyalty of the young men in friendship and love is their most admirable quality. In only one or two instances does the son yield even to the father. it must be by the standard of ancient law. In the Hauton Timorumenos. In the HecyraPamphilus is a tender nature. intemperance. He adores his adopted father. of a bold self-reliance-yet modest. learns to his sorrow. He makes the most admirablepicture of all of Terence's young men. of course. Aeschinus in the Adelphoeis a generous. Clitipho and Pamphilus (Hecyra) finally agree to give up their Bacchis. pious youth in love: "a cautious Philistine. but the marks of virtue he sees in them will reclaim them. but here again the whole plot hinges on the fact that for months after his marriage. is beloved by the slaves and yet with these softer graces he is self-reliant and can take a hand in a difficult situation as Sannio. while Phaedria has a strong sense of humor and some initiative. vacillating character. In fact. To the object of their love they are always true.he is faithful in heart and life to his former mistress. has a deep affection for his brother. Only gradually does he fall in . in Terence. a master masquerader. True. It is proper enough for them to have a mistress if they become loyal and faithful to their wives after marriage.70 of Terence The Characters plifies faithfulness to a trust.bold and self-assertive. extravagance. They are suspected of disloyalty frequently enough and have abundant opportunity to fail in their trust. Phaedriais the seriousminded. shifty. But in their relation as friends each to the other the pair plays into each other's hands. characterize Clitipho. Chaerea. Terence's view is that of Micio. " Charity begins at home" is his motto. Charinus is suspicious and selfish. Pamphilus's love for Philumena and his lovalty to her undermost trying circumstances are a large part of the plot. " the sweetest.

generous Aeschinus. In contrast with the other lackadaisical fellows we can love the scapegraceChaerea and the bold. however. allowing himself to be regarded as the scapegrace of the family. In all their escapades they are wonderfully serious. The same constancy of affection extends to the brothers and cousins. Aeschinus. Chaerea and Antipho."33 3711. appealing to the gods in their perplexities. Clitipho. puny specimens of manhood. As a rule the young men are disappointing. He is a frank. Henry 71 love with his wife. laughs at the threats of the slave dealer. also 11. and Phaedria. in the Phormio. pater. too. returning extravagant thanks when matters mend. Cf. Sentimental. are more light-hearted and get some pleasure out of their predicaments. as befits that reliant personality. rewarding the trust that Micio reposes in him by a reciprocalaffection: "Di me.G. They have little sense of humor. But loyalty is the predominating trait of these lovers and friends. keeping no secrets from his adopted father. 681. who is not a lover. 3 1.707 ff. With all their human weaknesses (for Terence does not idealize his characters) these two possess the qualities that win admiration. With the exception of Chaereaof the Eunuchusand Aeschinus of the Adelphoe they are too stupid to be interesting. not to mention interest. KennethG. open-hearted youth. Aeschinus does break down doors and save a mistress-though not for himself.ni magis te quam oculosnunc ego amo meos. The business of love with them is an extremely grave affair. yields in the last lines of the play in order to restorepeace to the household and renounces his Bacchis by promising to marry a neighbor's daughter-a girl. omnesoderint. . though comparatively innocent. their whole interest in life begins and ends in a love intrigue with a courtesan of the town. in the Eunuchus. dum uiuas mi pater. They sigh and groan. They have not the courage and dash that make youth attractive. He does take upon himself the burden of shame for the more guilty Ctesipho. the weakest and most fickle of all. Sannio.700-701. of his own choosing on whom he has already had his eye."IT "Ita uelim me promerentem ames.

In his dispute with Sannio he completely discomfortsthe procurer: " Uah. leno iniqua me non uolt loqui " He puts Parmenoas a guard over the slave merchantwith instructions to thrash the fellow whenever he is given the wink.intellegere. 826 f.`"" uolo scire atque hominemconuenire.72 of Terence The Characters His bold self-relianceis well shown in his fearlessnessin the scene with the procurerSannio. in fact. 40 1. siris liberunm ingeniumatque animum: quo uis illos tu die "" redducas. however: "4 "ingeniumnoui tuom liberale. ut confidamfore ita ut uolumus. inepte. which order Parmeno follows right zealously.uideo sapere. If Sannio will not accept that.inter se amare. 421H. 187. well and good: Aeschinus will claim the girl is a freebornAthenian. The adopted father believes him to be good at heart."" aut quoi non dedit "quamhic non amauitmeretricem? aliquid? ecce autem de integro! nisi quidquidest si apud forumst. He will pay the slave dealer the bare principal the girl cost the procurer. Fearing not the threats of the slave dealer to bring the law against him. Ctesipho."" Micio knows him for what he is: "scortatur. 149ff. 44U. . Micio. Then Aeschinus lays down his terms.foresecfregit. 17ff. 43 1. quasi nunc non norimusnos inter nos. Aeschinus has no exalted opinion of his own virtues. 271.in loco uereri. 683.potat. puts a wonderfully complacent trust in both the young men: "qua ego inesse in illis uideo. 4U. Complimented by Ctesipho on his generous actions.discedituestem. he disclaims any great pride in them: "Age. he boldly brings off the music girl to his own home. olet unguenta. 391.

qui si occeperit. qui nescioquid de amoreloquitur: o infortunatum senem! hic uerost. dicet fuisseillum alterum. . 11.in quo nostre spes opesqueomnessitT! qui se sine hac iurabatunumnumquamuicturumdiem!"16 Coleman here comparesthese words of Sostrata to Desdemona's when she pleads for Cassio: "What! Michael Cassio? that came A wooing with you. When confronted with proof of his disloyalty. Pamphila." and is the only young fellow in Terence who has any business or occupation. " 11. over whom he has lost his heart and his head. and so many a time When I have spoke of you dispraisingly Hath taken your part?" Certainly the most racy if not the most attractive of the young men. KennethG.47 Parmeno asks him why he is so excited.49 and his extrava- gant delineation of Pamphila's charms bespeaks the extreme youth. Parmeno characterizeshim for the audience as a heady fellow who will be the "limit" if ever he becomes involved in a love affair: "ecce autem alterum. so 11.nequeunde eam nequequorsumeam: ita prorsum oblitussum mei..sat scio. is Chaerea of the Eunuchus.299-300. 4' B. He is a mere youth-sixteen years of age. He has seen on the street a girl. " ephebus. 330 ff. `18 This seems to be his first case of falling in love. He is in the public service at the Piraeus-a patrolman who guards the frontier.308-309. . .ludumiocumque. and is now trying to find her after losing sight of her at a turning of the street. . The younger brother of Phaedria. and where he comes from: "Egone? nesciohercle. from a moral point of view.50 4 . 361 f.G.313 ff. she exclaims: Aeschinum! "quid iam credas?aut quoi credas?nostrunmne nostramomniumuitam. he is in every respect the antithesis of that distraught lover. 297-300 4 11. He has forgotten that he is expected to be a member of a party of young gentlemen feasting at the Piraeus today. l}. 46 I.prnut huius rabiesquT dabit. 305-307.. 11."'4 He appears before the audience in great excitement. amo.565 f .539 ff. Henry 73 Sostrata has the highest regard for Aeschinus.

