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^ PY 15




JUL 30 MAI SEP 2 3




6 1988




INC. June 9.CLASH OF CAVALRY The Battle of Brandy Station. New York . 7863 By FAIRFAX DOWNEY DAVID McKAY COMPANY.

by Heros von Borcke. Copyright renewed 1955.. Charles McBarron (gnd U.COPYRIGHT @ 1959 BY FAIRFAX DOWNEY All rights reserved. Peter Smith. from John Brown's Body. by Charles Francis Adams. in any form. 1928 by Stephen Vincent Benet. Jr. . MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA VAN REES PRESS NEW YORK. Jr. except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. A Cycle of Adams Letters. Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number: 59-12258 Grateful acknowledgments are made to the following for permission to quote from their publications: Houghton Mifflin Company. Cavalry drawing).. and Colonel Harry C. (6th Pennsylvania Cavalry drawing). Larter. 1956 by Rosemary Carr Benet. Rinehart 8c Com- pany. Memoirs of the Confederate War for Independence. including the right to reproduce this book. Todd (ist Virginia Cavalry and Hampton Legion drawings).S.. Copyright 1937. or parts thereof. Inc. Also to the Journal of the Company of Military Collectors 8c Historians and to Colonel Frederick P.

he has given unsparingly of his aid and advice to the work of many.With deep gratitude friend to a true critic and invaluable COLONEL HARRY U. LARTER.S. and artist. including detailed minutiae of arms and equipment. Combat veteran. Army. C. student. . JR. Retired This and previous books have drawn heavily on his miliprofound knowledge of American tary history.


also established War "firsts. although almost as old as warfare itself. f A preceding submarine. A submarine f that sank a ship of the Civil Union Navy. The science of outposts. and electrically-exploded torpedoes. Brucker to the Civil War Round Table of the District of Columbia. Foreshadowed only by our at King's Mountain in the Revolution were the tactics increasingly and tellingly practiced. and its 'mortal flame projectors. 1958. Aerial psychological warfare the dropping by kites of Lincoln's amnesty proclamations behind Confederate lines. It was in the Civil War that the metallic cartridge was developed. as were barbed wire entanglements. Bushnell's in the Revolution.Foreword and Acknowledgments nnHE -* Civil initial has aptly been described as a war of "firsts. long-range rifles." or at least developments in the use of the mounted arm so advanced as to be novel. and the machine gun first rained of troops into use sleet* upon the battlefield. Cavalry. "It was the first war in which the railroad was used on a large scale for the strategic transportation and supplies. It marked the first use of the telegraph for transmission of military dispatches. The rifled cannon first came on an appreciable scale. of screening mounted riflemen dismounted * operations. Railway artillery was another innovation. was brought to a high point. Ironclad ships. revolving turrets. The conflict Secretary of the Army Wilber M. failed in its mission against a British vessel in New York harbor. May 13." * To that remarkably aviation modern list were added: pioneer military an early use of observation balloons and the cannon fire against them which was the debut of antiaircraft artillery. vii ." of appearances or the earliest effective employment of vari- War ous weapons and methods of warfare.

editor of Ordnance magaWilliam A. who performed the same expert service for my book on the artillery follow the cavalry movements and attacks at Brandy Station the maps he so carefully supervised are as indispensable an adjunct to this text as they were for that of the greater at Gettysburg. To My sincere thanks for all their help are offered the following: Harold L. whose original enlistment was in the cavalry. are devoted to the officers and troopers who fought it. Colonel zine. to their horses and to their arms and equipThis book strives to describe ment. Such are the components of a it character and sway its outcome. my son-in-law. editor of The Orange Review. whose Night March opens at Brandy Station. Brandy Station in the detail that must be forgone in a general history and to place it in its perspective. Its dedica- my appreciation. for the origin of Brandy Station's name and other aid. I greatly depended upon the advice and criticism of Colonel Harry C. Knowlton. Green. tion strives to express Jr. Baehr. which never lacked them. Brandy Station as the greatest cavalry engagement of the war may therefore be considered to deserve the full treatment..FOREWORD AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS between the states o the Union and the Confederacy marked the zenith of American cavalry and of cavalry everywhere. its immediate consequences and its drama. As prologue to the Virginia combat of June 9. chapters of the text. to their training and earlier campaigning. Armor. to and other background. 1863. because of its historical significance. historian and historical novelist. given in the as well as for following pages. Maps were produced under the guidance of General C. Codd. in the writing of this book. along with appendices. Sound of the Guns and The Guns at Gettysburg. Lieutenant Colonel Leo A. battle. Orange. Larter. Bruce Lancaster. A. Virginia. authority on the American sword and firearms. James W. John Hathaway. Peterson. their traditions battle that give As with two previous works. The Civil War's magni- tude has begun to prompt more studies of single battles in addition to those of Gettysburg. maker of miniature cannon and keen student of military his- .

my able editors. Reynolds Gratitude for research facilities is due the following: Sc Son. of Paul R. Rawson. Kennett L. typing. Military Academy. my invaluable literary agent. Professors ix Jay Luvaas and Robert L. Oliver G. Mildred Adams Downey. of the David McKay Company. that of the University Club of New helpful librarian. the New York Public Library with its excellently catalogued regimental histories. Crispin of Allegheny College for making available the latter's translation from the German of von Borcke's book on the battle. and indexing has carried through loyally from my first book in 1925 to this one. the Library of the U. appeared in Ordnance and FAIRFAX DOWNEY West Springfield. to reprint chapters that am also grateful for permission War Times. and Mrs. I Mark Civil Kiley. my wife. the Library of Congress and that of Yale UniverYork and its invariably sity. New Hampshire . which supplied a useful bibliography. President. where the bulk of excellent collection my reference was done own and through interlibrary loans. whose author's first aid criticism. Douglas Ryan.S.FOREWORD AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS tory. Dartmouth in its College Library. proof-reading. Swan.



Historical Sketch of the U. by from 158 162 APPENDIX C. Lever Charles Dragoon. Cooke's Cavalry Tactics 204 208 222 231 NOTES AND REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHY MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS INDEX 233 . APPENDIX F. Organization of the Union and Confederate Forces at the Battle of Brandy Station APPENDIX E. S. Poems and Songs of Civil War Cavalry APPENDIX H. Sabre Exercise. 163 General Pleasonton's Brandy Station Reports General Stuart's Brandy Station Report 166 172 181 APPENDIX G. APPENDIX B. Cavalry the Irish 154 Excerpt Charles O'Malley. Cooke's Cavalry Tactics APPENDIX I. Cavalry Tables of Organization APPENDIX D.Xii CONTENTS PAGE APPENDIX A. 187 The Charge.

E.Ion and a Confederate soldier Cavalry slcirmisri. Jones Alfred N.Duffie David. 3Lee W.Illustrations following page Alfred. J. Pleasonton B. Stuart "Wade Hampton Fitzliiigb. E. MclVT. Gre^g John !Buford Jmdson ELIlpatrick. Percy \VyndlxamL Diael "between a Un. line Union liorse artillery A cavalry charge The biagle call Camp of the Sam i8th Pennsylvania Cavalry Charge of General Buford's cavalry Sam S^veeney S\veeney's banjo .


Cavalry 137 141 The Hampton Legion MAPS First phase of the Battle of Brandy Station battle battle front end paper Second phase of the 108 143 Third phase of the Areas of advance back end paper .S.Illustrations in the Text PAGE Secession cavalry 1]t Federal cavalry x ^ Swords used in the Revolvers Civil War 07 og Cavalry equipments Artillery harness 43 45 75 Mounted Band ist Virginia Cavalry Regiment 85 101 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry 2nd U.




What if there was no age on it? It would warm a man on a frosty morn. That sign was still in place when the Orange and Alexandria Railroad was built in 1856. Clash of sabers would echo A the clanking of car wheels on rails. Virginia. Like as not. In and around the little town would be fought the greatest cavalry battle of the greatest ever fought on the American continent. finished the last letter of the sign and let the paint dry. the driver would pull up and give travelers a chance to take advantage of the announcement that there was a stock of apple brandy in the rear of the store. Now it became Brandy Station. People had begun calling the small town that grew up around the store Brandy. closely paralleling the original stage line. 3 Civil War. the . and shells the hissing of locomotives steaming into Brandy Station. brandy freshly distilled at one of the orchards that dotted the countryside.CHAPTER 1 A Battlefield Is Named keeper of the little country store in Culpeper County. Then he hung it where it would catch the eyes of passengers on the stagecoach line that ran past his door. few years later the pounding of the hoofs of stagecoach horses would be a thousandfold revived by the galloping thunder of many regiments of cavalry in gray and blue.

designated also as that of the Confederacy. Trumpets sounding to horse. with the two the East. Natural features of the choice became inevitable field. Bullets of carbine and and battle-ax. The ground was largely level or gently sloped. In that terrain nature and the hand of man "had created as fair a field as knights could have asked for a tournament. Smoke had the bombards at Crecy five centuries before. iSGg.4 CLASH OF CAVALRY storekeeper. but none to match such a pitfall as the sunken road at Waterloo. crowned by a farmhouse. site for a command post and observation point. Here and there patches of woods. 3 with its far-reaching consequences. con- fronted Washington. mounted men met in mlee and single encounters to fight some of the last fierce battles in a vanishing era of cavalry warfare. Here in Virginia. rails and gates and draw bars soon disappeared before armies quick to pull down obstructions. Its when Virginia seceded from the Union. Ditches. There as elsewhere the woodman's ax had opened an arena for cavalry. the gallop. ideal for charge and countercharge. as on countless earlier fields. and the charge repeated the brassy summons of the fanfares of yore. some threaded by roads. Sabers hewed and thrust like broadsword or leveled lance. revolver dealt as deadly blows as had mace wreathed the guns of the horse artillery as it were. or in search of handy firewood. lettering his crude sign. Although at the outset of the war the fields were well fenced. previously cramped and circumscribed by the forests and finding opportunity for development only on the treeless plains of the West. notably the day-long battle of June 9. North of Brandy Station rose the grassy knoll called Fleetwood Heights. cities chief and her capital. remained. had written a name that 1 rings like a trumpet in history. pa\vns of the war in . of the land in the vicinity of Brandy Station The had long been cleared and cultivated. afforded concealment for horsemen and cannon or a rallying point for a shattered squadron. some of them broad and deep enough to be treacherous. By the i86o's most." 2 From 1862 through 1864 it served as lists for a dozen conflicts as savage as the combats a I'outrance of the medieval tourneys. could not determine alone its splendidly adapted though they selection as a battleground.

with transports carrying his army down the Potomac and along the coast to land at Fort Monroe and advance up the Peninsula. must force or defend the fords of the Rappa- . leading to Manassas. and Washington. the present U.S. and westward to Madison and Orange. So tive it was an objecpoint to the movements of either army. was too frequently cut by waterways and impeded by forests to be favored. i. a was prize in itself. The rail- way that ran through Brandy Station. At Brandy Station cavalry of the adversaries. From the picturesque town of Culpeper Courthouse branched two systems of roads: one to the northeast. but strength would be sapped by the necessity of leaving troops to cover Washington. going north they diverged towards Kellyville and the lower Potomac. It was a . point from which the road south diverged eastward to Fredericksburg. like a modern armored column. Chancellorsville. a station of the Southern railway (then the Orange and Alexandria) which either army. Fredericksburg. an invaluable supply line. the other to the north and northwest for an advance into the Shenandoah Valley. Confederate armies could threaten attack by either path or both. to the Wilderness and the lower Rapidan. and the tramp of infantry. Alexandria. commanded by the Union Navy. General McClellan attempted it. How well they fulfilled their fate as a magnetic avenue of access or a strategic blocking position was proved by the great battlefields that encircled that ground like a diademBull Run or Manassas. His defeat in the Seven Days Battles and repulse from Richmond So it became the destiny shifted the seat of warfare back to northern Virginia. Fairfax. as could their opponents. Open to the armies of the North was an alternative: invasion by river and sea.A BATTLEFIELD Station IS NAMED 5 * Brandy [wrote a cavalryman who fought there] across the line of advance or was directly retreat of the armies. the rumble of artillery. in either direction. of Brandy Station and Culpeper County often to hear the clatter of cavalry. used for the purpose of supply. the neck of land between the James and the York rivers. Spotsylvania. A more direct approach from one capital Route to the other. leading and screening an offensive or warding it off. That would save long miles of marching. between Washington and Richmond. occupying Culpeper.

Many. and the arm's insignia. of course. richly red or brown. long deferred but inevitable. waged like some of those in Asia and Africa during the World Wars on ancient battlegrounds. were magnified to the flashing blades of troopers who fought around the little town with the mellow name. Others. as has been noted. 1863. perhaps with the same tactics that prevailed centuries before. the contending armies blundering design. Acres of wheat. To the southeast the land rolled away toward thick.6 CLASH OF CAVALRY hannock River and clash in battle at a halfway point between the Culpeper base and those crossings: the fields whose orchards furnished the storekeeper's distillation. The June. equally unplanned. ripe for cutting. large-scale June. are fought on spur-of-the-moment decisions by field commanders. engagement at Brandy Station partook to some degree of the character of the last. Some combats into them without are fortuitous. tangled forests. The horsemen in blue and in gray or butternut brown entered the arena bounded on the west by the long ramparts of the Blue Ridge. June clover. 1863. who had concentrated the Army end at Gettysburg. spread fragrance. Heralds of yore vaunted the prowess of knights. by champion and a challenger the Gray cavalry and the Blue. voicing their deeds and lineage proclaimed by the emblems and quaterings on . crossed sabers. Still others seem almost foreordained. are deliberate culminations of campaigns or maneuvering. Where its the squadrons converged. Distant hills to the northeast masked the Manassas plateau. Yet the conflicts around Brandy and the its geographical in encounter situation. of a Station were predestined. Prior to the Civil of Northern Virginia for an invasion of the North that would War the fields around Fleet- wood Heights had fights seen no bloodshed unless settlers it was in forgotten between early British and Indians or skirmishes with the or Tories in the Revolution. was preeminently the fateful meeting. glowing yellow in the sun. formed a background of the cavalry color. It was the result of a reconnaissance in force by the Union cavalry of the Army of the Potomac to discover the intentions of General Lee. and tasseled cornstalks thrust up from new-plowed earth.

squadron. genesis. Behind that hard-won attribute lies the and their training.A BATTLEFIELD shields. All are prelude for a mighty passage at arms. and prologue. similarly served. officers who led division and 5 brigade. of their horses. "the of the weapons they wielded. of the cavalryman's second self". IS NAMED y For these Civil War and cavalrymen their regimental markings their standards with battle and guidons. and troop. Such were tokens of their story of their mustering fighting quality. shot torn perhaps and decorated honors. martial .

mostly animals of fine bloodlines. breeds. Chief source of pride was their horses. 4th Virginia Cavalry. Stuart's small cavalry command. rode toward the battlefield of First Manassas or Bull Run with more of the heft of history in saddlebags than a single unit is usually privileged to carry. Virginia. Part of Colonel J. The sight of "the terrible grey horses" of the Scots for bays were predominant among American a close second and chestnuts third. exceeding only the grays. Such 'cavalcades were immensely impressive. Death Rides a Black Horse E Black Horse Troop of Fauquier County. Blacks Greys. B. 334 officers and enlisted men. 1861. 8 In the Russian army the . is declared to have made Napoleon wince. Shortly years previously. By its action in the approaching combat it would exert an inordinate amount of influence on the course of the war. Their comparatively uncommon color set them and apart made them memorable. Having been organized two considered themselves no raw levy. Matching a unit's horses in color was a custom derived from European cavalry whose smart dress was enhanced when the hides of mounts were of one shade. with browns 6 ranked fourth. And on that twenty-first day of July. it the first its forged link in the chain of events that led two years later to Brandy Station. one of the forty regiments of horse which that state ultimately put in the field. "The horses in the ranks can't be chose 7 too much alike. and conjugates.CHAPTER 2. the Fauquier troopers sat their black mounts proudly. roans. not only in parades and other ceremonies but in war. E. they they would become Company H. riding boot to boot. charging at Waterloo with running infantrymen clinging to stirrups." observed a British officer in i726.

roans. reinforced the device of and facings of his uniform were reversed from those of other troops. the three others sorrels. sorrel." their military advantage proved more important. three companies rode bays. Horses. as admiringly noted in 1855 b Y Captain George B.S. exploits in the Revolution. ist two black. 11 Gray was a favored shade for troop horses as well as for the music. The services esteemed the similarity as highly as the mounted owner of a beautifully matched pair of bays. grouped by color. 9 The reason for uniformity was ease of recognition and efficiency more than handsome appearance. observing the Crimean War. serving in Texas before the Civil War. and one each grays. two nuts. were assigned Cavalry. A trumpeter's gray.DEATH RIDES A BLACK HORSE horses of each cavalry regiment 9 of each artillery battery were matched. and various newly-recruited regiments took pains to conform. and chest- Massachusetts allotted bays to its first battalion. The matching its color of the mounts of that gallant little troop. managed on the whole to maintain the arrangement throughout the war. and roans to its second. Battery B. So did the ist Maine and. Phil Kearny's company of dragoons in the War with Mexico rode iron grays. 10 While the "magnificent and those chestnut chargers" of the Philadelphia Light Horse may have originally been purchased to afford a "fine spectical. and roans. enlisted as a body. worked better together and actually developed a clannish spirit. both in the South and North. Cavalry. unlike most regiments. for the The Gray was the traditional hue for the mounts of musibands and trumpeters. making him by his more easily spotted earlier wars whereby the colors commander. bays. 4th U. with grays chestnuts for the band.S. In the Civil War such establishments. cians. distinguished Thus from Revolutionary chiefly state troops times a number of American units had followed the color pattern. The 6th Michigan sorted its mounts by color.S. . So did one of Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. hitched to his carriage. along with it. McClellan. they resented intrusion by an animal of an unfamiliar hue. and blacks to its third. During the Mormon cam- paign in Utah shortly before the Civil War. Lee's battalions of the snd U. U. two brown. or as a farmer did his work team of twin roans.

