Modern Optics Greifswald, SS 2010  © Alex Quandt, Universität Greifswald (D


Modern Optics

Alexander Quandt
Institut für Physik, Uni Greifswald

Modern Optics Greifswald, SS 2010  © Alex Quandt, Universität Greifswald (D)

A somewhat personal selection :
• • • L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics, Cambridge University Press (2006). H. C. Van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles, Dover (1982). B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, Wiley (2007).

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn and R. D. Meade, Photonic crystals (2nd ed.), Princeton University Press (2008).
M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (7th ed.), Cambridge University Press (1999).

M. A. Silverman, Waves and Grains, Princeton University Press (1998).
J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (3rd ed.), Wiley (1999).

Modern Optics Greifswald, SS 2010  © Alex Quandt, Universität Greifswald (D)


Photons, colors & butterflies

Modern Optics Greifswald, SS 2010  © Alex Quandt, Universität Greifswald (D)

Wanted- dead or alive ! The „photon“
-Zero mass. -Spin 1, but only two directions of


- Tends to disguise, once as a particle,

once as a wave.

Is responsible for acts of light and massive electromagnetic exchange.

Modern Optics Greifswald, SS 2010  © Alex Quandt, Universität Greifswald (D)

Witnesses (see: Mead)
Witness 1: „According to the assumption to be contemplated here, when a light ray is spreading from a point, the energy is not distributed continuously over ever-increasing spaces, but consists of a finite number of energy quanta that are localized in points in space, move without dividing, and can be absorbed or generated only as a whole.“ (1905) „Would it not be possible to replace the hypothesis of light quanta by another assumption that would also fit the known phenomena? If it is necessary to modify the elements of the theory, would it not be possible to retain at least the equations for the propagation of radiation and conceive only the elementary processess of emission and absorption differently than they have been until now ?“ (1909)

(A. Einstein)

Modern Optics Greifswald.“… I am going to make the contrary assumption that an atom never emits light except to another atom … I propose to eliminate the idea of mere emission of light and substitute the idea of transmission. Lewis. quite regardless of whether there are near or distant objects which may ultimately absorb that light. in other words that it radiates into space. who coined the word „photon“) . or a process of exchange of energy between two definite atoms … both atoms must play coordinate and symmetrical parts in the process of exchange … (1926) (G. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. N. Universität Greifswald (D) Witnesses (see: Mead) Witness 2: „It is generally assumed that a radiating body emits light in every direction.

. p.Modern Optics Greifswald. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. 230-238. Universität Greifswald (D) Photons finally „caught“ ? From : Nature 433. 2005. Jan.

Result: no change in the interference patterns. only. Cambridge Phil. even for longest exposures ! . • Extreme case corresponds to standard candle more than one mile away. and record results on a photographic plate. 15. and an exposure time of roughly three months. Soc.Modern Optics Greifswald. • Gradually dim the gas light by inserting a series of opaque plates. 114-115 (1909) Fundamental question: Does a particle-like photon still produce interference patterns. until one single photon at a time should hit the photographic plate. Universität Greifswald (D) A classical experiment (Taylor) See: Proc. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. thus acting like a wave ? Description of experiment: • Produce diffraction pattern of a needle using light from a gas flame.

. Aspect) See: Europhys. 1. because detection probability is proportional to square of field amplitudes. 173-179 (1986) Detects a left going photon 1. Quantum mechanical theory (quantized atoms and photons): R2 or T2 measure position of photon 2. Roger and Aspect.Modern Optics Greifswald. Semiclassical theory (quantized atoms and classical electromagnetic fields): R2 and T2 should occasionally detect in coincidence. T2 Source produces two correlated photons. S1 Detects reflected photon 2. 2. This was actually seen by Grangier. Lett. 1. and thus signals the emission of a right going photon 2. 50/50 beam splitter. R 2 Detects transmitted photon 2. Roger. Thus they should never detected in coincidence. Universität Greifswald (D) A modern experiment (Grangier. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.

Louis De Broglie Free electron theory: (Collective model characterized by Fermi energy EF and Fermi wavenumber kF) Fermi wavelength lF amounts to several Å. Universität Greifswald (D) De Broglie Waves Electrons as matter waves: (L.239-259). . only. p. Nobel Lectures in Physics 1922-1941. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.Modern Optics Greifswald. De Broglie.