53 1. and make an honorable marriage. He is the one man to jump at the humorous3suggestion of Parmeno that he take. unthinking Chaerea. Archimenidesseems to him to be a long-windedold prattler who wasted a whole hour giving him detailed instructions to hear his father on a law case. The audience is thereforepreparedfor some rash impetuous part to be assumed by Chaerea. Assuming at first a cool attitude toward Thais. careless. 338-9. 849 Sf.. 681-2. 388-389. Chaerea himself spoke only in monosyllables: " Dic.he is the one character in comedy that could ravish a girl in the guise of a eunuch. 5' tl. promising to marry Pamphila as soon as her birth is established."7 he finally makes her his ally and friend. 11. Otherwise he is master of the situation. when a youngster. Phaedria was steady before his love affair. 5' U.74 The Characters of Terence Chaerea's story of the old man who detained him on the street5'and caused him to lose sight of the girl he was pursuing. Chaerea has become sobered by his experience. A handsome fellow-for so he is proclaimed. " " quid tum?"I2 He must catch the girl.sets off his youthful impetuosity. unrestrainedin his assurance.54 dashing. se U.342. be forgiven.the place of the eunuch whom Phaedria is sending to Thais. Strange to say. he keeps his head. . Chaerea undergoesa development of character as a result of his adventure. 4 U.but becomes distraught in advancing his cause with his mistress. losing his head over a pretty face and attractive form. passionate. 327. 310. While all the others are dumbfoundedat the situation he puts on a bold front and really lives up to his earlier promise to Parmeno that he will assume the responsibility of his acts.51 He plays his part as well as. He does appear at a disadvantage running around the alley-ways of Athens in a eunuch's dress. Chaerea was a rattle-brainedboy who is now master of affairs. thus affording humor for the piece. 7 tl..he stole jam for Parmenofrom his father's stores. It is a bold scheme and worthy of the bold. 378.686-7. 56 1.

60 As a minor character he is a deus ex machina provided for the elimination of Chaerea for the time being. 60 11. Aeschinusand Chaereaexhibit the dash and daringthat we look for in the hero. too. Antipho himself adds nothing to the action. incipere. an opportunity Chaerea is not slow to seize upon. The presence. " 11. seruaobsecrohac bona nobis!"58 These two. After hearing the story Antipho takes Chaerea home with him to change his eunuch's clothes. he cannot guess its meaning but he ventures that it means mischief: quid hoc ornatist? "is est an non est? ipsus est. furnishes a reason for the reappearanceof Chaereabefore Thais in his eunuch's clothes-a demand made necessary by the sequel to the play. Such a variation is so unusual. . The other lovers are monotonous.an Fortunamconlaudem. This comprises the total part played by Antipho. qune an mei patrisfestiuitatemet facilitatem?o Iuppiter. quid hoc horminist? ""61 quid illud malist? SS B.560-561. namby-pamby. 546-547. insipid. 611 . Antipho is Chaerea's closest friend. He is not ungratefulfor his fellow actors' kindnesses or the gods' favors to him: primumaut laudemmaxume? "Quidcommemorem illum qui mihi dedit consiliumut facereman me qui id ausus sim fuit. 539-614. Henry 75 Nor is Chaereawithout heart. 1044-1048. for fear of Phaedria and his father has made Chaerea an exile from his own home. KennethG.G."9 He comes to get an explanation of why the feast of which Chaereawas given charge has not been arranged. He gives him an opportunity to narrate his experiences while playing the eunuch at Thais's house. Surprisedat the garb his friend wears. love sick. of Antipho's parents at his home. He is a young fellow of rather cynical good humor. quaegubernatrix tot res tantas tam opportune in unumconclusitdiem. Chremes and Antipho furnish an interesting variation from the lover type. it may be not amiss to take notice of their relation to the plot.

and I don't even know. maybe that has taken her eye and she wants to filch me of it. inibo. When conversation grew cold she began on this."" qui esset status. Antipho steps out from his hiding place: "Adiboatque ab eo gratiamhanc quam uideouelle. . dolo malo hec fieriomnia. The attentions she showed him on a former visit were so marked that he begins to suspect that this meretrix has designs on him: "iam tum erat suspicio. when did my father and mother die and whether I had lost a little sister. Maybe she wants to prove 62 l. contribute to making the Eunuchus the greatest of Terence's plays. Chremes occupies a more important part in the plot. viz. Told that the maid was entrusted to Chaerea's care alone. 63 1. Thais has discovered that he is Pamphila's brother and plans to use him for a double purpose.3 When Chaerea speaks of his modesty.64 He would have liked to see Chaerea hold a fan for his ladylove: "Tum equidemistuc os tuom impudensuiderenimiumuellem. to prove Pamphila's citizenship and secondly. 66 H. 597-98. 577.. 64 L 580.76 of Terence The Characters OverhearingChaereawish that some curious fellow would fall in with him and bore him with questions. 6611 514-15. 557. tenerete asinumtantum. The delicate strokes in characterizing these minor personages of the play."66 "Somebody may ask me what business I have with her. Chremesis greatly perplexed at being summoned by Thais. he ironically remarks: satis tuto tamen. terramintuens modestein the presence of Pamphila. During her stav in Athens."61 and then proceeds to ask him all in one breath the very questions which Chaerea has outlined. flabellulum Antipho is a fellow who makes little bluster but appreciates in a quiet way the humorous diversities of life. to bring about a quarrelwith the captain as soon as she gets possession of the girl. She asked about my country place at Sunnium. Antipho satirizes him by throwing out miser.

"7" Pythias now appears to him a charmingcreature: "ehem. Confronted by the braggart captain with his retinue of valiant household soldiers."68his having a place at Sunnium near the sea. to whom the ways of town life are strange. Taken to the captain's house Chremes experiences his first bout at wine.70 and she wheedles him with pet names."76 egon formidulosus? 67 It. Verbumherclehoc uerumerit 'sine Cerereet LiberofrigetVenus. his boisterous announcement when knocking at the door: "Ho there. he can quote only time-worn proverbs. Certo tuquidem pol multo hilarior. quanto nunc formonsior uidere mihi quam dudumI PY. I6 i. 71I. Henry 77 herself that sister. 76 11. . 755 if. His suspicions of a plot against him. 728.nequepes nequemens satis suom officiumfacit."7' (pulchresobrius)72 "postquamsurrexi. KennethG. for he felt "jolly while he was at the banquet: sober. 71H. uah. 71. much to his discomfiture. It 1. This remark seems to fit Chremes here. anyone here? it's I. S33. " 1.G.7 Chremes is terror-stricken: " militemsecumad te quantascopiasadducere?attat apagesis: nemosthominumqui uiuat minus. his "bundle of rogues. CH. and is sorely perplexed at his heady feeling. Chremes. 507-527. 730-32. ho there. When the maid Pythias addresses him as o capitulumlepidissumumshe seems to be satirizing his country appearance. 530-531. 729. 731.' "74 Rustic that he is. and his desire to leave town for the country'" all proclaun him a stranger to Athens.776. Pythias. n Wagner'stranslation."6" Donatus says that in Menander's play. 531." his manipulus furum. Chremes is a rustic.