The ." But they were hard pressed. The men in fezzes. their and other spectators from Washington watched the tide of battle between untried troops rise in favor of the Union. It was one of many Jeb Stuart would deliver. One of Stuart's officers 12 believed that if the infantrymen instead of attempting to reload had grounded slanted rifles with fixed bayonets and formed a hedge of steel like medieval pikemen. winning him his nickname of "Stonewall. On ladies. but the charge did not falter.1O Artillery. Frantically the Zouaves plied ramrods. that sweltering hot July day. fettle But the mounts of the Fauquier Black Horse Troop were in fine when they marched to Manassas with Jeb Stuart's column to their indelible make mark in the annals of the war. hue of hide and quality of breeding had to be almost entirely disregarded. CLASH OF CAVALRY matched the colors of its section teams: bays for the right. on until his last one on the fatal day at Yellow Tavern. picnicking Congressmen. and the charge swept down on an advancing Union Zouave regiment. an order to charge. blacks for the center. and baggy red trousers fired a volley. Sabers flashed from scabbards. Only stanch infantry and these were green troops could have stood off this sudden onslaught. Sufficient serviceable animals to keep cavalry in the saddle and the artillery rolling was the primary consideration. and sorrels for the left. He marshaled the Black Horse Troop and the rest of his command. yellow-braided blue jackets. There was no time to deliver a second volley. they could have repulsed the oncoming horsemen. and a courier from General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard galloped to the leader of the Gray cavalry with Confederate reinforcements arrived. the battery wagon and forge were drawn by grays. Then Up on the brow of Henry House Hill General Thomas Jonathan Jackson and his brigade stood firm. By the second year of the war battle and disease had begun to take such heavy toll that it became impossible to restore color combina- tions from remounts supplied. Captain Welby Carter of Fauquier reeled and slid to the ground beneath the pounding hoofs. Saddles emptied.

and a panic ensued. cavalry did not harry the jetsam of defeat streaming back to Washington. The charge smashed into them. not the pale horse of the least two years thereafter rumor mounted virtually the entire Cavalry Corps of the Confederate Army on fonnklable sable charges. Few units have swayed the . blocking the stone bridge over Bull Run. By then most of Stuart's command had been detailed But in the imagination of every of black-mounted horsemen galloped the dreadful apparition fugitive to escort prisoners to the rear. but a black. It SECESSION CAVALRY (From a wartime envelope) was Confederate flank attacks that finally folded up the Blue lines and drove them back in retreat. did not win the day. When a Rebel shell crushed a wagon. no more than a local success. and scattered them. Zouaves. Then and for at rode. broke.DEATH RIDES A BLACK HORSE 11 Zouaves recoiled before a surging wave that seemed composed of jet-hued steeds with flaring red nostrils. at his heels." 14 A The charge. long-remembered yell burst from the throats of the fleeing "The Black Horse!" 13 The cry caught up and echoed across the field was "destined to endure terribly through the war. gleaming sabers brandished above their tossing manes. That day at Bull Run Death Apocalypse.

Light Horse Harry Lee and gades at Wade Hampton.12 CLASH OF CAVALRY course of a conflict more definitely 15 than that one Black Horse Troop its of Fauquier County. and in the early. and Apaches. and other heirloom weapons. like their adversaries in gray. equipment-scant armed with Revolutionary sabers. fields Now with trails Station. battle of the Civil War. had guarded confused its cover flank of the army at First Bull Run and helped retreat. Back in the saddle fights in the West. Kiowas. fire-novel and blasted back British assaults with deadly to trees. Starrs of the 1818 issue. That "the history. and cultivated combat as the ground around Brandy its own. and riders again were troopers who had faced the Mexican lancers. from the dragoons of the Revolution/ the Seminole and Mexican wars. and from those mounted riflemen whom a member of Congress had once quaintly termed "mounted gunmen. At the outbreak of the Civil War the United States mustered five regiments of regular cavalry. were heirs to the to those of traditions of the dragoon regiments of the Revolution. by brief action in the first great the right Seven troops of Union cavalry. of continuing Indian and of the War with Mexico. the opening such arenas for mounted arm was about to come into widened into roads. Except upon those treeless expanses. The company which was named Lee's Light Horse in honor of the days of the war it was gth Virginia Cavalry was former. cavalry tactics which the Civil War would see Lineal fully developed. shortly adding a sixth. 16 They. horses their tied the mounted riflemen who rode to Kings Mountain. past The than in military prologue" is never more evident horsemen of the of hoofbeats of 1861 echo those is Anthony Wayne's Legion at Fallen Timbers. Regulars. whose uniforms the still carried the plains dust of campaigns against Comanches. been noted. Sioux. descendants of two dashing cavalry leaders of the Revolution." While they were now designated as cavalry and had discarded . commanded Southern brithe nucleus of the Brandy Station. as has They stemmed. American cavalry hitherto had been afforded only limited scope. Virginia.

engineer the majority of whom would South. Brass scales were fastened to their shoulders as armor against saber blows. Jeb Stuart.DEATH RIDES A BLACK HORSE 1 for the snd Cavalry which refused dragoon orange piping. the North possessed no cadre for Except volunteer cavalry. along with offers to recruit new regiments. except to give it up . nevertheless. Beneath light blue overcoats with capes were blue jackets. border war. Trousers of pale blue were strapped under their boots. . trimmed with yellow braid. that ornate headgear. first of the blue-clad Regulars were. would prove to be far too few and they would dwindle. The services of established troops. Robert fortunately turned cavalryman. and breeches stuffed in boots. notably the Comanches. Also unfor the Union the regiments of Blue horse. Until their hats were replaced by forage caps. the shoulder scales fancy plumed seemed relics of the dropped. they in a modern war much like some of the Southern horsemen past who mustered in gay-colored militia uniforms until they could be provided with Confederate gray. Fitzhugh Lee. black Hardee hat. for cavalry yellow. the dragoon bold he knows no And he rides along with his uncropped He spends no thought on the evil star That sends him away to the hair. Lee. commanding the . For a time they continued to wear the plumed. disdained by soldiers of the line. Four of them. were declined by the War Department on the advice of General Winfield Scott. strength and their proud esprit. they . converging on Washington from their distant stations. for a few militia units. little On their record stood extraordinary marches and tough officers combats where they were ably led by transfer their allegiance to the E. since no bounty was offered for enlistments in the Regulars. still retained the aspect of care. among them Albert Sydney Johnston. Hardee. maintaining sufficient would fight at Brandy Station. was dubbed a "Fra Diavolo" after the opera bandit. as formidable barbaric cavalry as the world has ever Most seen. hard-bitten of service in the West against the troopers. brim bound up on one side by a brass eagle and escutcheon. behind them years Indian tribes.

veteran of 1812 and 18 Mexico. in the South. cavalry could operate efficiently FEDERAL CAVALRY (From a wartime envelope) So in the Union's or its first call for volunteers cavalry if was either refused acceptance authorized only equipment.200 horsemen cost equipment ideal conditions forage for each animal Under would amount to 50 cents a day. 1300.000. would that the Southern theater Scott argued fatuously be impossible for cavalry. predicted that the war would be decided by cannon. and. somewhat rare in superannuated and the wisdom to offer succession to his command officers. and where it was not readily accessible . Certain battles would be markedly swayed by artillery Malvern 19 Hill. but no war is finally won by a supporting arm. Fredericksburg. the once-great old soldier. who would demonstrate on the other side that mount a horse. In ill November. to resign to Robert E. Lee. expense. 17 That old artilleryman. to a considerable extent. Gettysburg. A The the states provided horses and still frugal government shied away from the heavy alone for a regiment of 1.14 CLASH OF CAVALRY United States Army. and too corpulent to had the wit. 1861.

carriages. Save for the more isolated communities in the North and the pioneer settlements of the Midwest and West. Where they did not run. horseback riding had become nearly a lost art. enough for win- Naturally the existence. Horses did the farm work and logging. North until by the mid-nineteenth Now the Iron Horse was king. must not only ride well but drill and maneuver in formations. wield saber. and fire re- volver in the press of combat. to three or four times that figure. and Yet the horseman they had superseded must be limbo. and towns. let alone the efficiency. must manage his mount. if summoned back from on the battlefield. the Speedways wealthy sportsmen raced their blooded trotters. wire the appurtenances of the industrial revolution would play a major part in winning* the war for the Union. It was on a par with the delusion that ninety-day enlistments were long ning the war. It was amazing how swiftly that skill heavily populated sectors of the it had vanished in the more century Railways linked the was comparatively cities rare. in some European armies a cavalryman's enlistment ran seven years. untutored in all those difficult . cavalry were to fulfill its vital functions He must acquire a forgotten skill. The arm required long training. and wagons served. must be able to endure many weary miles in the saddle and give his horse the care that made those miles possible. all communication. light animals as unsuitable for military service as the On ponderous farm horses. Until First Bull Run the assumption was allowed to stand that six regular regiments of horse were ample. most of them were too heavy and slow to be used as cavalry mounts.DEATH RIDES A BLACK HORSE 20 15 and must be transported. For many Federal cavalrymen. The telegraph had rendered the post rider 'obsolete. Men who drove them were seldom on their backs except perhaps to ride them home to the barn after plow or stoneboat had been un- hitched. of cavalry pre- supposed the ability to ride a horse. traveling over a growing network of reasonably good roads. Railroads. but stagecoaches.

lances couched. formal or informal. In fact the medieval aura that still surrounded horsemanship in the South would draw frequent. A number families treasured as mementos miniature golden horseof Virginia shoes. Descendants of the Knights of the Golden Horseshoe would fight as Confederate cavalrymen through that valley their grandfathers had been shod. was widely practiced. from the English colonists. humiliation and bitter defeat were in store. with thousands of ardent devotees. awarded by Royal Governor Spotswood to members of the Blue Ridge to explore the Shenandoah expedition he led across the Because of the rough trails their usually shoeless mounts had the motto: Sic juvat transcendere the aided monies such crossing of the mountains. and hundreds of fine horsemen. Horsemanship as a cult survived as a daily necessity. seemed to carry in his saddlebags the baton of a every man a Marbot. spanned decades to revive the Each Confederate trooper Murat. bitter references by worsted Federal cavalrymen to "the Southern chivalry. a Ney. The little emblems bore as these ranged. Saddle racing. "Every great and foxhunting.X 6 CLASH OF CAVALRY essentials. as a favorite pastime. knights. No man walked if he could ride. bearing the escutcheon clumsy masses of Yankee peasantry. His stud was the pride of every Southern gentleman. glory and glamor of the It Napoleonic horse. It would take them two long years in the hard school o experience to learn. Knighthood seemed still to flower in the sport of tilting at rings when horsemen. mounted on steeds of famous . Valley." It engendered a legend: arrays of plumed of Dixie as they rode down helpless. an heirloom plantation had its pack of hounds. Forerunners of the Western cowboys were the Southern planters of colonial days who rode at headlong gallops through the woods to round up herds of wild horses whenever their stables needed restocking. and the love of horseflesh was inherent in the whole population. rode at full speed to catch the small suspended circles on their weapons' points. still flourished. In glaring contrast was the situation in the Southern states. The hunting horn and the view-haloo still resounded.

Lord Wolseley. no Southerner . even when trotting. whereas . Apropos of them. roads scantier and rougher. Railway lines were far fewer. bound for a ball at a manor house." Every man in the South rides from childhood. Upon it rested the proud affirmation that the Virginia cavalry was "born.would walk even to a battle. the celebrated following his tour as British soldier. in which particular they present a striking contrast to the Northern cavalry. boys!" Those elements which had population centers of the or invalids. who can scarcely sit their horses. a caustic comparison server in 1862. Indeed. I have no doubt but that all who have the agree with name seen Northern troopers on duty in Washington. Carriage travel over the rutted turnpikes usually was confined to the elderly fox chase. when the Redcoats were routed at the Battle of Princeton: "It's a fine all but banished horsemanship from North were inconsequential in the South. was said that the war of which everyone was talking broke out. Of the Southern horsemen he wrote that made an ob- all the men rode well. Horsemanship learned in boyhood and constant riding long lent ticed not made" an overwhelming superiority over less prac- Northern adversaries. for whilst we are opening the gates they are all over the fences. "What can we do? We can never catch them. Even distances men vaulted onto a horse's back. a Southern lady told me that on one occasion. he said." although the latter were not half so numerous. changing to a party onto their for short if gown on It arrival. Such was the background of the Confederate cavalryman. or donned habits and were sidesaddles.DEATH RIDES A BLACK HORSE 1 7 2l In 1861 lineage." again echoed from hunting to battlefield the exultant cry of a Virginia planter turned Revolutionary general. rode pillions lifted behind their beaux. will me in thinking them the greatest scarecrows under of cavalry that they ever saw. a claim that could also be advanced for troopers from other seceded states. recruited the Confederate squadrons. when jesting with a Northern officer about the inability of his troops to contend with the Southern "chivalry. and to be on horseconsequently is at home in the saddle. George Washington. Belles.

"What is the use of having good roads if you don't drive on them?" they say. caught his horse. though he might be ungainly on foot. were in- superable objects. rode like a sack of meal. had been trained in the West Point riding hall. Creeks and fordable rivers were barriers before which they hesitated. Rail fences and stone walls. who was usually at the right place at the right time." In those first years of the war it not infrequently happened that a Southern horseman. The breakneck. despite the fact that in his boyhood he had won races as a jockey. Horsemastership and the ability to handle arms mounted were as widespread south of the Mason-Dixon Line as they were negligible north of it. even ditches. and one in which he rarely trusts himself. He simply jerked the fugitive from his saddle. did not bother to shoot or cut him down. sat his saddle while he was getting there. Yet it did not matter how the General. but only to drive them. Natural hazards and lack of horsemanship to overcome them left such primary cavalry missions and raids largely to the men in gray. Exceptions to good horsemanship were notable by their rarity. but a good fencer would be as useless to him as an elephant 22 It was all too true that for long the Federal cavalry was virtually roadbound. disorganized mob. and rode back to prod his fallen enemy to his feet and march him to the rear. . Stonewall Jackson.l8 CLASH OF CAVALRY back is a most disagreeable position for a Yankee. cross-country gallop of the fox- hunter was left to Rebel horsemen. Worse still was a dash through woods which would shred and tangle a Blue regiment until it became a helpless. Once in the saddle a Southerner. one with his horse. To have a horse that can trot a mile in two minutes forty seconds is the pride of a New Englander. Small wonder that the Confederate cavalrymen contemptuously branded their opponents "Yankee tailors and shoemakers on horses. pursuing some hapless rider in blue. In the North thousands keep horses. became a figure of grace and harmony. and served in the artillery in the Mexican War. Feats of the Texans bending down at a full gallop to pick up hats and stones from the ground were matched by skilled as reconnaissance riding exhibitions by horsemen from other seceded states.

mustered on In Virginia." followed by wagon trains. the Deep South. one highly important For the two bodies of contrasting cavalry approaching conflict characteristic can be listed on the credit . Plumes nodded from other hats than that of the debonair Jeb Stuart. but. functioning groom. Some few boasted traditions of long standing. uniforms no less jauntily worn. on 23 Some troops were campaign. more in nondescript. some in smart. What harm by a few business in hand? shooting started. with plumes of ostrich or other feathers are only suitable on parades and reviews. sung to the twang Sam Sweeney's banjo: If If If you want you want you want to smell hell to have fun to catch the devil Jine the cavalry. regiments loyal to the Union. laden with trunks. In a number of units nearly every cavalryman from captain to private as valet. which the North had refused to call to arms. soon prompt- ing cavalry regulations to chide: "Fancy hats. with the already noted exception of some of their officers and a few a very few of the rank and file. The Negroes made themselves scarce when the but most of them bobbed up afterward when they Gray cavalryman would have traded his servant were needed. others had been raised in the late 1850*5 at the gathering of the war clouds. No for a Federal officer's enlisted striker. Among them were no whose remained Regulars. and the Border States the troops their splendid mounts. Booted and spurred. was accompanied by a Negro body-servant. they are a useless encumbrance. and cook and riding his master's spare mount or a warfare's inevitable hardships were mitigated comforts so long as the latter did not interfere with the if mule.DEATH RIDES A BLACK HORSE Both paean and epitome of the dashing cavalry was Jeb Stuart's rollicking battle of spirit of the 1 9 Confederate song. shortly to be discarded. they rode to join the armies. All were essentially volunteer cavalry.

in the modern phrase. clashing raider. It was. readily-wielded striking . were his fortes. their masters sat on fences and supervised. he was disinclined toward dismounted combat. a daring. headlong charges as any recorded in cavalry annals. and the mounted rifleman. and the two ways of life strongly The affected discipline. "a hell of way to run an army. side of the ledger for the And that. In inflexible was more elected. 24 good family he unquestionably was." 25 "The man of felt himself superior. subjected a private to double duty for absence from was forced to apologize for the "insult. as in most cases A company com- mander. The custom whereby a unit elected its officers it originally prevailed in both South and North. Confederate troopers delivered as valiant. gradually learn cavalry tactics. Less frequently theirs was the ability to drive home the crushing mass onslaught of a disciplined." Camp cleaning fatigue was passed on to servants. and this distinction was sufficient. swift. Sudden forays. One stubborn non-com deliberately marched a guard detail through the middle of a mud puddle. He would. who roll call. to his fellow-soldiers of less excellent birth. but in the former and endured longer. during the early years of the war. to override everything like military rank." The effect on leadership was often ruinous. would carry the day on more and more fields as the war progressed. though never as thoroughly. extended sometimes to include enforced resignation of officers on petition of troopers they had failed to please. fighting on foot. slowly but inevitably. would exert an overwhelming effect. one of them confessed. troops of Virginia cavalry for a time even corporals had to be and only they. average Confederate trooper was an individualist. The typical Southern cavalryman was a resourceful scout. cared sufficiently little by enforcing discipline. declaring that corporals were given so plagued little aufor rank to risk it thority that he meant to make the most of it. Because he was predominantly a horse- man. He lived in a land where the rule of aristocracy was as deeply ingrained as that of democracy in the North. isolated actions. Substitutes for guard duty were hired at twenty-five cents an hour.2O CLASH OF CAVALRY Union. like his opponents.

homesickness. only by dull guard duty. War Department would accept volunteer cavalry and horse and equip it came in the summer of 1861. and bridled. it and when would contribute heavily to final triumph. 21 telling talent of the Blue horse. when asked why they wanted swers were prosaic and practical. read and remembered idea of long . from New York through the Midwest. Trouble and turmoil could have been plainly predicted from interviews at scores of recruiting stations. although such inducements were in the back of many minds. thronging to did not mention the lure of glamorous charges with flashing sabers. An- them. Then there hung about the cavalry service a dash and excitement which attracted those men who had. he discovered. It victory at Brandy Station. end of them the animal. thus mitigating boredom. the regiments began to organize. recruits happily anticipated. more than melancholyit was No observer summed up Maine recruit motives as graphically as the historian of the ist Cavalry. In the infantry a soldier had to walk. In the cavalry a horse carried him comfortably through marches." Next morning steeds. saddled. would be put up "in some peripatetic livery stable.DEATH RIDES A BLACK HORSE That would become a would come close to winning force. fed. watered. there was too much idleness. relieved 26 believed they would be kept busier in the cavalry with scouting and so on. had heard that in the infantry Many applicants. They Then the who feared and forced marches on foot led many not be able to endure this portion of would they the service [there was a proportion of seafaring men on the ist Maine's roster] to prefer a service in which they could ride. groomed. would be led forth by hostlers to be mounted by well-rested cavalrymen and the At ridden on to war. and their approaching disillusionment was shocking and painful. Sheridan took command of the Union cavalry. From Maine to Maryland. Would-be troopers to join the cavalry. and chances of sickness. Tardy word that the U.S. The name of such innocents was legion.

between the ages of eighteen and thirty-five years. They time the unpleasant drilled dismounted. it yields some satisfaction. weighing not less than one hundred and twenty-five or more than one hundred and sixty pounds. too heavy for the average cavalry mount. able-bodied men in all respects. Regiments broken. only a horse. Elsewhere recruits were frequently signed up without any regard to their ability to ride or the slightest knowledge of horses.22 CLASH OF CAVALRY the glorious achievements of "Light Horse Harry" and his brigade. Men rule. It may be. Cushing's prophetic speech the saddle has been the true seat of empire." 2T and similar works. and filled simply were not available in the to strength. as intimated by the it makes common men look on and to sit a horse. or who had devoured the story of "Charles O'Malley. that tainly much harder than the infantry has been sought after by and sometimes women like to so many men of means. more used to the bounding main than a bounding mount. This is probably so.S. of correct morals and temperate habits. not infrequently un- the first acquaintance of an animal he quickly came to consider a rampaging .. vigorous and hardy. Classification for arm of service according to skills and aptitudes was still years it cavalry of 1861 ahead for the U. intelligent. were taken without question. Big men. many a trooper They were issued made for horses. and encamped. were often familiar with horses as part-time loggers and farmers. Good sort horsemen horsemen of any numbers required. men who had read much in history or fiction preferred the cavalry service ." Even the sailors and fishermen. In short. Recruiting officers of the ist Maine followed selection instruc- tions more closely than they were observed for numbers of other regiments. directions to enlist "none but sound. conquerors and from Marcus Aurelius in Roman bronze down to the and if it is "man on horseback" in Gen. active. assembled.. and of "Morgan's Men" in the revolutionary war. and for the Union would have been virtually inoperable. The of the world are always represented on horseback. imperious dignified and may furnish the explanation why the cavalry service cer- Professor in the Atlantic. Army.

