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DRAFT RECLAMATION AND REHABILITATION PLAN FOR Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt.

Ltd. (ML- 2175) CEC CATEGORY-B; 64.75 Ha

Submitted by

Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education


(An autonomous body of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India)

ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT DIVISION Directorate of Extension


P.O.-New Forest, Dehradun-248006 (UK)
Website: www.icfre.gov.in

TABLE OF CONTENT
SL.No. ABBREVIATION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1.1 1.2 1.3 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.4 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.10.1 2.10.2 2.11 2.11.1 2.11.2 2.12 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.2 3.2.1 3.3 3.3.1 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 Background Scope of the study Methodology CHAPTER-2 MINE DESCRIPTION Introduction Location of mine Mining plans and environmental clearances Mining Plan and Mining scheme Environmental clearance (EC) Forest clearance (FC) Consent to operate Recommendations of the Central Empowered Committee (CEC) after Joint Survey Mining methodology Mine profile Mining machineries Mine Pits Mine dumps Sub grade ore Exploration Past exploration Proposed Exploration Mine development and production Estimated ore reserve Stripping ratio Roads Approach roads Haulage roads Transportation of ore Existing transportation facilities Proposed transportation facility Safety zone CHAPTER 3 BASELINE STATUS Study Area Climate Physiographic/ topography of Mine Lease Area Regional geology Local geology Land Use Pattern of Chikkanyakanahalli Taluk .LandUsePatternofmineleasearea Physical Environment Soil Air Environment Noise Environment Water Environment PARTICULARS PAGE No. i i-vi 1 2 2 4 5 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 11 11 12 14 14 14 14 14 15 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 18 19 20 21 23 25 25 28 29 30 32 33

CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION

3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.6 3.6.1 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 4.1.8

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.3.1 53.2 5.3.3 5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4 5.4.5 5.4.6 5.4.7 5.4.8 5.4.9 5.4.10 5.4.11 5.4.12 5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.6

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

Biological environment Flora Fauna Social environment Demographic Status of the Mine Affected Villages CHAPTER 4 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Environmental Impacts Impact on Landscape Impact on Ecology Impact on air quality Impact of noise and vibration Impact on Water Quality Impact on Soil Fertility Impact on Aquatic Life Impact on Society CHAPTER 5 RECLAMATION AND REHABILITATION PLAN Introduction Reclamation and Rehabilitation Plan for Area under Encroachment Reclamation and Rehabilitation Plan for Area under mine lease Stabilization of dump Waste Dump Surface Water Management Biological Measures Species selection Importance of grasses Importance of Leguminous plant species Overburden Dumps Management Mine Pit Management and Rehabilitation Management of Refractory Sites Mine Drainage Management and Rehabilitation Management of Haul roads Afforestation Greenbelt Development Plan Recommended Plant Species Indicative Cost of Developing Green Belt Biodiversity Conservation Plan Flora Fauna Aquatic Fauna Soil Management CHAPTER 6 PRODUCTION CAPACITY Production Capacity Based on Reserve Production Capacity Based on Dump Production Capacity Based on Infrestructure Facilities Combined Production Capacity Based on Reserves, Dumps and Roads CHAPTER 7 SUPPLEMENTARY ENVIRONMENTAL SAFEGUARDS Supplementary Environmental Safeguards General Observations and Additional Measures Field observations Implementation and Monitoring

35 35 37 37 37 39 39 39 39 40 40 41 41 41

42 43 45 45 45 51 54 55 56 57 58 60 62 63 64 65 69 69 70 71 72 73 74 76

79 80 81 82

83 84 85 85

7.5 Indicative Cost Summary of the Proposed Plan 7.6 Time Schedule BIBLIOGRAPHY Annexure-I-III

87 90 91

LIST OF TABLE 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 7.1 7.2 Summary of the specific findings for ML 2175 Non electrical machinery deatils as on 1-4-2012 Year-wise details of proposed production and generation of waste Category wise details of reserves as on 1.4.2009 Modified reserves in last approved SOM as on 1.4.2009 Category wise modified reserves in last approved SOM as on 1.4.2009 Existing transport facilities The details of Safety zone in ML 2175 Annual average rainfall data for Chikkanyakanahalli taluk from 2001 to 2010 The overall general succession of Chikkanyakanahalli belt (Order of super position) Land use pattern of Chikkanyakanahalli Taluk Existing, proposed and conceptual land use of ML Soil samples locations in core and buffer zone of the mine lease area Soil Physical and Chemical Properties Location of Air Sampling Stations in Core and Buffer Zone Ambient Air Quality (g/cum) in Core Zone & Buffer Zone Noise Level (dB) in Core Zone and Buffer Zone along with Applicable Standards. Water Quality Sampling Location Comparative Study of Few Parameters of Ground Water Quality Land Use Pattern of Mine Affected Villages Demographic Details of Mine Affected Villages (2001) Indicative cost of plantation for encroachment area as per CEC Encroached Dump details Indicative Cost of Proposed Engineering Measures in Encroached Area of ML- 2175 Proposed Engineering Measures Of Surface Water Management Of Encroached ML- 2175 Dump details Indicative costs of Proposed Engineering Measures of Surface Water Management inside ML- 2175 Indicative cost of proposed engineering measures of surface water management with in lease Grasses Recommended for Soil Moisture Conservation (SMC) and slope stabilization. Leguminous species recommended for Nitrogen enrichment in the soil. Species Recommended for Hydro seeding Plant Species suitable for OB Dump and Mine Pit stabilization Plant Species suitable for Stabilization of Refractory Sites Plant Species suitable for Stabilization of Nala/Drain Courses Plant Species recommended for Avenue Plantation along Mine Haul Roads Multipurpose Plant Species recommended for Eco-reclamation and Eco-rehabilitation of Mine Areas Plant Species recommended for Greenbelt Development along Safety Zone Indicative Cost Estimate for Developing Green Belt in Safety Zone Plant species recorded in the proposed Biodiversity area Category wise details of reserves as on 1.4.2009 Modified reserves in last approved SOM as on 1.4.2009 Category wise modified reserves in last approved SOM as on 1.4.2009 Details of capacity for various sections of road Criteria for Estimation of Permissible Production limit for ML Cost Summary of the Proposed Plan 2 Time Schedule for Implementation of Reclamation and Rehabilitation Plan for ML-2175 8 10 14 14 15 15 16 17 19 23 25 25 29 30 31 31 32 35 35 38 38 43 43 44 45 46 50 54 56 57 58 60 63 64 65 66 69 70 71 79 79 80 81 82 89 90

LIST OF FIGURE 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 5.1 5.2 5.3 Key Plan of ML-2175 Google Map of ML-2175 CEC sketch of ML-2175 Map showing the Surface Plan of ML-2175 Index Map of the CN Halli Taluk Geological features of Tumkur district Geological plan map of ML 2175 Land use / land of study area Conceptual Land Use / Land Of ML-2175 Map showing air water, soil monitoring station Proposed Back Filling Plan Dump management plan. Surface water management plan 6 7 9 13 18 22 24 26 27 28 47 46 52

PLATES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Mine Pit Sub grade ore dump Gully Formation along the Dump Retaining Wall along the OB dump Silt Settling Tank below the OB dump Eastern side OB Dump

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

DESIGN Engineering Structure of Toe Wall Engineering Structure of Silt Settling Tank Engineering Structure of Log Wood Check Dam Engineering Structure of Brush Wood Check Dam Engineering Structure of Check Dam

ABBREVIATION

S.No.

Abbreviation

Full form

BCA 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

Biodiversity Conservation Area Below Detectable Level Banded Hematite Quartzite Central Empowered Committee Central Pollution Control Board Down the Hole Environment Clearance Environment Impact Assessment Environment Management Plan Forest Clearance Federation of Indian Mineral Industries Farmyard Manure Heavy Earth Moving Machinery Indian Bureau of Mining Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mine Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education kilometer Karnataka State Pollution Control Board Equivalent Sound Level Million Cubic Meter Mining Impact Zone Mine Lease Ministry of Environment and Forests Mean Sea Level Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd Million Ton Per Annum National Highway
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BDL BHQ CEC CPCB DTH EC EIA EMP FC FIMI FYM HEMM IBM SIOM ICFRE km KSPCB Leq MCM MIZ ML MoEF MSL TMPL MTPA NH

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.

OB ppm PPV R&R RET


RWHP

Over Burden Part Per Million Peak Particle Velocity Reclamation and Rehabilitation Rare Endangered and Threatened
Rain Water Harvesting Pit

SES SHG SMC


SMCD

Supplementary Environmental Safeguards Self Help Groups Soil Moisture Conservation


Stone Masonry Check Dams

SMP SOM SoM SPCB SPV


SST

Social Management Plan Soil Organic Matter Scheme of Mining State Pollution Control Board Special Impose vehicle
Silt Settling Tanks

UNFC WPA

United Nation Framework Classification Wildlife Protection Act

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. The Honble Supreme Court of India has directed the Government of Karnataka to formulate Reclamation and Rehabilitation Plan (R&R) for the mine affected districts viz., Bellary, Chitradurga and Tumkur. The Government of Karnataka, keeping in view the National Environmental Standards and the commitment for sustainable management of environment has awarded Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehra Dun the study to formulate R&R plan, vide letter No. DMS/MLS/R&R/2011-12 dated 27.12.2011. Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mine (SIOM), mine lease No. 2175 of Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. was visited by team on 29th August, 2012. 2. The scope of the study includes collection and assessment of the existing scenario and environment status data such as topography, production technology, overburden dump, top soil, soil conservation measures, environmental quality, to assess impacts and formulation of site specific R&R plan. 3. Considering the time limit and constraints in collection of baseline data on the existing environmental status the study had to mainly relay on the secondary sources of information viz., EIA/EMP reports, Mining Scheme, environmental monitoring conducted by external agencies such as the SPCB, Department of Mines and Geology, and mine owners. 4. The Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (Mining lease No. 2175) is spread over an area of 64.75 ha. of government revenue land. The mining lease was originally granted to Mysore Minerals who surrendered the Mining Lease No. 1633 spread over an extent of 535 acres (216.50 ha) in Sondenahalli and other villages in C.N. Halli Taluka, Tumkur District. On dated 3-8-1987. In 1988 this entire area of 535 acres was notified for re-grant and one Mr. H. Noor Ahamad applied for allotment. The Govt of Karnataka (commerece and Industry department) in its notification CI/59/MMM/90 dated 26-5-1993 sanctioned Mining Lease ML 2175 in favour of Mr. H. Noor Ahmed for a period of 20 years for Manganese and Iron ore along with Clay over an area of 200 acres only in survey no. 37 & 41. Further in its corregendum, no. CI/59/MMM/30 dt. 24-8-1993, the Govt of Karnataka reduced the area from 200 acres to 160 acres (64.75 ha)

Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

5. An area of 2.38 ha has been identified by CEC as encrochment by Mining Pit, 2.45 ha encrochment by overburden dumps and 3.22 ha encrochment. 6. The entire region of the district is covered by Archaen rocks consisting mainly of schistose rocks, peninsular gneiss and Hospet granite. Chlorites, Quartzite, Haematite bearing quartzite, Limestone, Dolomite, Pegmatites, Diorites are occasionally found. 7. There is only one existing pit lying on the south-western part of the ML with Dimensions of 340 m length 200m width 47 m depth, covering an area of 8.9 ha.Pit on the western side has an enchrochment of 2.38 ha which was developed earlier. On the eastern side, pits have 11 benches (including sub-benches) with the top most RL of bench as 1003 m and bottom most RL as 945 m. Bench height is varying from 2m to 9m, while bench width is varying from 3m to 11m. 8. The stripping ratio on the basis of actual production during last five years is 1:1.37. 9. The lease area falls in Chikkanyankanahalli taluk of Tumkur District, and this is a part of southern Maidan region with an undulation plateau. The distrct is also known for dry climate. The temperature varies between 12o C and 38oC. The relative humidity values range from 34.3 to 99.8 % with an average rainfall of 740 mm/annum. 10. The process of mining has changed the physical, biological and sociological environment in terms of degradation and large unscientific overburdens dumps. The proposed R&R plan has been aimed for topographic reconstruction with eneineering and biological measures for erosion control, re-vegetation with adequate soil amendments including mycorrihizal fungi for re-establishment of nutrient cycle for sustainability of restoration. 11. Engineering measures in the restoration process have been proposed based on the hydrological condition on the micro watershed basis and compatibility of the surrounding area stability and drainage density. The plan includes the enlisting of the proposed engineering structures within and outside lease with inclusive of cost. 12. The vegetation occurring in the area belongs to Southern tropical dry deciduous forests the area under study falls under the mixed deciduous sub-classification (As per the classification of forest types of India proposed by Champion and Seth, (1968). According to the Classification proposed by Legris and Pascal (1982) area falls under deciduous climax forests.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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13. Biological measures for management of overburden dumps, mine pit area, mine drainage, surface water, haul road etc., have been suggested by providing an exhaustive list of indigenous species which may be selected to support the vegetation growth. Suitable tree species having timber, fodder, fuel wood and medicinal uses have been recommended for restoration of the mined out areas and overall ecosystem development. 14. As a biodiversity conservation measure, it has been suggested to set aside an area of approximately 5.0 ha considering the importance of the forest ecosystem in terms of its environmental services. 15. The production capacity based on reserves, dump and road capacity for ML 2175 has been estimated 0.06, 0.29 and 0.92 million tonnes per annum (MTPA) respectively. Considering the present available information or facilities, the annual production limit of 0.06 million tonnes based on reserves may be considered, which is minimum among the three criteria. 16. Rehabilitation and Reclamation plan will be useful in providing a framework and process to various target groups, the Industry, Regulatory Agencies, the Mine Companies and others interested in Iron Ore Mining for undertaking scientific rehabilitation and reclamation of mined out areas. This will also provide the essential insight in environmentally safe planning of mining activities in future. The estimated cost of the Reclamation and Rehabilitation plan is proposed to be Rs. 107.11lakhs (Rupees One crore seven lakhs eleven thousands only), excluding the cost for Biodiversity Management Plan, Monitoring and Evaluation, Capacity Building, development of common infrastructure, etc. The cost proposed is indicative and may vary as per the common scheduled of rates of Government of Karnataka, actual dimensions of the engineering structures and local field conditions. 17. The rehabilitation and reclamation program is aimed to produce an ecosystem which fulfills and encourages the development of floral, faunal and soil characteristics similar to that of the pre-mining stage. However, the success of the Reclamation and Rehabilitation plan will depend upon its proper implementation and rigorous monitoring which can be ensured only through a specialized institution that has the requisite competence, composite scientific expertise and professionals. The capacity building of the personals involved in implementation of this plan by an expert scientific organization is also an essential input for the successful implementation of this plan.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

18. The R & R Plan which synthesizing a very specialized ecological, vegetational and other biological and engineering measures needs to be executed and monitored annually by the organizations/institutes having specialization in scientific aspects of complex vegetation site interactions and energy flux in the ecosystem over time and space. In our country there are limited institutions which are having a composite expertise and experience in execution and monitoring of such specialized tasks. Therefore, consortium of institutes headed by ICFRE may be formulated for effective monitoring and the implementation of the R & R Plan. 19. Further, the task force constituted as per the recommendation made in Chapter-9 of the macro EIA report- ICFRE can ensure proper monitoring and implementation of R&R plan, EMP and Capacity building of the personal involved in the implementation of proposed plan. And, these parameters should be the key indicators while revalidating the mine plan with good mining practice.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. BACKGROUND

ICFRE

The Honble Supreme Court of India, considering the severe and significant damage caused due to unscientific and unregulated mining in Bellary, Chitradurga and Tumkur districts in Karnataka and based on the Macro level EIA report submitted by ICFRE directed the Government of Karnataka to submit a Reclamation and Rehabilitation (R & R) Plan for the mine affected districts. The Government of Karnataka, keeping in view the National Environmental Standards and the commitment for sustainable management of environment has awarded the study and formulation of R & R plan to Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehra Dun vide letter No.DMG/MLS/R & R /2011-12, dated, 27.12.2011. The work assigned to ICFRE includes: Preparation of R & R Plan for the mining leases found to be involved in illegal mining. Preparation of Supplementary Environment Management Plan (SEMP) for incorporating additional environmental safeguards in respect of the leases not found to be involved in illegal mining. Comprehensive environmental plan for Mining Impact Zone (MIZ) for the areas surrounding the mining leases area including all the leases and non working leases. o o Short term measures, and Long term measures

ICFRE initiated the R & R study in association with domain experts and in consultation with district administration, to develop a plan, by identifying mines as per list given by CEC. Accordingly, the Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mine (SIOM), mine lease No. 2175 of Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd., in C. N. Halli Taluk, Tumkur District, one of the listed mines, was studied. The main objectives of the study are as under: To delineate the level of degradation in various environment aspects, such as physical, biological and sociological, due to mining. To identify suitable site specific model plan for rehabilitation and reclamation. To provide code of practices and guidelines for pollution reduction, recovery,
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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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reuse and recycling as well as frame work for rehabilitation and reclamation plan. The study to formulate mine specific R & R Plan based on the National Environmental Standards, limits for the pollutants, framework to protect the mine area and the ambient environment with techno-economically and ecologically acceptable methods, to the achieve the concept of sustainable development. The team of experts from ICFRE with the help of domain experts undertook a detailed survey of the JIOM mine lease. 1.2. SCOPE OF THE STUDY The scope of the study inter-alia includes review of baseline data for the selected mines, which will include: Baseline data generation. Technology presently used in iron and manganese ore mining and pollution control measures adopted. In-depth study of selected mines for formulating R & R Plan after classification on the basis of technology and pollution levels and CEC findings. Collection of data through survey, field visits and data generation from EIA/EMP reports, documents from the mine owners, CPCB, SPCB, regional office of IBM, Department of Mines and Geology with respect to air quality, water quality, solid waste and other environmental concerns regarding iron and manganese ore mining and other relevant stakeholders and government departments. 1.3. METHODOLOGY The study was basically carried out with the help of district administration, officials of the other statutory and regulatory bodies, such as State Pollution Control Board (SPCB), State Directorate of Mines and Geology, State Forest Department, State Agriculture Department, Mine lessee and Federation of Indian Mineral Industries (FIMI) for collection of various data. ICFRE team visited SIOM on 29th August, 2012, as per the priority list of Director, Mines and Geology vide letter dated 31.03.2012. state

Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

SIOM is an open cast, small iron ore mine with an area of 64.75 ha. (before digitization, but after digitization it was 64.35 ha). The team had a detailed discussion with the officials of the mine to understand the activities being carried out in the mining lease area. Information regarding proposals of scheme of mining; lease sketch; key plan; surface plan; geological plan/cross sections; five years working plans and cross sections; dump management plan and sections; land use plan; conceptual plan; environmental management plan; progressive mine closure plan; details of violations and their compliance were collected and verified. During the field visit, the experts team physically verified and collected information on various aspects such as details of the mined out area, extent of mineralization proved by exploration, waste dumps, and dump yard, storage of top soil, infrastructure, sub grade mineral storage, mineral stock, and existing physical status of active/inactive dumps and extent of watershed of the area and the drainage system. Protective measures like retaining wall check dams and gully plugs and other rock fill dams were inspected physically to assess their potentiality to control the erosion and wash off. Location of boundary pillars along with intermediate pillars was verified. Details on geology, geographical location, nature and conditions of mine, scale and techniques of operations, capacity, development of waste dumps and sub grade stacks and environmental management practices were collected. Secondary information from existing EIA/EMP reports and other relevant sources were also collected to assess the various environmental attributes. Additional data with respect to environmental monitoring were also collected from different agencies, such as SPCB, Department of Mines and Geology etc. Opinions were also sought from the reputed experts in the field of mining across the country and suitable site specific/best practices followed elsewhere also referred. In addition, the recommendation of the FIMI were also reviewed and incorporated in the report appropriately.

Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

CHAPTER-2 MINE DESCRIPTION 2.1. INTRODUCTION The Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (Mining lease No. 2175) is spread over an area of 64.75 ha. of government revenue land. The mining lease was originally granted to Mysore Minerals who surrendered the Mining Lease No. 1633 spread over an extent of 535 acres (216.50 ha) in Sondenahalli and other villages in C.N. Halli Taluka, Tumkur District. On dated 3-8-1987. In 1988 this entire area of 535 acres was notified for re-grant and one Mr. H. Noor Ahamad applied for allotment. The Govt of Karnataka (commerece and Industry department) in its notification CI/59/MMM/90 dated 26-5-1993 sanctioned Mining Lease ML 2175 in favour of Mr. H. Noor Ahmed for a period of 20 years for Manganese and Iron ore along with Clay over an area of 200 acres only in survey no. 37 & 41. Further in its corregendum, no. CI/59/MMM/30 dt. 24-8-1993, the Govt of Karnataka reduced the area from 200 acres to 160 acres (64.75 ha) The lessee executed the Mining Lease Deed with the Director of Mines and Geology on 11-11-1993. The lessee worked the area by manual operations intermittently between the years 1994-95 and 2002-03 and raised 56,710 tonnes of iron ore and 1200 tonnes of clay. Mr. H. Noor Ahmed sought transfer of Mining Lease 2175 in fovour of Tumkur Minerals Private Limited. as he was finding it difficult to operate the mine effectively and scientifically. The Government of Karnataka vide its order dated 10/3/2006 accorded

sanction for transfer of Mining Lease 2175 in favour of Tumkur Minerals Privated Limited as provided under section 37(1) of the M C Rules, 1960. Though the mining lease area is granted for Iron ore, Manganese ore and Clay, neither the exploratory bore holes nor the exposed surface geology indicates the existence/presence of Manganese ore and Clay within the granted lease area; hence during the ensuing Scheme period only Iron ore has been extracted. The lease expires on 10th November, 2013. All the mining operations have been stopped since 12/04/2011 as per orders of IBMfor violating the proposal given in the mining scheme, undere rule 13(2) of MCDR 1988, vide letter no KNT/TMK/Fe-26/BNG/580, dated 12/04/2011 (see section 2.7) and then by the Honable Supreme Court of India.. Therefore, since 12/04/2011 there is no mining in the ML. After CEC demarcation and digitization, area of the ML comes to 64.35 ha.

Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

2.2. LOCATION OF MINE The mine is about 125 km to the west of Bangalore (Via Tumkur, Gubbi and Kondli Cross) and is located in Sondenahalli and other villages in Chikknayakanahalli Taluka, Tumkur District of Karnataka. The mine can be approached by the nearest railhead Ammasandra, 15 kms south of lease area on Banglore-Hubli broad gauge section of southwestern railway. The area falls in Survey of India Toposheet No.57-C/11 and it is bounded by Longitude: 76 41 49.7 E to 76 42 18 E; Latitude: 13 21 25.4 N to 13 22 00.3 N. The Lease is bounded in the north by Sy no 37, to the south by part of Sy nos 44 & 42, in the east is part of Sy nos 41 & 37 and in the west it is bounded by a non-working lease ML no 2348 of M/s Deepchand Kishanlal. The other nearby mines situated are M. Upendra Mines (ML no 1957), Karnataka Mining Company (ML no 2333), and Balaji Produce Co (ML no.2208). The Key Plan of study area and Google Map showing sketch of mine lease area are given in Figures 2.1 and 2.2.

Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

Figure 2.1: Key Plan of ML-2175

Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

Figure 2.2: Google Map of ML-2175

Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 2.3. MINING PLANS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCES 2.3.1. Minning Plan and Mining scheme

ICFRE

Initially Mining Plan was prepared and got approved on 17/12/1990 for 216.50 ha whereas the department of Mines and Geology has sanctioned only 64.75 ha. hence, the Mining Plan became obsolete. A fresh modified mining plan for the period 2004-05 to 200809 was prepared and got approved (under Rule 10 MCDR 1988) from IBM vide letter No. MP/TMK/Fe-51-SZ07/2001-02 dated 20/07/2004. Meanwhile in-between 1993 and 2004, the lessee operated the mine intermittently and raised 56, 710 t of iron ore and 1200 tons clay. The latest Mining Scheme from 1st April 2009 to 10.11.2013 was approved by IBM vide letter no. MS/TMK/Fe-143-SZ, dated 17.08.2009. (Annexure- 1) 2.3.2 Environmental Clearance (EC). Environmental Clearance vide letter no. J-11015/332/2005-1A, II (M), dated 07.2.2006 for enhancement of production of iron ore from 12000 to 403200 TPA, of iron ore in 64.75 ha lease area. (Annexure 2) 2.3.3 Forest Clearance (FC) ML area completely falls under the Govt. Revenue Land. 2.3.4 Consent to Operate Consent for Operation (CFO) is granted for the period from 01.07.2010 to 30.06.2012 for production of 0.403 MTPA of iron ore in 64.75 ha revenue land area by KSPCB vide letter no.16/KSPCB/EO(TMK)/DEO/2010-11/175, dated May 11, 2010. (Annexure - 3) 2.3.5. Recommendations of the Central Empowered Committee (CEC) Joint Survey Specific findings of CEC are presented in Table 2.1 and CEC sketch in figure 2.3 for ML 2175 below: Table 2.1 Summary of the specific findings for ML 2175 Sl. No. Particulars Area (ha) 1. First Lease Area 64.75 2. Area as per Lease Deed 64.75 3. Area as per lease deed sketch (after digitizing) 64.35 4. Area as per existing boundary pillars 62.60 5. Area under actual enjoyment 62.82 Area under Encroachment a. Mining Pit 2.38 b. Over burden Dumps 2.45 c. Others 3.22 Total 8.05 Source: CEC report
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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

Figure 2.3. CEC sketch of ML-2175

Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 2.4. MINE METHODOLOGY

ICFRE

The method of mining is conventional mechanized opencast mining in which faces are advanced sideward lowering benches to get access to lower level ores. Pit slope of the hanging wall side is about 42-430 and 280 in the footwall side wherein the adequate bench width and height area maintained. In softer formation like Phyllite, limonitic and siliceous clay horizons, minimum 12 meter bench width is maintained. On an average, road gradient is maintained at 1:16 except at few places where it is steeper it is not less than 1:12. The existing pit dimension of Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mine is 340 m length 200 m width 47 m depth, covering an area of 8.900 ha. Drilling & Blasting: There is no drilling and blasting involved as the ore is soft and friable. Material handling: As the ore is soft and friable and mined by ripper dozers and excavators. ROM produced at the mine is dry screened using mobile screening plant. Waste rock consists of mainly laterite with Phyllitic, Limonitic, and shaly clay which are non-toxic in nature and disposed off at determined non-mineralized barren areas outside ultimate pit limit. Haulage: Haulage of ore and waste within the mine is done by nine heavy-duty Dumpers of 25-ton capacity. For shifting ore to the railway siding 14 hired tipper of 10 tonnes capacity are used. Haulage of ore for export is done by hired of 16 tonnes tippers. 2.5. MINE PROFILE 2.5.1. Mine machineries List of mine machinery is in Table 2.2 Table 2.2: Non electrical machinery deatils as on 1-4-2012 H.P. of Capacity No. of Type of each of units machinery unit each unit HY 300 PC 200 HM Wheel Loader D8H Dozer 270 LC Hitachi AMW Dumper LUIGONG WL JCB 210 Hitachi Tata Dumper Extec Screen Plant 1.5 m 1.0 m 1.6 m 1.4 m 25 mt 3.0 m 1.0 m 25 mt 250 mt 01 01 02 01 01 05 01 01 04 02 210 140 124 250 188 230 210 140 180 105

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 2.5.2. Mine Pit

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There is only one existing pit lying on the south-western part of the MLwith dimensions of 340 m length 200 m width 47 m depth, covering an area of 8.9 ha. Pit on the western side has an encroachment of 2.38 ha which was developed earlier. Inward shifting of boundary, as per the Joint Team Survey sketch, resulted in this encroachment. Pit has main mine benches developed on the eastern and western side. On the western side there 8 benches (including sub-benches) with top most RL of bench as 983m and bottom most RL as 940m. Bench height is varying from 3m to 9m, while bench width is varying from 2m to 9m. Although benches are well formed but they are quite narrow. These benches cannot be mined now as entire western part of the pit is now outside the lease area and can be termed as encroachment and has to be rehabilitated under R and R Plan. On the eastern side, pits have 11 benches (including sub-benches) with the top most RL of bench as 1003m and bottom most RL as 945m. Bench height is varying from 2m to 9m, while bench width is varying from 3m to 11m. At many places benches are quite narrow and not fit for mechanized operation. With the demarcation of lease boundary as per the CEC sketch, mine benches cannot be advanced towards western side. They will be advanced towards east and south as towards south some mineralized area is included. Encroached mine pit: The encroached mine pit has to be rehabilitated by back filling and planted with indigenous plant species. No green belt plantation was done around the mine lease area. Observed agricultural fields around the mine lease area and the lessee has to take up immediately greenbelt plantation. 2.5.3. Mine Dumps There is only one dump in the ML which lies on the northern side of the pit and has two main slopes one in south-eastern and other in north-western directions. 2.5.3.1 Inactive Dump OB dump on eastern side is having 2 terraces basal one with height of 28 m (Top RL1002, B-RL 974) and upper terrace with height of 17 m (Top RL-1019, B-RL 1002). . Slopes are planted with exotic species and observed several small gullies on the slopes. At the

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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bottom of the dump inadequate toe wall and garland drainage has been made. One check dam was observed on the down side of the stream. EID: This dump is located on the north western side of the lease and no terraces were made. The dump height varies from 20-36m. Angle of the slope is about 450 and observed several gullies. EID1: The SW side of the inactive dump is about 5m height and encroached in to the other lease of ML 2348 of Deep Chand. This dump is just above the mine pit and not protected with any bio-engineering measures. 2.5.3.2 Active dump There is no Active dump. The OB generated after opening the mine will be used for back filling of the pit. 2.5.4. Sub grade Ore There are about 10-12 sub-grade ore stacks in the ML which are in the process of being e-auctioned and will be lifeted soon. Surface Plan of mine is shown in Figure 2.4.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Figure-2.4. Map showing the Surface Plan of ML-2175

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 2.6. EXPLORATION 2.6.1. Past Exploration

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Based on the altitude of the ore body exposed in the old pit and also surface exposure, the strike of the ore body was ascertained and to know the depth persistence and quality of ore at depth.The mineralized area has been completely explored by way of core drilling. 13 bore holes have been drilled during the year 2002-03 with 790 meters of drilling and 405 samples analysed for Fe, Al2O3 and SiO2. 2.6.2. Proposed Exploration No further exploration has been proposed. 2.7. MINE DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION The details of the production and waste generation from 2007-2008 to 2009-2010 are furnished below in the Table 2.3. Table 2.3. Year-wise details of proposed production and generation of waste Sl. No Year Production of Over Stripping ratio Iron Ore Burden/Waste (ROM) 1 2006-07 356368 712496 2.00 2 2007-08 329974 341488 1.03 3 2008-09 200400 170761 0.85 4 2009-10 363256 269764 0.74 5 2010-11 400588 758632 1.89 Total 1650586 2253141 1.37 Source: Annual Returns 2.8 ESTIMATION OF IRON ORE RESERVES The last scheme of mining was approved on 17.08.2009; the period of the approved scheme of mining is co terminus with date of expiry of ML i.e. 10.11.2013.The reserves considered have been calculated by cross section area method up to 940 m RL under proved and from 940 to 932 m under probable category with 100% recovery as mineable reserves. The reserves estimated as per the said scheme of mining, the details of the category wise, grade wise reserves are furnished in Table 2.4 Table 2.4 Category wise details of reserves as on 1.4.2009 (Quantity in tonnes)
Category of Reserves Total + 62% Fe 60-62% 58-60% Sub Siliceous /UNFC Grade Proved(111) 2297000 1723000 155000 184000 129000 106000 Probable(121/122) 246000 210000 10000 4000 9000 13000 Possible(333) Total 2543000 1933000 165000 188000 138000 119000

Source- Approved scheme of mining dated 17.8.2009 page no.11-12


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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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As per the CEC sketch map (Figure 2.3) some part of the area along the western part of the boundary, which is worked by the lessee, is identified as the area outside the ML as encroachment. The ore body is continuing in the encroached area. In the previously approved Scheme of Mining, reserves have been estimated for entire area, including the area under encroachment. Apart from this 1,19,000 tonnes of ore has been estimated as siliceous iron ore. Therefore, after the deduction of reserves blocked in the encroached area and reserves estimated as siliceous ore (which is not considered under total reserves as per the threshold value as defined by the IBM) the modified reserves of approved scheme of mining are furnished below in Table 2.5 Table 2.5 Modified reserves in last approved SOM as on 1.4.2009 Category of Reserves /UNFC Total (Proved + Probable) Ore Blocked because of shifting of western boundary as per CEC observation (FIMI Annexure SDN-1) Sub Total Siliceous ore Reserves Actual reserves (Quantity in tonnes) 2543000 458344 2084656 119000 1965656

Total production after the approval of the last scheme of the mining i.e.from 17.08.2009 up to 2011-12 (till the closure of mine by Honble Supreme Court of India) was reported as 78,4460 tonnes. The details of total balance reserves as on 01.04.2012 are mention below in Table 2.6 Table 2.6 Category wise modified reserves in last approved SOM as on 1.4.2009 Category of Reserves /UNFC Actual reserves as on 01.04.2009 Depletion of production from 2009-10 to 2011-12 Balance reserves as on 01.04.2012 (Quantity in tonnes) 1965656 784460 1181196

2.9. STRIPPING RATIO As shown in section 2.7, the stripping ratio based on actual production during last five years is 1:1.37.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 2.10. ROADS 2.10.1. Approach Roads

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The mine is approached by well connected road from National Highway 206 which is 5.03 Km from the mine gate towards south. Ammasandra railway station connection HubliBangalore broad gauge railway line where the stackyard (railway siding) is located is at a distance of 15.23 Km. Mangalore Port is at a distance of 273 Km by road via CTMA, NH-17 & NH-48. 2.10.2. Haulage Roads Entire internal/haul roads fall within the lease area and exclusively used by the lessee only. The length of haulage road is about 2.5 km with average width of 15 m, which has been consolidated over a period of time. Internally well maintained haul roads are made to transport rejection to the external dump and to the grade-wise stack yards by both 10 tonner tipper trucks and 25 tonner dumpers. Road gradient is at 1:16. 2.11. TRANSPORTATION OF ORE 2.11.1. Existing Transportation Facilities Prior to August 2011, mined ore both the processed and ROM was transported through CTMA road, a mud road which runs through a distance of 5.03 Km and joins to the National Highway No. 206. The details of the road are as mentioned in the Table below; The mine is connected to National Highway 206 through which 17% of transport moves towards Mangalore and 83% transport moves towards Bangalore side which is splited into two destinations viz. 38% transport is moves towards Bangalore side for domestic users and 45% of ore moves towards Ammasandra Railway Siding. The details of the road are as follows: Table 2.7 Table 2.7: Existing transport facilities From Stock yard Mine within the (B) mine lease area (A) To Distance in km Gate 0.46 Remarks Intermediate lane, hilly terrain, mud road with low curvature in fair condition. Private Road used by M/s Tumkur Minerals. Road width is 8 m Intermediate lane, rolling terrain, mud road with low curvature in fair condition. Private Road used by M/s Tumkur Minerals. Road width is 8 m

Mine Gate (B) CTMA Junction (C)

0.7

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) CTMA Junction (C) NH-206 (MangloreBanglore Junction) (D) 4.3

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Two lane, plain terrain, mud road with low curvature in poor condition. Common Road used by Tumkur Minerals and 4 other mines in B category and 4 other mine in C category. Road width more than 10 m

Towards Mangalore (17% traffic Two lane tarred, plain terrain paved moves on this side) road with low curvature having 10 m width. Towards Bangalore (83% traffic moves on this side, out of which 45% traffic moves towards Ammasandra Railway Siding) NH 206 Ammasandra Railway Siding Two lane, plain terrain, tarredroad (45% traffic moves on this side) with low curvature having 10.0m Towards width. Bangalore National Highway 206 2.11.2. Proposed Transportation Facility No proposal for transportation facilities has been planned by the lessee. 2.12. SAFETY ZONE Except in the western boundary of the Mining Lease, wherein the lease has a common boundary with the adjacent lessee, 7.5 m of safety zone is maintained in the southern, eastern and in northern part of the lease area. Safety zone with total length of 2.6 km with an area of 1.95 ha has not been afforested, details are given in Table 2.8.