Cavity resonator (collective photon system): (Closed [rectangular] box of mirrors containing light. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.Modern Optics Greifswald. each of them containing an integral number n of photons. The latter comprises of a set of modes. Universität Greifswald (D) Einstein„s propsal : A similar theory of light Photonic plane wave: (Leads to proper interpretation of Planck„s theory of blackbody radiation). Characteristics of each mode are assigned to the photon). .

. 61 (2007).. Nature Photonics 1. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.Modern Optics Greifswald. Universität Greifswald (D) Whispering Gallery Modes • Acoustic paradigms: • Photonic analogues: Microdisk whispering gallery modes: Tamboli et al.

… total reflections). micropillars. Universität Greifswald (D) • The model: Round trip after N reflections: Resonance frequencies n : p/N d a Whispering gallery mode Reflecting mirror Level spacing: Many reflections: Similar to bouncing acoustic waves in churches or art galleries (“whispering gallery modes”). Whispering gallery mode in dielectric microsphere Also with dielectrics (microspheres. .Modern Optics Greifswald. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.

Blackbody system. where the levels 1 and 2 are separated by an energy hn. Atoms are sitting in the walls of the cavity. able to absorb all of the incoming light (continuum). T E2 hn nav E1 N1(t) N2(t) . Interactions through absorption. spontaneous emission and stimulated emission. They are described by twolevel systems. Universität Greifswald (D) Re-discovering Planck: Thermal light • The model: System of photons and atoms at thermal equilibrium. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. System contained within cavity at temperature T.Modern Optics Greifswald.

SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.Modern Optics Greifswald. Universität Greifswald (D) • Spontaneous emission: • Absorption: • Stimulated emission: • Resulting rate equation (ignoring nonradiative processes) : .

Universität Greifswald (D) • Add missing thermodynamical ingredients: Atoms at temperature T are in thermal equilibrium.Modern Optics Greifswald. • Average energy of radiation mode: • Spectral energy density: r(n) „Blackbody radiation spectrum“ n . SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. and their level populations are thus Boltzmann distributed.

Universität Greifswald (D) Natural black body radiation • Our sun: • Cosmic microwave background: .Modern Optics Greifswald. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.

Modern Optics Greifswald. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. but slightly perturbed: Atom II initially in state 1. • Starting configuration: Atom I initially in state 2. with matching perturbation: . Universität Greifswald (D) Radiative transfer between atoms (see: Mead) • Atoms as two-level systems: E2 E1 • The model: Two atoms act like small dipole oscillators. and energy is radiatively transferred between them.

Modern Optics Greifswald. The rate of energy loss (or energy gain) is supposed to be proportional to the square of the oscillating amplitude dAIBI (or dAIIBII). it increases energy of second atom (AII decreases and BII increases). SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. On the other hand. Universität Greifswald (D) • Oscillating dipole moments: • Hellman-Feynman theorem: • Basic behaviour of this model system: Radiative coupling decreases energy of first atom (AI increases and BI decreases). .

Universität Greifswald (D) • Time evolution of model system: • Solutions: .Modern Optics Greifswald. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.

thus reinforcing the coupling . Self reinforced: transferred energy increases minority state. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.Modern Optics Greifswald... Zeh) . Continuous exchange of a photon ! (see below) • Comment: Are there quantum jumps ? (E. Schrödinger) „There are no quantum jumps. some perturbation puts both atoms in a mixed state with exactly the same difference of energies and exactly the right phase. thus increasing the dipole moment. Universität Greifswald (D) • Observations: Preconditions: At the beginning. D. nor are there particles !“ (Manifesto of H.

• Shortcomings: Spontaneous emission: • No dipole associated with pure quantum state.Modern Optics Greifswald. . SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. thus no decay of excited states. Universität Greifswald (D) Semiclassical Model (see: Scully & Sargant.e. Physics Today March 1972) • General scheme: This is the original scan … Accounts for: • atom-field interactions • stimulated emission • resonance fluorescence • photoelectric effect (!!!) • …. • We need to add vacuum fluctuations (i. noise !!!).