a dullard. still in its heat.quem defensorem paro. a' 11."8 Only when barricadedin the house and from the vantage of an upper window does he make any show of bravery. played off by his parasite Gnatho.""l Thais uses him as an excuse for a quarrelwith the captain but he is entirely unaware of the meaning of her actions. Possessed of no mentality himself he plays into the hands of Thais and presents her with Pamphila whom he had purchased at Rhodes upon the death of Thais's mother.82 He is thus portrayed as a dullard. A coward by nature. III Thraso. Chremes is a slow thinker. 766 ff. The conceit that possesses the fellow makes him an easy prey to Thais's designs. coward-easily wheedled by the domestics. who lived there. 1 l. s 11. the braggart captain.78 Persuadedby Thais to stand by his post. 761. 80I. Then Thais immediately quarrels with him and his career with her ends."7 A legal adviser is necessary. boor. . *' 1I. and needs little encouragementto give up Pamphila. 737-738. Thraso is a ridiculous character continually furnishing mirth. aided by the effects of the wine. Thais has to put words in his mouth79and finds that this fellow whom she wanted for a protector stands in need of a patron himself: "huic ipsist opus patrono. 763-764. He fancies all women love him at sight of his majestic person and soldierly bearing.78 The Characters of Terence He suggests that it's folly to run a risk that can be avoided. he bolts the door. 7' 11. subordinate though that part is. So he proclaims himself: "correxitmiles quod intelleximinus: nam me extrusitforas sed eccamipsam: mirorubi ego huic anteuorterim. furnishes the only portrait of the miles gloriosusin Terence. He has to be made half drunk to put enough courage in him to play his part. though referencesare made to his kind in the Hauton Timorumenosand in the Hecyra. 770. he now tries to make a good impressionon Thais. 744-5.

c 11. satirizes the parasite. 402 403. Gnatho obligingly comes to the rescue with the suggestion that Thraso's company would act as an emetic-exspueret.G. says Gnatho. The parasite lavishes upon him the boldest flattery. too. his vanity. If an idea hasn't entered the captain's mind. Thraso has served in the wars with the great King Pyrrhus. Mirum. at least so he says. ""4 To which his master answers. quod in test."" Gnatho in his comments makes hits at the captain's conceit and that. 410. But the irony is lost. it's merely."S7 "Est istuc datum perfecto. 90 L 413."8I Words fail him when he tries to express why the king. took such delight in his company. and his gullibility at the hands of his Gnatho. 8' 1. He was the confidant of that prince. When Thraso boasts that everything he does is admired extremely even by the King himself. "You've hit it. Thraso takes it for genuine admiration. Gnatho suggests that maybe he appropriatesglory that has been won by others' labor: "Laborealienomagnopartamgloriam qui habet salem." "The king trusted his whole army to me. 403406. 395-6. Henry 79 The predominatingtraits of Thraso are his boastfulness. wearied with other men and the cares of business. 391 ff. 399-401."' In short the braggart is full of himself: "Inuidere omnes mihi. On one occasion he even took down the pride of the commander of the Indian Elephants.89 which the captain takes for a compliment. so B. . very thinly veiled. because he never thought of it.ut grata mihi sunt que facio omnia.451-453. uerbissepe in se transmouet.90 OI . "m says the captain. as U. 89U. To him all the military stratagems were entrusted. but Thraso perceives no flattery in such compliments. KennethG. eU.

Y5 He is glad to come into any share of her good graces. OT Quoted by Colmanon 1. 1091-1092. numquam In Love's Labour's Lost. 93ll. His storming of Thais's castle to recapture his lost Pamphila-for he is as niggardly as he is zealous-is turned into a farce."" And truly he turns out to be a mere vaporer. detests him: uerba. "Usque adeo eius ferrepossumineptiamet magnifica uapulabit. too. 418419.quin me amarentomnesplurimum. Worsted as a Pyrrhus. and abominates him: "Di uostramfidem! Hominemperditum et illum sacrilegum. 92ll. in the Miles Gloriosus. uerumenim si ad rem conferentur. Thraso is the more natural character. 785. his discourse peremptory. 1027. 401."97 Compared with Plautus's Pyrgopolinices. He takes his position-as did the great Pyrrhusin the rear.' His humour lofty. Chremes. his gait majestical and his general behavior vain. Il. On Gnatho's recommendationof his master as "a dolt. his eye ambitious. a fool and a blockhead. Characteristically Thraso feels greatly honored and expresses his appreciation: "Bene facisti: gratiamhabeomaxumam. his tongue filed. Il. 9' 1. nebulomagnusest. 426."" uerbadum sint. 741-2. But his jokes generally only bespeak his turpitude."' The slave Parmeno knows the class to which Thraso belongs. 479. ridiculous and Thrasonical. 490. vid. Pyrgopolinices is always 91 vid. She knows that an empty head is back of his bold front: "Sane quod tibi nunc uir uideaturesse hic. " It. He is as much a coward as the rustic." 2 miserumque Thais. . "? etiam fui usquam.Thraso's characteris summarized: " Holofernes says 'Novi hominem tamquam te. Thraso now assumes the part of Heracles: he surrendersto Thais and will serve her as Heracles served Omphale. also 1." he is admitted to the company of Chaereaand Phaedria to be fleeced of his wealth. 415.80 of Terence The Characters Many a time he has worsted his opponents by his wit-even the Rhodians.

