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late nineteenth-century The weakeningof tonal syntaxthat characterises music was broughtabout in a varietyof ways duringthe course of the century.* The established conventions of the preceding style were transformed by such means as increasing levels of dissonance, nonfunctional harmonicprogressions, non-diatonicscales and the attenuation of the tonic-dominant The late worksof Liszt demonstrate polarity.' many of these characteristics associated with the move towards atonality.In of the traditional tonic-dominant axis by particular, theyshow a weakening the contrastbetweenits two constituent elements.The music minimising features a harmony that,in a sense, is tonic and dominantsimultaneously, a i.e. creating synthesisof function.I term such harmonyandrogynous, the characteristics and nature of both tonic and dominant.2 I first having discuss the phenomenon with relatively obvious examples from Liszt's music written before 1880, then examine threelate piano pieces in more detail:Nuagesgris, La lugubre I, and R. W.- Venezia.3 gondola The V-I motioninvolvesthreedistinct elements:1) the bass leap 5 to 1; 2 the to 3 2 to and the semitone motionI to 1. The V-I 2) (or 3) step 1); motion is weakened to various degrees by alteringone or more of these forexample,by inversion of one or both of the harmonies,or by elements, the use of anticipationsand elisions. AlthoughLiszt employed the V-I his music, the laterworksweaken it frequently and at gesturethroughout times significantly. The finaltonics and dominantsare ofteninverted and in some cases partially or additionof hidden,usuallythroughsubstitution non-harmonic tones. However, of the three contributing elements,Liszt takes care to preserve most carefully the 7-1 motion.The resolution of the one of the onlyindications ofthe tonal centre: leadingnote is sometimes
* This fromthe Social Sciences and Humanities studywas completedwiththe help of a post-doctoral fellowship Research Council of Canada. WilliamE. Benjamin and JohnRoeder made helpfulsuggestions on an earlierdraft of the article.
? Basil Blackwell Ltd. 1994. Published by Blackwell Publishers, 108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, UK and 238 Main Street,Cambridge,MA 02142, USA.
MUSIC ANALYSIS13:1, 1994
This content downloaded from 188.8.131.52 on Thu, 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.In certain as both I and V simultaneously. 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1 of Ex. is a more interesting as both a tonic and a dominant.. Bagatelle the resolution of the tone to the is tonic Tonart). the dominant-tonicprogression. detail. 1 Two FunctionsofIII d d d In b.but it gains importance ANDROGYNY IN THE MAJOR In addition to chord V. on the otherhand. Ex. 1994 MUSIC ANALYSIS 1994 13:1.The reason is thatit thatit may function shares two notes with each chord. Nevertheless.236. arising from a substitution of 6 for5 withinthe dominantchord.In his earlierworks this semitonemay be only a surface in the late style.to the smallest possible event: a single semitone shift. 4 In this way Liszt reduces the most tonal of all harmonic events. usually leading sufficient meansfor tonalidentity establishing .5 Usually the context clarifiesthe function (Ex.ZDENEK SKOUMAL Outsideofthoserareinstances in which keyorientation mayonlybe ascertained Unstern and ohne by subjective speculation (e. 1 the III chord functions as a tonic. 'AgnusDei' 40 pV III 52 ? Basil BlackwellLtd. this kind of clarity of function becomes less common in Liszt's late works. 2): following progression Ex. while in b. 1). cases the III functions The 'Agnus Dei' from Liszt's Organ Mass (1879) ends with the (Ex. III. 2 OrganMass.58 on Thu.2 it is a dominant.arisingfromthe passing note in the soprano..g. This content downloaded from 147. the leading note belongs to VII and III.91. The understoodas a typeof dominant.an diminishedtriadon VII is typically in structure incompleteV7.
but their final introducethe leading note-tonicmotion as a dominantgesturestypically tonic reminder. However. the D. as well as the prototypical harmonic patternsthey represent. the pedal D and the common note F give this dominant a strong tonic character. As it is. 4). voice makes the chord at b. The 'Kyrie' followsa non-traditional harmonic structure (to which I return and with ends a shift from later) VIITj up a semitoneto the tonic B. 1994 53 ? Basil BlackwellLtd. both harmoniescan be heard. arrivesearly. III to I. The ambiguity of I and the alteredV becomes particularly notablewhen the contextitself is ambiguous.the tonic is inverted. not a V. The reason we hear a relatively strongmotion to V is the leaping it we would be more likely to perceivethe chordas an altered bass.In termsof pcs. 1994 This content downloaded from 147. 3 shows these two endings.then anticipatesthe fifth of the tonic. again producinga V-I as a resultof a singlesemitone ending. The chord is androgynous. it is both tonic and dominant. substitution the I does appear in b. but the third of the tonic.Two othermovements of the Mass end in a similar fashion. somewhatweakeningits effect. 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Like the harmony represent it is a combination of I and V (as well as a distorted itself.' but ratheras an altered dominant (6 replacingS) that prolongsthe finaltonic. the III betterlabelled as V. Of course it does not functionas a mediant (it is an 'apparent' III).91. Yet it also the dominant.LISZT'S ANDROGYNOUS HARMONY a neighbouring III and thenresolvesto I. The The V is prolongedthrough the cadential bass subsequently but a pedal D in an upper repeats gesture. Ex. MUSIC ANALYSIS 13:1.45. Although a EVI-for-I in b. only a single semitonedifferentiates the V and the I.7 The use of V is not limitedto Liszt's churchmusic. the cadential close becomes more of an appoggiatura gesture.236. Nevertheless. The song is not exceptionally clear structural V in b.thereis no otherharmony to take the dominant represents function and the ending is unsatisfactory without it.A simple example is 'Ihr Glokken von Marling' (1874) chromaticand bringsa relatively (Ex.The penultimatechord already seems like the tonic.in the other movements the bass does not leap 5 to 1. progression .42 delaysthe tonic arrival. settingthe singer'stripleplea 'ihr Glokken von Marling. without I (like the first III in Ex. The songs depart from conventionaltonal structuresto varyingdegrees. The shiftoccurs via T.36 a IIPI. It is prolongedwith subdominantand supertonicharmoniesfromb.In both cases the finaltonic arrives motion upwards. More conventionally this chord would be V6.it is androgynous. the true meaningof III is ambiguous and its function uncertain. 1). The 'Sanctus' ends with a varianton the familiar ?VI-V-I (NVIrespelledforconvenience). In the following analyses I such harmonicconstructs withthe symbolV. and hence the function of these dominantsis less certain(the stronger close of the 'Agnus Dei' is clearly necessitatedby its functionas the close of the entireMass).58 on Thu.45 to the end of the song.actuallyanticipating Liszt first altersthe mode of the NVI the thirdof the next chord . III). Like the dominant.thatis.41 (in second inversion).