Table 2.8. The details of Safety zone in ML 2175 Sl. No. 1 2 Description Width of safety zone Length of the safety zone (excluding the common boundaries with adjoining MLs Area of the safety zone Extent 7.50 m 2.6 km

1.95 ha

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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CHAPTER 3 BASELINE STATUS 3.1. STUDY AREA The study area is a rural setting and there is only one township named Chikkanayakanahalli within 10km radius, along with 45 villages. The 45 villages have total population of 31, 416, while Chikkanayakanahalli taluk HQs has population of 22, 389 as per 2001 census. There are no industries except for mining. About 23 mining leases are operating in this area. The index map of Tumkur district is shown in Figure-3.1. The base line data presented in the chapter is based on secondary source information provided by lessee, Govt of Karnataka, macro level EIA report and other sources. It is suggested that regular baseline data may be collected by lessee for mitigating the adverse impacts of mining on the environment.

Figure 3.1 Index Map of the CN Halli Taluk


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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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3.1.1. Climate There are four distinct seasons in the region. The winter season is between December and February. It is followed by hot weather from March to May. About 18% of annual rainfall occurs during the pre-monsoon season. The monsoon season is from June to September. This season yields around 52% of the annual rainfall. The post-monsoon period is from October to December contributes around 30% of annual rainfall. The humidity is lower during the months of December to May and highest during the monsoon period. The winds are predominantly south-westerly during the summer season and north-easterly during the winter season. The annual potential evapo-transpiration is above 1800 mm with monthly rates less than 100 mm during December and January and above 250 mm during May month of the year. The lease area falls in Chikkanyakanahalli taluk of Tumkur District, and this district is a part of the southern Maidan region with an undulating plateau. The district is also known for dry climate. The temperature varies between 12C and 38C. The relative humidity values range from 34.3 to 99.8% with an average rainfall of 740mm/annum (Table 3.1). Table-3.1: Annual average rainfall data for Chikkanyakanahalli taluk from 2001 to 2010
Year/ month 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Mean 108.8 11.6 7.6 27.5 60.9 105.7 26.1 4.0 15.3 46.0 3.0 14.2 82.7 97.4 14.2 22.2 29.0 13.0 15.2 105.2 30.4 7.3 64.0 6.3 142.0 66.4 123.9 128.6 94.4 34.1 157.6 81.7 133.0 68.8 152.3 19.2 118.7 83.0 35.4 117.8 57.5 78.6 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul 43.1 46.0 72.7 88.5 222.7 27.4 46.1 150.3 40.4 144.3 88.2 Aug 104.7 35.2 18.8 45.6 204.7 12.1 118.9 269.9 192.1 211.1 121.3 Sep 216.5 124.6 12.6 112.9 70.1 72.1 103.5 99.5 251.4 68.4 113.2 Oct 103.8 135.7 199.7 48.3 333.9 79.7 130.4 116.6 123.6 215.8 148.8 27.5 3.8 44.3 Nov 28.4 25.1 11.9 12.3 74.5 57.8 21.1 10.0 5.2 10.0 12.6 Dec Total 496.5 573.9 405.0 782.0 1037.6 559.9 670.6 950.9 855.0 1068.7 740.0

Source: Taluk Office, Chikkanyakanahalli

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Figure-3.2 Annual average rainfall data for Chikkanyakanahalli taluk from 2001 to 2010 (Source: Taluk Office, Chikkanyakanahalli) 3.1.2. Physiographic/ Topography of Mine Lease Area In general the landscape consists of undulating plain country interspersed with N-S to NW-SE trending ridge and isolated elevated regions. The subject area was a hillock having a maximum elevation of 1023m in the southern part of the lease area and with the minimum of 964 MRL in the north-eastern part of the lease area. This part of the elevated area has a moderate slope towards the west and forms a valley with the adjacent ridge. The eastern slopes are gentle and merge with the general ground level. Only one seasonal nallah flows from the lease area and it joins to another 1st order stream from the western part of the lease area. In the eastern part of the district, the hills comprising of schistose rocks passes through Chikkanyakanahalli, Sira and Gubbi taluks. The prominent hills in the eastern range of hills are Kamandadurga (1077m), Nidugal (1148m), Madhugiridurga (1199m), Channarayadurga (1138m) Koratagiri (879m), Devarayanadurga (1187m), Nijogal (1086m), Hutridurga (1130m) and Huliyurudurga (844 m) above the mean sea level (msl). The landmass in the plains ranges between 450 to 840 m above msl, while hilly areas range between 840 to 1500 m above msl.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 3.2. REGIONAL GEOLOGY

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The entire region of the district is covered by Archaen rocks consisting mainly of schistose rocks, peninsular gneiss and Hospet granite. Chlorites, Quartzite, Haematite bearing quartzite, Limestone, Dolomite, Pegmatites, Diorites are occasionally found. A few important iron ore deposits occurring within the Chitradurga-Tumkur schist belt, namely Chiknayakanhalli area, Janehara area, Vajra deposit and Kunigal-Yammabetta area. The iron ore deposits of this belt. Crystalline schists, granite gneisses and newer granites represent the rock formations of the district. The appearance of rocks is light to dark grey or whitish biotic granitic gneiss, which varies considerably from place to place in texture, structure and appearance, according to the fineness of its constituent grains and the relative abundance or scarcity and mode of deposition of the darker ferric minerals (Figure 3.3).

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Figure 3.2 Geological features of Tumkur district

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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3.2.1. Local Geology The Chikkanyakanahalli schist belt is situated in the southern part of Chitradurga group of younger schist belts. The area belongs to Late Archaean age. A prominent band of Iron formation is present to the east of Chikkanyakanahalli. The major rocks occurring in the belt are Banded Iron and Manganese formations, Limestone, Dolomite, Conglomerates, Metabasalts, Phyllities, Quartzites etc. These formations are intruded by Dolerite Dykes. The Banded Hematite Quartzite (BHQ) has NW-SE strike with steep easterly dip. Manganese Ore Deposits are confined to stratigraphic horizon of lower Manganiferous Phyllites of Chitradurga group. The overall general succession of Chikkanyakanahalli belt is shown in Table-3.2. The geological plan of mine lease area is shown in Figure-3.4.

Table-3.2: The overall general succession of Chikkanyakanahalli belt (Order of super position) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Laterite, Soil, Alluvium Iron Formation Manganese Formation Aluminous Clay Siliceous Clay Carbonates Schists ( Chloride Schist) Granitic Gneisses Recent Dharwar Super Group Unconfirmity Archaean

Proterozoic

Iron formation contains haematite, limonite and geothites minerals. Ore body consists of hard lumpy and friable/flaky/powdery minerals. In most part of the area inter calation of himonitised ore are seen with good grade ore. General strike directions of ore body is N 10 degree W to S 10 Degree E. Ore body dips towards East at about 73 degree to 85 degree. Side burden for ore body comprises of ferrogenous schist, shales and ferrogenous quartzites.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Figure-3.3: Geological plan map of ML 2175

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 3.3. LAND USE PATTERN OF Chikkanyakanahalli TALUK

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The total area of the Chikkanyakanahalli taluk is 1, 12, 998.00 ha. The details of land use pattern are given in Table 3.3. Table 3.3: Land use pattern of Chikkanyakanahalli Taluk Total Geographical Area. (ha) 112998.00 Agricultural Land (ha) 89775 Govt. Land (ha) 23223

Source: Taluk Office, Chikkanyakanahalli

3.3.1. Land Use Pattern of mine lease area ML area is located at a distance of 45 km from Tumkur, and 23 km from Chikkanyakanahalli town. The nearest village is Muskondli which is about 2.5 km in the east. The existing and conceptual land use is presented in Table 3.4. The existing and conceptual land use plans of mine lease 2175 are depicted in Figure 3.5 and 3.6. Table 3.4. Existing, proposed and conceptual land use of ML Particulars Existing area (ha) 5.85 6.16 1.36 4.52 4.34
Proposed for plan period 8.35 6.16 1.56 4.45 5.78

Conceptual Area (ha) 10.65 6.16 1.36 7.50

Mining Pit Overburden Dump Road/Infrastructure Stack of Mineral Afforestation and Env Protective Measueres Safty zone Undisturbed area Total
Source:

Land use proposed the end of the plan as per SOM 12.07 9.0774 1.5566 4.4471 5.7814

1.95 40.17 64.35

38.05

1.95 36.73
SoM

31.8175

64.35 64.35 Conceptual land use plan prepared for R & R

64.75

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Figure 3.4. Land use / land of study area

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Figure. 3.5. Conceptual Land Use / Land Of ML-2175

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 3.4. PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Map showing soil, air and water, monitoring station is also given in Figure- 3.7.

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Figure 3.6. Map showing air water, soil monitoring station

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 3.4.1. Soil

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Soil samples were collected at five locations two in core and three in the buffer zone of the mine lease area as tabulated in Table 3.5. Table 3.5 Soil samples locations in core and buffer zone of the mine lease area Sample code S1 S5 S2 S3 S4 Name of Sampling Station Core Zone Dump Guddadapalya Musakondli D. Rampura Direcdtion w.r.t Core zone S E N Distance from the core zone 4.5 2.5 7

The results show that the pH values varies between 7.43 to 7.89. The soils are between neutral to slightly alkaline. The organic carbon content ranges from 0.41% to 0.75%. Thus the values are in the range of moderate to good. The available nitrogen ranges from 38 to 63 Kg/Ha. This is in moderate range. The soils are silty clay texture. The available phosphorus is quite low. Thus the soils are moderate to medium fertile. They are suitable for plantation with after care. While breaking up the fresh ground when the pit area has lateral extension, top soil wherever encountered stocked separately and used for plantation purpose. Towards the north-eastern part of the lease area, undisturbed virgin area has a soil thickness of 1-2m. Revenue department, Govt. of Karnataka has allotted this part of the area to the SC/ST community of the surrounding village and cultivation is already in progress at these area. There is no proposal of any of the mining activity during the balance life of mine. In the southern part of the lease area as mentioned earlier, as and when the top soil is encountered will be stacked separately and utilized for the plantation purpose. Soil is generally formed due to slow process of weathering. The normal nutrient composition of plants is altered by alteration in soil condition. Soil samples representing different land use have been studied by the lessee from the buffer zone from Villages as mentioned in the Table above. General Observations of the Soil Analyzed: The soil samples analyzed from this mine show that soil pH ranges from acidic to alkaline in reaction, no harmful effect of salts in all the soil samples, organic carbon content is low in soil samples S1 (Mines), S2 (Guddadapalya Village

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Ag.Soil) and S3 (Muskondli Ag.Soil). Potassium content in all soil samples is very high (high fertility). The physico chemical properties of soil are given in Table 3.6. Analysis found that the quality of soil found to be reasonably good. The iron content in the soil is observed to be on higher side due to the basic geological nature of the strata. Table 3.6 Soil Physical and Chemical Properties
Project Season Date of sampling SL. PARAMETERS No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 pH EC (m.mohs/cm) Organic Carbon (%) Nitrogen as N (Kg/Ha) Phosphorous as P (Kg/Ha) Potassium as K (kg/Ha) Sulphates as SO4 (Kg/Ha) Water holding capacity (%) Sodium as Na (Kg/Ha) Calcicum as Ca meq/100g Magnesium as Mg (Kg/Ha) Chloride as CI (%) Sand (%) Silt & Clay (%) : Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mine : Summer, 2010 : 26.04.2011 S2 S3 S4 S5 7.89 1.561 0.56 38 19 175 7.43 0.428 0.63 63 17 203 7.68 0.436 0.75 41 11 238 7.89 0.439 0.41 39 11 230

S1 7.45 0.890 0.56 46 13 250

QUALITY Norman High 6.3 >8.3 1.0 to 2.0 >2 0.5 to 0.75 >0.75 9 to 22 >22 50 to 120 >120 -

0.15 0.28 0.15 0.14 0.23 45 65 34 53 48 690 715 98 123 150 1.15 1.63 1.25 1.29 1.08 33 77 43 40 39 0.19 0.05 0.09 0.10 0.11 46 43 33 20 23 56 55 63 49 63 Silty Silty Silty Silty Silty 15 Textural clay clay clay clay clay Sample Code : Sample Code : S1 Corezone, S2 - Guddadapalya Village Ag.Soil, S3 Muskondli Ag.Soil, S4 - D- Ramapura Villager Ag.Soil, S5 - Dump soil

Source: Soil Monitoring Report of Summer 2010, By Mineral Engineering Services, Bellary, Karnataka 3.4.2. Air Environment The ambient air quality has been mointered, keeping in view, the wind direction in the area for various seasons of the year and also the location, which are likely to be affected by any mining activity, within the buffer-zone of mining lease area. Ambient air quality monitoring, six in buffer zone and four in the core zone, are as given in Table 3.7.

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Table 3.7 Location of Air Sampling Stations in Core and Buffer Zone
Sl. No. Code Name of Sampling Station Direction Distance w.r.t. Core w.r.t. Core Zone Zone (Km) S E W N E W 4.5 2.5 3.0 7.0 3.7 5.0

CORE ZONE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A-I A-II A-III A-IV A-V A-VI A-VII A-VIII A-IX A-X Loading Point Stock Yard Haulage Road Core Zone BUFFER ZONE Guddadapalya Village Muskondli Village Sondenahalli Village D-Rampura Kondli Village Godekere Village

Source: REIA Report prepared by M/s. Bhagvathi Ana Labs Ltd, Hyderabad. Table 3.8 Ambient Air Quality (g/cum) in Core Zone & Buffer Zone
MONTH WISE AIR QUALITY REPORT FOR THE YEAR 2010-2011 Station Wise - Avg Result Station SO2 NOx SPM CORE ZONE Loading Point - A 1 16 22 228 Dumping Point - A 2 17 22 237 Haulage Road - A 3 17 22 228 Core Zone - A 4 16 21 228 BUFFER ZONE Guddadapalya Village - A 5 11 15 91 Muskondli Village - A 6 11 16 92 Sondenahalli - A 7 11 15 95 D - Rampura - A 8 11 16 95 Ammasandra - A 9 17 22 145 Avg 14 19 160 Permissible Limits for Industrial & Mixed use area (NAAQS) 120 120 500

RPM 98 98 94 94 31 33 33 33 67 65 150

Source: AAQ Monitoring Report of April, 2010 to March, 2011, By Mineral Engineering Services, Bellary, Karnataka. Core Zone Stations Core zone stations are located with-in the lease area. The SPM, (24 hr), SO2 and NOX (8 hr) are monitored from the month of April, 2010 to March, 2011 and given in Table 3.7 The results of analysis show that all the parameters are below the respective prescribed limit for industrial and rural areas. However, since 2009 the parameters to be

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) monitored have been re notified. In place of SPM and RPM, PM10 and PM below 10 microns and below 2.5 microns needs to be monitored. 3.4.3. Noise Environment
2.5,

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that is dust

Mining operations usually generate noise during different stages of mining and handling of ores. Monitoring have been conducted in six villages, representative of buffer zone terrain i.e., plain, undulating and hilly, apart from core zone, representing the cumulative effect of the mining. Noise level i.e., Leq (day) and Leq (night) for each station in core zone and buffer zone along with applicable standards are monitored. Noise level survey carried-out at various locations is given in the below Table 3.8. Table 3.9. Noise Level (dB) in Core Zone and Buffer Zone along with Applicable Standards.
Project Units Date of Monitoring : S. No. N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 Site/Location BUFFER ZONE Guddadapalya Village Muskondly Village Sondenahallia Village D.Ramapura Village CORE ZONE Mine Site Tata Hitachi Ex.270 LCH : Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mine : dB(A) 14.12.2010 Day Leq 49.1 47.6 46.2 46.0 57.2 78.2 71.1 77.3 70.5 83.4 80.7 80.1 76.5 71.3 Night Lmax 52.0 78.8 48.1 48.2 Lmin 35.6 34.6 34.0 36.1 Leq 38.9 36.8 36.5 39.6 Lmax

Lmin 44.5 45.7 43.6 42.8 54.3 76.1 68.8 76.3

43.6 40.2 39.4 48.1 Remarks 60.8 Vehicle Movement 82.0 72.2 78.8 72.6 86.7 81.6 81.3 77.5 75.2

N7

Hyundai 300 LC-7 68.6 Wheel Loader Hindustan 2021 76.7 75.8 79.6 75.4 68.8

N8

N9 N10

Mobile Screening Plant Near Weigh Bridge

5 mtrs Outside Cabin during operation 10 mtrs Outside Cabin during operation 5 mtrs Outside Cabin during operation 10 mtrs Outside Cabin during operation 5 mtrs Outside Cabin during operation 10 mtrs Outside Cabin during operation 5 mtrs Outside Cabin during operation 10 mtrs Outside Cabin during operation Vehicle Movement
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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Type of the area Industrial Day Night 75 70