(1853). Phormio's humor is psychological. never admitting defeat as possible. Phormio is the heavier Terentian creation. 25. He is dignified-almost it would seem of the same social station as his master's. he wins to himself every characterexcept the two old men. note on 1. He laughs more than the audience at the captain's jokes. His is not a strong individuality like Phormio's. Gnatho approximatesthe Plautine. Phormio and Gnatho. but as a sycophant. Geta and Parmeno. Riley's trans. belong to different classes of their kind. Terence makes his braggart prouder of his wit than of his military exploits. Eunuchus. To those he cares to make his friends he is an attractive fellow if only they could overlook his profession. wins his way not by powers of stratagem in a plot. He belongs to the class. loses his suit and is made the butt of the young fellows. Thraso is comparatively reserved. who secure their invitations by some 9epmarevrucot. Good cheer radiates from his person. Gnatho's wit is cheap and his manner superficial. envy them the ease with which they make their living. vid. so strongly are their traits and habits differentiated. Gnatho does not hesitate to use the boldest flattery. The slaves. acting at the same time the part of counselor to his patron. Playing with his dupes as with a toy. More than that.-in the clouds.G. K6XaKes. It would be possible for these two parasites to appear in the same play without duplicating each other. Thraso. never becoming verbose. . Phormio is triumphant. Knowing his master thoroughly. His advice is hackneyed: he has no insight into the real complexity of the situation. The plans he forms are unassailable. so naturally do they carry off " For this criticismand further contrast of the two captains. KennethG. nor using the extravagant bluster of Plautus's character. Gnatho. as does Phormio. his reasoning is unanswerable. Phormio carries all before him. his character of greater depth. services rendered.98 IV The two parasites of Terence. on the other hand.Phormio has a perfect command of the situation. a flatterer. Phormio would not stoop to act the clown. always with an eye to his own advantage. His patron. Phormio belongs to the class of or the officious. Henry 81 boasting of combats and blood. Thraso gains his ends by flattery.

"Hic ego illum contempsi pra me.p. 1. nitor. In the Hauton TimorumenosSyrus dominates Dromo. DickJung. der Rdmiscle. He takes on himself all responsibility for his acts.103 Ribbeck makes him a figure borrowed from the court of oriental life. 232-3. que habitudost corporis. In three pieces the slaves are paired and are foils."10' Gnatho. 815. In the Adelphoe Geta and Davos are opposing characters. 262. the parasite would seem to be a figure too well established in Greek society. dirty. risking the punishment that he fears awaits him. 83. to need any accounting for in a comedy of manners. He is the chief functionary in the movement of the play and is removed 99Plautus Most. in contrast. assertive Phormio and the boastful Gnatho. 104 p. is outwardly resplendent: "qui color. to misrepresentand cajole.114 However that may be. uestitus. Davos of the Phormioand the freedmanSosia of the Andria. sickly. '" U. 242. so great is the contrast with the resplendent. for he is down and out of the game of life. 239. " 1. 20 1. He hesitates not to cheat and lie. I03 Ancie CkzsskalDrama. In this fellow we see one of their profession in defeat and despair: stulto intellegens "hominihomoquid proestatI quid interest!"100 he exclaims. Gnatho is the "barbarousporridgeeater." specimen. Geschichic . and finds him in the characterin the title of a play of Epicharmus.. Two of them are protatic characters serving to start the play. "19 A third parasite is describedby Gnatho. V In the role of the male slaves we find the most characteristic feature of the Palliata. Moulton derives the parasite from the old Megarianfarce in which comedy originated.82 of Terence The Characters their part. the laggard Byrrhia sets off the wily Davos. "102 This unnamed fellow is scarcely recognizableas a parasite. In the Andria. calling to mind this "shabby. Davos of the Andria is a typical representativeof the slave who takes the part of the young master and schemes to get the better of the father. But Phormio is the dainty connoisseur.

Syrus of the Adelphoe alone surpasses him in cunning and lying. but consideringhimself the guardian spirit of the whole household. he laughingly exclaims that he can deceive either by telling the truth or by a falsehood. the whole business on which the plot rests-the introduction of the courtesan Bacchis. Geta's forte is rather to elucidate the situa- . but he engages in no scheming. KennethG. too engrossed in the dilemma to see the humor in any of the situations.G. against the old men and for the young fellows. Parmeno is no dolt. Syrus would rather not tell the truth if he can avoid it. He originates. Not all the slaves are as bold fellows as these three. and puts that theory into practise with perfect success. The other characters are too serious. tragic enough for them. the easier it will be to dupe old Chremes. Another strongly defined type of the crafty slave is Syrus in the Hauton Timorumenos. he never does anything by halves. Geta of the Phormioand Parmeno of the Eunuchus are more faintly drawn. He becomes a side issue. They are. too. A deus ex machinain the person of Hegio alone can unravel the maze woven by Syrus. he does not run to the excesses of the Syruses or of Davos. But Davos is light-hearted. He was sent only for Antiphila. who instructs him to use the privileges he as a slave enjoys. he asks himself. An extravagant fellow. only in getting the whole situation so complicated that almost every other characteris put in a ridiculousposition. He succeeds. Geta of the Phormiodoes not play so modest a r6le as Parmeno. provides the humor of the comedy. indeed. Parmeno even appeals to the old Laches to relieve the situation and thus throws the youths on the generosity of their father-an unprecedented proceeding on the part of the slave. They have no fellow slave associates. do a good turn and advance Clitipho's intrigue as well as Clinia's. The bolder the scheme. He even professedly takes the old man's side. Davos. Priding himself on his ability to lie. without even consulting the young master. Though a schemerby nature. why not. and rubs shoulders with all the main actors of the play. He is closely in touch with the arch schemer Phormio. Henry 83 from the action only by being put in the stocks at the order of the old master. for Pythias can outdo him in playing a joke. These three master hands and Phormio are the arch intriguers of Terence. however. and Chaerea dominates him.

Y15We reallv have four or five types: first.pp. Dromo in the Andria is a lorarius or flogger of slaves. deceptive Davos and Syruses. These two form the most pleasing picture of the slave in his relation to the household. too. He is a conscientious fellow of intelligence. the confidantof the old man Simo. is completely under the thumb of the young Pamphilus. of the Hecyra.84 of Terence The Characters tion. the supporter of the family of Sostrata and her daughter. Thraso's "bundle of rogues. The stupid slave. though his is the only slave part in the play. and in half a dozen words betrays to the father the whole secret of his young master. Parmeno. Parmenoin the Adelphoebeats the slave merchant Sannio whenever Aeschinus winks and then disappears. nor as scheming and stupid. too. 73 if . In some subordinate characters we have other types. is representedby Dromo in the Hauton Timorumenos and by Parmeno of the Hecyra. The relation of slave and young master is reversedfrom that which holds when the is kept away from the Syruses or Davos play the part. The old man Chremessavs he is not a slave worthy of the name. The braggadocio's slaves. who accompany their Storax is mentioned as one of the adversitores young master home at night. devoted to his family. bold. who belong to the lower grades of slave life. Again we have in Geta of the Adelphoe the faithful slave. Hardly has some new developmentarisen before Geta has reportedhis findings in a characteristicallydramatic style and flow of rhetoric. To his young master he is of no service. Dorus of the Eunuchus is a black eunuch. He himself is incapable of cunning. Dromo acts in concert with Syrus but exerts himself only when led by his fellow. Ribbeck. There are grades. The slave boy Dromo runs in. These slaves are not characterizedat all except as menials who render abject obedience to their masters. the more moderate Geta of the Phormioand Parmeno 5 But vid. Only the women are in possession of the secret to the complexity. who make up the mock army. for he is possessedof a ready tongue and is a born actor. Parnmeno scene of action." are introducedin the Eunuchus. With him may be classed the freedman Sosia of the Andria. The slaves of Terence then cannot be classified as good and bad. for the Hecyra admits of no wily slave and underhanded dealings. the scheming. Romisckeu Dichtunt. second. the dolt.