. others turned and were on the other side of the animals. We went rumps only a few miles. Some of the boys had a pile in front of them on the saddle. pushing the well-disposed animals out of position. but the boys didn't It all get up till noon. and all I could do was give a hasty glance to the rear and sing out at the top of my voice. was such precursory scenes and this was by no means an isolated casethat made the performance of the Union cavalry at Brandy Station seem all but incredible. going sidewise. and one to the rear. patent sheet iron stoves the boys had seen advertised in the illustrated papers and sold by sutlers of Alexandria about as useful as a piano or a folding bed flying through the air. 2$ He had when he and scarcely fathomed the misery in store for his regiment were shipped off to Washington.DEATH RIDES A BLACK HORSE wild beast. etc. mess kettles. jingling. Green horsessome of them had never been ridden turned round and round. saddles slipped back until they were on the of horses. jerking. The horses sheered out. cursing I have never heard before. backed against each other. horses running and kicking. Blankets slipped from under saddles and hung from one corner. Some of the boys had never ridden anything since they galloped on a hobby horse and they clasped their legs close together. unconsciously sticking their spurs into their horses' sides. tin pans. "C-1-o-s-e u-p!" but they couldn't "close." Poor boysl Their eyes stuck out like maniacs'. so high and heavy it took two men to saddle one horse and two men to help the fellow into his place. scrambling. jumped up or stood like trained circus horses. him his A captain of first regiment's York cavalry sympathetically recalled ride into Virginia on escort duty: 2S New Such a rattling.

skimmed the cream of the plantations' stock and of breeding farms. trench warfare and the machine gun since artillery. Grant's Cincinnati. ton's Butler. although the invaluable mule hauled the bulk of the latter. first for the to the extent of some 380. Brandy Station saw the Union's rising. 24 . Hamp- The Jeb Stuart's string of big hunters. Competing with the cavalry and horse artillery for available horses were the many batteries of light artillery and the transport wagons. then for our chiefly for field North America was tapped. For the want of a rider the battle was lost. own forces.CHAPTER The Cavalryman's Second Self For the want of a horse the rider was lost. Cavalry would help infantry 30 win the campaigns against the Indians in the West. along with horse maintenance supporting artillery. In the First World War the still vast horse reservoir of Allies. and many others. hinged finally upon of the supply of saddle and draft animals. Generals and other high-ranking officers. Benjamin Franklin: Poor Richard's Almanack OUCCESS ^-J its or failure of the cavalry arm of the i86o's. and splendid chargers entered the horses' hall of fame: Lee's Traveller. while the Confederacy's was past its peak and sink- ing alarmingly. 29 Civil War was not our last conflict in which the horse was of high importance. requiring to be well mounted.000 animals. Sheridan's Winchester.

worn out. degenerate descendants of the steeds of the Spanish conquistadores. Virginia in particular and of the more southerly states were "full of 33 horses of noble blood/' of Selective breeding preserved the strains imported English thoroughbreds. middle many horses for the mounted arms. Timoleon. Both in quality and quantity available the Con- A immediately federacy's horse supply was initially superior to the Union's. 34 as well as in neighboring Mexico. and Mississippi provided horses and nearly as many mules. Georgia.THE CAVALRYMAN'S SECOND SELF had tolled the knell for cavalry. and the services of a blacksmith (a promise which too if often could not be kept) The horse was given a fair valuation. Rich sources also were the great horse-breeding regions to the west. So one who wore the gray fondly spoke of his horse. into North America could cavalry. He was paid 40 cents a day for using the animal and promised feed. But if the . In animal were captured. or otherwise disabled. Exchequer. His remount . It is a curious commentary that territory which had seen the introduction of the war horse. as indicated in the scarcely less so some previous chapter. Diomede. released cut off by the loss of Kentucky. 31 25 But on this continent the War between the States was the heyday of the cavalry mount. Boston. horseshoes. heavily. excelling in draft. Greater use in wagon trains of the long-eared animals. cavalryman's companion and friend upon whom his life may depend his second self. a primary instrument of conquest. Sir Archy. and he were killed in action. no reimbursement. such celebrated racers as Eclipse. but they were mostly small mustangs. Not until the summer of 1862 were they largely and western Tenand trans-Allegheny Virginia through Union victories. 32 and thousands of his comrades could echo his words. There was a vast surplus of horses in Texas. expending the money paid him or own. For more than a year the Confederate armies drew upon them nessee. Louisiana more of the latter. his owner was paid that sum. and Red-Eye. now furnish few suitable for Destined to hamstring the Confederate cavalry was a government policy which required every trooper to furnish his own mount. there was either case the trooper must find a replacehis ment. Missouri. Alabama.

is recorded to have been mustered in with troopers owning their mounts. for instance. It was said of true cavalrymen that "they went with a broken spirit. he had to be given a furlough to go home and obtain a new mount. and assorted duty dodgers. served as readily as it was accepted. horses and their equipment should be the responsibility of the states and patriotic citizens. "should it to the government?" S5 A similar frugality in regard to cavalry mounts beset the United States Government in 1861. 37 In one instance an individual bought horses for an entire . plus saddlery and so on." one cavalryman have been thought that the people of Virginia would have held back their horses when they refused nothing else asked. eating their hearts out longing for a chance to get back into the saddle. Failing such. Finally "Q" had to be disbanded. or a dead comrade's. the grd Indiana Cavalry." difficult. "Why. malingerers. it when The sorry state of "Company Q" was aggradeteriorated into a refuge for a number of riffraff. 36 The thought of putting up the cash for 1. well content to sit out the war in a safe place." Such collections of horseless horsemen. partly because of its worthless elements and partly because chances of finding remounts became virtually hopeless. or he could join "Company Q. He trooper could transfer to another arm of the service.26 CLASH OF CAVALRY might be a horse taken from the enemy in battle or raid. volunteer cavalry regiments were was suggested that while the War Department would furnish arms. Only one Union regiment. an The dehorsed alternative few cavalrymen welcomed. which considered itself unable to afford the provision of cavalry mounts." But in the earlier years of the war the policy of the Confederate government. It was a long journey to Georgia or Mississippi.200 horses per regiment at a minimum of $119 a head. were melancholy enough vated in themselves. "For the want of a horse the rider was had two choices. and the search became increasingly lost. failed to appeal widely. Members were drafted willynilly into the artillery or infantry. When it being reluctantly considered. though it did supply artillery horses and transport mules.

Questioned by for old captain as to the reason for his antics." A Massachusetts officer scanned a batch of remounts. spavined. blind. who should have faced a firing squad. New England and New York were scoured for sturdy Morgans. Like the Morgans. which brought $150 each. enduring. palmed off and 330 undersized or overaged. they were comparative miniatures of their forebears. Short-legged. although the maximum of cavalrymen in the field at any time during that period did not exceed 6o.THE CAVALRYMAN'S SECOND SELF 38 27 troop. often first-rate cavalry mounts. as artillery horses. It was furnished number 284. Five were dead on the train's arrival. the $119 maximum. "Respect 41 age. Luckless troopers took animals given them head had been boosted $11 over the United States on that one lot in anger or disgust. Other breeds and crosses came from the Midwest and in ever larger numbers as the Union armies gained control over the horse-breeding regions. shaggy. Yet they were goodtempered. Surprisingly good.ooo. Louis in which only 76 out of 411 animals were found fit for service by a board of survey. descendants of that extraordinary little stallion. they could live on bark and leaves when there was nothing else to eat. Price per stifled. They rebranded cavalry mounts. They on the government such shipments as the one from St. The loss to was $4o. who looked into the mouth of the mount assigned him. at $119 a head.000 during the first two years of the war. with long manes and tails.ooo. For the Blue cavalry there proved to be horses enough and to spare. 40 More than financial damage was done by such nefarious contractors. Cavalrymen were had been kept out of action or cut down by the enemy because they issued worthless mounts. the huge Norman chargers of the mailed knights. then doffed his his cap and made the wretched nag a profound bow. were the "Canucks" from north and south of the Canadian border. too. or made a wry jest of it like the Irishman. ringboned. sir. . Generally the Union cavalry horses were purchased by government contract. or otherwise crippled. they did not run large. he replied. and hardy. 39 Machinations of grafting contractors could not greatly affect that generous stream of supply. Justin Morgan.

and it was often twenty degrees below zero. The ist Rhode Island. and caustically remarked: "Such a collec- tion of crow's bait the eye of man never saw. He may have been wise in field service. Snow was five to six feet deep. Many of the horses were unbroken. and lying down and falling down. There was kicking and rearing. The least ordeal of the ist Maine. In camp at Augusta it built stables. Groom him thoroughly." ran the regiment's comment. "cold even for Maine. troopers The problem for those with a small quota was how one handled the strange creatures." cost money men don't. first mounted drillswill they ever be forgotten. his day and generation. "The ist Maine up to that charge. of horse-wise *'Take care of your horse before you take care of yourself 'that was the cavalryman's credo. Selling the government vicious animals nobody else would buy was one of the tricks of crooked contractors. first donning a white stable frock to spare your uniform. Solomon's song of the war horse was the most bitter satire ever conceived. admiring those garments. once wore them.were among the " sufferers. the same should be clothed in white . beginning in mid-December. to church. so one lives who saw Most them? of the had never horses long before been ridden on the back [sic]." 42 But most new regiments of Union volunteer cavalry were satisfied with the animals obtained for them by their own officers or honest contractors. first essays at the equestrian art are so vividly chronicled by regimental historians that one suspects that they . at it helped keep warm. when clean. Water and feed. and running and jumping. never previously ridden. on Those as .raiment/' 43 See to it whenever possible that the horses have adequate self-sacrificingly lived shelter. 44 "Horses Those Finally you saddled and bridled and rode the beasts or tried to. quoting the Scriptures (Revelations III) in justification: "He that overcometh.28 turned over to CLASH OF CAVALRY his troop. but the men had to weather the tough winter of 1861-62 in tents. and most of the men knew as little about it as the horses. but he evidently never saw and they didn't know everything down in Judee.

" and have made their brag that we could never match them. When a private's hailed are him in his mount backed out of line. One of our men received a kick from his horse which proved fatal to his life.* 29 Finally the regiment ventured a review for the Governor. 47 . "Come up there! What in hell falling astern for?" "Why. too. were the tribulations of the 2nd New York: At first we had some [its trained horses exciting times with our young and unhistorian related]. many of whom have never bridled a horse nor touched a saddle. and all ways but the right way. The skipper bellowed back an order: "Well. We find. captain. And then. give her more headway. whose commander was an old-time sea captain. There was crowding in the ranks. though amusing to look back upon now. Several of our wildest and seemingly incorrigible ones we have been compelled to run up the wholesome discipline steepest hills in the vicinity. while the riders showed signs of having taken lessons in somersaults do not wonder that the chivalrous Black Horse gentry have expressed their contempt of Northern ''mudsills and We greasy mechanics. too. produced a most rebellious temper. by the men. and swearing and yelling. largely composed of seafaring men. and getting out of place and striving to get back into place. and getting thrown and being kicked. causing many of them to pitch up into the air as though they had suddenly been transformed into monstrous kangaroos. and pushing forward and hanging back. however. and getting sore in various ways. and all sorts of haps and mishaps. which. until the evil has been sweated out of them. then!" 4 you Typical. I can't get the damn in thing stays!" the trooper shouted. Confusion quickly developed in the ranks of Company K. but frequently with the men. and amusing at the time to all but the unfortunate ones. that the trouble is not only with the horses. these curbed [sic] bits in the mouths of the animals that have been trained with the common bridle. under the of sharp spurs. were anything but 5 pleasant then to those immediately concerned.THE CAVALRYMAN'S SECOND SELF the part of the horses. the skipper quarterdeck voice. and going backwards and sideways.



Bruised and aching troopers grinned ironically when they read such sentences in the manuals as these: "In training the recruit

mounted, care should be taken to give him a gentle and well trained horse." 48 "In no case should a horse be punished for timidity/' 49

The crowning
kick." 48

touch of


naivete was: "There are other horses

Following primary grades in the school of the cavalryman came advanced courses. Bareback riding. Jumping. Accustoming the horses to firing and other noises. Field music, manuals advised, should be practiced near the horse-exercise yard on the


frightful racket of trumpeters to could stand blow, similar practice was learning anything)

that animals,

which could endure the


observed with bands whose unexpected, sudden blasts could rout a squadron. Horses must be familiarized with their riders, firing

from the saddle or swinging a saber to cut at canvas dummies, stuffed with hay, as they rode past. Mounts of standard- and guidonbearers must be made used to the sight and sounds of flags waving above them and snapping in the wind.
All that and

more had


be learned. Gradually

man and


acquired those skills, polishing them in the hard, postgraduate school of field service. Finally beheld was the beautiful spectacle of regiments of cavalry wheeling and countermarching, trotting and
galloping, in response to trumpet

obeying them

as quickly as their riders.


the horses recognizing and less stirring a sight were

the horse artillery batteries, cavalry with guns, rushing into position,

unlimbering and opening


Facing the cavalry of both armies was service arduous beyond their imagining. Constant picketing and patrols. Jeb Stuart's long, hardriding raids and those by Union General Kilpatrick which won him the nickname of "Kill-cavalry." The test of battle. primary method



summing up

success or failure, victory or defeat, lay in the condi-

tion of the animals

on the picket


Add up




legs, exhaustion beyond endurance and weakness from lack of feed, the cases of dreaded glanders and

backs and lamed


and you had an answer.



Groom and rub down your mount, trooper. Clean out his hoofs. Hard, monotonous work, but your life may depend upon it. Smooth down mane and hide hair under the saddle blanket and leave no
wrinkles in

Water and, as "Stable Call" bids, "Give your poor horses some hay and some corn." If the quartermaster hasn't come

through with any, forage for it before you think of your own hunger. Do your utmost when you have to picket your horse in

some dry footing boards, bricks, bits of tile; standing day after day in muck, he'll finally come down with "greasedheer or thrush, his hoofs rotting away. Sponge out his nostrils and
to find


watch for the


Report him

for isolation then, or

running mucous that may mean glanders. it may spread, and the whole

troop will need remounts besides yourself. When you lie down with saddle for pillow to sleep in the open, with no picket line or tree where you can tether your horse, you

can safely fasten him by halter


rope to your hand.




around you

grazing, perhaps

will never step

on you.

or more, he will let

awaking you at times by tugs, hard marches of a day and a night the saddle, carrying you until he in you sleep

but he



founders and drops. 51



wounds and

cherish him. If he could speak, he


best promise you: "In this war, like any other soldier, I will do my without hope of any war-cross, content to serve my country and on the battle you, and, if need be, I will die, calm and dignified
field." 52

did cavalry horses behave in combat? They could not understand but obeyed when they were ridden into action. Veterans re-


membered how


with their hopes and fears o battle equally the riders. When sabres were drawn and troops cheered, the in a charge and the came horses gallantly responded. If a volley and toss it from head his horse was unhurt, he would lower
to share the

side to side. In charging infantry,

he would charge

straight at

a man and knock him down; if against cavalry, he would lift man his head and forefeet as though going over a fence. A horse a and of tumult battle, seldom cries out when hit in the



shows similar fortitude, or perhaps it is insensibility to pain under excitement. A horse, even with a foot shot off, would not drop. He might be fatally wounded but he would hobble on or stand with drooping head until loss of blood brought him down. They became attached to their riders and to one another and kept their places in the ranks, even when riderless. If one lost his rider and was not wounded, he continued by himself until some movement threw him out, then go galloping here and there, neighing with fear and alarm, but would not leave the field. In battle the horses became as excited as their riders, sometimes becoming quite uncontrollable and carrying them beyond where they wished to go. [Elmer Eugene Barker, "Monuments to Their Horses," in New York History, XXX, p.


war's toll of horses ran to


months of 1864 Union horse die Potomac alone used up

reached 500 a day; the

thousands. During eight Army of



as battle casualties ran, other causes


heavier inroads

on cavalry


Both armies established horse infirmaries in

only partially successful efforts to cope with disease. In September, 1862, epidemics rendered nearly half the horses of the Army of the



and the Army of Northern Virginia


suffered severely. On hard campaigns horses went without un53 saddling for two or more days for fifteen in one appalling instance.

In October, 1862, a shipment of horses was left in freight hours without water or food, then issued for immediate

cars fifty
service. 54

Malnutrition and even starvation were not uncommon, as supplies of hay and grain failed, and the stripped countryside yielded no forage. "The horses would eat the bark off trees, would gnaw

through the trunks of the slender forest growth and would devour
55 empty bags, scraps of paper, and all the small debris of the camp." Famished creatures chewed the hair from each other's manes and


captain of Union cavalry, Charles Francis Adams, Jr., in May, 56 1863, wrote a poignant letter home about the horses' sufferings:



officer of cavalry

needs to be more horse-doctor than


and no one who has not

can realize the




tinuous marches.