the song 'Sei still' (1877) employsthe 7-I gestureas one of the importantstructural ideas.27. III6 also harmonyin the first the first tonic at b.It is the culmination rising chromatic line: C (bs 10-11). the exact midpoint. substitution.27). a subtle but characteristic confirmation ofthe tonic.ZDENEK SKOUMAL Ex.91. The text poses questions about life and death and suggeststhatboth become less difficult when our heartis calm. D (b. 1994 MUSIC ANALYSIS 13:1. 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as God wishes. Thus III the resultof a 7-for-i precedes replaces I.The D#is the leading note and produces a neighbouring T. The final three bars decorate the tonic with the behiitet motion E-D#-E.27. endingsof 'Kyrie' and 'Sanctus' 'Kyrie' 35 from and Bb6 VII 'Sanctus' -P-0 V1 I VII I V I Db: bVIfrom .236.and containsthe song's of a gradually climax. it containstwo II6-VII4-V3-I6 thatbringthe tonic in a more convincing manner. In contrast.58 on Thu. In thiswayLiszt saves the D untilthe climacticmoment. 26).it R 16 and C bVI1 V 1 6 bVI V 16 mich gut!'. This is the only7-i motionsince the structural close in bs 41-2. important This bar sets a crucialword of the text. Despite a melody that for the most part calls for I and V7. C#(bs 22-3. a C#pedal makes the primary half of the song IIII alternating with VII7.but the first tonicharmony and the first tonic pitch do not appear until b.both agogic and dynamic. 3 OrganMass.The final progressions 54 ? Basil BlackwellLtd.'Leben' .The song is in D major. 1994 This content downloaded from 147. The second halfof the song focuseson P6..
tetnich gut! perdendo s. tI - - .tet mich gut. be .tet mich gut.hu . p . ihr Mar-ling. ihr Glok .LISZT'S ANDROGYNOUS HARMONY Ex. be . 4 'Ihr Glokkenvon Marling' 41 f ihr Glok kenvon _ p be . 1994 55 ? Basil BlackwellLtd.91. 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Sf -p = 46fA Glok - kenvon Mar-ling. * *cb. A ii pb g 51 p poco a poco nt. be .tet mich gut.58 on Thu.hii . * 6 16 16 MUSIC ANALYSIS 13:1.236. Cb* * .ling.kewrvon Mar.hii .h - I a. 1994 This content downloaded from 147.
sei still. wann. was istSter- doch so schwer. was du lieb hast. 1994 This content downloaded from 147. 1994 13:1.91. weil Gott es will! P _ . wann.ben doch so schwer. weil Gott es will! -iD 13 ben Ach.ZDENEK SKOUMAL Ex. 18 weint umher: a-bersei still. was du lieb hast. 5 'Sei still' Langsam Ach. sei still.236. was ist Le . 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . -__ oo -MUSIC ANALYSIS m a - 56 ? Basil BlackwellLtd. Ip 6 D IV ist nicht mehr: a.bersei still.58 on Thu.
still. 1994 57 ? Basil BlackwellLtd. wennun . weil Gott es will.236. 1994 This content downloaded from 147.ben. Le .bs 1 + 39 i6 16 I P I' 16 ? I Y6 6 16 16 MUSIC ANALYSIS 13:1. cf.lewlr. 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 39 I- I: I V16 VV vV I --_-- -0 116 44 VII V 6 1 sei still.58 on Thu.91. > Ster ben wirnicht schwer. . -um wel Gott eswill.I I I sei un . dar seistill. wenn if V 31 III6 16 - rit. 24 Ach. 5 cont.ser Herznur stil .ser Herznur stil. S.um 37 wel Gott eswill. lang I JI. 1? i L " wir.le Dar .LISZT'S ANDROGYNOUS HARMONY Ex.