Dorio appearsin but one short scene. and finally the female servants. KennethG. Sostrata comes bravely to the defense of her scapegraceson. Henry 85 of the Eunuchus. Dorio has a dry irony. Sannio. and. the faithful Geta of the Adelphoe and the freedman Sosia.third. the stupid Dromo of the Hauton Timorumenos and lazy Parmeno of the Hecyra. Pathetic characters as they are.fourth. as a servant may be classed with the slaves. Nausistrata does not break out in a violent denunciation of . The shrewish wife is portrayed in the Phormio but is not overdrawn. The wife does not appear. finally.but the girl is one of the choosing of the boy and his mother. is but an incident of the Adelphoe. nor is she referredto in the Andria or the Eunuchus. A strong bond of affection binds Pamphilus and his mother in the Hecyra. the lower grade as representedby the floggers or Dorus. the contemptuous smile. the suave manner. Sannio is cross-grainedand incapable of humor. viz. the members of the meretrix class. Dorio carriesall before him.. VI The women of Terence may be consideredin four classes. the lofty tone. but the characterof the man and the knowledge on the part of the other charactersthat he is not to be trifled with. the heroines. the wives or mistresses of the household. give a basic motive for the action throughout. they rise above themselves when their children are threatened. yet they are triumphant in the denouement. is entirely lacking in Sannio. or Thraso's mock armv. Laches and Phidippus never even learn the secret of the entanglement. Aeschinus makes short work of him: he hesitates not at all to thrash him soundly and make his bargain afterwards. Of the characterof the slave dealerwe have two distinctly individualized types. The Hauton Timorumenos and Hecyra sketch three types of the wife who is dominated by her husband. Sannio is cringing and begs for mercy. The self-assurance of Dorio. Though timid and shrinking from the outbursts of passion vented on them by their consorts. who. and Chremesyields on condition that his son marry. Myrrhina has risked all in the protection of her daughter. on the other hand. These two slave merchants are alike only in that money is their passion. Clitipho.G. Dorio of the Phormio and Sannio of the Adelphoe.

Sostrata of the Hauton Timorumenos is a sentimentalist. When he is exposed she assumes an air of disdain and contempt which is left to the actor to emphasize -a fine instance of Terence'smoderationin characterportrayal. though the music girls and possibly some of the courtesans. the other plays one. her daughter has been sinned against by Aeschinus and then seemingly abandoned. Thais for example. is perhaps the most pathetic of any character in Terence. Chremes is exposed. The part played by husband and wife is reversed here from that in the and Hecvra. sympathy. and unity of purpose. In the Hecyra.Laches and Sophronagive an illustration of real affection. The husband becomes the butt of satire.86 The Characters of Terence the hypocrite she has for a husband. however. Of the heroines the Andria has two. sweetness of disposition. The term heroineis applied to those lady-loves who in the final solution of the play are differentiated from those of lighter virtue. sentimentality. In the same play Sostrata's sweet disposition is brought out by proving her innocent of a charge of repelling personality. In the Adelphoethe lonely widow. in the Hecyra. these matrons exhibit the various qualities of womanhood-affection. They are de trop. The other has innocently contracted a bigamous marriage with Chremes who has assumed a false name. carries out a secret plot and her husband never discovers the part she has played. The wife's Hauton Timorumenos charge of her husband's inability to manage her property is justified. One is dependent on her slave Geta for the necessities of life. the love of . friendless and penniless. termagancy. Sostrata in Adelphoe and the Lemnian wife of Chremes in the Phormioare the most pathetic. Deserted and penniless she makes her way to Athens with her daughter and nurse and dies of a broken heart. an entire lack of pleasant relations between the heads of the family. The old man and the old woman agree that this sort of life is too strenuous: they will retire to the country and leave the young people to themselves. while Myrrhina. Nausistrata of the Phormio is the dominating influence of the household. Alike in that thev are all pathetic. In fact. may with perfect propriety be so designated. There is not.

the old man in the Andria. gives a most charming picture of Glycerium's physical attractiveness. too. Sometimes. testify to their charms. who is their patroness and friend-practically a sister. g. and are scarcely differentiatedat all. e.for with them an honorable marriagecannot be contracted. Pamphila of the Eunuchus is most famed for her alluring beauty. Syrus in the Hauton Timorumenos. Some of these young women are passed over in silence except in so far as they are necessary to the plot.G. the young Chaerea. Thraso. young. are not strictly heroines. But as a rule they are described by the lovers and slaves as charming creatures. Such a proof is worked out in four plays. Henry 87 Phaedria for Thais forms the genuine love affairin the Eunuchus. Even in the Hecyra.. Eunuchus. they have been under the influence of some old woman who is only semi-respectable. KennethG. These characters are very much alike. in three of which the girl is shown to be the daughter of one of the old men. Though four of the seven have been sinned against by their lovers. Geta in the Phormio. Hauton Timorumenos. Parmeno. Bacchis. Thais. as in the Hauton Timorumenos.Parmeno in the Eunuchus. and the latter does not speak. their life has been closely associated with the meretrix of the piece. Pamphila in the Adelphoeis left unpraised. virtuous. The virtue of these young women is also enlarged upon. all accord her the palm as the greatest beauty of their day. Again. and here they resemble them in their possession of good looks. however. the young wife. The courtesans. In the Jiecyra as in the Plhormio the marriagehas taken place before the opening of the play. except as heroine types in contrast to the women of the courtesan class. . Every character of her acquaintance is impressed by it. the fostermother. In only two instances do the heroines appear on the stage-in the case of Antiphila of the Hauton Timorumenosand Pamphila of the Eunuchus. the former mistress of the young husband. Except in the case of Antiphila we know nothing of their personalitiesexcept as reported by other actors. Gnatho. and Phormio. The young men. all are virtuous and a legal marriageis consummatedafter proof of Athenian citizenship has been established. They are all beautiful. enlarge on their beauty. of course. appears and has an interview with Philumena. A ndria. her uncle. Simo. The slaves. as in the Andria and Eunuchus.