Rural and residential Day Night 55 45

It will be seen that the noise levels monitored in buffer zone have values well below the prescribed day and night limits. In the core zone the monitoring done near the operating machines are higher than the prescribed limits, this is not unexpected. 3.4.4. Water Environment Though the rainfall is to the tune of 400-550 mm per annum, adequate protective measures are taken up to in order to avaoid any wash offs from the dump slopes and other slopes which are affected due to mining. All along the toe of the dump garland drains are constructed 1m in depth and width of 0.5m at the bottom and 1m at the top. Outside the garland drains, retaining walls are constructed using stones from the dump itself. At the critical locations, settling ponds are constructed with adequate capacity so as to allow sufficient time for settlement of suspended solids and clean water is allowed to flow into the natural water couraces. Excess rain water is channelized in to pit bottom and this also acts as water reservoir. 3.4.4.1. Water Bodies and springs No surface water sources as such are located within the ML area, which are likely to get affected as a result of mining operation. As mentioned earlier one seasonal nallah (first order stream) originates from the middle of the lease area. Adequate protective measures are already taken up in order to avoid the wash-offs from the rejection dump or from the stack yard to this nallah. There are no springs within the ML area. No River is present within 10 km radius from the lease boundary. Only one seasonal nallah (where water can be seen only during heavy rains) exists in the north-eastern part of the lease area, which joins to another first order stream which originates from the western slope of the adjacent lease. 3.4.4.2. Drainage Pattern The drainage pattern of the area is dentritic in nature. Half of the run-off with-in the buffer zone drains towards east. The half part of the run-off flows towards SW and NW of the
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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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area. Mining activity is carried on moderately elevated terrain, wherein there is no possibility of encountering ground water as the mining operations has the highest and lowest elevation of 1023m and 964m above MSL. The ground water table is about 137m below the general ground level (i.e. about 800 m above MSL). At the end of the life of the mine the pit bottom shall reach up to 932m above MSL. 3.4.4.3 Annual Run-off from Mine Lease Areas Annual rainfall in this region is 400 to 450mm. Garland drains are made at the critical points on the benches and on dump top to direct the rain water in to the pit. The water collected shall be utilized for dust suppression and also acts as water reservoir for the recharge of ground water. As shown on the Water Management Plan adequate engineering protective measures were already carried-out at the toe of the dump slope like retaining wall, garland drains and at the critical points. Four settlings ponds as well as check dams with loose boulder are also constructed in order to arrest wash-offs from the rejection dump and also from the mineral stack yard. 3.4.4.4. Ground Water Estimation A dynamic ground water resource has been assessed by the Department of Mines and Geology in association with Centre Ground Water Board Government of Karnataka for South-Western Region of Karnataka during 2009. The ground water resource estimation study is based (GEM-97), watershed basis taking into consideration of various hydrological units viz., command, non-command and hilly area (having slope more than 20%). The ground water resources assessed were apportioned to administrative units viz., taluk. The command and non-command areas under Chikkanayakanahalli taluk, the stage of ground water development are recorded to be only 21% and 61%, respectively, indicating that the taluk is in the safe category for which the mean ground water level for the period May 1998 to May 2007 has been compared with the level in May 2008. The water level trend during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon showed no significant decline in the command and non-command areas of the Chikkanayakanahalli taluka. 3.4.4.5 Ground Water Quality Ground water quality was monitored for seven ground water sources within the buffer zone. Location of these sources is given in Table 3.10.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Table 3.10 Water Quality Sampling Location SL. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Code W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 Location Muskondli Borewell Chikkarampura Borewell Bullenahalli Bore Well Sondenahalli Borewell Honnahalli Bore Well Rajatadripura Bore Well Somanahalli Bore Well Direction East North-East North-West West South-East SSW South-West

Few important parameters of quality monitored are compared in Table 3.11 Table 3.11 Comparative Study of Few Parameters of Ground Water Quality SL. No. 1. Parameters W1 W2 W3 W4 Limits

Total Dissolved Solids (mg/l), 154 960 554 319 500 max. 2. Fluoride as F (mg/l) 0.546 0.523 0.543 0.370 1.0 3. pH 7.2 6.96 7.38 7.38 6.5 to 8.5 4. Total Hardness as CaCO3 154 530 339 219 300 (mg/l), max. Source: Water Monitoring report for the year 2010-11, By mineral Engineering Services, Bellary, Karnataka. The ground water analysis data are given in Tables 3.10. The quality of water as seen

from above results appears to be well within the desiable limits as per the drinking water standards. Total dissolved solids are higher only in one case. Flourides are well below the permissible limit in all the samples. The pH indicated that waters are slightly alkaline. All the pH values are within the prescribed limits. The hardness except in case of one sample is also below the desirable limits. 3.5. BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT 3.5.1. Flora General The vegetation occurring in the area belongs to Southern tropical dry deciduous forests the area under study falls under the Mixed deciduous sub classification(As per the Classification of forest types of India proposed by Champion and Seth, (1968). According to the classification proposed by Legris and Pascal (1982) area falls under Deciduous climax

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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forests. According to this classification this type of forests does not have the potentiality of secondary moist deciduous forests. It was found that the canopy is open and the majority of the trees are leafless during the dry months. The flowering and fruiting are generally far advanced before the first flush of new leaves appears with the showers in April May. The dominant tree species found in these type of forest areas are Buchanania axillaris, B. lanzan, Anogeissus latifolia, Boswellia serrata, Hardwickia binata, Wirghtia tinctorea, Shorea roxburghii. Few climbers and twiners like, Aristolochia indica, Asparagus racemosus, Cocculus hirsutus, Gloriosa superba are also observed. The dominant grasses include species like Andropogon pumilus, Apluda mutica, Brachiaria eruciformis, Chrysopogon fulvus, C. martini, Cynodon dactylon, Heteropogon contortus etc. The ground flora is chiefly seasonal. Some of the herbs growing in this area are Acalypha indica, Achyranthes aspera, Aerva lanata, Crotalaria albida, Bidens biternata, Blepharis maderaspatana, Justicia simplex, Leucas aspera, Cassia occidentalis, etc. Dendrophthoe falcata and few other species belonging to the family of Loranthaceae grow as parasites on tree branches, while Striga asiatica occur as root parasite associated with grasses. Plants occurring in mine lease area and surroundings Hardwickia binata is the most dominant tree species that is found in the mine lease area and surroundings and most of it is planted. Tree species that are found in the area include Butea monosperma, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Terminalia paniculata and Wrightia tinctorea. Major shrubby species that are found growing in the area include Cassia auriculata, Dodonaea viscosa, Cipadessa baccifera, Erythroxylum monogynum, and Ixora sp. Herbs like Alternanthera pungens, Alysicarpus rugosus, Chlorophytum tuberosusm, Desmodium triflorum , Leucas aspera, Sida acuta, Stylosanthes hamata, Synedrella nodiflora, Tephrosia purpurea, Vicoa indica and Waltheria indica. Climbers like Aristolochia indica, Cocculus hirsutus, Cryptolepis buchanani and Gloriosa superba are frequently found in the area Weeds like Lantana camara, Chromolaena odorata and Parthenium hysterophorus also occur in the area. Tecoma stans is found in large numbers. Some of the grass species occurring in the area are Aristida setacea, Cynodon dactylon, Cymbopon flexuosus, Dichanthium annulatum and Heteropogon contortus. Plantation area include tree species like Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia mangium, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia latifolia, Phyllanthus emblica, Eucalyptus globulus, Grewillea robusta,
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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Hardwickia binata, Mangifera indica, Michelia champaca, Polyalthia longifolia, Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia paniculata etc. 3.5.2. Fauna Some important species present in the ML and its surrounding areas are given below Butterflies: Euthalia nais (Baronet), Junonia orithiya (Blue Pansy), Euploea core (Common Crow), Papilio polytes form romulus and stichius (Common Mormon), Atrophaneura aristolochiae (Common Rose), Euploea sylvester (Double-branded Crow), Danaus genutia (Striped Tiger), Acraea violae (Tawny Coster), Zizula hylax (Tiny Grass Blue), Ixias Marianne (White Orange Tip), Leptotes plinius (Zebra Blue) Herpetofauna: Psammophilus dorsalis (South Indian rock agama) Ptyas mucosa (Indian rat snake). Birds: Perdicula asiatica (Jungle Bush-Quail), Merops orientalis (Green Bee-eater), Merops Philippinus (Blue-tailed Bee-eater), Eudynamys scolopacea (Asian Koel), Centropus sinensis (Greater Coucal), Psittacula krameri (Rose-ringed Parakeet), Dendrocitta vagabunda

(Rufous Treepie), Pericrocotus cinnamomeus (Small Minivet), Cyornis tickelliae (Tickell's Blue-Flycatcher), Parus major (Great Tit), Hirundo daurica (Red-rumped Swallow), Artamus fuscus (Ashy Wood swallow), Prinia sylvatica (Jungle Prinia), Prinia socialis (Ashy Prinia), Orthotomus sutorius (Common Tailorbird), Chrysomma sinense (Yellow-eyed Babbler), Ammomanes phoenicurus (Rufous-tailed Lark), Nectarinia asiatica (Purple Sunbird), Nectarinia zeylonica (Purple-rumped Sunbird). Mammals: Macaca radiate (Bonnet Macaque), Semnopithecus entellus (Hanuman Langur), Canis aureus (Jackal), Felis chaus (Jungle Cat), Lepus nigricollis (Indian Hare), Hystrix indica (Indian Porcupine), Funambulus palmarum (Three striped Palm Squirrel), Rattus rattus (Rock/House Rat). 3.6. SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT 3.6.1 Demographic Status of the Villages within 10 km radius There is no inhabited village within the lease area.However following 14 villages are with in the radius of 10 Km of the mine lease . The social management plan for the mine affected area of Bellary, Chitradurga and Tumkur is being prepared separately, taking in to consideration holistic approach. However, the demographic details and land use pattern of the mine affected villages is given as under in Table-3.12 and 3.13.
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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) Table 3.12 Land Use Pattern of Mine Affected Villages
Area not available for Cultivation

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Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Village Name Chikkarampura Bullenahalli Sondenahalli Somanahalli Godekere Bagganahalli Yerrakatte Doddarampura

Forest 0.0 0.0 784 134.40 0.0 0.0 516.80 31.16

Irrigated by Source 79.46 8.09 20.23 40.22 28.00 16.19 72.04 170.10

Unirrigated 129.44 101.41 305.76 309.25 242.00 327.61 41.26 161.56

Cultivable Land 113.42 5.79 242.14 311.53 44.00 0.0 119.09 399.94

35.68 176.72 548.87 67.66 115.00 176.20 26.81 27.24

Table 3.13 Demographic Details of Mine Affected Villages (2001)

SL.No Name of the Distance Direction Village (km) 1. Muskondli 2.6 E 2. Chikkarampura 6.5 NE 3. Bullenahalli 5.9 NW 4. Sondenahalli 3.0 W 5. Honnahalli 3.5 SE 6. Rajatadripura 3.7 SSW 7. Somanahalli 3.7 SW 8. Godekere 4.7 W 9. Kondli 3.7 E 10. Lingammanapalya 5.1 SE 11. Bagganahalli 5.0 NW 12. Kanchiganahalli 6.6 SE 13. Doddarampura 7.5 N 14. Neralakere 8.9 SE Total

Male 494 289 124 2433 189 775 412 1091 1035 395 363 185 573 641 8999

Population Female 507 292 131 2362 180 782 419 1013 982 366 380 197 540 583 8734

Total 1001 581 255 4795 369 1557 831 2104 2017 761 743 382 1113 1224 17733

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) CHAPTER 4 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS 4.1. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

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Environmental impacts of mining have been well-documented and an ample literature exists on this topic. Environmental impacts of mining arises because various operations carried out during the process of mining such as change in land use, top soil removal, drilling and blasting, overburden dumping, mineral beneficiation, mine water pumping, toxic/contaminated waste water discharge and such others. Though no major fauna is present in the surrounding area, however, it is essential to discuss on the extent of environmental impact caused by Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mine. 4.1.1. Impact on Landscape The ML area is in government revenue land, however, the excavation of minerals resulted in change of landscape. The land fragmented into different parts i.e, haulage roads, excavated areas, infrastructures etc. 4.1.2. Impact on Ecology Major impacts of SOIM, ML-2175 on the local ecology can be summarized in the form of removal of vegetation (flora) from the area required for mining and other purposes thereby loss of habitats and displacing of local fauna. The excavated sites are very prone to soil erosion and displacement of sedimentation which in turn disturbed water recharging capacity of soil. The soil, biological and geological cycle is disturbed. As the mine is a mechanized mine and there is lot of noise and vibration and emission of pollutants during mining operations have direct impact on human health as well as disturbance to wild animals. 4.1.3. Impact on Air Quality The impact of mining activities due to various operations viz. mineral excavation , loading, unloading and transportation is quite significant and has adverse impact on the environment. In core zone and buffer zone ambient air quality is well within the limits. However, with proper management plan the impact can be reduced to a greater extent. To minimize the adverse impact of release of pollutions the following measures should be undertaken;

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Development of green belt on the safety zone, roads, non mineralized areas, etc

Proper flow of traffic speed control Proper maintenance of roads Regular water sprinkling on mine haul roads

4.1.4. Impact of Noise and Vibration The mining activity is located at about 2.5 km (village) away from the nearest human settlement; the effect of noise seems to be insignificant on the buffer zone. But, in core zone it may have significant effect from the occupational health point of view. In general, noise generated by these sources is within the limits prescribed by Director General of Mines Safety (DGMS), Dhanbad. The permissible limit accordingly is 90 dB (A). The work person shall not be exposed to more than 90 dB (A) level continuously for more than 1/2 hr/day. Vibration: Not applicable, because there is no drilling & blasting and this is purely soft ore deposit. 4.1.5. Impact on Water Quality No water is used for any processing applications in the mining area. Hence, there is no effluent generation. Water is used only for sprinkling on haul roads, afforestation and and domestic use like washing/ drinking etc.Surface water pollution is anticipated during monsoon due to erosion of waste dump and sub-grade stock from mining area to natural drainage channels. Ground water pollution may take place only if the dump/ mineral stockyard contain chemical substances. These chemicals get leached by the precipitation which percolates to the ground water table thus polluting it.4.1.6. Impact on Soil FertilityIn the process of opencast mining, several changes occur in physical, chemical and microbiological properties of soil as a result of mining and storage. Inability to preserve topsoil is one of the basic hindrances to restoration of mined land. Soil degradation and the decline in the productive capacity of land resources is an immediate environmental and social concern.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 4.1.6. Impact on Soil Fertility

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In the process of opencast mining, several changes occur in physical, chemical and microbiological properties of soil as a result of mining and storage. Inability to preserve topsoil is one of the basic hindrances to restoration of mined land. Soil degradation and the decline in the productive capacity of land resources is an immediate environmental and social concern. 4.1.7. Impact on Aquatic Life Due to mining activities the runoff from the area gets heavily loaded with particulate matter which if not amended with bioengineering structure goes directly to the nearby water bodies and affecting the flora and fauna in them. 4.1.8. Impact on Society The open cast mining operations adversely affect the population if private land is acquired or any habitations are removed. In the present case none of these has taken place hence there is no negative impact on the society. On the other hand the mine has created employment opportunity for over two hundred people of the surrounding areas. The CSR activities in the surrounding villages is being carried out by lessee, however a comprehensive Social Management Plan is being prepared for overall development of the project affected villages.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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CHAPTER 5 RECLAMATION AND REHABILITATION PLAN 5.1. INTRODUCTION In the process of opencast mining, several changes occur in the physical, chemical, biological and microbial properties of the environment (Kunu and Ghose, 1998; Singh and Singh, 2006; Padmavathiamma and Li, 2007, Sheoran et al., 2009; Sheoran et al., 2010; Singh, 2010). Degradation level depends on climatic conditions and various other factors. If the biological reclamation is not done in well time, leaching will remove the nutrients due to the soil erosion, the nutrient cycle will break down, and the soil will ultimately become biologically unproductive. The objective of the study is to suggest suitable engineering and biological measures for management of encroached areas, OB dumps, surface water and over all land use of the mined out area The mine rehabilitation plan should aim: To stabilize loose over burden (OB) dumps and mined out areas To check soil erosion and sediment loss To ameliorate substratum in term of: Soil moisture retention Nutrient retention Microbial biomass To enhance diversity of plants, animal and micro-organisms To regulate natural process of ecosystem, namely, Productivity Nutrient cycling Water recharging Soil protection Sheltering and providing conditions to plant and animal species To cater the need of local people for their daily needs To develop visual and aesthetic view of the area
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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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The successful Reclamation and Rehabilitation plan for the mine will primarily depend on following considerations: 1. Rehabilitation and Reclamation of Encroached Areas. 2. Loose OB dumps and their stabilization 3. Mining pits, their back filling and stabilization 4. Nala/Stream courses and their stabilization 5. Development of vegetation on non-mineralized areas 6. Safety zone and Greenbelt Development 7. Avenue plantation all along mine haul roads 8. Regular monitoring by an independent scientific agency 5.2 RECLAMATION AND REHABILITATION PLAN FOR AREA UNDER ENCROACHMENT An area of 2.38 ha has been identified by CEC as encroachment by Mining Pit, 2.45 ha encroachment by overburden dumps and 3.22 ha encroachment (Table 5.1) Table 5.1 Indicative cost of plantation for encroachment area as per CEC Particulars for plantation Mining pit outside ML area (ha) Dump outside ML area (ha) Others Total Area in ha 2.38 2.45 3.22 8.05 1.74 1.74 1.74 1.74 Rate Cost 4.14 4.26 5.60 14.01

Dump No. EID EID1

Dump status Inactive Inactive

Table 5.2 Encroached Dump details Dump area (ha) Avg. angle in degree 28 1.06 1.32 22 0.07