Company commanders in these long and conYou are a slave to your horses, you work like

a dog yourself, and you exact the most extreme care from your sergeant, and you see diseases creeping on you day by day and your horses breaking down under your eyes, and you have two

them to reserve camps at the rear and so your command, and the other to force them on until they drop and then run for luck that you will be able to steal horses to remount your men, and keep up the strength of your command. The last course is the one I adopt. I do my best for my horses and am sorry for them; but all war is cruel and it is my business to bring every man I can into the presence of the enemy, and so make war short. So I have but one rule, a horse must go until he can't be spurred any further, and then the rider must get another horse as soon as he can seize on one. To estimate the wear and tear on horseflesh you must bear in
strip yourself of

resources, one to send


that, in the service in this country, a cavalry horse


loaded carries an average of 225 Ibs. on his back. His saddle, when packed and without a rider in it, weighs not less than fifty pounds. The horse is, in active campaign, saddled on an average about fifteen hours out of twenty-four. His feed is normally ten pounds of grain a day and, in reality, he averages about eight pounds. He has no hay and only such other feed as he can pick up during halts. The usual water he drinks is brook water, so muddy by the passage of the column as to be of the color of chocolate. Of course, sore backs are our greatest trouble. Backs soon get feverish under the saddle and the first day's


can stop

swells them; after that day by day trouble grows. No care it. Every night after a march, no matter how late it

be, or tired or hungry I am, if permission is given to unsaddle, I examine all the horses' backs myself and see that everything is done for them that can be done, and yet with every care the marching of the last four weeks disabled ten of my


and put ten more on the high road to disability, and out of sixty one horse in three. Imagine a horse with his withers swollen to three times the natural size, and with a volcanic, running sore pouring matter down each side, and

you have a

case with

which every cavalry

officer is daily called


to deal,

and you imagine a horse which has

to be

ridden until he



Then we

seize the first


in sheer suffering under the saddle. we come to and put the dismounted

man on

his back.


air of Virginia



today with the stench of dead horses, federal and confederate. You pass them on every road and find them in every field, while from their carrions you can follow the march of every army that moves. On this last raid dying horses lined the road on which Stoneman's divisions had passed, and we marched over a road made pestilent by the dead horses of the vanished rebels. Poor brutes!



would astonish and


you and


others at


with your sleek, well-fed animals, to see the weak, gaunt, rough animals, with each rib visible and the hip-bones starting through the flesh, on which these "dashing cavalry raids" were executed. It would knock the romance out of you. So much for


cares as a horse-master, and they are the cares of all. For, can safely assure you, my horses are not the worst in the regiment and thaf I am reputed no unsuccessful chief-groom. I put seventy horses in the field on the igth of April, and not many other Captains in the service did as much.

Colonel Blackford, of Jeb Stuart's





staff, was equally moved by memoirs he told of watching a battery trot past replenish its ammunition chests during a hot action.


Behind the battery came hobbling as best they could a string of frightfully mutilated horses which had been turned loose as they received their wounds, and who [sic] had followed their
comrades when they
After they had

the spot where they

had been

in action.

all passed, I


dragging something. Thinking

a horse galloping after them was his rider as he emerged

from the clouds of smoke on the field of battle, I moved to intercept and stop the animal, but to my horror discovered that the horse was dragging his own entrails from the gaping wound of a cannonball, and after passing us a few yards the poor brute fell dead with a piercing scream. The wounded horses of a battery will stay around their mates as long as the battery is in action and then try to follow whatever their condition may be. On many battlefields my pity has been so

"For want of a horse the rider was lost. nor the animals could be fed. But the fatal hour for the Gray horsemen had not yet struck when Jeb Stuart proudly and confidently marshaled his regiments for review at Brandy Station June 7 and Rappahannock fords. already insufficient. dwindle to the point where neither the army. sometimes as many as game which Federal raiders in 57 Virginia could play. the civilian population. deplored the system of mounting cavalrymen on their own animals but found no way of changing it. were needed for the artillery and Once the small surplus was exhausted. crops. 35 As early as the autumn of 1862 General Lee foresaw the danger of the prospective failure of the horse supply and took every means he could to remedy it. steps that could be only mitigations. In one case I remember I came near being seriously hurt by a large horse springing forward as he fell and nearly bearing me and my horse down under him as my ball pierced his brain. If their stock was further depleted. 1863. would furnish. 8.THE CAVALRYMAN'S SECOND SELF touched by the sufferings of wounded horses that I would stop and put them out of their pain by a friendly pistol shot. a dilemma. too along with the destruction of crops. Raids and impressments in enemy territory a thousand or two. Yet that was a brought in some remounts." The line runs through the history of the Confederate cavalry like a litany. All the horses the govern- He ment could and more. Lee faced transportation. No more animals could be taken from the farmers. and pickets were posted at the .

were obsolescence. It flashed bare in a charge like that o at Balaklava. some of them heirlooms taken down from pegs over the mantlepiece. The machine gun. when real sabers were issued. the arme blanche of the romances. Early shortages in the North group led one regiment to turn crude wooden sabers on lathes. An assortment of early War sabers made some troops look like a of collectors of antique arms. Though the crack of revolvers and carbines and the thundering cannon of the horse artillery drowned the ring of steel on steel. In the first year the South. the blade of "Charles O'Malley" his Irish dragoons. that most stirring sound in combat. replicas American and Mexican that drew laughs from spectators yet proved useful for practicing the manual. 60 36 . Both sides manufactured and imported sabers.CHAPTER 4 Arms and the Cavalryman their recently- NEW cavalrymen grippedwar issued sabers. a tool of and tentatively swung handled. with its inferior facilities. echoed through the Civil War. was compelled to arm its cavalry with whatever blades it could find. 59 Sabers first issued followed the French pattern. power flowed from suspected that their man who wielded In 1861 not many on swords. and it Light Brigade into the A sense of martial it. like the lances briefly carried. 58 way toward The clash of sabers. they did not supersede it. the The they had read of but very few had like of these was the weapon of knighthood in flower. to be the nemesis of cavalry. They were later supplanted by the more highly curved model of 1860. little used. the men were able to handle them creditably. waited in the wings.


be left behind at bases when although they tended increasingly troops took the field. Swung by powerful men. the That weapon was not altogether strange in America. Thrusts. made a brave display with their three-edged tips and scarlet. (like arms of a windmill) dismounted and mounted. which when parried or striking bone. The 2nd U. skillful use by the Poles. Men parries were pracof awkward squads were apt past. though not to a razor edge. like the infantryman's bayonet. his saber. Slung from belts. nearly ten feet long. On ticed grounds sabers whirled in moulinets suppling wrists. Dragoons once had been armed with it. deep through shoulders. would long as cavalry rode. the Sword. mass and individual. In 1847-48 it had proved formidable in the hands of Mexican lancers. its rattle and jangle might betray a patrol. of their passing was not yet. was his weapon of final resort. Sabers. Brandy Station saw saber combat. . and to miss slashes at dummies. And yet when a charging cavalryman had emptied his revolver. The most competent Gradually recruits instructors were West the Pointers. Thrusts delivered by a beau sabreur were deadly.S. The Pennsylvanians* slender spears. swallow-tailed pennons. which had been in the possession of John they surrendered in the Harper's Ferry appeared when the 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry was on the recommendation of General McClellan. with them equipped who on his foreign tour had admired them in the hands of the arsenal. The rarily past also lived again when a Confederate troop was tempo- armed with his pikes. declining through the Indians wars ment and improvement linger as to of rapid-fire and with the developand automatic arms. but the troopers . who had studied fencing at the Academy under Master of. or lopped off arms. learned to wield the strange weapon. cuts.38 CLASH OF CAVALRY drill . Veterans sharpened would nick and turn theirs. and there was no chance to reload. as they rode and hit their horses' ears or legs with unpleasant consequences. 61 Lances Brown and men when Russian cavalry and had heard of their world's premier lancers. sabers cut into skulls. that revived memories of the Napole- The day onic wars.

Powder cartridges must be inserted in chambers. 39 They were hazards in wooded country. balls pressed in with fingers and rammed home with a lever. REVOLVERS. as dismounted cavalry tactics began to prevail on the battlefield. being apt to be tangled in branches. imports. especially on a restive horse. it remained a gave a trooper six quick chances to drop his enemy. captures from the enemy could arm more rifles . but reloading was slow and not easy. The handy revolver. he cavalry favorite. firing buckshot and ball. If a cavalryman emptied his revolver and had no time to reload. until or factories. and the cartridges primed by pressing caps on cones. notably the Colt six-shooter. Not the hand gun but the shoulder arm took precedence. Here again shortages hampered the South. Soon they were discarded. In charge and close combat must resort to saber or carbine. and the 6th Pennsylvania returned with relief to its original armament of sabers and revolvers.ARMS AND THE CAVALRYMAN heartily disliked them. Numbers of Confederate troopers carried or shotguns.

Even single-shot. rapid fire of Spencers. Here again the industrial North surpassed the South by its manufacture of the best gun for the purpose. equally scarce. 63 the 7-shot Spencer tardily emerged as the king of repeating carbines. were not issued to the Union cavalry until shortly before the Battle of Gettysburg. they dubbed them the guns "a Yank could load on Monday and shoot all the rest of the week. making 64 In seventy more rounds readily available. first tried out by the Army of the West on June 24. it gave the Union soldier a tremendous increase in firepower. perhaps two. the cannoneers being individually mounted instead of riding on . Those weapons developed from. firing brass cartridges. Its tubular magazine was inserted through the butt of the stock. comparison with other small arms of the day the Spencer became in effect a hand machine gun. at What their firepower might have achieved had Station on June 9 becomes one of of the supporting horse artillery. Spencers. Against hidebound opposition. which the Confederate could not begin to match. face the withering. 66 There in the hands of Buford's troopers they line in the initial engage- played an important part in holding the ment it of the first Brandy most interesting might-have-beens. To be reckoned with in many cavalry combats was another weapon. which was used tellingly at Brandy Station: the cannon history's been available day. with the deficiency made up 65 by Enfield rifles. 1863. the 3-inch Ordnance Rifle. Light in weight (about 815 pounds) its six-horse teams were able to keep up with cavalry. squadrons in a regiment. breech-loading carbines could be procured only in limited quantithe Gray troopersnever more than enough to arm one. lasted. carriages or running beside them as in light artillery. The trooper could carry ten extra loaded tubes.40 CLASH OF CAVALRY with carbines. It fired all . requiring President Lincoln's authority to break." It was almost with a sense of hopelessness that they entered latter years of the war against Blue regiments armed with the deadly repeating carbines the South could obtain only by capture and then but few.to breech- and thence to repeaters. muzzle. When the day came for Southern cavalrymen to ties for 62 loaders. and those served no longer than their combat in the ammunition.



types of rifle ammunition, and its range with shell was about two and one-half miles. Federal sj-inchers were prized trophies; failing

them, the Confederate horse artillery used whatever cannon were
available, including the short-range,

smoothbore Napoleons. The

maneuver and rapid fire, which were essential, made horse artillery one of the most dashing arms of the service.
Booted and spurred, in short jackets of blue or gray, often with yellow piping, the Civil War cavalryman was a jaunty figure. For the North the forage cap was regulation; Southerners more frequently wore felt hats. The crested helmet and jacked leather cap
of the Revolutionary dragoon, which might have spared many a cut, were not revived. Troopers quickly acquired the swagger and rolling gait of cavalrymen.

Mounted, the Union horseman at first was far from a picture of martial efficiency. Loaded with regular and extra equipment, he and his mount looked like a combination of a one-man pack train
arsenal. On his person he carried an over-three-footlong saber in metal scabbard, rifle or carbine, and a revolver, a box of cartridges, another of percussion caps, a cloth-covered tin canteen

and a moving

and a

coffee cup, a haversack for rations, plus other devices "recommended to his fancy as useful or beautiful/' All that was in addition

heavy clothing, including an overcoat. The combined weight
besides the trooper's own, was his unfortunate horse. Fastened to the saddle was the

amounted to some 50 pounds. Another 70 pounds of weight,
heaped upon

following appalling conglomeration of items:
or (rarely) a pair of revolvers in thick leather holsters pair of saddlebags containing extra clothing, toilet articles, and small belongings. (Cavalry Tactics, 1841, republished in be: panta1863, prescribed that the contents of the saddlebags



loons, shirts, shaving case, handkerchiefs, gloves, socks, a second pair of boots, stable jacket, and forage cap.)

A nose bag, perhaps filled with feed A heavy leather halter
iron picket pin with a long lariat or rope for tethering



Two horseshoes with extra nails A currycomb and brush A set of gun tools and cleaning materials A rubber blanket or poncho
or a pair of woolen blankets
utensils, souvenirs,





Sometimes an eight-pound armored vest

Thus accoutered and armed

cap-a-pie, the

cavalryman seemed

have derived directly from Lewis Carroll's White Knight in

Through the Looking-Glass who strapped to his horse a deal box, beehive, mouse trap, dish for plum cake, bag of candlesticks, bunches of carrots, and fire-irons. And like the White Knight the trooper
burdened "certainly was not a good rider" but fell off in front, behind, and every now and then sidewise. "The great art of riding 67 is to keep your balance."

When the rider was in the saddle [runs an amusing comment on the Union horseman] begirt with all his magazine, it was easy to imagine him protected from any ordinary assault. His properties rose before and behind him like fortifications, and
those strung over his shoulders covered well his flanks. To the uninitiated it was a mystery how the rider got into the saddle;

how he could

rise to sufficient

height and then descend


the seat was a problem. The irreverent infantry said it was done by the aid of a derrick, or by first climbing to the top of a high fence or the fork of a tree. 68

Grinning Rebels, who knew better than to pile such impedimenta, even if they had owned it, on their mounts, wondered whether their
Federal opposites were lifted into the saddle after the horse was packed, or whether they mounted and then had the paraphernalia festooned about them. The answer was that man and beast were

and then the former was given a


up by one or two comtwo already-mounted


man was heaved aboard by

troopers grasping his carbine sling.

were unable to carry such weight for long and broke down under it. The story is told of an Irish recruit who noticed his mount's distress and decided to share the load as an act


course, horses



of mercy.

transferred nearly 100 pounds shoulders, was helped into the saddle,



from the horse to his and rode off jubilant

over his unselfishness. 69

service shortly

Such surplus baggage was the folly of green recruits, and field put an end to it. "It became a fine art how to lessen

the burden of the horse;

and the

best soldiers were those


horses were packed so lightly that the carbine was the biggest part of the load. It was a wonder in the first campaign how a cavalryman could get onto or move his horse when equipped for the field. The

wonder afterward came an equipment." 70


be how a


could live with so meagre



and almost the

B. McClellan to cavalry, his

by General George own arm of the service, was the saddle
sole contribution

his name. It was a good military use by the U.S. Army, with only slight modifications, was continued through the First World War. An

he developed and which bore
saddle, so serviceable that

early fault, rawhide covering



and galled a




was covered by tanned leather. Confederate often cavalrymen adopted it along with other captured Union equipment. The English roundtree saddle with which many Gray


troopers began the war had been pleasant and useful at home, but under campaign conditions it soon made soreback horses. Later on the government provided a saddle easier on the horse but harder

on the



would be much

the Federals been compelled to use such, the larger today for Injuries received

in the service/

ran a caustic, postwar comment from the South. Otherwise than the saddle he designed, McGlellan, despite his tour abroad when he observed the cavalry of foreign armies in

must be branded the evil genius of the horsemen of the Potomac from the day he first took over its command Army to the one when he relinquished it. That is all the more deplorable when one considers his great services as an organizer of infantry and more cavalry, but when he artillery. He was always asking for

of the



he allowed the regiments to be split up into details of and escorts for himself and other general and staff officers





be scattered among corps,



pickets for infantry camps for almost for which the arm was designed. except those


and brigades for use as any purpose

particularly preyed

Smart regiments, which could furnish fine-appearing escorts, were upon and broken up by details, greatly to their 71 A whole personnel's distress, from colonel to private. regiment assembled was a rare sight. As orders whittled away segments from
individual troopers to squads, or to complete troops, the query would run through a regiment, "Whose kite are we going to be tail
to next?'* 72 It

commanders seldom stood

not surprising that the Confederate cavalry, whose for such practices, rode rings around or

crushed forces of Federal horse, whose strength had been frittered away by detachment, or who had never served together as a body
since leaving training camp.

Long overdue reorganization did not come until the winter of 1862-63, when General Joseph Hooker ordered the horsemen formed into brigades and divisions of the Cavalry Corps of the Army of
of the Potomac. It was high time. The Union cavalry through no fault its own had sunk into a slough of inactivity. Hooker himself

succinctly stated the case when in November, 1862, he declared General William W. Averell: "Well, General, we have not had many dead cavalrymen lying about lately."


The sardonic remark got around. It was picked up and flung at an arm which through late formation and constant attrition from details never had had the opportunity or capability of proving itself. "Whoever saw a dead cavalryman?" gibed weary, trudging infantry at the horsemen who rode past, spattering them with mud. At Brandy Station both the supporting infantry on that field and Hooker were given a silencing answer when the General's cavalry
chief reported 866 casualties. 73

and Mackenzie. Crook. and raider Confederate partisan leaders. One's heart beats as fast as the there is no music like that of the bugle. and Kilpatrick. covered a wide range. Ashby.CHAPTER 5 Commanders and Commands If any branch of the military service exciting. and no so full of meaning as the clink of sabres. striking in contrasts. The Cromwells of the day and it is apt to be forgotten what first- War Hampton and cavalrymen were the dour Protector and his stern Ironsides troopers were those foremost Union commanders of the arm. Mosby. In the same category rated the eccentric Confederate. but his like horsemen as Ouster's with the Blue. Custer. the crack of carbines are so quick. Wilson. it is is feverish. and Morgan. Buford. in his own peculiar Bedford Forrest. The leaders of horse. like their predecessors. Horse and rider become one a new race of centaurs and the charge. Archtypes of the flamboyant. vehement and dramatic that we seem to be watching the joust of tournaments or following fierce Saladin and Crusaders again. To that company also belonged the the able way. 74 bred commanders as vivid Civil as the arm itself. Sheridan and James H. the stroke. along with such subordinates rate. rising and falling with the dashing pace. adventurous and hoof monotone the Cavalry. "Grumble" Jones. hellfor-leather cavalryman were Jeb Stuart. the was as rare among Gray 47 . falls. hard-hitting as Merritt. also to a lesser extent Fitz Lee and.