But Thais and Bacchis of the Hauton are a large part of the play and may be taken as repreTimorumenos sentative. are rent with the fear that their lovers have deserted them: Pamphila (Eunuchus)is in tears and dismay at the outcome of the adventure of the scapegrace Chaerea: Philumena. Chrysis. of the Eunuchus. lazy. says Terence. Clitipho himself characterizes her as "petrax.sumptuosa. 226). nobilis" (Haut.in the pangs of child-birth. Thais is modest and unassuming. The courtesans as portrayed bv Terence are of two classes. the representationof virtue in the heroineis heightened by the introduction of the courtesan. Parmeno. The latter predominate. is a loudvoiced. retinuesof slave girls. those whose hearts are pretty well hardened and those wlho still possess many of the finer qualities of womanhood.says this parade is all outward: that at home these women are dirty. Chaereatestifies to the embellishments of their homes.with a natural kindliness of heart and manner. But they have hearts. her great retinue of attendants and display of jewels are meant to impress the young men with the need she has for money to maintain her position. the antithesis of Thais. Bacchis (Hecyra) all plav the part of benefactressto the unprotected heroine. Her interest in Clitipho is mercenary and transient.-the unaffectedsimplicity of the one. objects of disgust. the wiles and mercenary interests of the other who trades on her beauty. stingy.-suggestive pictures. Chrysis is characterizedonly by reference. The delightfully frank conversation between Antiphila and Bacchis contrasts most clearly the two characters. baths. These young women are all made to suffer. All are victims of loose-living men and their lot is tragic. mercenarycreature. Thais. Bacchis of the Hecyra appears in but one scene. Terence has not an instance of humor or satire in their delineation. magnifica. She has no interest in life beyond moneygetting. Her saucy airs anidextravagant manners. They appeal to our sympathy and call forth not a smile. dainty couches. 1. She has no preferencefor him in comparisonwith the soldier-if the ten minx are not forthcoming. has an unacknowledgedchild and her own husband is the villain: even the more fortunate Antiphila and Phanium are outcasts. Bacchis.. an honored wife. Glvcerium and Pamphila (Adelphoe). and .88 of Terence The Characters In all. procax.

has led an uncongeniallife with a tyrant soldier at Corinth. Archylis of the Andria does not appear. Bacchis of the HIauton Timorumenos laughs it all off and plays the part that she may make provision against her old age. Hecyra and Adelphoe. She is in the backgroundof the Phormiowhen Antipho approachesthe old nurse as if she were a lena. 769) is the family nurse. Eunuchus. Prototypes of this old hag appear in the background of other plays. She belongs to the lowest order.she appears for but a few lines and scarcely speaks at all. IHecyra. or of whom there is any portrayal of characteror personality. and the only female servant in the Phormio. inexperienced. Syra is not only the most unattractive but the most useless characterin Terence.G. alone has less attraction than she. They are slaves in the hands of Dorio and Sannio. but a marriage cannot be contracted in the nature of the case. Henry 89 Chrysis and Thais prove it so. The mother of Thais is of the same character. Servant women are found in every play. These four are the full-fledged courtesans.-little more than the "noviciae" of Thais's establishment. her companion. Such a character is hinted at in the old woman who controlled Antiphila when Clinia went abroad and who caused the young lover to fear for the virtue of his sweetheart. Each is accomplished in music. Pamphila of the Phormio and Callidia (Bacchis) of the Adelphoeprovide the girls for the secondary love plot in their plays.. Like Thais they are left in the hands of the young lover. Syra. T'hus their value as slave girls is enhanced. however. and probably Canthara (And. and now again practices her profession at Athens. they have not yet set up an establishment of their own. KennethG. They are less experiencedin their profession than Thais or Bacchis or Chrvsis. Philotis is a more common meretrix. beautiful. is the only such character who really appears. The nurse is the character common to all. They are not individualized.-the recognizing of the . In the Hauton Timorumenos. the friendship of some courtesan or the suspicion that they are Athenian citizens have the heroines often been saved from the lot of these young girls. She has been abroad. 1. Only by some good fortune. the old woman lena. In the Ilauton Timorumenosand Eunuchus she performs the same function. Another type is the music girl. Tender in years. Syra. Adelphoe.

and is a foil to the painstaking. As a rule the nurse is but a stock character. Two of them are more clearly individualizedthan the others. The name Cantharain the Andria.90 of Terence The Characters trinkets in the possession of the young girl.is characterizednot at all. But Sophronais a forcefulpersonality. Phrygia. Canthara of the Adelphoe and Sophrona of the Phormio. Mlysis has little humor or alertness of wit. she is a vivacious little hussy who approachesclosely to the ing6.who utter a word or so when promptedby their companion. Outside of these two there is little individuality. Hauton Timorumenos. A second class of female servants is the maid-servant of the young heroine or of the courtesan: Mysis of the Andria.is only mentioned by name. common to all plays. Sophronaplays a more ambitious part than any of the others. Adelphoemay indicate her tippling propensities or else that she dispensed the wine of the household. Mysis wishes she would practice her profession elsewhere rather than choose her household for an exhibition of rashness. She is characterizedin the Andria and Hecyra as fond of good eating and drinkling. The slave maid of Thais. Phrygia. known also for her tippling. She is mere putty in the hands of wily Davos. the midwife of the Andria. who delights in a bout with the slave Parmeno and against whom she easily proves herself a match. But Pythias is a girl of lively humor. who are little more than figureheads. the wife of Syrus in the Adelphoe. who characterizesher as one of the hetxera. thus establishing the heroine's Athenian birth.Pythias and Dorias of the Eunuchus. In the Hecyra she is fetched by Laches from outside the household. In the Phormio also she establishes the fact that Antipho's wife and Chremes'sdaughterare one and the same. Coming on the stage constantly during . The fidelity of these old nurses to their mistressesis their prevailing characteristic. In the other five plays she has been in the family long years. She does not belong in the household. At the death of the girl's mother she assumes the responsibilityand acts as the head of the household. With the nurse may be classed also Lesbia. one of Bacchis's retinuie. Only Canthara of the Adelphoeis comparable to her and she fills a much more modest place in the story. Phrygia of the Hauton Timorumeitos. devoted nurse. She is even responsiblefor the marriageof Phanium and Antipho.nueof modern comedy. and gives Phanium in marriageto save her from the perils of poverty.

l 11 1002-1004. 718. she is sure. 07 1. KennethG. He. apagesis. 720. 727 ff. 1121. 859-860. 0o 1. she enlivens the movement. "I1. is the prompter of all this mischief.G. quam quod modo senex intro ad nos uenit errans. . Pythias cautions her to beware of the young fellow. 'u U. queequid timeretscibam. Henry 91 the last half of the play."12 Old scores may now be settled: "Inueniampol hodie paremubi referamgratiam. 719." says she. 109 U 883-884.Parmeno and even her own mistress.109 As to admitting him again into the house she thinks Thais puts far too much reliance in him:110 " Neque pol seruandum tibi quiquamdare ausim neque te seruare. 531 f. He furnishes her more amusement when he returns from the captain's house somewhat drunk. 897. 903-4. She takes privileges in her address to Chremes."'08 When Chaereaexpresseshis admirationfor Thais."'I" "Please God."111 Pythias also turns her attention to Parmeno. mihi solmridiculofuit.'0" and increaseshis suspicions that there is a plot laid for him by these city ladies. she trumps up a cock and bull story.107 But she loses her temper when Chaerea confronts her: 'ui contineo me quin inuolem monstroin capillum. This delights Pythias immensely: "Numquamedepolquicquamiam diu quod magis uellemeuenire mi euenit. 08 II. "a1. if he shows signs of becoming enamoredof her. "I hope I shall have the chance to make him "14 Aware that Chaerea is being treated suffer after my own fashion. and represents to Parmeno that the boy is bound and about to be castrated for a ravisher."" 0611. She has some fun with the rustic Chremes upon finding him knocking at her door. She frightens Parmeno so thoroughly that perforce he confesses the outrage to Laches. better than he deserves. Chaerea. she wouldn't trust him in anything.