the In a major keyan alteredV inverts withoutdifficulty. to the thirdof the major triad. just like the prolongedsonority vocal sigh.58 on Thu. III-I6. a III with the leading note is an the augmentedIII structure augmentedtriad. 8). 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the difference semitone in one of the voices.236. reflection of 1 whereT appears withC#in the bass. The main difference quality of the III: in a minor key.8 Thus. resultsfroma suspension. In the ' inversionthe chord resultsfromthe chromaticpassing motion -#~5-6. The resolutionis strongif the augmentedtriad thatis. It is just such and may be perceivedsimplyas an inflection situationsthat become common in Liszt's later music. dominantcontrast In the minor. are quite different. 1994 MUSIC ANALYSIS 1994 13:1.T is more a than a briefsurfacedetail.an escape note or melodic arpeggiation. 7a). the triads are the same inversions Although augmented ones that function as altered dominants in the 6 inversion.in other the impression of dissonance changes. Because of its symmetrical as containsthe same pitchclasses as an augmentedV and usuallyfunctions ofthischordto a minortonicis a phenomenon a dominant. in 'Sei still'. In a major key the alterednote behaves as a second leading note.The most dissonantnote inversions withinthe 6 is stable in the ' and 6 (Ex. the first halfthatpreparedthe climactic ANDROGYNY IN THE MINOR is the In minor keys the phenomenon is similar. the resolutionis weaker mentedtriadresultsfromanticipation In has a strongtonic character such cases the dominant element (Ex.ZDENEK SKOUMAL tonic is prolongedwith a T-I6 alternation. 7b). I shall again employ the symbol T to thisharmonicfunction (Ex. In other between the tonic and the altered dominant is a words.The resolution thatparallelsthe precedingdiscussion:two of the pcs are the same. This content downloaded from 147. 6 Augmenteddominantresolving 0k069 The resolutionof an augmented dominant triad to a minor tonic is a weakerharmonicmotion than a similarresolutionto a major generally tonic. represent to minortonic Ex. rather typically 58 ? Basil BlackwellLtd. If the augor a pedal. when a downward stepwise resolutionis assumed (Ex. of the tonic. The strong dissonance of the altered dominant becomes a consonance withinthe tonic.In a minorkeythe alterednote is resolving the same as the thirdof the tonic and hence cannot resolve in the same way.91. hence the tonicis weakened. 6). its appearance in the closing bars represents This is especiallyevidentin bs 50ofthe song's overallstructure. while the thirdpc is the leading note thatrises a semitoneto the tonic.
while D#is the leading note that rises back to the tonic. 8 Inversions ofthe augmenteddominant 6 3 34a 56 Liszt employedall inversions as dominants.. IN arp. 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Ex.91. 9 Petrarch Sonnet No. 1994 59 ? Basil BlackwellLtd.58 on Thu. pedal. Like the III chords in the major.9 is a neighbouring altered dominantto E minor. 9. it is dominant. That note is the perceived the dissonance. The augmentedtriad in b.8). 10). 7 Originsof the augmenteddominantin the minor usp. 104. b. Ex. In the 6 inversion the chordresultsfrom a simple neighbouring motion of the bass.LISZT'S ANDROGYNOUS HARMONY Ex. even though the chord is an applied VI.In the Petrarch Sonnet No. augmenteddominant. ant. 104 the augmentedtriadfunctions as an applied dominantto VI (Ex.it is also an inflected androgynous.the othertwo forma consonantpedal. note the E/G# Nevertheless. In II Penseroso Liszt uses this property to modulate fromE major to G major (Ex.236. 11 a respelling of the same MUSIC ANALYSIS13:1. E: I I The symmetry of the augmentedtriadallows easy reinterpretation of its root. b) pedal than froman altered-V-I cadence.G and B remainas a pedal. 1994 This content downloaded from 147. bs 7-9 E 7'D g I I riten. In b. While thisis clearly in both cases the pc set is equivalentto the largermeaningof the harmony.
it prolongs an augmentedtriad for twenty-two bars.24 the prolonged augmented sonorityresolves to F bass note of minor6.ZDENEK SKOUMAL augmentedtriadproduces an altereddominantof C minor. The means ofresolution is a singlesemitonemotion:E risesto F. This content downloaded from 147.J IL IV6 . the prolonged augmented triad is as an altereddominantof A minor and resolves as such in reinterpreted b. the goal as a leadingnote. 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .At b. mysteriousopening beginning subdominant.the local effect ofthe two tonics. of course. The C minorchord thenfunctions of thismodulation. This time. The opening of the Faust Symphony (1854) is a celebratedexample of 'dissonant prolongation'.U II t . however.91. An E-F motion follows. inflection is perceivedonlyas a chromatic bs 8-13 Ex. The primary the introduction is Al and it remainsas the bass of the chord of resolution. 1 to say ib).now representing 3-6 of the local A minortonic (Ex.236.382. 10 II Penseroso.58 on Thu."o In bs 359-81 (within Rehearsal Letter W) the introductory passage returns. In both parts of the movementit is difficult 60 ? Basil BlackwellLtd.9The listener begins to feelthatlocallythe augmentedtriadis stable.Even thoughthe largereffect is subtle:the augmentedtriad dramatic(a shift up a third).. the augmentedtriadacts as an altereddominant to two different harmonies. thenanotherchordmember.It resolvesto a the B C minorchord in b.i 4>* V7.Thus. a slow introduction in the Classical and others. 12 by keepingE? and G as a pedal and treating as IV3 of G. a slow introduction. E: ap l A- rinforz.it changes its meaning by alternately raising is relatively one. 2I G: VI S . Abbecomes G#and rises a semitonewhile the othertwo notes stay as a pedal. 11 la). This is. Whereas style Haydn the tonic at the which resolves to the dominant typicallyprolongs into the the here the leads of Allegro. like manyby the referential point. the IV of the tonic C minor (Ex. 1994 MUSIC ANALYSIS 1994 13:1.