Dump height in m 36 5

The bioengineering measures proposed for dump management and surface water management in the encroached areas are given in Table 5.3 and 5.4 below with indicative cost. The details of the measures are given under section 5.3.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Table 5.3. Indicative Cost of Proposed Engineering Measures in Encroached Area of ML- 2175 Indicative Cost Of Proposed Engineering Measures Encroached Area of ML- 2175 Rate per Unit in Rs. Dimension in m Quantity Unit Dump Number EID Particulars of work Toe Wall at the toe of waste dump Foundation in hard soil mixed with boulders including hard rock Plain cement concrete (1:4:8) in foundation Toe wall RR dry Garland drain (1 m bottom width, 2 m top width and 1 m deep below toe wall) Dimension (20 x 10 x 3 m) Dimension (20 x 10 x 3 m) Length 340.00 Width TOP BOT 3.5 Hight 1.2 1428.00 cum 111 1.59

Amount (in lakhs)

340.00

3.20

0.15

163.20

cum

1860

3.04

340.00 345.00

1.00 2.00

3.00 1.00

2.00 1.00

1360.00 517.50

cum cum

400 111

5.44 0.57

Garland Drain

Silt Settling Tank Silt Settling Tank

20.00 20.00

10.00 10.00

3.00 3.00

600 600

cum cum

750 750 Total

4.50 4.50 19.64

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) Table 5.4. Proposed Engineering Measures Of Surface Water Management Of Encroached ML- 2175 Items No Dimension in m Length Width Height TOP BOT

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Quantity

Unit

Rate in Amount Rs in Lakhs

Gully plug i. Logwood check Dam LW 6 8.00 1.50 ii. Brush Wood check Dam BW 4 5.00 1.50 Loose boulder check dam LBCD 2 10.00 2.00 4.00 Gabion/ Wire Crate Check Dam 1 10.00 1.00 3.00 GCD-1

1.00 1.00 3.00 3.00

48.00 20.00 180.00 60.00

m m cum cum

1200.00 300.00 400.00 1200.00 Total

0.58 0.06 0.72 0.72 2.08

The total indicative cost for management of encroached area is Rs. 35.73 lakhs 5.3 RECLAMATION AND REHABILITATION PLAN FOR AREA UNDER MINE LEASE 5.3.1 Stabilization of dump It was observed that the dumps are having gullies of various widths and depths on dumps. To stabilize these dumps gully plugs like brushwood, logwood, loose boulder etc. For dump slope stabilization toe wall at the toe of waste dump and catch water drains (garland drains) with Silt Settling Tanks (SST) are required. The portion of dumps which have adverse conditions like steep slope, poor soil fertility and lack of moisture, one may use coir mat for vegetative growth enhancement and cover. Enriched plantation may be adopted on top flat area and sloping area. 5.3.2. Waste Dump There is only one dump in the ML which spreads upto the northern side of the pit and has two main slopes one in south-eastern and other in north-western directions. OB dump on eastern side is having 2 terraces each at 20 m height. SW corner of the dump is just above the mine pit without any toe wall protection and drainage. This portion is having a common boundary with ML 2348. There is no Active dump. The OB generated after opening the mine will be used for back filling of the pit. Proposed Back Filling Plan is given in Figure 5.1

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Details of dumps existing and proposed inside and outside lease area are given in Table 5.5. Table 5.5. Dump details Dump details Dump area (ha) Avg. angle in degree Top area Sloping area 20 4.81 1.27

Dump No. ID

Dump status Inactive

Dump height in m 45

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Figure 5.1. Proposed Back Filling Plan.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 5.3.2.1 Bio-engineering measures

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Toe Wall: To stabilize waste dump slope, toe wall is provided at its toe. RR dry stone masonry should be used for toe wall height up to 2 m. Stone masonry in cement sand mortar (1:6) should be used for toe wall height more than 2 m. Toe wall should be provided with 15 cm thick plain cement concrete (1:4:8) in the foundation and also weep holes in the body of toe wall at 1x1m grid points. Specifications of toe wall adopted have been shown in the dump management plan (Figure 5.2). Total two (2) nos. toe wall has been proposed, one with in lease are and other for encroached dump. (Design-1) Garland Drains (catch water drains): have been proposed 1-2 m below toe wall to collect runoff water discharging at the toe of dump and to carry it safely to SST tanks and then to natural channel without causing any erosion. Garland drains are having 2 m top width, 1 m bottom width and 1m depth. One (1) nos. garlands of 354 m length is proposed around the encroached dump EID for safely dispose of runoff in ML 2175. One garland drains already exist in the lease area. Silt Settling Tank (SSTs): are proposed to retain silt from flowing runoff in garland drains/catchment drains. Total 4 SSTs have been proposed to be constructed to retain silt in ML 2175. (Design-2) The indicative cost of Dump Management plan is Rs. 20.66 lakhs as per details given in the Table 5.6.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Figure 5.2. Dump management plan.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Table 5.6. Indicative costs of Proposed Engineering Measures of Surface Water Management inside ML- 2175

INDICATIVE COST OF PROPOSED ENGINEERING MEASURES INSIDE THE LEASE OF ML- 2175 DUMP MANAGEMENT PLAN Amount Dimension Quantity Unit Rate (in per Unit lakhs) in Rs. Status Dump Number ID-1 Particulars of work Coir Matting Providing and fixing geo-coir mat on outer surface of slope of waste dump Foundation in hard soil mixed with boulders including hard rock Plain cement concrete (1:4:8) in foundation Silt Settling Tank Silt Settling Tank Toe wall RR dry Dimension (20 x 10 x 3 m) Dimension (20 x 10 x 3 m) Length Width TOP Inactive BOT 0.5 ha 1000000 5.00 Height

Toe Wall at the toe of waste dump

225.00

3.5

1.2

945.00

cum

111

1.05

225.00 225.00 20.00

3.20 1.00 3.00 10.00

0.15 2.00 3.00

108.00 900.00 600

cum cum cum

1860 400 750

2.01 3.60 4.50

20.00

10.00

3.00

600

cum

750

4.50

Total

20.66

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 5.3.3 Surface Water Management

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No surface water sources as such are located within the ML area, which is likely to get affected as a result of mining operation. As mentioned earlier one seasonal nallah (first order stream) originates from the middle of the lease area, adequate protective measures are already taken up in order to avoid the wash-offs from the rejection dump or from the stack yard. The drainage pattern of the area is dentritic in nature. Half of the run-off with-in the buffer zone drains towards east. The half part of the run-off flows towards SW and NW of the basin. Mining activity is carried on moderately elevated terrain, wherein there is no possibility of encountering ground water as the mining operations has the highest and lowest elevation of 1023m and 964m above MSL. Control of erosion is important both during mining and during post mining rehabilitation programme. A major objective of rehabilitation is to establish an adequate cover of vegetation to stabilize the site and control erosion. Measures to protect the soil from water erosion should be carried out on watershed basis. Drainage from outside catchment area above lease area must be diverted into adjoining natural channels through diversion drains/ catch water drains (Garland drain). Erosion control in natural channels should be controlled by constructing silt retaining and grade stabilization structures like gabion check dams, stone masonry check dams, earthen check dams, silt settling tanks and debris basins. Check dams retain silt behind it and allow the water to flow in the downstream. Due to retainment of silt channel gradient is reduced. Reduced channel gradient reduces flow velocity and consequently silt carrying capacity of flowing water is reduced. By adopting these grades stabilizing structures the channel is converted into benches which results in reduction of equivalent channel gradient appreciably. This will result in better plant growth. Engineering measures is the first line of defence in controlling erosion and it helps the vegetation to come up at faster pace. (Figure 5.3)

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Figure 5.3. Surface water management plan

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 5.3.3.1 Gully Plugs i. Logwood Check Dams:

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It is proposed to construct log wood check dam supported by

boulders in narrow gullies of 3-6 m width. 1.5 to 2 m long, 8-10 cm diameter wooden logs of sprouting species may be inserted up to 30 cm depth in the dump terrace of 3 m width (0.5 from the edge) in series at distance of 30 cm centre to centre. Boulders of 40 cm size and above may be hand packed between risers and logs up to 1 m depth. Sprouting species like Lanea coramandalica, Bombex cieba, Erythrina suberosa , E. indica, Ficus bengalensis etc may be chosen. 6 log wood check dams have been proposed for the lease area as gully plugs (Design-3) ii. Brushwood Check Dam: It is like logwood check dam except that brush wood (branches, twigs, climbers etc.) is used instead of boulders. (In areas where boulders are not available and gullies are very narrow i.e 1-3 m wide). 4 brush wood check dams have been proposed for encroached dumps of the lease area ML 2175. (Design-4) iii. Loose Boulder Check Dam: (Random Rubble dry stone masonry): In gullies where width varies from 5-10 m and gully bed slope is less than 10 %, LBCD may be used up to 2 m in height. 4 LBCD have been proposed in ML 2175. 5.3.3.2. Check dams i. Wire crate (gabion) Check Dam: If gully bed slope is higher than 10 % and discharge rate is high LBCD is likely to fail therefore wire crate (gabion) should be adopted in such situations. Gabion check dams are very useful in the areas where sediment load is very high. Gabion check dams are very cost effective in reclamation of mine areas and waste lands. 1 gabion structures is proposed for the area. (Design-5) Present mining pit will be backfilled with overburden of future mining and some area will be converted into water reservoir. The indicative cost of Surface Water management plan is Rs. 0.22 lakhs as per deatails given in Table 5.7.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Table 5.7. Indicative cost of proposed engineering measures of surface water management with in lease Proposed Engineering Measures Of Surface Water Management of Lease Area of ML 2175 Items Dimension in m No Length Width Height TOP BOT Quantity Unit Rate Amount in Rs in Lakhs LBCD 2 3.00 2.00 4.00 3.00 54.00 cum 400.00 0.22 Total 0.22 Indicative cost and estimate may change as per site conditions and rate of materials at the time of implementation Summary of Indicative Cost of Dump and Surface Water Management Plan a.) The cost of Dump Management plan is Rs. 20.66 lakhs b.) The cost of Surface Water management plan is Rs.0.22 lakhs. 5.4. Biological measures Vegetation is a key component of an ecosystem and, as such, is involved in the regulation of various biogeochemical cycles, e.g., water, carbon, nitrogen. It converts solar energy into biomass and forms the base of all food chains. Vegetation influences the energy balance at the earths surface and within the atmospheric boundary layer, often mitigating extremes of local climate.Vegetation releases oxygen which is a source of breathing and sequesters carbon.Vegetation contributes to fertile soil which helps in agriculture. It also provides habitat for wildlife. For the above reasons it is of paramount importance to save the environment through sustainable use of vegetation. Iron has been a vital material in meeting human needs and in technology since time immemorial. Unfortunately the ores are a part of the earth crust. Inevitably, mining is an extractive industry and without doubt it can have significant direct and secondary environmental and social impacts. Mining activities like excavation, transportation and ore processing of overburdens disposal etc, create complex situations in the management of ecology. Large scale mining operations in the forest areas, result in substantial impact on the ecosystem like alteration in the forest landscape, land degradation , deforestation, disappearance of many valued species
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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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of plants, displacement of wildlife, effect on aquatic eco-system etc. It is absolutely necessary to take measures to put an end to this menace. Engineering and Biological measures help in reclamation rehabilitation of the altered situations in the environment due to mining. Vegetation climax involves succession. Any hindrance causes an imbalance in natures operational process of vegetational succession. Biological measures if implemented will result in the establishment of system which will be self sustaining. To implement biological measures all the operational activity should be planned well in time. Utmost care should be taken preserve the natural forests adjoining the mine lease area. All human activity should be restricted inside the natural habitat around the area. Dedicated corridors for movement of Herpetofauna and wild animals should be created. Management plan for Flora and Fauna has been suggested below keeping in view the protection of environment through scientific measure for mining activities. Management plan for Flora and Fauna has been provided below. 5.4.1. Species selection Selection of the plant species forms an important aspect in the afforestation programme. Utmost care should be taken in selection of the species so that natural habitat surrounding the mine lease area is not altered. The balance between soil, microflora and the surrounding environment must be maintained. The ultimate objective of biological measures is to restore the natural vegetation occurring in and around the area and also to provide a corridor for free movement of wild life. The native species which occur in the natural vegetational area are the best and appropriate candidates for the prescription. A list of species occurring in the mine lease area and adjacent areas should be prepared after the inventorying with the help of experts and local people. Exotics and weedy species which can colonize and invade the natural habitat should not be planted .Practice of monoculture methods must be totally avoided. Grasses and Legumes play an important role in the initial activities in reclamation of mined areas. Grasses help in retaining soil moisture content and slope stabilization in dumps while legumes help in enriching the degraded soil by supplementing Nitrogen. Suggestions given below are based on the assessment of the habitat around the mine lease under consideration.
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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 5.4.2 Importance of grasses

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Grasses are drought tolerant and can colonize fast in low nutrient soil Due to the presence of fibrous roots; grasses can reduce soil erosion as they are the best sand binders. Grasses and herbaceous species available locally in abundance can be used for biological treatment. For stabilization of steep slopes rows of grasses are to be planted. Clumps of grasses can be collected from adjacent and nearby areas without destroying the grass cover of the adjacent areas. Clumps should be planted in the contours at a distance of one foot. This has been suggested since The important grass species, namely, Bothriochloa pertusa, Chrysopogon

fulvus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, C. martinii, C. nardus, Cynodon dactylon, Dichanthium annulatum, Eleusine indica, Heteropogon contortus, Saccharum spontaneum, etc., have been suggested for planting in the form of slips and root stocks as given in Table 5.8 The grass species are available in plenty around the area. It is suggested that the above grasses may be grown and multiplied in the nursery . Table 5.8:Grasses Recommended for Soil Moisture Conservation (SMC) and slope stabilization. Sl.no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Species Alloteropsis cimicina Bambusa arundinacea Bothriochloa pertusa Chrysopogon fulvus Chrysopogon ziznoides Cymbopogon flexuosus Cymbopogon martini Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Dendrocalamus strictus Dichanthium annulatum Eleusine indica Heteropogon contortus Saccharum spontaneum Propagation method Slips/Seeds Rhizome/Seeds Seeds Slips Slips Slips Slips Slips Rhizome/Seeds Rhizome Seeds Slips/Seeds Slips/Seeds Slips Local/Kannada name Neerusajje hullu Bidiru Aanekattu hullu Ganjigarike Khus khus, Nannaari Anthibale hullu Kaashi hullu Ganda hanchi hullu Garike hullu Gandubidiru Ganjala garike hullu Hechhulli hullu Ooobina hullu Darbe hullu
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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 5.4.3 Importance of Leguminous plant species:

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The Legumes play an important role in increasing the soil nitrogen for they have symboitic nitrogen fixing bacteria called as Rhizobia within the nodules in their roots which produce nitrogen compounds that help the plant to grow. When the plant dies, fixed nitrogen is released which will then made available to other plants and this helps in fertilizing the soil. Species like Atylosia scarabaeoides, Crotalaria albida, C. juncea, C. retusa, C. verrucosa, Desmodium triflorum, Indigofera cassioides, Mimosa pudica, Stylosanthes fruticosa, Tephrosia purpurea,.T. villosa, etc., can be collected with less effort from adjacent are suggested for mined out areas and OB dumps (Table-5.9). Table: 5.9 Leguminous species recommended for Nitrogen enrichment in the soil. Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Species Cassia auriculata Cassia hirsuta Cassia mimosoides Cassia occidentalis Cassia tora Crotalaria albida Crotalaria juncea Crotalaria retusa Crotalaria verrucosa Desmodium triflorum Indigofera cassioides Mimosa pudica Stylosanthes fruticosa Tephrosia purpurea Tephrosia villosa Family Caesalpiniaceae Caesalpiniaceae Caesalpiniaceae Caesalpiniaceae Caesalpiniaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Mimosaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Habit Shrub Shrub Herb Herb Herb Herb Herb Herb Herb Herb Shrub Herb Herb Herb Herb Local name Avarike

Doddathagase Gundu thagase Giligiligida Sanna senabu Gejje gida Gilaganchi gida Kaadu pullam puruche Goggae gida Muttidare muni Saalikampa, Hamata hullu Koggi Kaadu thogari

It is suggested to build engineering structures (gully plugs/rock fill/check dams), supported by biological measures (vegetation) to prevent adverse impact. Cost effective Hydroseeding is suggested for implementation with bioengineering measures especially in afforestation activities.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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The species suggested for seed broadcasting/hydroseeding are Bothriochloa pertusa, Cassia auriculata, Cassia occidentalis, C.tora, Crotalaria juncea, C.albida, Cymbopogan flexuosus, C. martinii, C. nardus, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Dichanthium annulatum, Heteropogon contortus, Stylosanthes fruticosa, Tephrosia purpurea etc. (Table-5.10). These species will get established in due course of time in disturbed areas . Table-5.10 Species Recommended for Hydro seeding Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Species Bothriochloa pertusa Calotropis gigantea Calotropis procera Cassia auriculata Cassia occidentalis Cassia tora Crotalaria albida Crotalaria juncea Cymbopogon flexuosus Cymbopogon martinii Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dichanthium annulatum Eleusine indica Heteropogon contortus Stylosanthes fruticosa Tephrosia purpurea Family Poaceae Asclepiadaceae Asclepiadaceae Caesalpiniaceae Caesalpiniaceae Caesalpiniaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Habit Grass Shrub Shrub Shrub Herb Herb Herb Herb Grass Grass Grass Grass Grass Grass Grass Grass Herb Herb Local/Kannada name Aanekattu hullu Ekka Kempu ekka Aavarike Doddathagase Gundu thagase Giligiligida Sanna senabu Anthibale hullu Kaashi hullu Ganda hanchi hullu Garike hullu