. Jr. I suggested that a license be required for use of the word photon. B 60. Lamb. ever took out a license to use the word photon …“ . Appl. Anti-Photon. E. Universität Greifswald (D) For Heretics Professors W. 77-84 (1995) „ … at the first of the 1960„s Rochester Coherence Conferences. and offered to give such a license to properly qualified people. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. and very few other people elsewhere. My records show that nobody working in Rochester.Modern Optics Greifswald. Phys.

Universität Greifswald (D) Nano-Optics in a Nutshell (see: Novotny/Hecht) • About the resolution limit (i.e. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. Rayleight limit) : • Breaking the resolution limit: .Modern Optics Greifswald.

such that unphysical solutions are sorted out.optics. due to suitable boundary conditions. and replaced by physical solutions. Universität Greifswald (D) • Problem: • Solution (Nano-Optics): Optical .rochester. Problematic vacuum case becomes irrelevant.Modern Optics Greifswald. see http://www. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.html Introduce matter.

Steinle. I say.“ Newton„s color circle with seven sections proportial to diatonic musical scale. Mixed color z obtained through azimuthal center of gravity calculation. Physics Today July 2002. I am not a little proud. W.Modern Optics Greifswald. Ribe and F. 43. Radial position determines saturation. p. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. and here I have a consciousness of a superiority to many. Universität Greifswald (D) J. von Goethe & I. . Newton See: N. „As to what I have done as a poet … I take no pride in it … but that in my century I am the only person who knows the truth in the difficult science of colours – of that.

25 2.75 2. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.1-1.77 red Wavelength: 400-700 nm blue 400 450 500 550 yellow green violet Visible ranges: nm 600 650 700 eV .Modern Optics Greifswald.5 2.0 1. Universität Greifswald (D) Sunlight and Colors Energy: 3.77 eV 3 2.

Polarization (use polarization filters). and why are the sunsets red ??? . ??? „Why is the sky blue. Darkened area between bows (Alexander„s band) Interference patterns.Modern Optics Greifswald. Universität Greifswald (D) Rainbows and the deep blue sky ??? (2) (4) (1) (3) Rainbow over Newton„s birthplace. A faint and inverted secondary bow. Sketches of a rainbow from Newton„s Opticks. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. Observations: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Primary bow (violet inside. red outside).

And reddish on direct transmission. or around garden sprinklers. and dilute it with water inside a large glass container. molecules ….Modern Optics Greifswald. The rainbow and the blue sky must be caused by the dispersive scattering of daylight on water droplets. for example while finally cleaning your car outside with a pressurized water gun. dispersive refraction): Red light Blue light White light • Experiment 2 (Domestic rainbow): Rainbows can also be observed on a sunny day. Liquid appears blueish. . dust. or … • Experiment 3 (Milk): Take milk fresh from the cow. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. Universität Greifswald (D) Exploratory experimentation • Experiment 1 (Prism.

and increases again.) a Reflections and dispersive refractions: Class 2 Primary rainbow consists of class 3 rays that undergo one internal reflection.) Class 1 Examine diffusion angle a as a function of impact parameter for rays of class 3 and class 4 (explains origin of darkened area between bows): . SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. Universität Greifswald (D) A geometrical water droplet model Class 3 (primary r. the diffusion angle of class 3 decreases from 180°. .Modern Optics Greifswald. Impact parameter Higher orders Incident ray Water droplet Class 4 (secondary r. Higher orders illuminate darkened area between bows (black otherwise). . goes through a minimum around 138°.With increasing impact parameter.Similarly. Secondary rainbow consists of class 4 rays that undergo two internal reflections. class 4 increases from 0° and goes through a maximum at 130°.

Universität Greifswald (D) Colors of the rainbow and interference effects • Generation of colors: Droplet is uniformly illuminated. • Interference (Young): Parallel rays Rainbow ray Rays of class 3 with impact parameters slightly higher and lower than the rainbow ray may re-appear under the same diffuse angle. The so-called rainbow ray is a class 3 ray that is scattered at the minimum diffuse angle (i.e. those parallel rays may interfere. Fringes may appear at angles higher than the rainbow angle (for smaller droplets < 1 mm). According to Young. Dispersive refraction: Rainbow angle 137°58„ for red light. Maximum intensity in a region where diffusion angle varies slowest with impact parameter (i. rainbow angle). interference will be destructive. Whenever the path taken by both rays differs by half a wavelength. . extrema). Rainbow angle 139°43„ for violet light. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.Modern Optics Greifswald.e.