. Liszt's song 'Die tote Nachtigall' (1878) involvesseveralshifts fromF# minor to F# major. dich wieder. Nevertheless. though necessary the bars.91. The augmentedtriadis an inflected tonic. remainder of this examines tonally study threelate workswherethe contextitself becomes increasingly in uncertain. The resolution embodiesthe moretraditional V-I close.1994 61 ? Basil BlackwellLtd. 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .236.. When triad first preceding augmented appears it is heard as a dominantbut by the time it resolvesit is feltmore as a tonic. which returnsto the minor. The closing section. interpret formsthe focus of the discussion. is no otherdominantto close the only even one is the diminishedseventhof the after song. du arme. leading-note The pieces I have discussed thusfaralwayssubsumethe ambiguity of V within a larger.thereare two notes from the dominant but also two notes from the following tonicisedtriads.my analyses still the music in terms of the traditionfromwhich Liszt arrived. 12).58 on Thu.kleine Nachtigall!') is ('. The only eventof harmonicimportwithinthe last fourteen bars is the resolutionof the leading note. 1 4 6 11 15 17 22 24 Cm:-359 IV6 382 384 b)5 6 5 6 6 Am: I 6 unequivocallythatthe prolongedaugmentedtriadis a dominant. und ach! keinRuf erweckt fourteen bars long and containsonlytwo harmonies(Ex. 1994 This content downloaded from 147. 11 Faust Symphony. the leading-note Leading note activity MUSIC ANALYSIS13:1. That whichwas an almost insignificant detail at the end of 'Ihr Glokken von Marling' becomes an importantevent here. clear The context. correspondingto the textual images (generally associating minor with the ill-fated nightingaleand major with the awakeningof spring). It is herethatLiszt appears to be moving in the direction of atonality.The harmonicfunction is best labelled as V.but at the same timeit is the candidate There for a dominant. thesethe focusbeginsto shift from I to V.LISZT'S ANDROGYNOUS HARMONY and itsreturn introduction Ex.
tr 4 ad lib. 1994 This content downloaded from 147.me. und und ach! ach!- V I TrIiten.tr ftr Nach . TI kein Ruer - weckt dich wie - der. L. 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .236. 12 'Die toteNachtigall' Ir -L Lr I . 56 schlafst du Dann schlfst du Dann still still in Gra Gra in bes Nacht.ZDENEK SKOUAMAL Ex. klei . bes Nacht.58 on Thu.ne Nach -r- - - ti - gall! 62 ? Basil BlackwellLtd. du LLV ar . 1994 MUSIC ANALYSIS 13:1.ti-gal - - len Lie der.91.
The last harmony is as Liszt leaves the unresolved. the only difference between the two harmoniesis the semitoneF#-G. E&-D. the entire involving piece. phenomenon. The background harmonic progressionthat controls the looks as follows(Ex. and the famous whole-tone ending. hence theyremainintentionally in the above ambiguous.58 on Thu. spawnsothersemitonemotionswhichtake on a motivic NUAGES GRIS (1882) Nuages gris is a model example of the minimal contrastbetween the of the piece consistsentirely augmentedV and minorI. while the androgynes do so throughchromaticlines. 1994 63 ? Basil Blackwell Ltd.the only difference between the tonic and the altered F? dominant. while otherchords resultfromeitherneighbouring motionsor chromatic passing connections that prolong the augmented V.91. as the primarybass. to G .the G minorsound is disturbed by numerous chromatic passingchords. The key signatureof two flats also indicatesG minor. Other semitones that surround the tonic triad become motivic:CO-D.LISZT'S ANDROGYNOUS HARMONY resolution role. 13): piece therefore Ex. This androgynousdominant shares D and B% with the tonic. The altered V of G minor is D-F?-Bb. This is the same phenomenonwe saw earlierbut on a largerscale. 13 Harmonic designofNuagesgris 1 9 21 25 33 47 G m: Gm: [6 16 I ? ?r ? 16 [I " I 16 The tonics expand throughsimple repetition.Liszt further minimisesthe contrastof tonic and dominantby employing one of the commonnotes.However.236. 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the basic structure of theiralternation.the melodic of bs 25-32 are stereotypical G minor gestures.the B%.an ambiguousand aimlessbass. endingpartly reductionclearlyshows thatthe dominantelementhas been reduced to its absolute minimumand hence may be perceived as an inflection of the tonic.The example hypothetical.is a crucialeventand forms the climacticresolution at the end of the piece. and then reappears as a Picardy B&-B?at the end). A-B%(C&B%appears only coincidentally as part of a chromaticline. Bars 21-4 emphasise Bb/Dand avoid F0 or G. Bars 41-2 contain an arguablepre-dominant sonority. As a related the semitonebecomes the primary motivicidea. In MUSIC ANALYSIS13:1. 1994 This content downloaded from 147. The G minor tonic is relatively clear: the opening melodic gesture beginson the dominantnote and thenoutlinesthe tonictriad.and the final fragments melodic motion is from F? to G.