Jeb Stuart has ridden through countless pages of biography and history with the gallant grace he charged Yankee cavalry. in camp or on the march. The resentful son-in-law yearned to capture the General and would have escorted him to a Southern prison with courtly deference barely cloaking a sense of justice triumphant. but their ultimate victory was over- whelmingly definite. went. No man dein the admiration of fair ladies and to none was it more lighted more gladly given adulation bestowed and received sans reproche by the dashing cavalryman whose devoted fidelity to his wife was unquestionable. Brandy Station. Criticism hurt him. had remained loyal to the Union instead of joining his native Virginia. George Cooke." "Alabama 7 .48 Other CLASH OF CAVALRY factors besides leadership contributed to the triumph of the Ironsides over the Cavaliers." could give full attention to command and combat. Such a rider. scarlet-lined cloak. 75 Stuart festivities at Dancing and Bandshis had ranked Sweeney away from his regimental commander. assembled an extraordinary galaxy of cavalry commanders and commands. in spite of the fact that some foremost leaders had not yet emerged or were engaged in other theaters. leaped the fence. he vaulted into the saddle of his unbridled bay hunter. hat. Music wherever he baritone ringing leading songs the lively twanging of his banjo player. Tunes rippled from his slung banjo "Dixie/ "Jine the Cavalry. flaring russet beard. Gerieral Philip St. and the strictures he met after Brandy Station sorely rankled. He sometimes carried his two setters. Nip and Tuck. any opportunity. and escaped. Plumed manship. West Pointer and Indian fighter. He lived soldiers by the sword and lives on by the mightier strokes of the pen. He loved praise and often merited it. on the back of one of his spirited chargers. grazing in a yard. Sam Sweeney. whose mount was indeed his "second self. His father-in-law. Surprised at Verdiersville superb horseby enemy cavalry. Eew have boasted so many ardent devotees.

His use of his supporting horse artillery. E. brilliantly fulfilling and frequent reports cavalry's missions of screening. By they carried Stuart and music Jeb Stuart relieved the grim business o warfare with a spontaneity that the organized efforts in later conflicts could never match. to superiors. his gaieties Fond of pomp and panoply Stuart pre-eminently was. Lee his forbade the gallop past ordered by Stuart. Elsewhere he excelled as a combat commander. especially while the gallant Pelham lived to lead it. was notable. "He never brought me a piece of false information/' was Lee's the Gray glowing epitaph for Stuart. salt as did before and since Napoleon. since the horses must be spared for the hard campaign ahead. It was not his famous raids that built that reputation. Stuart and his troopers were tired and less alert than usual when Union cavalry crossed the Rappahannock fords at dawn on June J. one can understand his pride in parading the valiant striking force he his love of display passed the other commanders worth their had wrought. His ride around McClellan's army in 1862 was effective against Federal morale. Stuart nevertheless ranks high among the great leaders of horse. Yet the galloping and sham battling of the first review and the spit-and-polish of both had exacted a toll. Stuart took over and com- manded StonewalFs corps with high competence. Johnny Booker/* "Sweet Evelina/' "Old Gray Horse" 7e and his troopers through many a campaign." The circuit around until Army of the Potomac that kept him from Gettysburg on the second day stands forever as a blot on a bright record. but the dent its destruction of supplies made in the Union's plenty has been described as no more serious than "missing a second helping of the late ice cream at Sunday dinner. reconnaissance. Never uttered was a sequel . B. 1863. At times bounds of prudence. While there was more than a little vainglory in his showmanship.COMMANDERS AND COMMANDS 49 Gals/* "Oh. many he knew the value to esprit de corps. 9. In the second of magnificent reviews at Brandy Station. At Chancellorsville after the death of Jackson. But. staged because General Lee had not been able to be present at the first one.

under Pleasonton's leadership. Union Cavnewly-made commander of the recently organized find two more contrasting leaders. soldierly man. They who led divisions or brigades of cavalry at Brandy Station rode with pride. he was not there to bring it. South Carolina planter turned soldier. who characterized him as a good-looking able soldier. a lord of the manor in uniform. a successful reconnaissance in force might have turned from a drawn battle into a victory. of his opponent. He men of his commands. The Confederacy owed much to his patriotism for the troops he raised and considerably equipped for destitute families of at his own expense. One such had been ready to hand in Phil killed at Chantilly while leading an inbeen had Kearny. Precisely that tough quality was demanded at Brandy Station. calling him "the the War humbug. though it steadily improved fantry division. General Wade Hampton. Probably the best estimate of Pleasonton was that and fairly Jeb Stuart. Corps. to parry. but he 78 The Union cavalry." bete noire of all cavalry officers/' "pure and simple a newspaper 77 which was a great deal less than fair. his grave face mustached. Stoneman. Pleasonton officer in West had served with gallantry as with Mexico and against the Sioux and a dragoon Seminoles. No more did his predecessor. he and glamour were utter strangers. Some of his subordinates said hard things of him.50 CLASH OF CAVALRY I General might have sadly added: At Gettysburg. and thrust home. His often provided qualities of . The fact was that he did not possess the spark and drive a cavalry commander for the Army of the Potomac so gravely needed. had to wait for Sheridan to achieve 79 superiority. Granted it. when needed information. It was a glittering rapier in a man's grasp. lacking a bit in the fighting capacity for rough-andtumble cavalry operations. It would be hard to Point. flexible and deadly his to feint with. urgently Stuart's opposite the alry number at Brandy Station was Alfred Pleasonton. remained the grand seigneur. Class of 1844. the pride inspired by commanding a long column of cavalry. A neat.

Blinded with blood. At Gettysburg Hampton was the victim of his own favorite stroke when he was charged from behind and took a saber gash in the scalp. With the courtly tactics of Fontenoy "Gentlemen of France. To face demanded high courage of Yankee cavalrymen. and more than a few dared. they fired again. The blow lacked his might. he so formidable a warrior was patched up and rode back into action. the rails. feat: splitting skulls He to from crown was famous for that frequent chin with one blow. Before the war he hunted and killed bears with a knife only. a shrapnel ball struck him in the side. The power make hard. two-edged sword fully forty inches long. clove his adversary to the brain. In the second the but trooper's bullet ripped Hampton's cape and grazed his chest. Froissart his exploits as and Malory would have delighted to chronicle a swordsman how he rose in his stirrups." A six-footer so powerfully built that he looked of his legs. he leaped his mount over a fence to escape besetting enemy. hand as if asking a truce. As he soared over Only then was he forced to quit the Chivalry mingled with ferocity in this leader. towering above an enemy horseman. the pure love of a man-to-man fight that could make him forget the duties of command. The Confederate's . larger. beat down parrying saber as if it were a straw. only the famous blade of the Prussian officer. In melee he was cut twice more in the same place.COMMANDERS AND COMMANDS 51 leadership would carry through the war into the trying period of reconstruction to make him Governor of his state. was longer. fire first" Hampton raised the muzzle of his weapon and waited. the former had trouble reloading and lifted his When his opponent was ready. bearded man with "the air of a great gentleman of an elder time. It was that who was a crack Hampton engaged in a on the march to Gettysburg duel with a Union cavalryman. if he chose to grip a horse's barrel the animal groan with pain. could Hampton's fault as a leader was a mania for personal combat. shot as well as a beau sabreur. Both missed in the first exchange. Heros von Borcke. revolver against carbine. field. A handsome. His heavy blade hewed with all his great strength behind it. He mightily wielded a straight. then United States Senator.

a hickory shirt. for he rode always who deserved more acclaim than he of his great father. H. The latter was Jeb Stuart's favorite brigadier. 81 ("Rooney") Lee was a brave and able cavalryman received. with service against the Indians and a detail as instructor in cavalry at West Point. he disdained uniform and wore blue jeans. Robert- son with his "unsmiling eyes" and "Grumble" Jones. Army of Northern commanding the cavalry A finally War he donned the blue again Virginia. the of the war. haps Between Hampton and Fitzhugh Lee. Fitz Lee. he became a recluse until . To continue to make use of their abilities the War Department had to transfer them to other commands. Robert E. and the fighting spirit.'s nephew. was irascible. perbecause the Corps Commander and the South Carolinian were cast too nearly in the same mold. extraordinary revolver shooting and at a range of 125 yards. Stuart's antithesis. dash. Hampton let him 80 go. who lived up to his nickname. more than three decades later. The Zach Taylor of the Civil tains where. and a threadbare homespun coat with shoulder straps sewed on. The wounded man ran for the woods. in the When he was wounded at Brandy Station. after the death of his wife. and contemptuous War. ("Grumble") Jones. were objects of Jeb Stuart's hearty dislike and they returned it. of all display. Only his soldierly qualities indicated his West Point background. one of four Civil War cavalry officers to return to serve in a conflict of Tall W. shadow F. for E. In the Spanish-American as a major general.fj2 CLASH OF CAVALRY bullet shattered the trooper's wrist. sessed high competence "Ladies languished over the jingle of his spurs and ambrosial he fought through whiskers. The two remaining brigades were led by Beverly Robertson and W." vigorous man. lay a certain rivalry. still in his twenties. Both were strict disciplinarians who paid it in the free-and-easy Confederate service by being defeated for re-election as colonels of their regiments to by rank and file unwilling be ordered around. Before the war he had resigned from the army and gone to live in the Virginia mounJones. his brigade was taken over by the less competent Chambliss. profane. posin the arm.

Over his first bore the scar of a wound Franklin fight with the Apaches in 1857. capturing a wagon train end of the road. As an experienced foreign soldier.COMMANDERS AND COMMANDS his state's call 53 brought him back to army service. Before battle proved useful in training the 2nd New he dramatically exhorted his men in strongly French-accented but followed. Davis had from a led the 8th and through enemy en route. and Major Charles officer brigade Buford had a veteran who Whiting. straight out of a French military print. Duffte. The he was clean-shaven except for a mustache brought out the firm lines of a fighter's jaw. a fighting Irishman him were who looked J. In the fact that Union Cavalry Corps John Buford led the ist Division. could not get along with himself/' Yet he a first-rate cavalryman who looked after his men well and. dating back to the wars of the Scottish border. they smothered laughs dash of Murat but without the punch. the Crimea. When Harper's Ferry was about to surrender to Stonewall Jackson in 1862. . seemed to have stepped He was a graduate of St. and come to the United States in 1860. He was killed in action in the fall of 1864. One of his brigades was commanded by Colonel J. like them. Cyr. had campaigned in North Africa. Some months after Brandy Station he was court-martialed by Stuart for using disrespectful language to a superior officer and transferred to independent command in southwest Virginia. It was said of "Grimes" Davis that he would go far as a would prove to be the cavalry leader. "He could not get was along with anybody. Colonel Benjamin Davis had trained the 8th New York Cavalry. Irvin Gregg. slept on the ground. 2nd Division. and Austria. fine cavalryman. Duffie led with the English. brilliant. wrapped in a piece of oilcloth. edition of Sheridan. Colonel Alfred N. but for him Brandy Station three other regiments out by night and cut a way and 100 prisoners troops. Devin. his offer of his services had been eagerly accepted by the Union and had York Cavalry. inheritance of a long line of soldiers. he shone as a master of dismounted led by Colonel like a taller Two Thomas of the three brigades under C. A more tenacious than tactics.

Long marches and raids. Colonel Luigi P. He emigrated in 1860 to New York. Dearly loving a fight. you should know. grim mouth set. pale eyes flashing. was partly his patriarchal beard but more his awesome dignity that lent him the aspect of an Old Testament prophet who had chosen blue uniform. di Cesnola. he usually led it. wiry frame was apparently tireless. 83 With devil-take-the-hindmost abandon. Yet. . Men admired or hated him. to discard flowing robes for a and-such was the officers reporting that they thought suchwould sternly reply: "You should not he case.54 CLASH OF CAVALRY the second by another foreigner." Gregg's Sir Percy two brigade leaders. Like Duffie he was a Crimean War veteran. sir. Go back and find out. headlong charges and not. with the cavalryman's swagger afoot or in the saddle. $rd Division. then trained cavalry regiments. Soon after Brandy Station he was captured and confined for a year to Libby Prison. On he returned to duty and won a brigadier generalcy. Few have fought in so many wars and in so many different arms and branches of various armies. was another release It veteran of the Indian wars. 82 General David McMurtrie Gregg. His light. it gave him the nickname of "Kill-Cavalry". his valor won him a Medal of Honor. when after a harangue he ordered a charge in a voice like a trumpet. seemed to have been picked as perfect foils to their commander. Truly a was Colonel Sir Percy Wyndham. he fought war soldier of fortune to the hilt. his demands were often too and his heavy on men and horses. son of a British peer and cavalry officer. think. where he founded a military school for officers with a student body of 700. His gingery sidewhiskers flared like his temper. Colonel Judson Kilpatrick and Wyndham. Rakish Kilpatrick. tongue could lash like a whip. rallies. Though he asked no more of his troopers than of himself. deserved or stuck. had been noted for his speeches at West Point and kept on making them in the field. More would have To young been heard of him if he had not taken such pains to keep out of the with his stern refusal of any publicity: "I do not propose newspapers to have a picture reputation." His coolness in action emphasized that immense dignity of his.

a comic magazine in Calcutta. Reduced to poverty by successive he pawned his jewels and decorations to pay his debts. Its ascension attracted great crowds. 85 in accounts of the battle. led the The Station. infantry brigades supporting the cavalry at Brandy batteries the horse of commanders artillery part played by sides has on both been neglected. who had survived scores of battles. Adelbert Ames and David A. and the old soldier. where he rose to squadron command. did not live to collect. From the battles of Garibaldi's campaigns he emerged as a brigadier with decorations and a A knighthood. The reof his extraordinary record included: running a military wound New York City. except by one historian. then to the marines. he molded it into a fine fighting unit battles. Station were splendidly served and became focal points of the fiercest conflict. Italian opera. One cannot avoid summoning up a departed spirit and speculathave been ing how the fortunes of war on June 9. various unfortunate business enterprises ranging from oil in the United States." 84 gular and adventurous Two Union able generals. manning it. lumber in failures. His next choice was the English artillery. raids. Russell. drowned. His final fling was the construction of a large balloon in 1879. to resign prospect of more action led him and enter the Italian army.COMMANDERS AND COMMANDS 55 At fifteen he joined a students* corps in Paris and took part in the French revolution of 1848. as was also the case with the gunners at 86 notwithstanding the fact that the guns at Brandy Gettysburg. but Wyndham. It and led it through a long series of scouts. was part of his brigade at Brandy Station. might the Stuart Horse command to lived Pelham had swayed John . and and there he suffered the severe mainder school in that forced his mustering out. to cotton in Burma. Appointed colonel of the ist New Jersey Cavalry. 1863. At 300 feet it burst over a lake. He transferred to the navy with the rank of ensign. "Thus ended a sincareer. followed by a commission in the Austrian lancers. more fighting in European armies. Inevitably the Civil War drew him across the Atlantic. Mandalay.

89 The foot soldier That massive might and cohesive compulsion combined to en- gender in cavalry regiments a pride of body." Pelham had been unable to resist taking part in a cavalry charge and had fallen. Fellow artillerymen can picture in action at Brandy Station. If he he flee. when they were given the chance to serve as a unit instead of being hamstrung by details and detachments. On the talented gunner's record stood such exploits as that at Fred- held ericksburg. "He would have wandered around Fleetwood Hill appearing in a dozen positions and he would have secured his ammunition somehow. he is run down.56 Artillery then. He had a winning dispo- sitionenough to get a few extra rounds out of anybody's combat 87 But three months earlier on the same battleground wagons. He is merged in mass and movement. CLASH OF CAVALRY For Pelham's wraith hovers over battles he did not survive to fight only less persistently than Stonewall Jackson's. hard core of the Blue cavalry from the that possessed spirit as a birthright. he stands twenty-four hands high. true esprit de corps. If he reins in. he weighs a thousand pounds. alone. All told. Regulars. is ever by himself. F. frighteningly. mortally wounded. there were only . And the high traditions of the Federal horse artillery were upheld by Pennington. two-legged. may cavalry and makes it the most terrible and majestic of military arms is nothing more than formation. Martin. The unsung start. The self he finds. and others. 88 Although the guns he had commanded did not prevent the crossing of the Rappahannock fords in June. Beckham. He is six-legged. before battle. To each man's stature is added the height and weight of his mount. He is a creature without choice. In some of the Union regiments it had been inherent from the first. is lost. Others had only recently developed it. other gunners in gray fought them well under Major R. What saves wishes. when with the one remaining gun of his battery he up the advance of Burnside's army for almost an hour. had and him that was but one of his gallant feats.

It had not been long in winning rare acclaim from one of the foreign observers. The legislator also had a part in the mustering of the 6th New York Cavalry. and 6th." he armed swordsmen.COMMANDERS AND COMMANDS six regiments of 57 four. animated by no passion for anonymity. and Indiana. its chaplain declared. A winter under canvas in its native state had at the outset ist Maine Cavalry. was not sacredly kept by every man but by "numbers. Cavalry. The 2nd New York Cavalry. a wrote.S. yell echo of the Indian warwhoop. gratification of Senator Ira Harris of New York. The first two boasted heritage from the old Dragoons. Plains dust still figuratively whitened their blue uniforms." Happily the regiment did him proud. On the record of the 2nd U. which had been stationed in the South in 1861. frequently critical of the Yankee horse. was . fought grouped in Whiting's brigade. stood its refusal of surrender and its long march northward to join Lincoln's army. 5 th. Its had learned to maneuver their mounts as seafaring contingent handily as a dory in a squall. snd. whose equals pledge that. composed not only of New Yorkers but of men from New Jersey. and for them the Rebel was an them. originally designated the Ira Harris Guards." The regiment is said never to have drawn its 91 spirits ration and once refused officer astounded commissary thirty miles. Connecticut. the ist. clung to its name of The Harris no doubt to the Light. ladies bestowed upon a handsome silk flag that. had presented it with a flag bearing his likeness and inscribed "Harris Light Cavalry. Soon after its organization its officers and non-coms had signed a pledge of abstinence from the use of intoxicating liquors as a beverage. no sooner unfurled. and at Brandy Station. Soon after organization. "but there was a made up. "Much of the Federal cavalry was wretchedly toughened the already durable fiber of the Maine regiment of longI have never seen/' 90 The ist Maine was known for its fighting quality and its discipline. The Senator had helped raise it and. to accept from an undoubtedly a barrel of liquor he had brought In the case of the 8th of having Illinois Cavalry the Demon Rum its is accused drawn it first blood.