Ganjala garike hullu Hechhulli hullu Ooobina hullu

Koggi

5.4.4. Over Burden Dumps Management The overburdens should dumped as per the specifications of IBM and MoEF and the slope of the dump are to be maintained at not more than 28 angle. The topsoil collected and stacked during the initial stages of mining should be used in plantation programme.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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The dump site has to be in non-mineralized ground and the topsoil and waste material should be kept at separate sites. The over burdens have to be dumped in benches made for the purpose of stabilization, and it should be ensured that no over burden crosses out of the nalas under any circumstances. All along the slope of the OB dumps, garland drains with bottom width of 0.5 m, top width two meter with side slope 1:2 and one meter height should be constructed and connected to natural drain/nala. Regular de-silting has to be carried out, i.e., before and after monsoon season and the silt material can be used for plantation purpose. The over burden should be filled back in such a way that the water drains out into the streams in the same ratio as it is flowing naturally. Therefore, provision should be made to flow down the rainwater gradually in all natural streams equally. The direction of course of flow should not be changed or modified. Over burden dumps which contain a part of soil, gravel and stone, if not rehabilitated properly, result in flow of sediments and other materials into nala/stream courses, which contaminate the forest, agriculture and horticulture lands down below the mine lease area. Therefore, to stabilize the OB dumps and to protect the biodiversity, the rehabilitation and reclamation of OB dumps is a prerequisite. The existing OB dumps needs to be treated by using physical and biological measures. Under physical measures, the existing OB dumps should be made into benches and terraces with an appropriate angle. The OB dump slopes being unstable and having loose materials may get disturbed immediately by rains, which may result in soil erosion and formation of gullies. Furthermore, direct exposure to sun light may also result in loss of soil moisture and increase of substratum temperature, which may hamper the growth and establishment of vegetation. To overcome of these problems, geo-textile coir mats may be used followed by seed broadcasting and planting of seedlings of suitable plant species. Seed broadcasting has to be taken up by using hydro seeding or by spreading slurry manually. Hydro seeding can be successfully practiced to stabilize barren steep slopes and fragile unstable surfaces. The system requires water, seeds, FYM and mulch which are applied on the surface in the form of fine spray.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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The species recommended for hydro seeding on mine OB dumps and fragile unstable surfaces are given in table 5.10 In addition to hydro seeding, planting of suitable herbs, shrubs, creepers and trees have to be done on the slopes by making holes in geo-textile coir mat. For gentle slopes of OB dumps, benches and trenches has to be made, followed by seed broadcasting and planting of seedlings of shrubs, namely, Agave americana, A. sisalana, Calotropis gigantea, C. procera, Cassia auriculata, Dendrocalamus strictus, Dodonaea viscosa, trees such as, A. catechu, A.nilotica, Albizia amara, A.lebbeck , Annona squamosa, Azadirachta indica, Bauhinia racemosa, Cassia fistula, Dalbergia latifolia, D. sissoo, Dolichandrone atrovirens, Givotia rottleriformis, Gmelina arborea, Grewia tiliifolia, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Melia dubia, Phyllanthus emblica, Pithecelobium dulce, Pongamia pinnata, Santalum album, Stereospermum personatum, Tamarindus indica, Vitex negundo, Wrightia tinctoria, etc, and root stock/slips of grasses, namely, Bothriochloa pertusa, Chrysopogon zizanoides, Cymbopogon flexuosus, C. martinii, C. nardus, Cynodon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Dichanthium annulatum, Eleusine indica, Heteropogon contortus, etc. (Table-5.11) 5.4.5. Mine Pit Management and Rehabilitation After extraction of iron ore, all hard overburden/wastes generated during mining operations should be used in back filling of mine pits or dumped in the worked out area of the mine so as to maintain and bring back the original contour of the terrain as far as possible. The mine pits have to be levelled after extraction of the ore to match the contour of the area. The stacked top soil has to be spread over on compacted back filled area in order to facilitate the revegetation process, which in turn controls silt flow towards the downstream. The construction of channels all along the boundary of the mine pit has to be made to help in arresting runoff and preventing soil erosion. Table 5.11: Plant Species suitable for OB Dump and Mine Pit stabilization Sl.no 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Plant species Acacia catechu Acacia chundra Acacia nilotica Aegle marmelos Agave americana Family Mimosaceae Mimosaceae Mimosaceae Rutaceae Agavaceae Habit Tree Tree Tree Tree Shrub Local/Kannada names Kaachu Kempu Jaali Kari Jaali, Gobli Baela Katthaale
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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. Agave sisalana Albizia lebbeck Albizia odoratissima Albizia procera Annona squamosa Anogeissus latifolia Azadirachta indica Bauhinia racemosa Boswellia serrata Bothriochloa pertusa Calotropis gigantea Calotropis procera Cassia auriculata Cassia fistula Chloroxylon swietenia Chrysopogon fulvus Cymbopogon flexuosus Cymbopogon martini Cymbopogon nardus Dalbergia latifolia Dendrocalamus strictus Dichanthium annulatum Diospyros melanoxylon Dodonaea viscosa Dolichandrone atrovirens Eleusine indica Ficus racemosa Ficus religiosa Garuga pinnata Givotia rottleriformis Gmelina arborea Grewia tiliifolia Haldina cordifolia Hardwickia binata Heteropogon contortus Holoptelea integrifolia Lagerstroemia Agavaceae Mimosaceae Mimosaceae Mimosaceae Annonaceae Combretaceae Meliaceae Caesalpiniaceae Burseraceae Poaceae Asclepiadaceae Asclepiadaceae Caesalpiniaceae Caesalpiniaceae Flindersiaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Fabaceae Poaceae Poaceae Ebenaceae Sapindaceae Bignoniaceae Poaceae Moraceae Moraceae Burseraceae Euphorbiaceae Verbenaceae Tiliaceae Rubiaceae Caesalpiniaceae Poaceae Ulmaceae Lythraceae Shrub Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Herb Shrub Shrub Shrub Tree Tree Grass Grass Grass Grass Tree Grass Grass Tree Shrub Tree Grass Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Grass Tree Tree Boodu katthaale Baage Bettada tugli, Kannergi Bilibage Seethaphala Dindiga Bevu Kanchuvaala Maddi mara Aanekattu hullu Ekka Kempuekka Aavarike Kakke Hurugalu Ganjigarike Anthibale hullu Kaashi hullu Ganda hanchi hullu Shisham, Pacheri

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Ganjala garike hullu Tumri Bandarike Uddedu Hechhulli hullu Atthi Arali Biligadde Boodi thaale Shivani Sannudippe Hetthaega Asanagurgi Ooobina hullu Tapasi Hole daasavaala
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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) parviflora Limonia acidissima Madhuca longifolia latifolia Mitragyna parvifolia Morinda pubescens Phyllanthus emblica Pithecelobium dulce Pongamia pinnata Pterocarpus marsupium Saccharum spontaneum Santalam album Soymida febrifuga Stereospermum personatum Stylosanthes fruticosa Tamarindus indica Terminalia bellirica Terminalia chebula Vitex negundo Wrightia tinctoria Ziziphus mauritiana

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43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61.

Rutaceae Sapotaceae Rubiaceae Rubiaceae Euphorbiaceae Mimosaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Poaceae Santalaceae Meliaceae Bignoniaceae Fabaceae Caesalpiniaceae Combretaceae Combretaceae Verbenaceae Rubiaceae Rhamnaceae

Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Grass Tree Tree Tree Herb Tree Tree Tree Shrub Tree Tree

Baela Hippe Kangshi Maddi Bettada nelli Kaadu hunise Honge Honne Darbe hullu Srigandha Somi mara Paadarimara Saalikampa, Hamata hullu Hunise Thaare mara Alale Nirgundi Kodamurki Bore

The construction of channels all along the boundary of the mined out area, and plantation around will help in arresting runoff and prevention of soil erosion. The mine area has to be rejuvenated with indigenous and other economically important species of grasses, such as shrubs and trees as recommended in the Table 5.11 5.4.6. Management of Refractory Sites The areas which lack any nutrient containing soil can be planted witht Agave americana, A. sisalana, Dodonaea viscosa, Euphorbia tirucalli, E. tortilis, Mimosa hamata which have been proved successful in extreme conditions (Table-5.12).

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Table-5.12: Plant Species suitable for Stabilization of Refractory Sites

Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Plant species Agave americana Agave sisalana Dodonaea viscosa Euphorbia tirucalli Euphorbia tortilis Mimosa hamata

Family Agavaceae Agavaceae Sapindaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Mimosaceae

Habit Shrub Shrub Shrub Shrub Shrub Shrub

Local/Kannada name Katthaale Boodukathaale Bandarike Haalu kalli, Kolu kalli Suttu kalli Sagarimullu

5.4.7. Management and Rehabilitation of Mine Drainage The drainage management and rehabilitation plan for this mine is recommended as follows: a) Provide proper gradient and drainage arrangement at the over burden dumping area b) After trapping the suspended solids in garland drains just below the over burden dumps, the water has to be allowed to flow down the dump slopes to join natural streams/nalas through settling tank with filtration arrangements, so that all the suspended solids and sediments will be arrested. c) Plantation of indigenous and other economically important trees, shrubs, herbs and grasses at the point of discharge, where the mine outlet will pass through bio-engineering structures and on OB dumps has to be taken up, so that the sediment/silt flow will be arrested from the site and soil moisture can be maintained . d) The drain/nala bunds shall be planted with suitable grasses, herbs, shrubs and trees, namely, Acacia nilotica, Agave americana, A. sisalana, Bambusa arundinacea, Calotropis gigantea, Calotropis procera, Cassia auriculata, Chrysopogon fulvus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, C. martinii, C. nardus, Dendrocalamus strictus, Dichanthium annulatum, Drypetes roxburgii, Ficus racemosa, Heteropogon contortus, Indigofera cassioides, Murraya paniculata, Pennisetum pedicillatum, Phoenix loureiri, Saccharum spontaneum, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Vitex negundo etc. (Table-5.13). At steep slopes necessary engineering and biological measures have to be undertaken to prevent soil erosion.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Table- 5.13 Plant Species suitable for Stabilization of Nala/Drain Courses Sl.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Plant species Acacia nilotica Agave Americana Agave sisalana Bambusa arundinacea Calotropis gigantea Calotropis procera Cassia auriculata Chrysopogon fulvus Crataeva nurvala Cymbopogon flexuosus Cymbopogon martini Cymbopogon nardus Dendrocalamus strictus Dichanthium annulatum Ficus racemosa Heteropogon contortus Indigofera cassioides Murraya paniculata Phoenix loureiro Saccharum spontaneum Stereospermum personatum Syzygium cumini Terminalia arjuna Vitex negundo Family Mimosaceae Agavaceae Agavaceae Poaceae Asclepiadaceae Asclepiadaceae Caesalpiniaceae Poaceae Capparaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Moraceae Poaceae Fabaceae Rutaceae Areacaceae Poaceae Bignoniaceae Myrtaceae Combretaceae Verbenaceae Habit Tree Shrub Shrub Shrub Shrub Shrub Shrub Herb Tree Herb Herb Herb Shrub Herb Tree Herb Shrub Shrub Tree Herb Tree Tree Tree Shrub Local name Kare jaali Katthaale Boodu katthaale Bidiru Ekka Kempu ekka Aavarike Ganjigarike Varuna Anthibale hullu Kaashi hullu Ganda hanchi hullu Gandubidiru Ganjala garike hullu Atti Ooobina hullu Kaadukaribevu Kaadu eechalu Darbe hullu Paadarimara Nerale Hole matthi Lakki

5.4.8. Management of Haul Roads The present condition of haul roads, which are leading to the mine, should be maintained at regular intervals. The roads must be regularly sprinkled with water to avoid dust during transportation of ore material through tippers. Tarpaulin covering during the transportation of iron ore is a must. The drainage system is inadequate along the haul roads and it is suggested that drainage has to be provided to arrest sediment flow towards downstream. All along the haul roads have suitable fast growing avenue tree species, namely, Albizia lebbeck, Azadirachta indica, Cassia fistula, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gmelina
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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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arborea, Grewia tiliifolia, Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Thespesia populnea and Terminalia catappa (three rows on either side) to suppress the noise and dust pollution (Table5.14). The ML has haul roads of about 2.5 km. The cost of avenue plantation @ Rs 0.80 lakh per km is Rs 2.0 lakh. Table-5.14: Plant Species recommended for Avenue Plantation along Mine Haul Roads
Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Plant species Acacia nilotica Albizia amara Albizia lebbeck Albizia procera Azadirachta indica Cassia fistula Dalbergia latifolia Dalbergia sissoo Ficus benghalensis Ficus racemosa Ficus religiosa Gmelina arborea Grewia tiliifolia Mimosa hamata Pongamia pinnata Stereospermum personatum Tamarindus indica Terminalia catappa Thespesia populnea Trema orientalis Family Mimosaceae Mimosaceae Mimosaceae Mimosaceae Meliaceae Caesalpiniaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Moraceae Moraceae Moraceae Verbenaceae Tiliaceae Mimosaceae Fabaceae Bignoniaceae Caesalpiniaceae Combretaceae Malvaceae Ulmaceae Habit Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Local/Kannada name Kare jaali Chujjulu Baage Bilibage Bevu Kakke Beete mara Sisam Aalada mara Atthi mara Arali mara Shivane mara Sannudippe Sagarimullu Hone Paadarimara Hunise Kaadu baadaami Hoovarasi mara Gorklu mara

5.4.9. Afforestation Afforestation of the mined - out and other available areas which are not fragmented but are degraded due to mining activity is the main component of re-vegetation process to mitigate the negative impacts of the mining on environment. By afforestation, restoration of the ecosystem almost similar to pre-mining period is possible and can be accomplished. In the context of the mines under study the mine lease area though not fully mined out, an afforestation plan has been formulated considering the conceptual closure plan of the mines. After excluding the area finally classified under green belt, roads, the area to be afforested in ML-2175 has been worked out to be 25.0 ha. The afforestation covering 1000 trees and 2500 shrubs per ha, inclusive of maintenance for five year has been worked out as per the norms of State Forest
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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

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Department, Karnataka. The total cost for afforestation in 25.0 ha (pit, 10.65 ha + OB, 6.16 ha + Infrastructure, 0.69 (Total infrasturucture, 1.36 ha Road, 0.67 ha)+Afforestation and Environment Protective Measures, 7.50 ha; all inside the ML) @ Rs. 1.74 Lakh/ha has been worked to be Rs 43.5 Lakhs. It is recommended that the work of afforestation should be entrusted to the State Forest Department, Karnataka and the periodical monitoring shall be assigned to a national specialized scientific institution. Afforestation shall be made through: Propagates (seeds, lignotubers, corms, bulbs, rhizomes and roots) stored in the topsoil; and sowing seed; Planting nursery-raised seedlings By seed dibbling Transplants of individuals from natural areas Silt accumulated in silt tanks/check dams etc. has to be periodically removed

before and after monsoon and the same could be used after mixing FYM and sand in the ratio 2:1:1. This mixture could be used during plantation. . Multipurpose Plant Species (Table 5.15) Table-5.15: Multipurpose Plant Species recommended for Eco-reclamation and Ecorehabilitation of Mine Areas
Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Plant species Acacia catechu Acacia nilotica Aegle marmelos Agave Americana Agave sisalana Ailanthus excelsa Alangium salvifolium Albizia amara Albizia lebbeck Annona squamosa Anogeissus latifolia Argyreia nervosa Common name Kaachu Kare Jaali Bilva Family Mimosaceae Mimosaceae Rutaceae Agavaceae Agavaceae Simaroubaceae Alangiaceae Mimosaceae Mimosaceae Annonaceae Combretaceae Convolvulaceae Poaceae Meliaceae Poaceae Habit Tree Tree Tree Shrub Shrub Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Climbing shrub Grass Tree Bamboo Uses C T M, E, C C C C M, T T T M, E, C T M C M, T, F, C E, C
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Dodda mara Ankole Chujjulu Baage Seethaphala Dindiga

13. Aristida setacea 14. Azadirachta indica 15. Bambusa arundinacea

Bevu Bidiru

Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)
16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Boswellia serrata Bothriochloa pertusa Calotropis gigantea Calotropis procera Cassia auriculata Cassia fistula Cassia occidentalis Cassia tora Ceiba pentandra Chloroxylon swietenia Chrysopogon fulvus Crotalaria juncea Cymbopogon flexuosus Cymbopogon martinii Cymbopogon nardus Maddi mara Aanekattu hullu Ekka Kempu ekka Aavarike Kakke Doddathagase Gundu thagase Booruga Burseraceae Poaceae Asclepiadaceae Asclepiadaceae Caesalpiniaceae Caesalpiniaceae Caesalpiniaceae Caesalpiniaceae Bombaceae Flindersiaceae Ganjigarike Poaceae Fabaceae Anthibale hullu Poaceae Kaashi hullu Poaceae Ganda hanchi Poaceae hullu Garike hullu Poaceae Poaceae Beete mara Pachari mara Shishta bage, Britimara Gandubidiru Ganjala garike hullu Tumri Haalu kalli, Kolukalli Aala Atthimara Arali Burale Shivani Sannudippe Hetthaega Asanagurgi Ooobina hullu Tapasimara jatropa Fabaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Poaceae Poaceae Ebenaceae Euphorbiaceae Moraceae Moraceae Moraceae Euphorbiaceae Verbenaceae Tiliaceae Rubiaceae Caesalpiniaceae Poaceae Ulmaceae Fabaceae Euphorbiaceae Tree Grass Shrub Shrub Shrub Tree Herb Herb Tree Tree Grass Herb Grass Grass Grass Grass Grass Tree Tree Tree Bamboo Grass Tree Shrub Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Grass Tree Shrub Shrub M, C F M M M M M M C M, T F F C C C F F T T T E, C F E, C M

ICFRE

31. Cynodon dactylon 32. Dactyloctenium aegyptium 33. Dalbergia latifolia 34. Dalbergia paniculata 35. Dalbergia sissoo 36. Dendrocalamus strictus 37. Dichanthium annulatum 38. Diospyros melanoxylon 39. Euphorbia tirucalli 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. Ficus benghalensis Ficus racemosa Ficus religiosa Givotia rottleriformis Gmelina arborea Grewia tiliifolia Haldina cordifolia Hardwickia binata Heteropogon contortus Holoptelea integrifolia Indigofera cassioides Jatropha curcas