non satis potest narrari. was never revived at Rome. She is devotedly loyal to Thais. in political comedy. then.1"8 Terence's comedy is a comedy of manners. Energetic. are the characters of Terence. possessing a glib tongue. Phaedria seems to recognisePythias as possessed of keen insight for he turns the eunuch. Mysis is incapable of a joke. mischievous disposition is found nowhereelse among Terence'schiaracters. She tells the story of Chaerea's folly so convincingly.Antipho. the one lively and bold. too. contribute to the making of the Eunuchus the greatest of Terence'scomedies. As a result we have in Terence no philosophers. Dorus. The girl Dorias is but a foil to Pythias.92 The Characters of Terence " Peri. free to express herself.Lecture XIV. Chremes. . A political comedy had been attempted by Naevius but had resulted in his exile. much less of plaving pranks on Davos. Mysis and Pythias are two individualized types of the slave girl. that she puts that seriousminded youth at his wit's end. defessa iam sum misera te ridendo. if they come to be dealt with at her hand. Schlegel' '*Dramatic Literature". "I" Pythias speaks her mind freely to Phaedria. the outgrowth of the Athenian democracy. the other serious and unassuming.no statesmen t16 ll. over to her to be questioned about the astounding affair at Thais's house. Pythias is spicy and lends humor to the Eunuchus. The public attack of Aristophanes. U7 II. Pythias. or of the refinementor decay attendant on a brilliant social centre. 1009-1010. 1007-1008. tli vid. VII These. The delicate strokes in portrayingthe minorcharactersof the Eunschus. ''1 "Numquam pol hominem stultiorem uidi nec uidebo. "Now do you fully believe I'm sober and have told you no lie?" she exclaims when Phaedriais cornered. quos ludos prmbucris intus. Pythias lords it over her own household and woe to aniyonewho threatens its peace. ah. But a female slave of such a jolly. There is no portrayalof court life or the mannersof an imperialcapital. and thereforethe maidenPamphilais entrusted to her special care. They all belong to the middle class of society.

And in general the men. a parasite. The scenic arrangements unquestionably restrict the variety of characters. his rural training is pictured in his lack of knowledge of life and his boorish manners. and the country youth. Chremes. KennethG. their wives. the parts representedgrow monotonous. are without occupation. the Eunuchus nineteen. a soldier. or scarcely a characterengaged in any active business. a distant kinsman.a nurse. Their homes are within view of the audience. for example. a leno. all living within the houses facing the stage. WVe have no picture of the inner shrine of the home. 1" It is noteworthy that the youths who are not iovers belong outside the householdsof the stage . Chaereais not portrayed as a military youth. Nor are there any tradesmen. and in the boastful soldier of the Eunuchus. it may be assumed. All belong to a well-to-do middle class who are supported by the income from their estates. maid-servants. Menedemus has adopted farm labor as a penance but he is no farmer. Introduct. a lawyer. All the action of the drama was supposed to take place in the open air. The marks of an occupation are perhaps emphasized in the lawvers of the Phormio. They are therefore domestic personages: old men. a daughter. They all occupy the same position in society and fill practically the same function in the plot.G. This cast of characters provides variety enough for a play. He is on patrol duty at the Piraeus. Chaerea of the Eunuchusalone of the young men has a serious occupation."9 The main charactersare residents of the neighborhood. Two old men meet us in every play but the Eunuchus. The lawyers of the Phormio are the nearest approach to any such persons. but we have only an incidental note of the fact. But if a comparisonbe made between the plays. sons. has twelve characters besides the meretrix Chrysis and the heroine Philumena.'20their life is centred in a mictress of whom their fathers disapprove. slaves. Others appear who have business with these domestic personages: the meretrix. in Eunuchuts. Ashmore'sTerence. The hus119 vid. The A ndria. By convention the scene is a public street or a square where three or four streets meet. is a farmer. So also the sons are all passionately in love. old and young. Henry 93 or political characters of any sort. the Phormio thirteen. Thev all are involved in the love intrigues of their sons or the marriage of their daughters.

The same holds for the two slave merchants. These are the types. The two parasites really furnish more variety than the dozen or more slaves. In the slave we have all grades of intelligence. but viewed as a whole they form just one class. Syrus and Davos have the greatest intelligence and engage in deep-laid schemes. But the Adelphoe presents Syrus and Geta and Dromo and Parmeno. Gnatho and Phormio. Sosia. So when the type reappears in every piece and the part he has to play is worked again into the plot. we feel.-without the dash of youth. and the type is not repeated to the point of surfeiting. As a character the slave is indispensable. indeed. The Andria practically repeats the parts in Davos. Geta of the Phormio and Parmeno of the Eunuchues play a more moderate role. We have the lively and gay. while Dromo and Byrrhia are dullards. the freedman. conscientious slave. Open affection on the part of the old men appears only in the widower Menedemus and in the old bachelor Micio.94 The Characters of Terence bands are eternally arguingwith their wives. the lover-and this lover becomes a hackneyed. the final result leaves much to be desired in point of variety. Sosia. almost differentstrata of society. . They are too much alike. In the young men we have altogether too little variety. The process of filching money from the old gentleman's pocket and the guaranteeing of a wife or a mistress for the young gentleman are highly entertaining: but monotony of plot makes only for monotony of character. Aeschinus'sadopted father. Bvrrhia and Dromo. All the slaves of the household are portrayed from the confidant of the old gentleman to the cook and the lorarius.-with rare exceptions they are dull and uninteresting. individually some distinctive keynote. the lazy and dull. Lose him and we lose all. the gloomy and grumbling. and Geta of the Adelphoerepresent the dutiful. belong to different types of men. They have. stock character by the time we have examined half of the plays. The life in an Athenian household appears to consist largely in a combat between father and mother over the discipline of the son. This vastly enhances the interest in them and in their individuality. He I)rovides the action and much of the humor of the play. Sannio and Dorio.