A regiment with not a few devout members. in their rendezvous at Concord. Presented at the same time was the somewhat ominous gift of a large box of bandages. and their officers offered to resign. fortitude. At Brandy Station alone two of Civil its troopers suffered a frequently reported is. 92 A credit to its state and the Army of the Potomac was the ist Massachusetts Cavalry. it was well led. with a passion for saddles and bridles. though her heart was not thus circumscribed. it its of another that New England first regiment. called out a splendid mounted and finely furnished." Its historian poetically described organization: Little Rhode Island lifted her guidons. on its campaign in the South "sniffed the tainted air of Secession. and brave spirits As her territory was small. a regiment with fighting spirit and conit siderable stamina. Meanwhile the bugles in the White Mountains. One of them was shortly needed when a member of the provost guard cut a hand while destroying a barrel of liquor about to be sold to recruits. so. but in two weeks hot resentment gave way to ad- . the shores of Narragansett. 94 elected this The rigors of strict training by Colonel Duffie drove the inde- pendent New Englanders to the verge of mutiny.58 CLASH OF CAVALRY torn in half by a gust of wind. Somewhat symbolic was the presentation by a lady to one of its officers of a pair of socks with the Rebel flag embroidered on their bottoms "so that he could the ist easily tread it under foot/' 93 With equal fervor it was said Rhode Island Cavalry. After one of the first units to do eliminated the system of electing officers. War injury: they were "wounded in the Testament. It waged war with the grim severity of a New England conscience. but otherwise did not harm them. many from the borders of Maine and Connecticut. knocked them down. the 8th Illinois. fire. peculiar class of men patriotic bugles on battalion. superbly A spirits swift and dash. and endurance and ardous arm of the service." That bullets struck the small Bibles they carried in a pocket over their hearts. sought admission to the cavalier command. answer to the rallied to her recruiting station in Providence.

many take care of itself. organized by Jeb Stuart. 95 Among the Pennsylvania regiments. still for the most part well mounted. Gone. their comprehension. enjoyed the luxury accorded some of his Southern counterparts: a body servant and groom. It had created a legend lived. a Before Brandy Station the loth grindstone.COMMANDERS AND COMMANDS miration for the Frenchman Fortunate. it knew now that it was he who had made it into the first-rate regiment it was. Every New Jersey trooper. members from the guardhouse." Early equipment difficulties had long hampered the grd Indiana. They were fine cavalrymen. in its 59 who was forging it into a keen weapon. hard-fighting regiment it was. Only once did the ist relax briefly. Surmounting such early obstacles had it into the hard-riding." 96 Thirteen of Virginia's forty regiments of horse. Attrition had whittled them down from mustered by the strongest units. dragoon "horse pistols" was be a good-sized barn. though it had discarded that weapon long before Brandy Station. The veteran English soldier. memory of the Gth's misadventures with the lance clung. The ist Virginia. Maine cavalrymen called the 6th " turkey-s tickers. . first Horse Troop of the 4th Virginia had the color of its lost the complete uniformity of that still mounts. freed Negroes flocked to camp. fought at Brandy Station. moved its camp out of the mud. it had resorted to grain sacks stuffed with straw. training was the ist New Jersey Cavalry. it When occupied a Virginia plantation. though for two days only. had forgotten its early resentment against the stern training of its fussy West Pointer colonel. The made ideal target for said to its foot-long. and fight. who had heard that the rules of war dictated that soldiers captured with sharpened swords be summarily shot. to from 350 to 500 by 1863. clothesline stirrups. too. however. released Wyndham. Without an issue of saddles. It did not matter that the Black the 650 effectives. plus a battalion. and taught it to drill. Those gullibles left their sabers "as dull as on their sabers. New York Cavalry foraged and most of its troopers spent a day putting sharp edges There were a few. and halters and tie ropes as bridles.

revived under Anthony Wayne in the post-Revolutionary American army: the another gift made at the Jeff Cobb Legion of Georgia. brought by Davis Legion of Mississippi. though he held no command but served on Stuart's Johann August Heinrich Heros von chroniclers of the battle and a legend in the Confederate Army. in the North. "Grumble" Jones. It had long since used up same time: bandages and hospital necessities. the South which were were Carolina units raised numbered. had taken in the Revolution. by Wade Hampton and those from North Carolina. furwith cheap. legion. He grew to a towering 6-foot-4 and was commissioned in the Cuirassiers of the Guard. diaries. which had been presented by ladies when it went to war. well supplied with pins and needles. Jeb Stuart drew him like staff. merits special mention. In the South defeat and impoverishment hampered regimental historians. 9T Among the fine formations from farther south were regiments that bore the old Roman designation. also a good drillmaster. No heap in the dandies 2nd Virginia. coarse clothing obtained from a state peni- tentiary. The regiment had lost the neat little pincushions. which it Now had formed its Company C." although these days the cup was filled usually with branch water only. When the Civil War began. Others.60 too. Their deeds would be preserved mostly by letters. the Beverly Robertson. Von Borcke. When nished it its homespun-clad colonel. he followed the path to America his countryman. Its commander's Negro body-servant still was called "The Colonel's Cup-bearer. 98 who flourished A certain cavalry officer at Brandy Station. was welcomed in the Gray cavalry. stuff down wore anything it could get. Steuben. Forgotten were were there any longer the fancy uniforms once worn by the Botecourt Dragoons. Borcke became one of the chief . Son of a Prussian infantry officer. and the memories of men. he was given a small horse when he was ten and taught fencing. CLASH OF CAVALRY was the pride in apparel which had once characterized the 7th Virginia. insulted troopers had marched in a body to their comin a mander's headquarters and indignantly flung the in front of his tent.

slice June battle after the Brandy Station enemy fire found the fine target the big man furnished. deeds on 'Men/ I shouted. broken he recalled it in his way when he rallied grandiloquent troopers in gray. 6l The huge Prussian became the cavalry leader's aide. day It head and whirred. with foot girl's tiny a pretty on his neck. Armstrong" as they called him. inflicting never fully recovered. he decided. courier. though he persisted for all his bravado. a wound from which he in returning to action. A few days through an opponent's sword at as easily. skits. and of excellently tempered or night. two- Damascus steel. A It first-class fighting man." That great saber. as frequent and as full of derring-do as he related them. they were not far from it He wielded a saber of prodigious length. revels. Once a rattlesnake woke him crawling over his hand. Heros von Borcke. and tableaux vivants in which he loved to pose prone as Tyranny." With a lightning motion he whipped out his blade reared its "severed the reptile in twain. could arm. Follow mel Charge!' " these very . Then a sharpshooter's bullet pierced his neck. shadow. and was familiar ground he rode over on that June day of 1863. swung by "Major and often did. In combat. While his exploits were not his to carry weight. it "meant and mischief.COMMANDERS AND COMMANDS a magnet. evidently. 'remember the previous " " fields. looming high on one of the large horses needed he was formidable. and master of Much of the gaiety of Stuart's headquarters was staged by the jolly giant dances. always at his side edged.

following Jackson. Meanwhile orders from Washington had pulled back the protesting McClellan to unite his troops with Pope's.000 under General John Pope had penetrated beyond the town of Culpeper. the Confederate attack with forces daringly divided would result in the smashing triumph of Second Manassas or Bull Run. The strategy of Lee. 100 It introduced dramatis personae who would reappear. 1862. They attacked part of Pope's force at Cedar Mountain and drove it northward. Although Pope was warned by captured copies of Lee's orders and had been considerably reinforced. June MAJOR Brandy Station was a good rallying Surely Jeb 9. some of the latter permanent ones. characters that would have their entrances and their exits. as it was for following engagements on the ground around Fleetwood Hill. but there was inspiration in the memory of past victories "on these very fields. was to strike and overwhelm Pope before the junction of the Federal armies could be effected. Lee had defeated McClellan in the Seven Days Battle.CHAPTER 6 On These Very Fields* 1863. troopers grinned at the heavy German accent in which it was delivered. a second Union army of 45.000 to meet the threat. blunting his stab at Richmond. For that battle the first fight at Brandy Station was a curtainraiser. VON BORCKE's shout at the Battle of Stuart's cry. With the rest o Virginia perforce left unguarded. Now the fields were 6* . Early in August Lee detached Stonewall Jackson with 24. that Brandy Station had its first fulfilled destiny as a battleground." It was on August 20.

as patent as his fondness for Fitz Lee and von Borcke. isth. fragments. as Jackson's advance guard pressed Pope's treating Federals. a new plumed hat sitting stiffly and somewhat he had ville. wondering if there was any good reason around for ist the name. and ist Rhode Island. "Mount. Blue horse of Pope's rear guard fell back on Brandy Station." Regiments formed in deep echelon in the open country between Stevensburg and Hazel Run. General George D. Reports began those repeated references to the the little railroad town that would make Brandy Station one of great war names. Jeb Stuart led. A Rebel charge came whooping down. Bayard had five regiments: Light/' Jersey. lost the old one. Skirmishers scattered and . They were learning that Stonewall Jackson seldom allowed his opponents a rest. Trumpets signaled. Their and Bayard sent disartillery opened on the approaching enemy. Weary men stood to horses after a brief bivouac. when some horsemen surprised him in a farmhouse at VerdiersStuart. was out today to expunge an unpleasant recollection. cast-off equipment. Doubtless troopers scanned the sign on the railroad depot and licked parched lips. Pennsylvania. The column crossed the Rapidan. who prided himself on being on the other end of surprises. hot. ist New 2nd New York or "The Harris Dust clouds on the roads to the southeast emphasized that fact. dry day. ist Maine."ON THESE VERY FIELDS" first 63 salted with blood and strewn with their first increment of the debris of combat: bits of broken weapons. As has been mentioned. for the advance consisted of Robertson's brigade: the i7th Virginia Battalion and the 2nd. Cavalry squadrons kicked August 20 was a dust up the re- on the roads. dropped off the 2nd Virginia to guard its upper fords. self-consciously on his head. plus his scarlet-lined cloak. and yth Virginia Regiments. mounted skirmishers forward into the woods. shell and bullets. and pushed ahead. Nevertheless he left the for Robertson brigade in Robertson's hands and retained general direction only. He would have preferred other troops for the purpose than those that of Duffies Blue followed him. the Stuart's dislike last commanded by Colonel and Jones was * 'Grumble" Jones.

Stuart sent Robertson's squadrons circling around to their right rear. with the former taking a leg wound before they could fight their way out. They described. 101 At Brandy Station the Confederate cavalry. Bayard. were close to Kelly's Ford now. "Grumble" Jones. as the redoubtable Heros relished quoting in his memoirs. having driven Buford before them. Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Karge waved his saber to lead his Jerseymen in a countercharge. Bayard's men did i7th not wait to cross sabers with them but galloped back under cover back onto of their guns. who would be mortally wounded at Fredericksburg the following December. failed in the test of combat. whose yth Virginia had borne the brunt of the fight. Regiments. with far heavier loss in casualties and prisoners than the enemy. huge Major von Borcke wiped his bloody blade on his horse's mane. "These very fields" were indeed worth remembering. hard fighter.64 CLASH OF CAVALRY ran frantically for their mounts. but there was no iron yet in the regiment. The other regiments still held. they had at least covered the crossing of the wagons and artillery and given General Pope a breathing spell until Bull Run. which they did. Fitz Lee's cavalry and Pelham's artillery. The Blue horsemen's only salvation was to get across the river fast. picked up later in the campaign. ran. gathering itself for further pursuit. With the sang-froid of the Prussian cuirassier he had been. For the Union cavalry it had been the same old story. celebrated another of a long string of victories. It wheeled. still suffering from inadequate training and the old policies of misuse of cavalry. emplaced across the Rappahannock. A time of redemption and vindication must wait for another ten months. Stuart fair-mindedly commended both Robertson and Jones. a Rebel . Defeated. They had been outgeneraled and outfought. a courier brought them it. and let its commander and his adjutant gallop alone into the ranks of the enemy. Though they missed the road. three to a horseholder. That gloomy. being held in defilade. and his 7th Virginia hit Kilpatrick's snd New York and broke it. and in succession the 6th and isth Virginia and the Battalion rode down on the Union flank. Yankee newspapers. would concede as much to the enemy. was not the leader they needed.

it was . alertness. forage. Waters of the Rappahannock fords. not content with sentry duty alone. Nor were they able to hold their ground. and trumpet calls. them hard. and brandishing wildly over his head a sword as long and big as a fence the giant's prowess won commander for gallantry in action. shots. Detaching 900 men to fend off Rebel patrols north of the river. Confederate pickets never those fords unguarded. were muddied again by the hoofs of cavalry mounts and wheels of artillery carriages.100 men The smart and a battery of horse artillery and drove off the Gray pickets. with the agonized long. They left 150 prisoners and a quantity of much-needed horses. in a especially surprise attack. mounted on a tremendous horse. Wade Hampton's brigade. General William Averell was directed to take his brigade across the Rappahannock and "attack and rout or destroy'* the impudent enemy. rail/' And him a citation by the brigade Station countryside seldom remained peaceful for of Clashes sabers. As many of the Federals as could gallop out of the trap fled all the way back to the camps of the V Corps. The Black Horse Troop and its legend still rode. Although the river was high and swift from spring freshets. only to be soon revived as redoubled echoes. For the blue-jacketed cavalrymen it was again the old. Averell on March 17 decended on Kelly's Ford 102 with 2. of wounded horses and the more muted cries of wounded shrillings The Brandy men. took his men over the river at Kelly's Ford and made a swift foray against the enemy its camp at cavalry. running clear for a time. dispiriting They had not been sufficiently taught that rudiment of soldiering. Robert E. standing vigilant sentinel over them. and equipment in the hands of Fitz Lee's jubilant troopers. was relieved in the late winter of 1862-1863 by Fitz Lee's."ON THESE VERY FIELDS" 65 charge "led by a giant. of defeat provoked orders for retaliation. riding up left from Culpeper Courthouse. Lee's belligerent nephew. faded away into stillness. He caught them unready in the vicinity of Hartwood hit Church and tale. against adversaries who had whipped them so often.

probably slung by their from the men's necks. he toppled mortally wounded from his mount. who carried across dry in their horses' nosebags. who had been young gunner officer. The Union gunners. dismounted. deployed his line in the fields and woods. 103 Averell. and escaped from the enemy. His leading regiment charged in column of fours. The Blue defense recoiled. with odds of three to one in his them headstalls favor against any force the enemy could immediately bring up. more enterprising and efficient from the outset than the cavalry they supported. glimpse of the A more than he and joined the regiment's colonel at its head. He did not have to wait long for Fitz Lee. he would have peremptorily life. ordered his daring subordinate back. Boyish face alight with the joy of battle. "Forward. Cerif Stuart had been close enough. There was no need now for him Virginia. unusual for that arm. whose exploits were famed in both armies. Pelham's hazarded. and with an officer's help lifted the unconscious young gunner up In front of his saddle pommel. revolvers spitting. A trooper broke ranks.66 CLASH OF CAVALRY fordable by horsemen but would submerge the artillery carriages. then rode toward the cavalry squadrons. and reserves were hastily thrown in to bolster it. Conflict swayed back and forth. General Stuart and Major John attending a courtmartial at Culpeper. aided Captain Breathed in finding a good position for his battery. . was too precious to the Confederacy to be needlessly A shell exploded over him. who were closing in. he waved his hat and shouted. The gallant Pelham of his horse artillery. wheeling into line for a charge. Struck by a fragment in the back of his head. was resist. who came hurrying up from Culpeper Courthouse. promptly removed powder charges from the chests and distributed them to the troopers. Future battles on this ground must be fought without the gallant Pelham's 104 Fitz Lee. galloped toward the sound of the guns. mounted. 2nd could He spurred his horse tainly to take part in the onslaught of a well-led cavalry regiment. safely over. frequently risked in line of duty. falling superb handling of the guns of the horse artillery. boys! Forward to victory and glory!" More than a few times Pelham had led his horse artillery in charges.

No more than Bayard had been was he the talented commander the arm required. They postludes to Fredericksburg and preludes to Chancellorsville. was planning reorganization into a Cavalry Corps. the four guns of Breathed's Battery raked it. and the rigors of the Mud March. were beginning to tip slightly toward a balance point. General George Stoneman led it now. and remounts were scarce or unobtainable. like the enemy's. but replacements came in steadily. Averell's trumpeters sounded familiar signals for a retreat. And at long last the Blue horse was about to be given the attention it deserved from headquarters. Yet so far as cavalry was concerned. Fog cloaked the fields and the fords of the Rappahannock and the . he was fortunate in having under him such able brigadiers as Buford and Gregg. and more brisk fights on and around the now famous April. were plateau. Its mounts. open field in its front. and only a counterattack saved the pieces from capture. Its men went hungry and ragged. a broad. was growing. formed a line across the road from Brandy Station to Kelly's Ford." that melancholy organization of dismounted cavalrymen. not yet relegated to the infantry. sounding Pelham's requiem. sucking at the hoofs of tiring horses and slowing marches. Stuart's Corps had endured a winter of hardships and deprivation. both smashing Confederate victories. General Joseph Hooker. but that reformation would not become effective until a short time before the June Brandy Station Battle. Sickness and poor forage had whittled down its horses. as supports in the forthcoming action."ON THESE VERY FIELDS" 67 back before Averell's superior numbers. That April saw heavy rainfalls which turned roads into quagmires. by the casualties of Fredericksburg. As Blue cavalry advanced over it. "Company Q. One squadron of the snd North Carolina would use 143 horseless troopers. Their fire lifted to let the Fitz launch a impetuous charge that swept away the defenders and thundered down on their artillery despite a hail of shrapnel and double-shotted canister. weighted so long in favor of the Gray. commanding the Army of the Potomac since Fredericksburg. It overran and drove off the crews. however. Hard service was teaching the Union cavalry. had been depleted by glanders and greased heel. the scales. 1863.

its fords swimming deep. Stoneman marched from Warren ton Junction with rode Averell's.68 CLASH OF CAVALRY Rapidan. But Stoneman was slow in following up the break. He was then to strike for the Virginia Central Railroad. finding Stoneman blocking roads and burning bridges in his rear delaying him until Hooker could catch and crush him. That would compel Lee to retreat. In a sharp fight they drove the Blue Beverly's.700 sabers across. main army. Through tempted to the latter half of the month the Federal cavalry at- perform its part of the plan. As Hooker's campaign was launched. Buford' s. supported by Whitworth breechloader. The last river rose higher. long-range Stuart did not need to bring up his reserves. while the Gray horse was drawn after him. Meanwhile Gregg tried to cross at Rappahannock Station upstream and met with the same fate. Then at he got 6. leaving Pleasonton's three brigades to serve the and Gregg's divisions. feeling for contact with the enemy. Cavalry columns of both sides groped through the mist. and Rooney Lee was prompt in countering it with his gth and igth Virginia. cavalry back across the river with losses in men and horses. more menacing than destroying as much of its tracks as he could. night's black one. with Gregg managing to cross some of his command at Welford's Ford whence they turned the flank of the defense at For a time the way was open. The eerie white curtain seemed whose opacity was so often relieved by moonlight. in battering him back. This time the cavalrymen in gray could not . Buford thrust at the Rappahannock Station railroad bridge April 15. Another detachment of the gth Virginia in a blockhouse joined with the a 2nd North Carolina. Buford down on Kelly's Ford where sharpshooters of the gth Virginia Cavalry and one gun of Moorman's horse battery beat him off. On April sg slashing troopers gal- loped down on the outnumbered squadrons of Rooney and Fitz Lee around Brandy Station. Stoneman waited in bafflement for eleven days until the waters subsided. Stonernan was ordered to pave its way by forcing the Rappahannock fords. Hooker would then cross the river and turn the Confederate lines at Fredericksburg where Burnside's assaults had been shattered last December.

rose still higher rather too high in light of events of the now Stonewall was carried from the imminent June Battle of Brandy Station. wrought could not compensate for his absence. failing to receive expected orders to do so. mortally fire of his own troops at dusk in the woods. with one battery of horse artillery. and the Army of the Potomac crossed on pontoon bridges and pushed on to Ghancellorsville. He led the bulk of the Union cavalry south. it saw a number of sharp actions: gallant charges by the 6th New York and the 8th and lyth Pennsylits the vania and a fine stand by Martin's 6th New York horse battery. He would not rejoin the army until after the cam- 105 Destruction paign."ON THESE VERY FIELDS" hold them. The Gray cavalry bore itself with its accustomed valor but suffered a moment unwonted panic when in the confusion of a rear guard attack the ist and $rd Virginia charged each other. The dashing cavalryman's confidence in himself. capturing prisoners and identifying The great dimmed by wounded by three corps and harrying the flanks. and they could cover only the front. victory for the Confederacy at Chancellorsville was irreparable loss of Stonewall Jackson. They the river 69 fell back. Jeb Stuart's hovering horsemen scouted the Blue columns. . It left Pleasonton's three small brigades. Of significance of Stuart's was General competent handling of Jackson's corps when field. Stoneman was loose for his raid now. So far as cavalry was concerned. a quality never lacking and repeatedly justified. to screen Hooker's advance. tearing up railroad tracks and cutting telegraph lines.