M, T, F M, E M, F C T T T T F T E M, C

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)
Junglee erand Euphorbiaceae Chikka kaadu Euphorbiaceae haralu Lythraceae 54. Lagerstroemia parviflora Hole daasawaaala Gumpina Anacardiaceae 55. Lannea coromandelica Bela Rutaceae 56. Limonia acidissima longifolia Ippe Sapotaceae 57. Madhuca latifolia Hebbevu Meliaceae 58. Melia dubia Muttidare muni Mimosaceae 59. Mimosa pudica Kadavala Rubiaceae 60. Mitragyna parvifolia Rubiaceae 61. Morinda pubescens Nelli Euphorbiaceae 62. Phyllanthus emblica Kaaduhunise Mimosaceae 63. Pithecelobium dulce Honge Fabaceae 64. Pongamia pinnata Hone Fabaceae 65. Pterocarpus marsupium Srigandh Santalaceae 66. Santalam album Somi mara Meliaceae 67. Soymida febrifuga Nerale Myrtaceae 68. Syzygium cumini Hunise Caesalpiniaceae 69. Tamarindus indica Thega Verbenaceae 70. Tectona grandis Koggi Fabaceae 71. Tephrosia purpurea Arjuna, Combretaceae 72. Terminalia arjuna Holematthi Thaare Combretaceae 73. Terminalia bellirica Kaadu Combretaceae 74. Terminalia catappa Baadaami Alale Combretaceae 75. Terminalia chebula Lakki Verbenaceae 76. Vitex negundo Haale Rubiaceae 77. Wrightia tinctoria Bore Rhamnaceae 78. Ziziphus mauritiana M=Medicinal; T=Timber; E=Edible; F=Fodder; C=Commercial 52. Jatropha glandulifera 53. Jatropha gossypifolia Shrub Shrub Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Herb Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Herb Tree Tree Tree Tree Shrub Tree Tree M M T

ICFRE

T M, E, C E, C T M T T M, C E, F M, C M, T M, C M T, E, C T, E, C T M M, T M, C E, C M, C M C E, C

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 5.4.10. Green Belt Development Plan

ICFRE

In order to minimize the impact of mining on environmental components outside the mine lease area, greenbelt zone of 7.5m width should be established in safety zone inside mine lease area. The establishment of Green belt will help wild life movement, and also human health. The greenbelt will act as a barrier to trap the suspended dust particles and also suppresses air pollutants. It is also important to create a green belt with tall seedlings (>1 m height) of fast growing species to hasten the process of greening the area. Green belt available in the safety zone of this mine has been partly planted . It is suggested that the areas which are not planted should be planted with the species specified in this report at the earliest. The natural green belt is fairly untouched. 5.4.11.Recommended Plant Species The important tree species, namely, Ailanthus excelsa, Albizia amara, A. lebbeck, Azadirachta indica, Boswellia serrata, Cassia fistula, Ceiba pentandra, Dalbergia sissoo, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, F. religiosa, Gmelina arborea, Haldina cordifolia, Hardwickia binata, Holoptelea integrifolia, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Madhuca longifolia latifolia, Melia dubia, Mitragyna parvifolia, Phyllanthus emblica, Pithecelobium dulce, Pongamia pinnata and Stereospermum personatum have been recommended for greenbelt plantation around the mine lease area in three rows (3mx3m spacing) as given in Table-5.15. The multipurpose plant species recommended for eco-rehabilitation and reclamation of mine areas are presented in Table- 5.15. Table-5.16: Plant Species recommended for Greenbelt Development along Safety Zone
Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 Botanical name Ailanthus excelsa Alangium salvfolium Albizia amara Albizia lebbeck Albizia procera Azadirachta indica Boswellia serrata Cassia fistula Ceiba pentandra Dalbergia latifolia Dalbergia paniculata Dalbergia sissoo Family Simaroubaceae Alangiaceae Mimosaceae Mimosaceae Mimosaceae Meliaceae Burseraceae Caesalpiniaceae Bombaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Habit Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Local/Kannada name Dodda mara Ankole Chujjulu Baage Bilibage Bevu Maddi mara Kakke Booruga Beete mara Pachari mara Shishta bage, Britimara
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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Ficus racemosa Ficus benghalensis Ficus religiosa Gmelina arborea Grewia tiliifolia Haldina cordifolia Hardwickia binata Holoptelea integrifolia Lagerstroemia parviflora Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia Melia dubia Mitragyna parvifolia Phyllanthus emblica Pithecelobium dulce Pongamia pinnata Stereospermum personatum Trema orientalis Moraceae Moraceae Moraceae Verbenaceae Tiliaceae Rubiaceae Caesalpiniaceae Ulmaceae Lythraceae Sapotaceae Meliaceae Rubiaceae Euphorbiaceae Mimosaceae Fabaceae Bignoniaceae Ulmaceae Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Tree Attimara Aaladamara Aralimara Shivane mara Sannudippe Hetthaega Asanagurgi Tapasimara Holedasawala Ippemara Habbaevu Kadavala

ICFRE

Bettada nellikai Seeme hunuse mara Hongemara Paadarimara Gorklu mara

5. 4.12.Indicative Cost of Developing Green Belt The greenbelt area has to be developed on 1.95 ha along the periphery of Mine Lease Area-ML no.2175.. Based on the per hectare cost of Rupees 2.57 lakhs the indicative cost of developing green belt in safety zone of the Mine Lease Areas works out to Rs. 5.00 Lakhs as given in Table 5.17. Table5.17 Indicative Cost Estimate for Developing Green Belt in Safety Zone
Sl. No. 1 Mine Lease Area of Green Rate/ha Area Belt (ha) (Rs. in lakhs) ML-2175 1.95 2.57 Amount (Rs. in lakhs) 5.0115 Say 5.00

5.5 Biodiversity Conservation Plan Development projects in any region must learn to respect the ecological integrity and the priority of conserving biodiversity of the region for long term sustainability of the mineral extraction initiatives, for economic development and dependent human well- beings. It is therefore important to evaluate the magnitude and severity of impacts associated with mining activity and their implications for wildlife conservation.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

Biodiversity is the basis of innumerable environmental services that keep us and the natural environment alive from the provision of clean water and watershed services to the recycling of nutrients and pollination. Biodiversity encompasses variety and variability. Mining is an extractive industry which has significant direct and secondary environmental impacts. The present area lies adjacent to forest area which has typical floral elements which contribute to the formation of Tropical Deciduous type of forests as classified by Champion and Seth(1968). Protected areas should be created mainly to protect biodiversity, specific species and wildlife habitat; to preserve ecological integrity; and to ensure public access to outstanding natural areas for recreation. Protected areas are critical to the long-term health of society, and also in stimulating and maintaining the economy. ICFRE Expert team has identified an area of 5 ha area which is potentially rich biodiversity. The area lies between altitudes of 883 912m msl. The area proposed lies in western slope of Mining lease area.The geographical location is as follows.
a : 132445.12 b : 132443.68 c : 132457.72 d : 132457.78 764011.46 764014.82 764014.1 76409.72

The area has comparative dense canopy with typical plant associations. It is found that few RET species like Gloriosa superba are growing. Several species are medicinal plants .A list of plants occurring in the area is given in Table 5.18 Table 5.18. Plant species recorded in the proposed Biodiversity area
S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 Botanical name Achyranthes aspera Anogeissus latifolia Azadirachta indica Cassia auriculata Catunaregam spinosa Cipadessa baccifera Clerodendrum serratum Cocculus hirsutus Flacourtia indica Gloriosa superba Hemidesmus indicus Family Amaranthaceae Combretaceae Meliaceae Caesalpiniaceae Rubiaceae Meliaceae Verbenaceae Menispermaceae Flacourtiaceae Liliaceae Asclepiadaceae Habit Herb Tree Tree Shrub Tree Shrub Shrub Climber Tree Climber Herbaceous Remarks Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal RET species/ Medicinal Medicinal
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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)
Twiner Tree Herb Shrub Tree Tree Shrub Tree

ICFRE

13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Holarrhena pubescens Leucas aspera Maytenus emarginata Phyllanthus emblica Pongamia pinnata Solanum torvum Wrightia tinctorea

Apocynaceae Lamiaceae Celastraceae Euphorbiaceae Fabaceae Solanaceae Apocynaceae

Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal

The area described above though lies in the mine lease area, it is suggested that this area may be protected by the lessee. The lessee may collect the seeds of the above species for propagation in the nursery and further planting. This suggestion if implemented will help in restoration of local biodiversity. The main objective of this plan is to preserve the Biodiverity components which will serve as a repository Germ plasm bank. The following mesures have been suggested to protect the local biodiversity and develop the habitat for the local fauna. 5.5.1. Mangement of Flora Plants play an important role in land reclamation. Restoration efforts should be directed towards achieving pre-disturbance conditions. Rehabilitation of the mine with exotic plants can create loss of native fauna also. High floristic diversity is a desirable objective in itself and is likely to lead to high faunal diversity also. In order to achieve this objective it is suggested in biodiversity conservation plan to desist from planting exotics like Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia mangium, Casuarina equisetifolia, Grevillea robusta, Tecoma stans etc. Instead efforts should be made to collect seeds, tubers and other planting materials of natural plants in the adjoining areas and propagate the same in the nurseries. Shrubs and trees of the mineralised zones could be transplanted in the ares proposed for afforestation. It is also advised to desist from Monoculture method. While undertaking afforestion programme care should be taken to include Herbs, Shrubs, Climbers and tree species occurring in the neighbourhood of the mine sites for planting. Establishment of Nursery The mine has not established a plant nursery. It is suggested to establish a plant nursery at the earliest to facilitate future planting programmes. A full fledged and functional plant nursery will help in fulfilling the need of required quantity of seedlings. Following suggestions are made to to establish nursery.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 1. Minimum of 2 acres of land must be allotted per block for setting up the nursery. 2. Efforts should be be made to employ local people familiar with the local flora

ICFRE

3. Seeds of the species prescribed for various purposes should be procured for raising the seedlings. 4. Unemployed youth and women should be employed in the nursery . They should be given adequate training in nursery technique.. 5. The programme of raising seedling by the local women should be encouraged and buy back system may be introduced.

5.5.2. Fauna Following suggestions are made in this plan to improve the faunal population: Habitat protection The diversity of animal species and their abundance is largely dependent on the availability of suitable habitats. All measures as suggested in Biological measures must be followed to achieve success in Biodiversity Conservation plan. No natural materials (Both physical and biological) should be displaced from the natural habitat. The natural habitat area outside the mining lease area should be declared as non human interference area. Providing a corridor for the dwelling and movement of Herpetofauna A corridor must be created among the fragmented habitat by planting trees, shrubs, herbs and grasses to allow the movement of Herpetofauna. Creation of Habitat for Avifauna Fruit, fodder and shelter providing trees such as Alaegium solvifolium, Annona squamosa, Bombax ceiba, Erythrina suberosa, Eugenia jambolana, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Ficus religiosa, Madhuca longifolia, wild Mangifera indica, Muntingia calabura, Syzigium cumini and Ziziphus maurtina may be planted to attract birds as well as other wildlife. Reducing anthropogenic pressure No mining activity should be allowed after 6 pm. Bright lights should not be used after 6 pm. Vehicular traffic should be banned between 6 pm and 6 am.
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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

5.5.3 Aquatic Fauna One seasonal Nala traverse in the mine lease area and run from South west to North east direstion and gets spreaded in KIDB (Karnataka Industrial Development Board) area. The watercourses within and adjoining areas are formed during monsoon to drain off as surface water. Such precipitation water originating from the mine areas may contaminate the freshwater sources and increased flow of suspended mine solids and sediments into the streams and nalas. Hence, this water is proposed to be let out through a series of biological and engineering measures as suggested in the earlier chapters of the present report. Management Plan for Fauna The habitat management in and around the mine lease areas must be adopted by planting suitable fodder species to enable wild herbivores to thrive upon. Following suggestions, if implemented will encourage the native fauna to return to the areas cleared for mining: A dense green belt consisting of shrubs and trees of different species must be created around the mine lease areas and also along the haul roads which will act also as a dust and noise barrier. Awareness programmes amongst the local people as well as mining staff, regarding the importance of wild life, their habits and habitats, should be organized so that stray and displaced fauna (due to degradation and defragmentation of their habitat) is not killed. Rock fill dams and check dams should to be constructed in the mine lease areas to prevent the soil erosion. This will be able to store sufficient quantity of filtered water in the area and will act as water holes for the faunal life present in the region. The green cover loss due to construction of haul roads and heavy vehicular movements will restrict the animal movements to the adjoining areas. Therefore, development of a green belt and massive afforestation programme of fruit bearing and shade bearing plant species around the mine lease areas will provide food and shelter for them. Intense campaign amongst the local people as well as project staff should be carried out regarding the importance of regional biodiversity and need for their conservation for posterity.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

Fire plays hazardous role in the destruction of habitat. It is suggested that lessee should take keen interest to protect the forests from fire. It is suggested that the lessee should take preventive measures in 2 sq.km area around the mine. It is also suggested that fire preventing squad should be formed to fight the fire. A training should be provided to the squad members through the State Forest Department. All the mining and transportation operations after the sunset should be stopped. In order to avoid anthropogenic pressure and to provide security for the area the lessee is advised to fence the area with pillars and barbed wire providing certain exit points to facilitate free movent of wild life. Enumeration of the Plant species The plants occurring the area should be enumerated with the help of plant taxonomists. The local uses of the plant species occurring in the area may be collected through the local people. The tree species may be provided with a name board mentioning the Name of plant species (Botanical name, Common English name and Local Kannada Name). Publication of a booklet A small booklet containing details on the biodiversity components (Plants, few birds and butterflies)of the area along with attractive colour photographs may published to be distributed to school and College students. Popularization of importance of Biodiversity School and college students should be encouraged to visit the area for a field visit on holidays to create awareness in them on biodiversity and its importance.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 5.6. Soil Management

ICFRE

Development projects in any region must learn to respect the ecological integrity and the priority of conserving biodiversity of the region for long-term sustainability of the mineral extraction initiatives, for economic development and dependent human well-beings. It is therefore important to reclaim and rehabilitate the mining areas, conservation of flora and fauna including beneficial microbes. The microbes play an important role in maintaining the biological equilibrium of the ecosystem. Among different microbes, there is a symbiotic group of fungi called mycorrhizae. They are extremely important as they help in transport of phosphorous and other essential elements to the plant system from the soil. These mycorrhizal fungi also protect the plants against soil borne and root borne diseases. Other than mycorrhizal fungi, the beneficial microbes such as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) viz., Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Rhizobium and Phosphobactreria (species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas) involved in breakdown of organic matter, N2 fixation, secretion of plant growth hormones and increase of available mineral nutrients in soil. They are also helpful to build up other beneficial micro-flora and in turn improve soil health (Mohan and Karthkeyan, 2011). These beneficial microbes are considered as bio-inoculants or bio-fertilizers and they improve the growth and quality of the seedlings in nursery and also help the plants for better survival and establishment in problematic areas like mined areas and maintain soil structure. The type of bio-fertilizers and the application rate will vary according to the site, soil type and post-mining land use. Furthermore, most of the restoration programme will include application of organic fertilizers like farmyard manure (FYM), green/leaf manure and vermi compost. Initial applications of these organic fertilizers have been shown to increase species numbers, plant density and growth rates. Various organic wastes can also have value as both fertilizers and soil amendments based on the availability. The most practical way to increase the nitrogen capital of ecosystems is to establish nitrogen-fixing plants, usually legumes, which can quickly increase the nitrogen levels in the system. The easiest method is to broadcast large quantity of seeds of Horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) immediately after first showers. Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) can be applied along with fully composted

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

farmyard manure and vermi compost to increase the growth of the plants as well as fertility of the soil. The following measures in respect of soil management can be adopted in reclamation and rehabilitation of mined areas: Beneficial microbes are present in the top soil of mining areas. Hence, the top soil must be removed at the time of mining and dumped separately at a predetermined area as per the mine land use plan and be used for reclamation and rehabilitation of mined areas. Necessary precautions has to be taken to preserve the fertility and shelf life of the micro flora in the top soil by adopting suitable height of the top soil dumps and preventing losses due to erosion during the phase of temporary storage. The top soil containing beneficial micro flora of the site must be spread over the mined out areas including OB dumps and back filled areas during the process of mined land rehabilitation. In addition, adopting the following management techniques with the use and application of beneficial microorganisms as bio-inoculants (bio-fertilizers) along with organic fertilizers will be very effective during the mine spoil reclamation and rehabilitation programme: The beneficial microorganisms can be introduced as bio-fertilizers during afforestation in the overburden dumps and other mined out areas through planting of suitable fast growing native plant species (inoculated with bio-fertilizers and organic fertilizers) like grasses, herbs, shrubs and trees. The seedlings can be inoculated with Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and other beneficial microorganisms like PGPRs (Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Phosphobacterium, Rhizobium) along with the bio-manures/ organic manures like fully composted farmyard manure, vermi-compost, leaf compost in the nursery. The bio-fertilizer inoculated seedlings/saplings should be planted during the process of rehabilitation of mined areas.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

The pits dug out for planting of saplings for afforetation should be filled with the mixture of biofertilizers and organic manures (preferably 15 gm biofertilizers + 750gm to 1kg organic manure per pit)

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) CHAPTER 6 PRODUCTION CAPACITY 6.1. PRODUCTION CAPACITY BASED ON RESERVE

ICFRE

The catogery and grade wise reserves estimated as per the approved scheme of mining, are furnished in Table 6.1 Table 6.1 Category wise details of reserves as on 1.4.2009 (Quantity in tonnes)
Category of Reserves Total + 62% Fe 60-62% 58-60% Sub Grade Siliceous /UNFC Proved(111) 2297000 1723000 155000 184000 129000 106000 Probable(121/122) 246000 210000 10000 4000 9000 13000 Possible(333) Total 2543000 1933000 165000 188000 138000 119000