We wonder at the boldness and dashing airs of Bacchis. who in turn soon loses her charms and becomes early in life the cross-grainedold Syra. . we cannot but feel that the play suffers by the absolute disregard for her presence: for she remains dumb and no actor notices her presence through the fifty lines that follow her entrance with the parasite Gnatho. The other heroines are lifeless and dumb. Being under the patronage of Thais. or under the control of some old woman. generally portrayed as possessing much kindliness of heart and capable of generous actions. therefore. Notwithstanding the repetition of the character in the various plays we find in this meretrix character much variety. with a thrill of delight that we find that Antiphila in the Hauton Timorumenosis to be a live character speaking frankly with Bacchis and meeting her lover on his return from abroad in a true love scene. Terence has introduced the beautiful Pamphila. and finally the old woman lena. All are pitiable. 9. She is a character that makes no second appearance. Henry 95 The foreign mistress belongs to every play. KennethG. Q Ouoted from Varroby St. perhaps she is regardedas being on the border line. introduced as useful to the plot but providing no variety. It is. however. The blooming young girl. They are as monotonous as the nurse who appears in every play. like Syra or the old women in the background. Terence has made bold to introduce her. Dei. The characters are finely drawn.G. Since. who have once been meretrices but now trade on young novices. Pamphila. The heroines are the most disappointing of all unless it be their young lovers. We admire Thais and Chrysis immensely. soon develops into the boisterous Bacchis. a real heroine. Her presence and delightful conversations add a world of interest to the Hauton Timorumenos. eking out a pitiable existence. We reflect with pity on the music girls.-a stock character. We are told that reputable unmarried women at Athens could not appear in public and are thereforeexcluded from the stage. heightened most probably by the fact that we learn more of her in Terence than belongs to the experienceof moderns. XVIII. secondly. Augustine. however. the fullfledged courtesan. de Civil. We have first the young girl who is scarcely more than a novice in the hands of the slave merchant.t In the Eunuchus.

quod non sit dictum priub. sycophanta autem impudens. Eugraphius remarks: "hac. auarus leno. impudens sycophanta. 11. nam serui officium est currere. 472-473) has his list: "Ardentis iuuenis. odisse.36-41. qui magis licet currentem seruom scribere. amare. El. raptasque in amore puellas. meretrices malas. elusosque senes. autem.) que ueteres factitarunt. falli per seruom senem.96 of Terence The Characters The ancients themselves recognized the lack of variety in these characters. not permanently . suspicari? denique nullumst iam dictum. 64. They end where they began. parasitus autem edax est. " The devices of the iiitrigues are so similar. 46): "Comcedia sunt qui privatorum hominum acta dictis ac gestu canebant atque stupra virginum et amores meretricum in suis fabulis exprimebant. " Apuleius gives almost a complete summary of the characters: "et et et et et et leno perfidus et amator feruidos seriulus callidus et amica indulgens uxor inhibens et mater indulgens patruus obiurgator et sodalis opitulator miles prcliator sed et parasiti edaces parentes tenaces et meretrices procaces. leno auarus est." The characters are stereotyped as the adjectives indicate. XVI. 11. XVIII. vixerit et meretrix blanda.35-42. " (Prol. senis irasci. Or again: s. 1." (Florida. Eunuchus. durus pater. 11. Says Ovid (Amores. improbus leno. faciunt novi. iratus senex. " (Prol. Menandros erit. Manilius (V. 15): "Dum fallax seruos. puerum supponi.. quxe nunc nominauit. propria uidentur esse personarum. Hauton Tim.B.) Commentino on which. the plots have so many points in common that a lack of variety of characters is the result. bonas matronas facere." Terence himself in his prologuesstates that he employs onlv characters that had already been made familiar to his audiences: dEquod si personis isdem huic uti non licet. agilesque per omnia seruos.eruos currens.) The fixed character of the plot is pointed out by Isidorus (Origines. We do not see these various charactersof Terence grow and develop as the play advances. edax parasitus..

Demea shows a violent change of front in the Adelphoe. arise the several monotonous features that cannot but be deplored. A violent conversion. Simo in the Andria seems to undergo a retrogressionfrom a fair-minded individual to a man of passion. We have only an incident of the story. We think of Macbeth as hurryingon to his crime with fearful rapidity after his meeting with the witches. Terence rises above his restrictions and exhibits a remarkable tech122 vid. Chaerea makes some advanice. 173-174.12" Shakespeare'smen live in a sort of idea. for growth by stages. 1 take it. if we may so designate them. These instances come nearest to a growth of persorality. In the Hecyra. This is inevitable in the classic drama. irresponsibleboy he grows in a day to a sense of responsibility. but he is a man that could never develop or be truly reformed. T'heir real life is in the Boule and the Prytaneum or in the Stoa.l world.G. however. violent individual as I)efore. is all that is possible. There is not the time for reflection. for. Hudson's Shakespeare: His Art and Characters.for purpose to altemate with purpose. He professes to have undergonea complete conversion. These are the regrettable features of his comedy. Out of these conv-entions. Terence's people live in a matter-of-fact world and the incidents of an Athenian houselholdare merely passing phases in their experience. When the storm has blown over. a convention of scenic arrangements. the gradual unfolding of a Shakespearean character. Henry 97 affected by the other actors of the story. a convention of plot. KennethG. His temper is the same. he yields a half consent to his son's marriage. Within so limited a space of time and place it is unnatural for a man to be permanently affected. pp. But if. but he has had weeks for reflection. . in spite of these and possibly other limitations. They are mastered by their imagination. such as Demea's. He is the same immoderate. Unquestionably Terence is restricted by various conventionsa convention as to variety of characters allowable. Laches and his wife grow closer together as a result of the recent quarrel. but his character is not much changed. but it is not clearly evident that a permanent unity of interest has been established that will affect their future relations. There is nothing approximating. extravagant. From a dashing. for example. there is more portraval of the Athenian character in Demosthenes or Plato than in Menander.

Florida.'2' This moderation and of Terence's characters. et c'est la qu'est le charme. T."123 There is none of the bold conception of Plautus. "x25 Qui uitw ostendit uitam uerbisque 123 Sainte Beuve. RomanPodAsof the Republic. but rather a cultured. Nouveau Lundi. The words of Apuleius in praise of Menander are as fittingly applied to Terence: "Quis (quibuspersonis)in cunctasuamproduxitsecula uitam sub floreMenander Doctor in urbe sua linguae sacrauit. a delineation of nature. The strength of Terence'scharacterslies in their unity and moderation. The notable advance of Terence's diction over the Latin play writer of only a generationearlieris universally recognized. Nothing is forced or twisted to bring the character within the limits of the scheme. sympathetic insight into and appreciation of men. consistencv constitute the greatest charnm The people of his comedy are good for all time and all conditions. All is natural. Urbanity and humanitv must have permeated the man and these qualities are reflected in the poet.98 The Characters of Terence nique in character portrayal. 474-476. 52Apuleius. "Terence ne la force pas du tout. 124 vid. The purpose of this paper will have been accomplishedif these defects and redeeming features in technique have been faithfullv and adequately illustrated.V. the genius of the poet is all the more noteworthv. Sellar. . truthful. Nothing is overdrawn. The advance in character portrayal is as remarkable. 5.