Incident ray Reflected ray Brewster angle: n1 n2 QB Reflection at Brewster„s angle QB. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.Rayleigh scattering at a molecule. Reflections within water droplets are close to QB ! Refracted ray . Universität Greifswald (D) Polarization of rainbow • Mechanisms of complete polarization (see Silverman): Incident ray s-polarization (in plane) p-polarization (normal to plane) Scattered ray 90°.Modern Optics Greifswald.

.Modern Optics Greifswald. no standing waves: Scattered intensities mainly from shorter wavelengths (blue sky). but extremely complex solution in the case of scattering by a homogeneous sphere of radius a. due to Mie and Debye: • Rayleigh scattering: Small sphere immersed in light. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. Universität Greifswald (D) Mie and Rayleigh scattering (see Silverman) • A general scattering model: Electromagnetic waves of frequency w scattered by a homogeneous object have to obey the vector wave (Helmholtz) equation: There exists an exact. red sunsets due to longer path through atmosphere.

SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.Modern Optics Greifswald. glories and spectres) • Gallery I: Solar halo and sun dogs Lunar halo and moon dogs Solar halo at South pole Glory near hot springs Glory seen from an airplane Brocken spectre . Universität Greifswald (D) Atmospheric Optics (Halos.

Universität Greifswald (D) Halos (Ice crystals) • The phenomenon: • (Dispersive) refraction by ice crystals: Sun dogs (hexagonal plates) .Modern Optics Greifswald. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.

. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. • Complex crystals have too many facets. They diffuse light and produce weak halos. • Cloud can neither be too thin nor too thick.Modern Optics Greifswald. Universität Greifswald (D) • Ice crystals: • Essential preconditions: • Myriads of simple crystals like colums and plates in a cloud. some degree of order.

M. . Grand Canyon. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. “The Brocken spectre of the Desert View Watch Tower. 164 (1954). Arizona”. Universität Greifswald (D) Glories & Spectres (Surface waves ???) • The phenomenon: Desert view watch tower (Grand Canyon): D. Black. Science 119.Modern Optics Greifswald.

Modern Optics Greifswald. „How are glories formed ?. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. Glory Rainbow Back scattering (180°) of sunlight from small (< 35 mm) droplets of water. Laven. Universität Greifswald (D) • Explanation for glories (van de Hulst): Nussenzveig (2003): „The glory provides direct and visually stunning experimental evidence of the importance of resonances and light tunneling in clouds“. 5675 (2005). See also: P.“ Appl. Optics 44. .

Modern Optics Greifswald. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. Universität Greifswald (D) • Gallery II: Beware: “The Grey Man. the Brocken Gespenst … it‟s real!” .

Modern Optics Greifswald. Universität Greifswald (D) The Brocken spectre at night: . SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.

lasers. fluorescence effects. lasers. smoky quartz. Copper. chromatic aberration. Organic colors. Diffusion Interference Diffraction grids Pigments of painting colors. Sapphire. silver. red mountains. Crystal field splittings. benzine on water. „The Causes of Colors“. Electronic excitations Vibrations Flames. colors of insects. Blue sky. Ruby. arc discharges. Amethyst. Water: Ocean blue. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.Modern Optics Greifswald. blue ice. Colors of insects. liquid crystals. dye laser. diamond. Transition metal compounds Transition metal impurities Color centers Charge transfer Conjugate bonding Metals Pure semiconductors Doped semiconductors Dispersive refraction Geometrical optics. lasers. Universität Greifswald (D) Basic mechanisms that generate colors See: K. Opal. Rainbow. molecular vibrations. gold. Nassau. . Transitions between bands. sc lasers. Blue and yellow diamond. Transitions between molecular orbitals.SCIAM 243. Silicon. physics. emerald. iron. magnetite. 124-154 (1980) Electronic transitions in free atoms.

most atoms and molecules interact with light in the ultraviolet range! • Absorption in semiconductors: Photon energies. -Electron decays back to original level.77 eV (red) and 3. Universität Greifswald (D) Interaction of light with atoms/solids • Remember: visual range between 1. (a) (b) (c) -Photon may be absorbed. Full .1 eV 1.Modern Optics Greifswald. Electron energies Conductance band (empty) 3. if it has just the right energy to lift electron into an upper level. see (c). • Atoms and molecules: Basic mechanism: -Electrons occupy discrete levels. Fermi level Valence band (full) black Fermi level After excitation.(b).77 eV • Absorption in metals: Color depends on gap location no color Electron energies visible Gap 0 eV Empty High reflectance: photons of all visible energies are absorbed and re-emitted immediately. see (a). energy is dissipated via phonons etc. emitting a photon with energy equal to electronic level spacing.1 eV (violet). Unfortunately. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.