The confusion is understandable. gondola entirety large only incidental The to a where a of the tonic. LA LUGUBRE GONDOLA I (1882) of . an inner-voice E remains unresolved." analysis TEx. Liszt is freeto resolution since the crucialleading-note retainotherdissonances. 1994 This content downloaded from 147. 14 ReductionofNuagesgris 'Y-I 2I Gm: I 21 N'33-------? I . A recognitionof the D6 as tonic is essential for a proper of the piece and its large-scaleuse of T. The main problemis the key.and hence can implyan F. Likewise. The example includesthe large-scaleunfolding gn'ris greater in of the I Allen Forte his reveals that piece.These dissonances are necessitated neighbouring Andante bars.236. the third accentuates triad. music leads decisivetonic point appearances could appear. In a way La lugubre gondolaI emulatesthe Faust ambiguously but without a definitive resolution. A or sonority Db tonic. The problem. R.H. The reasons for understanding 64 ? Basil BlackwellLtd. 33-48. The prolonged is the augmentedtriad E-A&VC. La lugubre While Nuages griscontains two significant prolongations I in statement of is its one with 1. 1994 MUSIC ANALYSIS13:1. L.it is alwaysgivenas F minorwhen in factthe tonic is D6 minor. However. I In the concluding bars the bass remains frozen on A and forms a dissonance with the final tonic of the melody. the highlevelof dissonanceat the specified by the preceding in to a a resolution almost ridiculous effect a tempo engenders banal.ZDENEK SKOUMAL bs 9-20 and 33-43 the repeated bass neighbour alternatesthe B.H. 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . From the chromatic altered and fundamental lines: R. introduction. 14 showsNuages chromatic of the in detail. His solution is ingeniousin that it providesthe that pervades necessarytonal closure and yet retainsthe aura of mystery the entire piece.-A-Bkmotivesgrow formsof V. 33-42. 9-20. Ex. Picardy only simple does end the piece. Symphony The piece has been somewhat misunderstoodin published analyses.91. but instead the initial T returnsand the piece ends as as it began.H.58 on Thu.
It has also beenremarked bars. 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .91.2) the opening melodic intervalC-A is typicalof an F minor a standardF minorgesturein its first piece. 1994 This content downloaded from 147.1994 65 C Basil BlackwellLtd.LISZT'S ANDROGYNOUS HARMONY F minormightbe as follows: 1) the opening key signature has preferring fourflats. 15 La lugubre I.'12 Ex.E?-F(leading-note to tonic.58 on Thu. that F minor appears to be Liszt's funeralkey. 15). acting as the tonic in other funereal works. -)do MUSIC ANALYSIS13:1. bs 1-23 gondola Andante marcato sempre legato una corda 7 13 19 sempre legato :' Lll UWUFWL.236.W r uiw I I. and 3) the bass effects twenty Ex.
First. immediately in b. 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . opening possible onlythrough to A?(possibly thenG. is two sharps. the end of this melodic section (a new melodic idea in The harmony s D6 . to the C. only one harmonyis projected and it fuses the two harmonicfunctions. Once in root position the augmented triad appears ready for a resolutionto the DB minor tonic (perhaps in b.58 on Thu." It is.not bs 6-7.after the however. with only minor variations. an F explainable minor Baker has the observed that unfolds a sixth James gesture. The overallbass descent outlinesthe same augmentedtriad.236. 1994 1994 This content downloaded from 147. E~ . Beginningat b. It moves interval.Db minorat Ts abbreviated. it is moving towards diatonically though constantly Db minor. not Fx.77 the openingmaterialreappears. resultofmodal mixture.116). 16 (I have changed the key signature and respelled some of 66 ? Basil BlackwellLtd.two sharps.more contentious. it moves down fromthe fifth the third(b.not an F minor tonic follows). the Ab-C-E? a with an altereddominant6 arpeggio represents Db neighbour with a tonic is There little sense of harmonic 6. and it also returnsin the finalbars (especiallyin b. then finally reachingthe tonic B in b. sharps Treating DB minor as the actual tonic of the piece.44 containsa G?.ZDENEK SKOUMAL The primary withF minor. through the notes to emphasize the DE tonality).91. produces minor.possible reason is that Liszt himselfinitiallyfelt F minor. The tonic returnsmore clearlyin the parallel mode (bs 19ff.however. problem F minor is chromaticism.). Yet it is not established as the primarysonority. is the melody.103). whereas Db minor at Tio produces B minor. FK.77) to the root (b.thereis no key signature signature.greatly at Ts.The melodic line now clearlyshows a B minor scale.95). themelody mucheasierto analyse out of context. there are two significant changes: the key Apart fromthe transposition.and the second halfof b. we can make the observations. The keysignature has no sharpsor flats.16 alternating change.57. with the leading-noteE? and the openingmelodic gesture. 'melody from the exactcourseof thisunfolding is A? to C9. Bars 1-34 are immediately repeated at Tio. A no or flats.19. The second .'" The A?ofbs 6-7 is not the it is a misspelledBb. It finally does landon the tonic avoiding byjumping leading-note Db in b. forDB minor(it would requireBb%). is shown in Ex. The main problem with the DB minor reading is the F minor key There are two possible reasons. Here is wherethe modal mixture occurs. although descending difficult to analyse'. The tonic first following appears withinthe openingpattern. as a MUSIC ANALYSIS 13:1. This (b.19 with with an added sixth butrather a majortonic an added seventh.101 or b. The dynamics emphasise that moment.overall it is subsumedwithin the prolongedT.it is strongly expected in bs 101-3. focusingon the leading-noteA#. signature F minor at Tio produces D# minor or Eb minor.hardly ?s modalmixture).1). hence Liszt uses the first keysignature that includes the tonic Db (especiallysince that note appears in everybar from 1 to 28)." The reading of a DB minor tonic is supportedby subsequent events.