The swifter movement demanded 70 of the mounted arm . which firmly anchored the rest of the him and his mount while band marched on." a shorter. a number survived some dismounted. Cavalry heard and heeded the notes it considered peculiarly its own. though it shared them with the artillery: "Stables." "Water Call/' and "Boots and Saddles. which still seem to linger in the air at Station in their blankets. poignant strains of stood at attention beside a grave "Taps" while it was sounded for a comrade's last bivouac. as they fell asleep. At the outset of the war it had not been unusual for a cavalry regiment to have its mounted band. trombones. swifter summons than "The General" that ordered all arms to break camp and march. tenors. and boomed." and the urgent blasts of "Charge. or Now and again other horns basses cornets.CHAPTER 7 They Shall Have Music rinRUMPET -*- Brandy and over many another Civil War battlefield. and drums rolled caught up the trumpets' notes in harmony. rolling up calls. enhancing parades and reviews. Blaring away. as in the case of a trombone player of the ist Massachusetts Cavalry." "Gallop. At times there were mishaps to the musicians on horseback. "Trot. upon the Colonel glared at the spectacle of military disorder roared: "What's he doing. Cymbals clashed. Some were mustered out before long. sticking that thing in the ground?" Whereand Cavalry bands during the earlier years of the war were likely to be left at Washington and other bases when their regiments took the field." Sometimes troopers. some still horsed. altos. rang out ever more imperiously in June of the crucial year of 1863. hearkened to 10 the lovely. he tangled the slide of his instrument in a blackberry vine.

"That puts the Court House. and grateful for on battlefields as GENERAL Quick With the coming of Sheridan. It rejoiced in a splendid set of instruments. the cavalry's mounted bands were ordered to accompany the fighting columns and play them into action with their liveliest tunes. 1865.THEY SHALL HAVE MUSIC was then deemed to deny to music that lifted weary cavalry it 71 men the infantry's privilege of marching over many a long mile. well aware of the value of music to morale another service: stretcher-bearers many bandsmen served and surgeons' helpers. commanders kept their bands within reach when they gallantly could. White. Failing "sounding brass The snd and tinkling cymbals/* there were voices. captured from a New York regiment. However. "Yankee Doodle" versus "Dixie/' "Three Cheers for the Red. . They blasted back and forth across the field at each other. 107 At the Battle of Dinwiddie 31. Maine musicians of the ist District of Columbia Cavalry engaged in a musical duel with a Confederate band. March fight right into me. and Blue" countering "The Bonnie Blue Flag/' With such spirit did they play that a trooper about to charge yelled." 108 Virginia Cavalry boasted the only mounted band of any regiment from that state.

were Gray a saga of the service of the cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia. But rather thought she wouldn't. fat Dutch . and the Second. Gray horsemen that two true cavalry songs was their favorite. thought she'd say she couldn't. lacking in that notable to good cheer and esprit. won't you come out o* the Wilderness! . was the ballad Their first lines ran: We We are the boys that went around McClellian are the boys that crossed the Potomacum And then we went into Pennsylvania . Then the big. like those of The Civil War was adjunct STABLE CALL other arms. Cavalry regiments. "Jine the Cavalry/' roared out. sung to the tune of "The Old 109 Its Mare/' stanzas.CLASH OF CAVALRY a great singing war. . the First World War somewhat less so. There with Jeb's baritone leading. a new one added for each campaign.. had their quartets and choruses. girls hand around the breadiumu Old Joe Hooker. Then there it But was to Stuart's of the same title.. because of considerably more mechanical transport and other marching conditions. .. on many a ride into battle. A favorite ditty of the harmonizing four of the ist Massachusetts Cavalry ran: I asked her I if she could and would. Instead of that she said she could. belonged.

on tap. then served under Fitz." whose appropriation 112 Sam's tunes were always by the Confederacy he bitterly resented. Lord. For in camp and on the march and up to the brink horsemen Gray of battlethe war was fought to the accompaniment of a truly led his corps to so the American instrument. singing." "Oh. "Jine Ban Emmett. many victories derived from Sweeney's music." "Listen to the quently played alone. ranking with that stanch author of "Dixie. His elder brother Joel 113 had given concerts in the North before the war and was one of the - most celebrated of the blackface Unionist." and "Lorena. Gals." "Her Bright Smile Haunts Me Still. put fight into a man. very often prays. spurs and wife. . A Rupert who seldom drinks. the lively and the sentimental ones Jeb Stuart loved. It was highhanded of course. and a couple of fiddlers all that was needed for a rollicking dance. 110 Sam's masterly playing ran in the family." "The Bugle Sang Truce for the Night Cloud Had Lowered/' "Hell Broke Loose in Georgia. on the guitar or the bones. Mocking Bird. STEPHEN VINCENT BENET John Brown's Body Sam Sweeney. but surely some of the spirited dash with which "The Last Cavalier" banjo. With all the That makes actor's grace and quick light charm the women adore him God as a wild cavalier Who worships as sober a Stonewall Jackson. sometimes with others: with Stuart's servant. One Friday. Sam Sam's banjo would bring tears or." Frethe Cavalry. minstrels. Mulatto Bob. following his beloved leader until the latter's mortal wounding at Yellow Tavern. who inspired it. Sweeney. It deserved poetic tribute along with Jeb Stuart. follows him. Lee until his own death from smallpox at Hanover Court House. his banjo player." and "The Girl I Left Behind Me. like the bands at Dinwiddie. Loves his children. fighting.THEY SHALL HAVE MUSIC 73 In the Confederate cavalry voices raised in song were often given verve and rhythm by gay and lively chords from Sam Sweeney's How Stuart ranked Sweeney away from his regimental commander has already been told.

while Mulatto Bob would fetch his guitar and unlimber the clacking bones. excused from camp fatigues.H. Yet in compensation Stuart would give enlisted men furloughs to go home whenever he could. and waltzes. There would be singing and theatricals. tenderly cared for the wounded. taking the leading parts. White tents would be pitched and picket lines stretched From wagons or saddlebags body servants would officers' best uniforms. their as officers and led off. Lighted windows drew troopers to listen to the music and wistfully watch the reels. The crack band of the i5th Mississippi Infantry was playing for Stuart's cavalry that evening. suppled fingers that unpack had been gripping reins or carbine. their chargers it to a sudden stop. commands into action. Fiddlers. Jeb Stuart in his glory among the pretty girls." the residence ten miles from Charleston of the Stephen D. with Major von Borcke and Colonel Brien of the ist Virginia Cavalry.74 CLASH OF CAVALRY lull in a campaign might and would if Stuart could arrange Gray cavalry in the vicinity of some hospitable Virginia mansion. some it A find the very handsome. WATER CALL There would be a dance that night. disregarding party gowns. all endowed with their full quota of Southern charm. the dance attack was beaten was resumed. Sam Sweeney would tune his banjo. quadrilles. The Yankees were rushed for The hall was emptied in a minute. R. . Once an Urbana party was interrupted in the manner of the famous Brussels ball on the eve of Waterloo." An outburst of firing by pickets brought attacking. Shortly the Ladies. It might be one of the homes of Urbana or "The Bower." and for the horses.P. Meanwhile even a spectator of the gaiety could forget the war for a time. After the last bandage was tied. and "music arose with its voluptuous swell. Dandridges with their "flock of attractive daughters and nieces. Rank Has its Privileges. two top comedians.

" to Brandy Station is small wonder that for old soldiers. Stirring songs from Jericho. veterans still vividly remembered the weather in their campaigns the drenching rains after Fredericksburg. Naturally there was no Virginia hospitality for Union They must forego festivities until they were granted leave to after Washington or other cities within their lines. Army Brandy trains brought wives and sweethearts to balls there.THEY SHALL HAVE MUSIC 75 TO HORSE officers. in the Potomac of for the a base became Station 1864. the heat at Gettysburg and the music: the calls and fanfares that have rung through martial history before and since Joshua ordered the trumpets to sound at the spine-tingling blare of the bands. It the majestic "Battle Hymn of the Republic" to lilting "Dixie. As time dulled memories of the death of comrades and wounds. MOUNTED BAND (From Battles and Leaders oj the Civil War) . dances of Sam Sweeney's banjo playing for brought back the twang heralded that massed the on trumpets nights of 1863 and war for reunions. with one of the fine 113 regimental bands furnishing the music. Memories June General Stuart's two magnificent reviews. However. returning after the music lingered in the air.

" Uneasiness and apprehension spread northward. served on occasion. Washington supported the latter prospect. yet A GRAY curtain. the balloonists were understandably prudent enough to ascend well behind their own lines. given a fraction of a chance. Alert watchers with field glasses in his lines over along the Potomac at Fredericksburg reported that the number of Confederate tents pitched on the heights had diminished. Though the Army of the Potomac presumably 76 . and open with shrapnel on must wait long years for the reconnaissance plane. Up it soared the Federal balloons. could be expected to seize the opportunity to gallop up. Lee might be planning to strike somewhere perhaps to invade the North again and there was always the possibility that Stuart would launch another large-scale raid. A telegram to Hooker warned that: "Prisoners and deserters brought in here state that Stuart is preparing column of from 15.000 men. was lowered before the stage of operations in the days after Chancellorsville. That confirmed the fact that gas bags too far forward. for a raid. sink trails. Daring Rebel horse batteries. Fighting Joe Hooker's scouts could find no peephole through it nor were they able to slip around the wings. Effective aerial observation some troops were being shifted. However. cavalry and artillery. unlimber.000 to 20. But it might be possible to see over the top of that curtain. Hooker learned from his balloon men that a certain amount of enemy traffic was moving westward. They had was generally recognized that balloons were "a wretched substitute" for good cavalry reconnaissance.CHAPTER 8 Pass in Review the Confederate cavalry. Besides.

Surely here was mobile might enough to render the curtain im- . In performing that mission it Is of utmost importance that you discover the position and intentions of Lee's army. will take the three divisions of your corps and its four batof horse artillery.981 men. Less a brigade deJones's tached to cover the movement of one of the Confederate corps. information was of the vital. you will march directly to Culpeper and disperse and destroy the enemy's trains and supplies of all descrip- tions to the best of your ability. and there was no confidence in the War Department that he might not do so again. including the Virginia behind him. Pleasonton. and cross the Rappahannock. brigades of infantry with a light battery will closely support Once over the -river. and Ohio be called out as a second line of defense. The need only one for definite it. was sumand given momen- Two you.536 sabers. Here was its chance to enable the mighty Army of the Potomac it served 77. Pennsylvania. on June 1863. Stuart. and a highly mobile one exfor the cept infantry brigades ill-advisedly attached. and there was way to obtain Burst through the masking curtain. gunners. 370 cannon to redeem Chancellorsville and Fredericks- Meanwhile the curtain had thickened. Here lay its opportunity. Corps. moned You teries to Hooker's headquarters tous orders. with Hampton's and Fitz's and Rooney Lee's brigades already on hand to guard the fords and screen the movements of the Army of Northern "Grumble" now was joined at Culpeper Courthouse by and Robertson's brigades. commander Union Cavalry 6. Pleasonton was headed for trouble. he was told. Stuart's strength now had mounted to 9. manning the thirty pieces of a battalion of horse artillery. Stuart had ridden around it before.PASS IN REVIEW 77- barred the way. 10. 11 * In view of the yet unsuspected extent of the Confederate concentration around Culpeper. Yet his was a strong force.208 men and burg. Authorities advised that the militia of Maryland. The reorganized Federal cavalry was animated by a new spirit and a compelling urge to prove itself at last.

Only that diminution of his tents on the heights betrayed the shift. The bearded brigadiers and their lieutenants the lean. Hill was stealthily moving from Fredericksburg. And at a ball the night before the spectacle the ladies in their best party gowns must be vouchsafed their chance to pass in review. the string of little brilliant victories it had won proved how account it took of odds. Such a magnificent muster bred an irresistible impulse in the cavalier general. hard troopers the tossing manes and swishing tails of the long lines of picketed mountssheathed sabers and carbines.78 CLASH OF CAVALRY penetrable. harassing plain combat West Point Southern colonels. Light artillerymen parked their guns and grazed their horses. ready to hand the guns. General Lee must see it. 54. and Murat. and his heart leaped. more than he had ever before beheld assembled under his command. Longstreet's and EwelFs corps already were there. Outnumbered as before by the enemy. The Major-General commanding manner. that would drive so deep into Pennsylvania. and while it lent suspicion that something was afoot. Prince Rupert. it revealed nothing further.356 men and 257 cannon. to assure that General Robert E. the Army of Northern Virginia began to complete its assembly in the vicinity of Culpeper Courthouse. So must similar sights had stirred great leaders of horse before him from Genghis Khan through Marlborough. P. invitations sent. and teams of the dashing Stuart Horse Artillery. Undetected. They must be paraded. So mustered the splendid army. A. So must the ladies of the neighborhood and all who could reach it. Lee's masterly strategy should once more baffle and circumvent the enemy. caissons. Seydlitz. gentlemen puts on his . Orders of the corps command were published. regiment on regiment of Gray infantry stacked arms around the picturesque little town that was the county seat. James Ewell Brown Stuart looked upon the array of cavalry. There must be a full review. A great burnishing and furbishing got under way. As the bulk of his over the cavalry rode a half dozen miles forward to reinforce its guard over the Rappahannock fords.

each required to provide it himself with a new uniform and see to that his mount was properly caparisoned. to the complete perfection. At the ideal site on this field was a hillock no craftsman could have excelled in design of a refield in the vicinity of viewing stand. were given a chance to rest they needed it. You see elegant young men greasing their own leather. with which the gentlemen rankers rode to battle in '6 1 they are forgotten things. Jeb himself. stage for fairly thrust itself The wide it upon him: It was a long Brandy Station. overlooking Brandy Station. Imposition of all this extra spit-and-polish seemed over and above the kept himself. Theater and scenery for the Stuart production were nothing short of providential. lines and gestures perfect. he heard from his sergeant. his mount. had been set to work on the pageant. boot-polish. was high time a man and his horse. and he set June 5 as the date. 116 to super- The rank and file soldier grumbling. Muttered protests and objections from the ranks. between Culpeper and the Rappahannock. There call of duty.PASS IN REVIEW 79 who the prefer informal war. and shining their Day & Martin metal with wood ashes. too. vise everything. costume gorgeous. years of hard fighting behind them and a his A trooper arms and equipment in as good trim as possible. met with the usual headquarters disregard. indulged in more than its usual quota of Such fuss-and-feathers and folderol were all very well before the war when a militia much else to do. could step straight into his leading role. shared by not a few officers. It . the field was so and Alexandria Railroad that a halted Orange To close train would offer seats for spectators. and grooming their horses. the spare shirts. but now these cavalrymen lot company had nothing were veterans with two more ahead. 115 as As early May 20 Stuart's staff officers. Stuart pitched his tents on nearby Fleetwood Hill. The negro servants. born actor and showman as he was a born soldier. if he neglected to.

and not be said of that evening that "bright the lights fair shone o'er sourceful women and brave men" Major von Borcke had been present. and his sidearms gleamed in the morning sun like burnished Tacitus. to pitch extra tents honor an arriving notable. Charlottesville. Herodotus. Marshaled the level on cavalry that extended for a mile . Acting First Sergeant George Neese worshipfully watched Jeb Stuart advance to review his troops. Big von Borcke admired the lovely ladies waving to the cavalcade from porches and verandahs. on the following morning blue. On waltzes. In Chew's Battery. "The trappings on his proud. Some before taking carriages At eight o'clock and General Stuart and his to follow and watch the review ran to the street to strew flowers in the path of the horses. It was all in the grandest tradition of the pomp and panoply of war a page out of Homer. the more poignant and compelling since this was wartime. and that Turn out an escort to of War George W. prancing horse all looked bright and new. Sweep out and decorate Culpeper's courthouse for the ball. Music struck up for quadrilles. Harness up ambulance and wagon teams to fetch and carry the ladies from the railroad station after their journeys from as far away as Richmond and and furnish them. Stuart decided that it would nevertheless be held for the many guests who had come so far to witness skies bright it. reels. It could with the dance. Find more fatigue details for hotels and hospitable homes could not hold the throng of guests. could not attend the review. Yet there was gaiety and romance. for even the reable to provide only a few tallow candles to illuminate the hall. and steeds curvetted. staff mounted and rode toward the Brandy Station plain. would be a review by command o Major General was that. as trumpeters sounded flourishes. concerned with supplies for the approaching campaign. On a flank were stationed the rifles and Napoleons of Beckham's battalion of horse artillery. former Secretary Police camp. or ground waited a line of Gray and a half. Randolph.80 CLASH OF CAVALRY Stuart. Plumes nodded. The folds of the General's battle flag flaunted free. Although a disappointing message had come that General Lee.