Source- Approved scheme of mining dated 17.8.2009 page no.11-12 As per the CEC sketch map (Figure 2.3) some part of the area along the western part of outside the ML boundary, which is worked by the lessee, is identified as encroachment. The ore body is continuing in the encroached area. In the previously approved Scheme of Mining, reserves have been estimated for entire area, including the area under encroachment. Apart from this 1,19,000 tonnes of ore has been estimated as siliceous iron ore. Therefore, after the deduction of reserves blocked in the encroached area and reserves estimated as siliceous ore (which is not considered under total reserves as per the threshold value as defined by the IBM) the modified reserves of approved scheme of mining are furnished below in Table 6.2 Table 6.2 Modified reserves in last approved SOM as on 1.4.2009
Category of Reserves /UNFC Total (Proved + Probable) Ore Blocked because of shifting of western boundary as per CEC observation (FIMI Annexure SDN-1) Sub Total Siliceous ore Reserves Actual reserves (Quantity in tonnes) 2543000 458344 2084656 119000 1965656

As per the CEC guidelines of 26-04-2012, the 50% of the proved and probable reserve or the actual possible resource, whichever is less, may be consider for assessment of total reserves. In the present case no possible resource has been estimated, therefore, total reserves of proved and probable categories has been considered for arriving annual permissible capacity.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

Total production after the approval of the last scheme of the mining i.e.from 17.08.2009 up to 2011-12 (till the closure of mine by Honble Supreme Court of India) was reported as 78,4460 tonnes. The details of total balance reserves as on 01.04.2012 are mention below in Table 6.3 Table 6.3 Category wise modified reserves in last approved SOM as on 1.4.2009
Category of Reserves /UNFC Actual reserves as on 01.04.2009 Depletion of production from 2009-10 to 2011-12 Balance reserves as on 01.04.2012 (Quantity in tonnes) 1965656 784460 1181196

The balance reserves as on 01.04.2012 have been calculated as 1.18 MT. Considering this total reserves of 1.18 MT, the permissible annual capacity of 0.059 or say 0.06 MTPA for the next 20 years, may be considered. 6.2. Production Capacity Based on Dumps During the next plan period, total area of 3.8 ha will be available for dumping of waste, which can accommodate 1.17MCM as back filling of mined out area (Figure 5.1). Details of the calculation of permissible production limit based on dump capacity are given below: Additional waste that could be accommodated during the next plan period in the defined area of 3.8 ha for dump =1.17 million cum Therefore the quantum of waste material corresponding to this volume is 1.17 x 1.7 = 1.989 million tonnes ( Considering the bulk density of waste as 1.7) Given average future ore to waste ratio as 1:1.37 as per para 2.7. Therefore, the quantity of ore that will be produced corresponding to1.989 million tonnes of waste material = 1.989/1.37 = 1.452 million tonne. Total production per annum = 1.452/5 = 0.29 million tonnes. Considering the above, permissible annual capacity of 0.29 MTPA for the next 5 years, may be considered based the dump capacity.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 6.3. PRODUCTION CAPACITY BASED ON INFRESTRUCTURE FACILITIES Roads: -

ICFRE

There is only one exit route from the mines for movement of ore to the customers, through Chitradurga Tumkur Miners Association (CTMA) road which connects to NH206 and to Ammasandra Railway siding. Feasible production level computation: Calculation of Production level based on the capacity of roads. The total ore mined moves towards National Highway 206 from where 17% moves towards Mangalore side and 83% moves towards Bangalore side for domestic users out of 83% traffic, 45% traffic moves towards Ammasandra Railway Siding. Computation is annexed at SDN-3. The capacity assignable to Tumkur Minerals mine ML No. 2175 is 0.92 MTPA as per the limit in the section III. The summary of various sections of Road Capacity and Tumkur Minerals mine production capacity is provided below. Table 6.4: Details of capacity for various sections of road Road Section No. R-I (A-B) Road Section Type of Road Internal Private road Private Road Common Road Road Capacity (MTPA) 1.82 Tumkur Minerals ML NO. 2175 mine Capacity (MTPA) 1.82

R-II (B-C)

R-III (C-D)

Stock yard within the mine lease area (A) to Mine Gate (B) Mine Gate (B) to CTMA Junction (C) CTMA Junction (C) to NH-206, MangloreBanglore Junction (D)

1.99

1.99

4.60

0.92

R-V

Towards 0.75 Mangalore side (10%) Towards 0.75 Bangalore side (10%) NH 206 towards Public (15%) Bangalore side Road to Ammasandra Railway siding

0.75 (in which only 17% i.e. 0.0685 MTPA of total ROM moves on this side) 0.75 (in which 83% i.e., 0.3345 MTPA of total ROM moves on this side) 0.985 (in which 45% i.e., 0.1813 MTPA of total ROM moves on this side)

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

The assignable capacity based on road is 0.92 (0.75 is lesser as indicated above) MTPA for Tumkur Mine ML. No. 2175. Hence road is not a constraint for this mines production level. The annual feasible production level of 0.062 MTPA for Mineable Ore based on net Reserves is the lowest of the 3 figures computed above. This level is recommended to be allowed for next five years to Sondenhalli Iron ore Mines ML No. 2175 subject to conditions and implementation of Supplementary Environmental Safeguards as mentioned below. 6.4. COMBINED PRODUCTION CAPACITY BASED ON RESERVES, DUMPS AND ROADS (Table 6.5) Table 6.5: Criteria for Estimation of Permissible Production limit for ML Sl. No. 1 2 3 Criteria Reserves Dump Capacity (Backfilling) Road Capacity Permissible Production (Million Tonnes/annum) 0.06 0.29 0.92 Limit

Based on the currently available information, the annual production limit of 0.06 million tonnes per annum based on reserves, which is minimum among the three criteria, may be considered.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) CHAPTER 7 SUPPLEMENTARY ENVIRONMENTAL SAFEGUARDS 7.1 Supplementary Environmental Safeguards

ICFRE

The following Supplementary Environmental Safeguards (SES) shall be implemented after the commencement of mining operations: Increased frequency of water sprinkling on temporary haul roads at least from two to four trips per shift Post-blast water sprinkling to be carried out to wet the ore / waste before loading into trucks / dumpers. Mist type water sprinkling arrangements on all loading / unloading / transfer points in primary / Secondary crushing plants, mobile screening plant and other conveying system, as applicable Trucks carrying finished product outside the lease area should be kept in good condition at all time to prevent spillages on the roads, should be covered with good quality tarpaulins to avoid spillages and prevent entry of water, and should not be overloaded beyond the registered capacity of trucks. All roads should be kept clean in the Green belt/ water sprinkler at all times to prevent dust pollution. Drains along the roads should be provided and maintained to keep the roads in good condition and properly graded. Site workshop and main workshop should be equipped with HEMM washing ramp, settling tanks and oil and grease traps with provision for recycling of treated effluent and collection and proper disposal of settled silt and oil / grease. Implementing conveyor belt system to transport the mined material from the pit to the foot hill. High angle belt conveyor system must be installed taking the advantage of the normal gradient. The plantation schedule has to be strictly followed and it must coincide with monsoon period.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 7.2 General Observations and Additional Measures The mine should have metal or tar roads.

ICFRE

The soil and water conservation measures have failed to check the soil erosion and protect water because of siltation and damage of the structures. Desiltation of the check dam has to be immediately carried out. No top soil is available for reclamation activities. Soil enrichments have to be used if the available lateritic soils are used.

The natural drainage system has been blocked by the dump which can be relooked by carrying out further exploration of core drilling and proving the non mineralized zone instead of dumping in valleys.

The width of haulage road within the lease areas needs to be further widened. No drain is provided on haul roads. The haul roads must be provided with drain towards rasing side of hill slope. The drain shall be provided with dry rubble pitching for the total length to avoid damage/erosion of drain.

The weed (Typha sp.) growth found in existing check dam has to be removed. The silt/humus material trapped in the check dam should be lifted and reused for plantation and nursery purposes.

There is stagnation of water in the stream course on upstream side of check dam due to blocking of course by the rolled down OB material. It is suggested to remove the blockage.

Due to shifting of lease boundary mineralized zone on the western side is excluded from the pit, while some virgin area towards south is added. Therefore it is necessary to carry out detailed exploration by core drilling to establish proved mineable reserve for enhanced production levels.

Mine benches are quite narrow at some places and quite unsafe for dumper movements. Since mine is operated by deploying 25 tonne dumpers, width of the bench should be atleast two times the statutory height of bench.

Haul road gradient needs improvement as it is steep at some places. It should be 1 in 16 (minimum) to 1 in 20. Surface water management needs improvement to prevent rain water entering the pit and getting accumulated at pit bottom. Benches on the eastern side at some places, especially in clay were washed out due to inflow of rain water.
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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175) 7.3. FIELD OBSERVATIONS

ICFRE

Haul road is damaged due to unmanaged drains and some places no drainage has been provided. Ore stocks are not protected with any protective measures Eastern side of dump: ID OB dump on eastern side is having 2 terraces each at 20 m height. Slopes are planted with exotic species and observed several small gullies on the slopes. At the bottom of the dump inadequate toe wall and garland drainage has been made. One check dam, silt settling tank was observed on the down side of the stream. Northern Side of the dump: EID This dump is located on the north western side of the lease and no terraces were made. The dump height varies from 20-36m. Angle of the slope is about 450 and observed several gullies. South western side: EID1 The SW dump is about 5m height and encroached in to the other lease of ML 2348 of Deep Chand. This dump is just above the mine pit and not protected with any bio-engineering measures. Encroached mine pit: The encroached mine pit has to be rehabilitated by back filling and planted with indigenous plant species. No green belt plantation was done around the mine lease area. Observed agricultural fields around the mine lease area and the lessee has to take up greenbelt plantation immediately. 7.4. IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING Rehabilitation is the principal process used to mitigate the long-term impacts of mining on the environment. The main objective of the proposed rehabilitation plan is to restore the pre-

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

mining conditions as closely as possible in order to ensure the future sustainability of the site. The proposed R&R plan has been aimed for topographic reconstruction with engineering and biological measures for erosion control and re-vegetation with adequate soil amendments including mycorrihizal fungi for re-establishment of nutrient cycle for sustainability of restoration. Also, encouraging the native fauna to return to areas cleared for mining is the integrated aim of this restoration programme which aims to restore a natural ecosystem. The recommended provisions are to be implemented by the mine owner in consonance with the macro-level EIA report of ICFRE submitted to Honble Supreme Court of India. This report has outlined the major impacts of iron ore mining in Chitradurga and Tumkur district on various aspects of environmental degradation. In addition, the proposed conveyorisation in the BHS sector and railway links between Hospet /Bellary sector to the West Coast of Karnataka and other common infrastructure proposed, as directed by the CEC, will also have bearing on the environmental degradation. Therefore, the findings of macro-level EIA report and recommendations made in the chapter nine of the report Scientific Mining in Chitradurga and Tumkur District, Karnataka - The Way Ahead and the direction on it by the Honble Supreme Court of India to protect further environmental degradation may be corroborated with the current Reclamation and Rehabilitation plan and common infrastructure proposed. Another important aspect is the regular monitoring of the implementation of the proposed measures of the R & R Plan in order to ensure rehabilitation of the mine affected areas as envisaged in the plan. Monitoring provides a method of measuring progress against an objective. The primary reason for ongoing monitoring of the mine site is to ensure that remediation measures, including earthworks, water treatment and drainage systems, proposed plantations, green belt, etc. function as intended. In addition, site surveillance may be necessary to demonstrate that the mine site remains safe and poses no environmental or health risks. Regular monitoring also allows for a proactive response where the rehabilitation process is found to be lacking in the desired results. For example, the underlying aim of monitoring surface water and groundwater quality will be to ensure that there will be no pollutant discharge into the surrounding environment or, if contamination does occur, to facilitate rapid detection and response, thereby minimizing any adverse health and environmental consequences. Monitoring

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

also provides valuable reference data for authorities in subsequent decision-making and in refining environmental permitting procedures or land use planning. Monitoring a landscapes health over time in response to environmental, management or regulatory drivers is important for land managers, ranging from individuals to governments, especially when the monitoring output has direct relevance for management decision-making. Monitoring may be seeking to look for evidence of landscape degradation or of rehabilitation progress and the procedure needs to have equal facility in dealing with these scenarios. Therefore, it is also essential that the skills of both, the mine owners and the managers, should be upgraded through professionally designed refresher courses. This training would equip them to: Respond to environmental impacts: Develop plans to address impacts To implement the plans and evaluate the results, and Report and record on results

In order to achieve these objectives, it is recommended that suitable refresher courses should be designed and conducted by some competent organization which has the scientific expertise and experience in the field of mine rehabilitation. The R & R Plan which synthesizing a very specialized ecological, vegetational and other biological and engineering measures needs to be executed and monitored annually by the organizations/institutes having specialization in scientific aspects of complex vegetation site interactions and energy flux in the ecosystem over time and space. In our country there are limited institutions which are having a composite expertise and experience in execution and monitoring of such specialized tasks. Therefore, consortium of institutes headed by ICFRE may be formulated for effective monitoring and the implementation of the R & R Plan. 7.5. INDICATIVE COST SUMMARY OF THE PROPOSED PLAN The cost estimated for the engineering and biological measure for Reclamation and Rehabilitation Plan is approx. Rs.107.11 lakhs (Rupees One crore seven lakhs and eleven thousands only). The cost for implementation of Social Management Plan (SMP), Biodiversity Management Plan, Monitoring and implementation of R&R plan, capacity building of the

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

personal involved, infrastructure etc., shall be met from allocating of 10% of the annual sale proceeds from the mines, in respect of Category: B mine, may be transferred to SPV for the purpose of taking up various ameliorative and mitigative measures in Chitradurga and Tumkur district as decided by task force to be constituted as per the recommendation of Macrolevel EIA report and the direction of Honble Supreme Court of India for implementation of R&R plan and EMP. The breakup of the cost estimate is given below in Table-7.1

Table-7.1: Cost Summary of the Proposed Plan S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Item of work Reclamation cost of encroached area (Engineering and aforestation) Engineering measures for dump management Engineering measures for surface water management Afforrestation/plantation along roads Afforestation of mined out areas and associated activities [pit + dump + Infrastructure(excluding roads) + Head Afforestation & Environment Protective Measures; all inside the ML] Green belt development Cost (Rs. in Lakhs) 35.73 20.66 0.22 2.00 43.50

6 7

5.00 10% of the annual sale proceeds from the mines, in respect of Category: B mine, may be transferred to SPV for the purpose of taking Social Management Plan (SMP), up various ameliorative and mitigative majors Biodiversity Management Plan, in district Bellary or as decided by task force Monitoring and implementation of R&R to be constituted as per the recommendation of plan, capacity building, infrastructure etc. Macro-level EIA report and the direction of honorable Supreme Court of India for implementation of R&R plan and EMP Total 107.11* excluding cost of items at serial no. 8 proposed above Note: The cost proposed is indicative and may vary depending upon the common schedule rates, actual dimensions of the engineering structures and local field conditions.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

7.6 Time Schedule


Table 7.2 Time schedule for Implementation of Reclamation and Rehabilitation Plan for ML-2175
Type Particulars of work 1 Waste dump management Toe wall at the base of waste dump Inactive Garland drain Providing and fixing geo-coir mat on outer surface of the slope of the waste dump Silt Settling Tank Enrichment plantation over waste dump area Enrichment plantation over backfilled Backfilling area Surface water management Green Belt Development Plan along safety zone Afforestation Avenue plantation on roads Environmental monitoring and watch ward after closure 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Years 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

9 9 9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

9 9

9 9 9 9 9

Note- Maintenance of all engineering and biological measures will be done in subsequent years.

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Sondenahalli Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) of M/s Tumkur Minerals Pvt. Ltd. (ML- 2175)

ICFRE

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Anon (undated). Management plan of Bellary forest division. Karnataka Forest Department, Bellary & presentation made to the Supreme Court EIA team. CSO 2007. Annual Report of Central Statistic Office, 2007. Kundu, N.K. and Ghose, M.K. 1998. Studies on the Exisiting Plant Communities in Easterns Coal Field Areas with a view to Reclamation of Mined Outlands. Journal of Environmental Biology 19 (1): 83-89. Padmavathiamma, P.K. and Li, L.Y. 2007. Phytoremediation Technology: Hyperaccumulation Metals in Plants. Water Air Soil Pollution 184(1-4): 105-126. Radhakrishna, B. P. and Vaidyanathan, R. 1997. Geology of Karnataka, Geological Society of India, Bangalore, 353 p. Sheoran, V., Sheoran, A.S. and Poonia, P. 2009. Phytomining: A Review. Minerals Engineering 22(12): 10071019. Sheoran, V., Sheoran, A.S. and Poonia, P. 2010. "Soil Reclamation of Abandoned Mine Land by Revegetation: A Review. International Journal of Soil, Sediment and Water 3(2): Article 13. Singh, A.N. and Singh, A.N. 2006. Experiments on Ecological Restoration of Coal Mine Spoil using Native Trees in a Dry Tropical Environment, India: A Synthesis. New Forests 31: 25-39. UNDP, 2008. Understanding HIV & Development. An analysis from Bellary District in Karnataka, India. New Concept Information Systems Pvt. Ltd.

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Plates

Plate-1 Mine Pit

Plate-2 Sub grade ore dump

Plate-3 Gully Formation along the Dump

Plate-4 Retaining Wall along the OB dump

Plate-5 Silt Settling Tank below the OB dump

Plate-6 Eastern side OB Dump

Design: 1 Engineering Structure of Toe Wall

Design: 2 Engineering Structure of Silt Settling Tank

Design: 3 Engineering Structure of Logwood Check Dams

Design: 4 Engineering Structure of Brushwood Check Dam

Design: 5 Engineering Structure of Check dam

Annexure-1

Annexure-2

Annexure-3