91.m: Iy 1 5 VII /VII /VI s l /l / " R. 16 ReductionofLa lugubre I gondola 1 19 39 57 77 87 95 101 116 D . 1994 67 ? Basil BlackwellLtd. The finalbars containonlytwo pcs in the lefthand tremolowhilethe right hand adds the third. 1994 This content downloaded from 147.presents returns to (bs 43-9) V (C#pedal) MUSIC ANALYSIS 13:1. .the structural tonality-seeking logic becomes less of a once we are aware ofthe earlierworks.Instead of the tonic. the true supportedby the key signature confirmation of B%comes withinthe outer sections of the piece.b. though its existence is precarious.236. gesture). Ex.Veneziais the most ambiguous in termsof its large-scaletonal orientation:'R.95.58 on Thu. Bars 115-17 waverbetweenC and determining taken Db (a neighbouringfigure directlyfrom the opening left-hand and it almost does not seem to matter whichone willbe last.101 bringsback the bass E and the androgynous harmonycontinuesto the end of the piece. W. mystery The tonic is B%. Nonetheless. Nevertheless. It seems to be establishedonly throughone augmented-Vto I6 motion (bs 30-4) and is of two flatsin bs 31-8. point piece resolution but to highlightthe ambiguous nature of the augmented dominantin a minorcontext.LISZT'S ANDROGYNOUS HARMONY of the bass A? in b."There is verylittleto help the altogether ear. . These minorexpand the T of B%minor and hence point to a rathertraditional major-minor ternary design: A B A' (bs 1-30) . R.in the crescendobeginswiththe arrival such a resolution would seem to be anachronisticand context present somewhatbanal (thoughnot as disturbing as a major triadat the end of of The this is to prepare a glorious tonic not Nuages gris). note. 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .VENEZIA (1883) Of the threelate piano pieces I analyse here.Venezia demonstratesthat on occasion Liszt found the confidenceto dispense withthe framework of tonality'. However. W. W .expandsV of B minor(C? pedal) the tonicB%major (bs 31-42) .
Ex. 1994 MUSIC ANALYSIS13:1. W.58 on Thu. 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .the semitonebecomes shifts to the motivicstructure. 1994 This content downloaded from 147.-AV16 " 16 B: 6:VT s Y 4 1 6116 16 III6 IbV6 VII& Y The A sectionbeginson T and resolvesto a (misspelled)B%minorchordin fasterharmonicrhythm and rhythmic b. dependingon immediatecontext. augmentedtriad. 18 ReductionofR.Venezia A ""B 1 5 9 15 19 26 30 31 35 L 39 42 A! 43 48 . 17 Summary ofR. W . .again withA as the melodic note. Ex. the threeprolongsa traditionally Section A prolongsT througha chromaticrisingoctave. 18).bs 44-7 (Ex.'8 Aftera sequential repetition. returns moments. The pedal C# (the altered note of the dominant) 68 ? Basil BlackwellLtd. Some of the coherence that would resultfroma more stable tonality As in Nuages Gris. primarily appears in in bs 30-1 and is thenreversedin the closing bs 4-5. the motionA-Bb. 17. 6-7 and 8-9. B moves away fromthe tonic in risingminorthirdsand neverbringsthe tonic back.It first the fundamental motivicidea. the section ends on the same fragmentation.5.Venezia A 31 42 B 43 A' As this summarysuggests.91. Ex.236. As was evident in Ex. the large-scale designof thepiece projectsthe same motivicgesture. and A' vacillatesbetweenI and T throughout.ZDENEK SKOUMAL The C# both C#and Db. None of stable harmonyin a conventionalway. pedals represent the pitchis either the alteredfifth of the dominantor the thirdof the minor tonic.the revolutionary nature of the piece depends not upon its large-scaleplan but on the way its sectionsexpand. 17 summarises the piece in a graphicformat.