60-71 (1968) • Damped oscillating particle interacting with external field: • Dielectric medium described by polarization density: • Resonant dielectric medium interacting with electric field: • Assume periodic excitations and consider real parts: . SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. SCIAM 219.Modern Optics Greifswald. „How light interacts with matter“. Universität Greifswald (D) An oscillator model of light-matter interactions See: V. Weisskopf.

. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.Modern Optics Greifswald. quantum mechanically. and 90° phase shift.. n >> n0: response small and 180° phase shift. . s. Universität Greifswald (D) • Real and imaginary parts of susceptibility: c´(n) c0 -c´´(n) n0 n n0 n • Interpretation: n << n0: response small and independent of n. Attenuation of monochromatic light: „damped and driven harmonic oscillator“ • Realistic modelling (Jackson): Several electrons per atom.. Determine w0. n = n0: maximum response.

Universität Greifswald (D) One minute of Zen .Basho (1644-1694) Lady butterfly perfumes her wings by floating Over the orchid.Modern Optics Greifswald. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. .

853 (2003). Townley. 348 (2007). • A showcase: Wing of butterfly Peacock Koi fish • Corresponding microstructures: Wing: Discrete multilayers of chitin cuticle and air. Nature Nanotechology 2. R. For a systematic reverse engineering of Mother Nature read: A. Nature 424. Vukusic and J. Birds and Fishes See: P. Universität Greifswald (D) Beauty of Nature – Butterflies. R. Sambles. Scale: Multilayer stacking of guanine crystals and cytoplasm. „Photonic structures in biology. „Biomimetics of photonic nanostructures“. Parker and H. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. . E.Modern Optics Greifswald. Feather: Melanin rods and air holes inside kreatin matrix.

Closeup of lattice made of 150300 nm spheres and air holes. Closeup of near gem opal. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.Modern Optics Greifswald. • The microstructures of opal: Also final stage of fossilation. Universität Greifswald (D) Beauty of Nature – Opals • Another showcase: Opal: hydrated silica. Mineraloid gel. Gems: fcc closed packed microspheres. Structure of a opal gem. .

Phys. • Refraction at interfaces: Components of wavefunctions at interface : aR aI kR kT aT aT Most general matching conditions : Arguments of wavefunctions have to be equal at all times t and at every point r0 of the interface. • Realization of metamaterials: microwave arrays. 10. optical antimatter . • Spectacular properties of metamaterials: near field amplification. 509 (1968). Sov. photonic crystals … . Universität Greifswald (D) Reflections. Veselago. The red path proceeds through a material with negative index of refraction (metamaterial).. Refractions (and Metamaterials) For metamaterials see : V. G. Usp.Modern Optics Greifswald.. kI nl nr kT Asymmetry in materials properties ? • Refraction along black path corresponds to an interface between two materials with positive index of refraction. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.

• As indicated. „Photonic Gap Materials“. depending on the details of the atomic scattering process (Bubble model). crystals reject X-rays only for a limited range of angles of incidence (see illustration on the left). • However. 1311-1316 (1999). Universität Greifswald (D) X-ray Bragg diffraction See : J. if the difference in optical path length (red) is an integer multiple of the wavelength l: Planes of atoms within a crystal are able to act like mirrors and reflect X-rays. Bragg„s law usually holds over a whole range of angles 2df. those planes will glint. • There are many possible Bragg planes for a given crystal. as soon as the Bragg condition is met. Current Science 76. Once that crystal is rotated. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. . Pendry. d • Bragg condition: Rays from parallel planes are able to interfere constructively. Q Bragg„s law: • X-rays shine on (atomic) Bragg planes with mutual distance d and angle of incidence Q.Modern Optics Greifswald. B.

SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. Sketch of basic Bragg scattering process for opal. Making colors: • In the visible range. Iridescence due to Bragg scattered photons of different wavelength. • Photonic insulator (photonic crystal): scattering is so strong. 1311-1316 (1999). the essential precondition for Bragg scattering is that the crystal has to be made of components on the scale of the wavelength of light. Pendry. B. Opal structure as a paradigm for an imperfect photonic insulator. that the ranges of rejection angles for different Bragg planes will overlap completely (see illustration on the left). Photons within a forbidden band of energies will be rejected in whatever direction they will enter the photonic crystal.Modern Optics Greifswald. Current Science 76. Universität Greifswald (D) Colors due to Bragg diffraction See : J. . „Photonic Gap Materials“.

56. Universität Greifswald (D) Case study – a weevil See: A. . Wavelength of maximum reflectance lmax= 530 nm.Sub-wavelenth arrays of microspheres act as 3D diffraction gratings. and predict lmax at different angles of incidence f. Light will be Bragg reflected at layers of microspheres.Australian weevil pachyrhynchus argus (a) living in the forests of Queensland.Spectrum (d) measured for angle of incidence f = 20° normal to surface.1 mm diameter. . Description: . and an exoskeleton matrix with nm= 1. . Then it enters a refractive media. . R.Metallic color mediated by scales (b) of 0. Nature 426. . . light crosses air with index of refraction n = 1.33.. embedded into chitinous exoskeleton matrix.But first. 787 (2003).Theoretical task: Explain these results. . SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.Visible from all directions due to 3D photonic structure analogous to opal.Interior of scales (c) consists of a hexagonal close packed arrays of transparent microspheres with 250 nm diameter D. made of microspheres with ns= 1. Parker et.Modern Optics Greifswald. „Opal analogue discovered in a weevil“. . Metallic appearance due to embedded 3D photonic structures. al.

. f.e. and substitute spheres and chitin matrix by an effective dielectric medium. Parker et. 787 (2003). Nature 426. Universität Greifswald (D) Predicting the colors of a weevil See: A. R. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.Modern Optics Greifswald. Substitute spheres by point scatterers. al. : Determine distance between diffracting hexagonal layers: Pachyrhynchus argus Bragg reflections and colors: f Q ni d Bragg„s law including refraction neff . „Opal analogue discovered in a weevil“.

atoms would not decay. -The practical utility of such a material was originally foreseen by Yablonovitch. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.26° away from normal. Microwave band gap . -The resulting criss-cross of holes below the surface of the slab produces a 3D periodic fcc structure. PRL 67. What‟s the matter with photonic insulators ? .Use scaling laws to design a suitable photonic crystals: If a structure has a band gap at l.The inside of an ideal photonic insulator would be extremely dark. . „Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics“. Bulkier models may thus be tested in the microwave range etc. at an angle 35. and spread out 120° on the azimuth. Drilling a Yablonovite crystal Yablonovite: (Yablonovitch et. . photonic band gap between 13-16 GHz. and even zero-point fluctuations would be suppressed.Each hole is drilled through three times. such that matches could not be lit.. al. PRL 58. another structure with twice its dimensions will have a band gap at 2l.A slab of material with refractive index 3. Universität Greifswald (D) Photonic insulators and Yablonovite See: E. 2059 (1987). 2295-2298 and 3380-3383 (1991)) . .Modern Optics Greifswald.6 or higher is covered by a mask consisting of a triangular array of holes. Yablonovitch.System size of a few millimeters. for example in reducing undesired losses due to spontaneous emission.

Universität Greifswald (D) Concluding remarks .Modern Optics Greifswald. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt.

fishes. Photonic crystals are the reason behind the spectacular coloring of insects. Universität Greifswald (D) Concluding remarks • • • Let us assume that photons are real. SS 2010  © Alex Quandt. Electrons are usually absorbing daylight in the ultraviolet range. But under a large variety of favourable circumstances. halos and the blue sky are caused by a rather complex dispersive scattering of daylight (Mie scattering theory). they are also able to generate colors. birds. Visible daylight is but a small range in the 6000 K blackbody radiation spectrum generated by the sun. • • . and opals. glories. Rainbows.Modern Optics Greifswald.

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