This arpeggiois clearlyandrogynous: combinationof the tonic minorand the altereddominant.as Leonard Meyermight stability (the Becomingrather The tentative put it'9). 4-5.comparethiswiththe B sectionofEx. W. W. to . of course.A. Similarly. The turnto A accomplishestwo goals: the framing harmoniesof the B sectionproduce a large-scalemotivicstatement B%-A. The A-B%motive has become B%-A.Veneziaand the OrganMass 'Kyrie' discussed earlier.58 on Thu. the beginning finally in bs for the one the mode shift from minorto major.236.The Mass as a whole centreson B%(compare the the beginningof the 'Kyrie' withthe end of the 'Agnus Dei').We cannot say whetherthe finalharmonicimpressionis that of tonic or dominant.: vII16 V6 VIIp I - CONCLUSION The vagueness pervading these late pieces . To reinforce the view thatLiszt consideredB%as the tonal centre.This resolution resolvesto D in b. whichis commonto bothharmonies. and the A harmony preparesthe augmentedtriadthatbeginsand ends the piece.and the overall it is a arpeggionow only descends. openingssuggesta process alreadybegun. apart fromthe framing the keyin a traditional tonics.91. However. 18.whilethe cessationrather than closure.and ends on . 1994 This content downloaded from 147. 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Ex.The finalnote is C#(=Db). Venezia. All thatis needed is the motivicsemitoneE-F.LISZT'S ANDROGYNOUS HARMONY ofthe B section. MUSIC ANALYSIS 13:1. 19 summarises the 'Kyrie'. . A' returns to the openingaugmentedtriadbut now withthe additionof a decorating Bb.is a directexpressionof Romanticideandrogynous harmony an which values openness and progressabove closure and ology. Ex. 1994 69 ? Basil BlackwellLtd.it is usefulto make a comparisonbetweenR. The main structural difference between the two compositions lies in the two A sectionsthatsurroundthe centralpartof the piano piece. 19 Reductionof the 'Kyrie'from the OrganMass 1 12 24 35 37 38 6 1K B.31.20Both.and the vagueness of in general. It in factfollowsthe identicalharmonicpattern foundin the B sectionofR.the movementdoes not confirm way.are open endingsrepresent characteristic of the nineteenthcenturyand have numerous precedents. except parallels The B sectionmoves through the risingthirds and then turns BV-DV-E?. ideology state of thanBeing. 'Kyrie' itselfbegins and ends in Bb.
oflife and thecourse itself. 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .236. Richard Taruskin writes that 'Wagnerian harmony is essentially dominant harmony. La lugubregondola I and R. with its circlesof thirdsis harmonythat seems..did not appear spontaneously. distinguishable Careful analysis shows that in theirproper interpretation as dominants familiarharmonic structuresemerge.23 The factcan hardlybe disputed.Liszt himselfanticipates the latter in tone poems such as the implied Orpheus(1854) and Hamlet (1858).However.Veneziapractically demand such closure.The androgynous harmony in his last yearscreateda construct thatbecame entirely at home within the transformed musicallanguageofthe earlytwentieth radically century. but at times they are hardly fromthe tonics and hence are ofteninterpreted as tonics. . of course. NOTES 1. however. Liszt's last tone poem. This is.22This statement could be clarified thatLiszt's by specifying harmony is still about dominants.the set is foundin numerous and diversecontexts. 1986). endings: There is something our primordial affective deep within beingsthat leads us to identify withsuch abatement in processes.2' In that sense.. Von Wiegebis zum Grabe (1882). cycles day. at times. though. to Twentieth-Century Music (New Chapter 1. sensing of themthenatural the of the existence times seasons. These. Some recent discussions oftheseissuesinclude R. Joel Lester..58 on Thu. W.. accentuatethe finalvagueness througha vagueness in the harmonyitself.The endingsof the earlier tone poems are indefinite only in theireffect.throughsecondary are to they quite clear..to deny the existenceof the dominant'. In a thought-provoking discussionof Liszt's experimental idiom. 1994 This content downloaded from 147. Simms. Allen Forte indicatesset 4-19 (0148) as one of the 'fundamental componentsof much of thatmusic'. once theharmoniclanguageallows it.on the other hand. Lisztian harmony.Analytic Approaches MUSIC ANALYSIS 70 ? Basil BlackwellLtd..ZDENEK SKOUIMAL The former is usually traced to the opening of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. Musicofthe Bryan Twentieth Century: Style and Structure (New York: SchirmerBooks. wherethe endingsreflect Meyer suggestsa reason forour naturalacceptance of these programmes. not relatively meant to deny Liszt's great advances in the harmoniclanguage. It is howevera naturalextension tonally parameters. stands as an almost prototypicalexample.91. it is significant that 4-19 has a rathersimpletonal meaning:it is the combinationof a minortonic and its thatLiszt explored augmenteddominanttriad. 1994 13:1.They developed as transformations of traditionalstructural elements. even on casual acquaintance withthe music. theyare obvious.
It resultsfroma V and an MUSIC ANALYSIS 13:1. No. Bernard C. 'Tonal Organizationin Selected Late Piano Works of Franz Liszt'. 'The Limits of Tonalityin the Late Music of Franz Liszt'. Vol. 6. Mickelsen. (Philadelphia: University 8. The immediate repetition of the passage omits b. Music Theory Vol. 10. 4.havingtones of both the tonic and dominant. 19th-Century Music. Theory. After manybars that implyF#major and B major. pp. This idea formsan important part of Hugo Riemann's harmonictheory.130. pp.He derivesthe secondarychords of a key throughsubstitution withina primary chord: either6 for3 (Parallelklang) or I (leading-note)for i (Leittonwechselthe dominantParallelklang klang).77. pp. it seems unnecessary Apart fromthe generalidea of 'characteristics to suggestany further between male/female and tonic/dominant in parallels this context. 1994 71 C Basil BlackwellLtd.203-6). 1989). dependingon context. History. Forte's article includes Century numerousotherusefulbibliographic references. York: Norton.can be eitherthetic [tonic] or synthetic [dominant]according to use'. 1978). pp. No. 2 (1986). coined terms'domic' and 'toninant'appear absurdin a scholarly context. 'Liszt's ExperimentalIdiom and Music of the Early Twentieth Century'. 4. 19thMusic. and Leonard B.209-28. 'The Mirror of Tonality: Transitional Features of NineteenthCenturyHarmony'. Howard Cinnamon.In C major an E minorchordis either (Dp) or the tonicLeittonwechselklang (T). p. Lemoine.58 on Thu. James Spectrum. 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1977).29. 3 (1981).1-24. See also pp. Baker. 1989). it has a specificmeaning in nineteenth-century theorybased on dialectics and also in nineteenthand Hegelian appears early twentiethRussian theoretical The term 'dual' seems while the century bland.2nd edn (New York: HarcourtBrace Jovanovich. Chapter 1.The harmonycould also be termed'synthetic'. 'Tonic Arpeggiation and Successive Equal Third Relations as Elements of Tonal Evolution in the Music of Franz Liszt'.Vol. Meyer. the C#is clearly implied). the V as 16. William C. 1994 This content downloaded from 147. especiallyChapter of both'.LISZT'S ANDROGYNOUS HARMONY 2. The IIF chord in the penultimate bar is actuallya combinationof V and V. 8 (1986). but this creates otherproblems: apart fromthe more recentassociationwith 'chemical' and 'plastic'. 8.WilliamMickelsen summarisesRiemann's positionon chord III as follows:'The III chord is an unhappychord which.64-6 and pp. writings.16 reinterpreting progression. Hugo Riemann's Theoryof Harmony (Lincoln: Universityof Nebraska Press. 3 (1987). Journal of Music Theory. Styleand Music: and Ideology of Pennsylvania Press. Allen Forte.236. Vol. p. No.thoughless obvious. Recent articlesthat relate directlyto the present study include: Lawrence Kramer.221-2. The 'Gloria' also has a similarending.191-208 (specifically pp.280. in Liszt-Studien2 (Munich: Musikverlag Emil Katzbichler. p. both A major and F minorappear simultaneously. the finalD tonic arrivesvia an F#minor harmony(althoughonlytwo notes appear on the downbeatof b.Here the finaltonic is prolongedwith a I-V-IV.91. 7. 34. 5.145-73. 1989). As Aldwell and Schachterdescribeit in Harmony and VoiceLeading.76. 3.
1993).171.214. Liszt anticipatesthis eventwithinthe introduction by movingto the F several times. Richard Taruskin. thenbecomes the tremolando interval 17. where it createsa brief'apparent' consonance beforeresolving the E and the main augmented triad. 20. alternating importance 19. Stravinsky's "Angle"'.Styleand Music. Forte. However. Baker. the sequential repetitionin b. 156. This bass in bs 77-85.ZDENEK SKOUMAL it is similar to theV and hence I label it the same way. The augmentedtriadis arpeggiated notes of the lefthand anticipatethe opening of the right-hand melody. However. 'Chernomor to Kashchei: Harmonic Sorcery. Piano No. Vol. 18. Morgan. of the introduction relationship 11. Society. See Robert P. Accordingto its notationthe chordis an 'apparent' consonance.. By way of comparison.p. the above quotation: 14. In effect 9. pp. a are of vertical The chords local logic. FOpedal.or is it a lowerauxiliary 15. 72 ? Basil BlackwellLtd. 1 (1985).pp. Meyer. 38.p. These Fs.'The LimitsofTonality'. Baker. 1 (1976).La lugubre gondolaII uses the same harmonyand but is unambiguouslyin F minor. 'Dissonant Prolongation:Theoretical and CompositionalPrecedents'. 156). Vol. 1994 MUSIC ANALYSIS 13:1. 1994 This content downloaded from 147.323-4. ofMusic Theory.236. 13.employing melody significantly G? and focusing in sixthsand hence the second and third 16.In bs 16 and 18 the F is suspended intothe second back to beat. pp. Journal itself 10.see especially pp. 23.9 a main element. p. 21. p. Journalof theAmerican Musicological No. 20.125. part Db) outweigh 0-6 sequence. Ibid. Alan Walker. however. or.58 on Thu. the opening melodic gesture on F as the tonic.49-91.Styleand Music.19-27.includingC# and Bb.225-7. is altered. 199-200.'The LimitsofTonality'. are usually harmonised with another as resolutions of than serving augmentedtriadand hence createtensionrather the precedingdissonance. This readinganswersthe question thatBaker poses after to Fb?' (p. 12. 16 May 2013 04:07:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Forte. No. the is harmonies of the relative locally questionable. 'Liszt's Experimental Idiom'. Those two points encapsulate the to the openingof theAllegrobut in reverse. pp.324. 22. 'Liszt's Experimental Idiom'.p. 142 (May/June and Keyboard.91. Terms used by Meyerto describethe Tristan ending.15 spells the minor chord notation(CO to and avoidance of enharmonic Linear considerations correctly. 'Is Eb in b. 'The Music of Catastrophe:Liszt's "Wagner Elegies"'.
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