"Gallop" blared. rode the most graceful horseman he had ever seen. Now 8. a gunner feel fightish. with great bonfires furnishing far better illumination than the Culpeper candles.PASS IN REVIEW silver. A countermarch then at the end of the field. ostrich feather black slouch hat cocked clasp upon one side. plume waved gracefully from a and was held with a golden which also stayed the plume. While three bands performed their most martial like a gallant airs. opening a furious cartridges as if to repulse fire with blank a charge. every motion in harmony with his mount's. the Rebel yell shrilling above pounding hoofs." high moment troopers forgot and trouble the review had demanded. taking his post Stuart galloped to a little knoll. 8l A long. On the ridge to the left clouds of white smoke wreathed Beckham's guns. that those girls who had come with parents and those who were attended by awkward 118 For that one swains. It was observed. with the trumpets signaling "Trot" until the cavalcade was a hundred yards from the reviewing stand. whipped from scabbards. Regiments in column of squadrons marched past at a walk. flashTriumphantly the ordered ranks of splendid horsemen dashed past." An thought. . did not faint. black. It was. strangely enough. "Those feminine spectators who had handsome male companions put their handkerchiefs to their eyes and swayed and gracefully swooned. thrilled to the core. and shouted orders seconded them." 117 There. TROT -* Watchers gasped." Notes of trumpet calls soared. and "sat his saddle knight errant. wheeled to face under the Stars and Bars.000 sabers ing in the sunlight. So must the Light Brigade have charged at Balaklava while the Russian artillery thundered. Neese was certain. front. "enough to make even an old woman ball danced a second on of through splendor lingered afterglow the toil that evening on the Brandy Station greensward.

Fitz Lee begged their leader: "Well. with milk and eggs to sell. but dignitaries were arriving tation to audience was assured from Richmond. would be pleased to review the cavalry next day. sleek mule with extra long ears. "Mister. Hampton laughingly promised. 119 And one of the unmilitary-looking creatures was about to step on stage at the second. had intruded into the first review. One startled glimpse of those ears. 120 .82 CLASH OF CAVALRY to relax Tired troopers had scarcely begun when on June 7 a second dispatch was received from army headquarters. and an additional. and all the work had to be done over again. don't let them halloo." of men Any mishap in horsemanship would promptly draw that gibe from the infantry. here's your mule. If Hood's division set up that shout. out to His "people" turned Cavalry hosts were worried that some contretemps would result from the rivalry between the two arms and the foot troops' jealousy "come and see the review lucky enough to make marches on horseback. Grumbling redoubled. would charge them." Wade Hampton seconded Fitz Lee's plea. 'Here's your mule!' at the review. tired of his tramp. though critical. mitigated only by the inherent willingness of the average Confederate soldier to oblige Massa of course a Robert. when General John B. There was considerable likelihood of such banter. General Lee. the cavalry. now free. who had praised Jeb Stuart's since a few mules appearance. The By farmer. That same Sergeant Neese. who might sound off also with a verse or two of the favorite army song from which it came: A farmer came to camp one day. Hood accepted an invi- and bring your people. It was command performance. dismayed the General by parading with his battery. for hours was made a fool everyone he met in camp with. and Stuart sent an aide galloping to remove the mounted on a sergeant and his mount from the scene before the infantry could roar a view halloo. Upon a mule which oft would stray to where no man could tell. Most of the ladies had gone home." be his entire infantry division. As Hood's Texans lined the edges of the field.

Lee. the in its place This time the show was a comparatively tame one. Rich- mond gossiped about the balls." that able but informal soldier. ran the whispers. 121 . A Jones's brigade second aide was rushed from the post of command to require fed to the correction. glanced up reclining posture quiring aide. By General Lee's order there was no galloping and no firing by the artillery. allow a rude Southern lady to say General Stuart's conduct since in Culpeper is perfectly ridiculous. a from of comfortably surfeit a with teeth parading.PASS IN REVIEW 83 Another near upset in decorum threatened when "Grumble" was seen to be unprepared to pass in review. wrote to wife: "I reviewed the cavalry in this section yesterday. failed to have a good time Davis: caustically wrote Jefferson President. observing his proudly. all his glory. frolicking and his officers. if so. Horseflesh and powder must be spared for the hard campaign in store. horses looked well. he riding up peated reviews for the and down the line thronged with those ladies. which drew that smiling and understanding comment from the superior who depended upon him so greatly. having rebenefit of his lady friends. cuperated since Stuart was in They have reYour sons and nephews were well and flourishing/' Stuart's glory. "Grumble. on the ground and swore sulphurously at the inBut as the indignant young officer left. was smiled on. In fact General Stuart is nothing to his lady friends' time whole his of those devoting fops. company. apparently a monkey show on hand and he the more or less than one monkey. he heard and Saddles. . Yet the march past at a walk was an impressive demonstration it of strength and readiness. Others called it "military foppery/' and the not always usefulness of the reviews as morale builders was discounted. The men and last fall. It was a splendid sight." and the brigade took sound "Boots Jones's trumpets column. wouldn't?) A Culpeper lady-one suspects she had not been invited to the dances or. after girls/' had been and running (What soldier. he decorated with flowers. Jeb "rollicking. given a chance.

gazing north. They. 122 Some two miles west of the junction . and his eyes. held the vision of battles ahead. Gray regiments bivouacked near the fords and around Brandy and Fleetwood Hill where Stuart and his staff were sheltered under two tent flies. richly brown. Like officers who attended the Brussels ball on the eve of Waterloo. was encamped Fitz Lee's brigade. "Reveille" and "Boots and Saddles" tomorrow were to launch his brigades on their ride northward. ready for mowing. had scarcely been dismissed after for when they were put to work packing equipment an early move on the following morning to cover the advance of the Army of Northern Virginia. taken the opportunity to relax like that seasoned old campaigner. with all other baggage already stowed in the headquarters wagons. completed the brigade. Stuart and his subordinates would have been fitter for a night's sleep. Prospect of action aroused less the June 8 parade interest than usual in the tired troopers. Dispositions for the night placed them in readiness for an early start on the first stage of the march that led to Gettysburg. Lee's foresight on horse power and powder at the second review could not compensate for the prodigality at the first. Fitz was ill and had temporarily turned over command to Colonel Tom Munford of the 2nd Virginia. bored and weary. Over near Oak Shade Church. He must have smiled to himself at the glowing memory of the gallop past on the plain yonder. betokened the great contribution of the Old Dominion state Four other regiments from that to the Confederate cavalry. with eight other Virginia regiments and a battalion in other brigades. The Corps commander would have Station spared no more than a careless glance for the loveliness of the summer scene spread out around him: the green woods and the new-ploughed ground.84 CLASH OF CAVALRY But the real cost of the festivities and displays was the energy they had expended and the rest they had denied. Not pastorals but martial epics for Jeb Stuart. Few had "Grumble" Jones. The men. the fields of fragrant clover and golden wheat. north of the Little Hazel River and about seven and a half miles northwest of Fleetwood.

was four miles below the railroad span. in danger of being overrun by sudden attack driving in the pickets. Beverly a mile and a half above the railroad bridge. which he had been mortally wounded. near .S.PASS IN REVIEW of the 85 Hazel and the Rappahannock and close to Welford's Ford all Virginia except for one North lay Rooney Lee's brigade. would not look upon his like again.. It was a strong one: four regiments Lower on from Virginia. Todd) C. was about Ford. 1ST VIRGINIA CAVALRY REGIMENT. despite its many able gunner officers. Pickets there were Robertson's Kelly's Ford. l86l-62 the larger river a more important crossing place. (Drawing by Frederick P. called the Laurel. Pelham would not have and a battalion. Its main body was bivouacked two miles inland along the Brandy Road. and the Gray artillery. a placed them in that position.A. Carolina regiment. guarded by Jones's command. But Pelham was dead. Between "Grumble's" troopers and his river pickets were parked four of the six batteries of Beckham's horse artillery.

waited poised only six miles to the rear around the town of Culpeper. More important was his conviction that there was no enemy within striking distance. They were chiefly from North and South Carolina. assembled for invasion. The settle stars down on shed faint radiance. His troops were scattered. Stuart paid attention to his dispositions. General Lee in command. good grazing dictating the bivouacs of the brigades. That mighty array close at hand. If he noted that potentially perilous position of the horse artillery. . outposts now and forthcoming advance guard of the Army of Northern Virginia. would have lent Jeb Stuart confidence in the unlikely event the reliant and usually alert cavalryman needed any such reassurance. he neglected to correct it. blinding sentries and dulling sound. which. Still farther back than Robertson in that area of good pasturage rested Hampton's brigade of three regiments and three equivalent units termed legions. except for the pickets at the fords. Otherwise. Nothing contradicted the belief that well to the north the country was empty of any of Hooker's horsemen. Such was the cavalry. not a need of close support in meeting an attack. Gradually a heavy haze began to the river. Gray cavalrymen.86 CLASH OF CAVALRY men. A bright moon set about two o'clock of the morning of June 9. One cannot would not have avoid believing that Stuart. As a proper precaution the fords were guarded. slept deeply. Not a Blue patrol had been sighted all the day of June 8. 1863. the two North Carolina regiments that furnished them being stationed some distance to their rear where they could graze their horses in the meadows dotting the five miles between the Barbour farm and Stevensburg. except for being prepared to little move forward in the morning. As the pleasant summer evening darkened into night. The unenterprising Yankees would have to be sought out tomorrow as on many earlier occasions. All was quiet on the Rappahannock. had he expected an enemy incursion. left the two most vital approaches in the care of his least trusted brigade commanders: Robertson at Kelly's Ford and Jones at Beverly.

and equipment. and ammunition were issued in the encampthe Cavalry Corps. ment of renton. last forage. They were headed for Kelly's Ford and Brandy Station. Bugles and trumpets sang "The General" and "Boots and Saddles/' As the last notes died away.CHAPTER 9 March to Battle RATIONS. shifting BOOTS AND SADDLE was about noon on June 8 that the long blue column swung off along the road to the southwest. Thud of hoofs. Standards and of guidons were furled and cased to conceal any betraying glint as as avoided far be was to dust or noise and color. Nor would any fires be allowed. mounts. possible. though Kelly's Ford when it had borne it 8? . musicians wiped their lips with the backs of their hands and them back to a comfortable until they position. slung their instruments. Army o the Potomac. Troopers exchanged knowing It glances. Strict orders forbade any more windjamming rode into action. making This was to be a surprise attack. Ranks. and the steady tramp of infantry boots. Some of these regiments had ridden this way before. rumble of artillery wheels. at War- Throughout the regiments officers and non-coms made a check of men. 123 and at March had begun to be proud of itself since the fight last itself well. Pleasonton could take pride in this command of his.

Duffie led the 2nd Division. had been pulled back and were present showpieces but fighting men. often replacement system. and New York cavalry regiments and Batteries B and L (combined into one unit) . 124 Failure to come up to authorized strength. I'm Only a Regular/' But theirs was an honored name. ranks were somewhat thinned by combat. Except for the 6th Pennsylvania. and a West Virginia regiment. for there was no bounty all War correspondents mentioned them on concentrating troops from the states their newsinfrequently. tenacious tradition of the United States Army. the 5th and 6th. with his regiments from Massachusetts. Irvin Gregg's 2nd Brigade comprised . the ist and 2nd. These were the regiments that "Grimes" Franklin Davis led the ist Davis. Indiana. Colonel J. had now been filled. of the later Harrigan and Hart them the For title served. was not so important as the fact that gaps. ones. papers for enlistment in the Regulars. Whiting's reserve brigade was and two younger Regulars: two fine old regiments. for dutyno longer Brigadier General John Buford's stubborn Scot's jaw must have relaxed a little as he surveyed his ist Division. there was no great prospect of filling them. Major Charles J. Ohio. once lancers. and Their Artillery. total and men. Details of a regiment's smartest men. a Pennsylvania. The 2nd Brigade under Colonel Thomas C. In their keeping lay the gallant.88 not first CLASH OF CAVALRY full for all units. and* Italy its ist Brigade. 1. 2nd U. otherwise caused.S. Devin comprised two New York. and Rhode Island. Colonel Benjamin Brigade: Illinois. commanded by Colonel Louis P. were nearer so than they had been since the (squadron) muster. Artillery.189 officers ac- cording enlisted to cavalry tables of organization. 4th U. absent so long in Washington and at army to the faulty due headquarters to serve as escorts and tickle the vanity of some general.S. di Cesnola. A three-battalion regiment should. had led out by night through a Confederate cordon in a daring escape. France in the dapper person of Colonel Alfred N. and they were faithful to their trust. plus Battery E. gathering in an enemy wagon train en route. refusing to surrender with other forces at Harper's Ferry. song could be reversed to read: "I Don't Belong to the Volunteers.

a 6th support. both a handicap and a stanch standby. A breeze ruffled the flaring. Whether the Union cavalry was now capable of executing successfully a mission of its own was still a question in the blamed too much light of past performances. earmarked as a swift foray. New York regiments plus Orton's Columbia Cavalry. supported by Battery 8q 7 M. Fortunately the preoccupied enemy was raising his own dust and a good deal more of it. and with the river at his back was assailed in front and flanks.S. gingercolored sideburns of Colonel Judson Kilpatrick. his own riflemen could prove to be his salvation. a lightning and a rapid withdrawal. Hooker could not be for hedging. It could no longer be argued that they hampered the mobility of a vital reconnaissance. His troops were a Maryland. Artillery. There marched seven regiments of infantry and a light battery 3. not an inordinately long march but wearing and dusty in spite of care taken. From Warrenton miles.000 men under Generals New Jersey. he of the patriarchal beard headed the $rd Division. jutted from the long column. if Pleasonton ran into enemy cavalry in superior force.MARCH TO BATTLE three regiments from Pennsylvania. they were a decided impediment. veteran of three foreign armies and various branches of their service. New York Battery in rifles and a Pennsylvania regiment. More luxuriant were the 125 striking whiskers true Dundrearies of the commander of the 2nd Brigade. and since this attack evidently was stroke. 2nd U. With mixed emotions cavalry- men On surveyed the foot troops. Another Gregg. Colonel Sir Percy Wyndham. On the other hand. General David McM. They would cover him until he could cross and re-form. with the Slanted Adelbert Ames and David A. perhaps also supported by infantry. The column southwest to Kelly's Ford was some twenty covered the greater part of the distance. Russell. In any event the foot was present on orders from headquarters. the former count the doughboys slowed the rate of march. while his artillery in turn protected their retreat. riding before the ist Brigade: one Maine and two District of Company. Across the Rappahannock the ap- .

Crossings were picketed. however. phrase. Obviously there was hot work in store. taking a southwesterly direction. reviewed to a fare-theewell. cross under Gregg's by nearer Kelly's Ford. Pleasonton. called it. and dragoons. They were tired. through these shallows where they stood sentry. .go CLASH OF CAVALRY of Stuart's preaching troops in blue sighted heavy clouds. It was. The dust review for Lee and of Hood's division marching on and off the field had not settled before it was augmented by that of the Confederate cavalry taking its several stations and preparing for the next day's advance. The other two over-all divisions and Russell's riflemen. while Buford's earlier attack distracted attention from them. Buford's division with Ames's infantry was to move out first. Uppermost in their minds was the thought that they would be passing over the river tomorrow. "Horse. He appeared have no such intention. foot. obeyed the quiet order. to spearhead the advance of the Virginia. from to safe be far were not far from Kelly's Ford. Pleasonton's scouts crept forward cautiously to points where they could observe the farther bank of the Rappahannock. the Blue regiments underwent a "poppycocking" they not needless maneuvering. having estimated the situation. and whether Duffie. Troopers of the ist Maine considered the extent of the dust being kicked up yonder and nodded grimly to each other. to be sure. passed along the column." in the old army to halt. but the guards showed no signs of activity. ately defending the fords instead. considerable amount of shifting into position. and drive thence for Brandy Station. then dark. would as far as Stevensburg to find was ordered to push out whether the enemy occupied the road between GhancellorsviUe and Culpeper. were to divide. four and one-half miles initially distant. Then Gregg's troops command. grumbling heartily. Dusk fell. crossing the Rappahannock at Beverly Ford. Army of Northern There was no suspicion that soon they would be desper- As the scouts reported back. had passed down his battle orders through his division commanders. but enough They to observation unless the enemy probed across the river.

"This Pleasonton. It live to would be his regimental chaplain sensed the quiet interduty to pass on such messages. . Jackson. trooper. Sure enough. for more than a year. and to cover the left against any offensive movement on their part. Veterans. with vain visions of coffeepots bubbling a hot brew that would put strength into a man. Roll out. Rise and shine. they were roused at midnight and some sleep. their mess. and he is capable of learning/* 127 Marshaled for tomorrow's attack. has been studying the art of war with his schoolmate Jeb Stuart. Unsaddle but don't unbridle. He remembered the solemn and earnest 128 prayer he offered that night. with his division. would endeavor 126 to assist the latter between the railroad and Beverly Ford. both those those of the friends directly confided to him and who would not keep their promises. growling troopers were at last allowed to water and feed their mounts and eat their own cold rations. and Stuart had often effectively used enemy such bold division of striking forces in the classic pincers or nutcracker movement. Hurry up and wait the old army game. Friends leaned close in the moonlight. the word was passed. And if I don't come through. bearing to the right in order to make short work with his infantry. booting the rears of reluctant ones. spreading blankets told to be ready to move out at 3 A. while Russell. A good battle plan. "In case anything happens to ?" "Of course. will you write will you ?" The changes. Lee. obeyed promptly and cynically. You will not picket your horse. was to proceed toward Ql Brandy Station in order to strike the rear of the cavalry which Buford was to attack in front. There would be little enough of that sleep. considering the dearth of information on strength and dispositions and assuming that surprise would be achieved. Loop reins over an arm and lie down and get and pillowing heads on saddles. Stand to horse. Over in the 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry a group of officers finished Unspoken thoughts of the battle ahead filled every mind. In a few hours sergeants and corporals would be shaking them awake. me.M. In the meanwhile Gregg.MARCH TO BATTLE he had any troops on the march along that road. ham and over fires to make hardtack.

Hands sought and revolver butts. pickets hilt. and only daylight and action can dispel them. and Over in Buford's lines sounded whispered commands. for reassurance. vitality at low ebb. Leather creaked as troopers swung into saddles. looking east dawn of the ninth day of June. of They stared into the blackness. They themselves. Soldiers of all wars have known those moments and their weight on the spirit. testing their tightness. Passage of time intensifies them. of mingled hope of survival and premonition of death. masking the attack. Riders patted their necks. The ist Division. For the Union cavalrymen before Brandy Station consciousness of past defeats made the burden heavier. as the half-light revealed their approach. for the far first glimmer out of earshot of enemy saber carbine. and fingers slipped under girths. Enviously the 2nd and and rumbling ^rd heard their comrades leave and set themselves to endure more wearing waiting. 1863. quieting them. was off for Beverly Ford.92 CLASH OF CAVALRY Darkness before dawn. combat ahead. had . At any they would hear his carbines opening upriver. With vast relief Gregg's men mounted and reach it rode for Kelly's Ford. moment now But no settled flashes cut down on through the dawn. accompanied by General Pleasonton. They breed moments of self-doubt. would shortly face enemy fire from the farther bank. Blessedly a thick fog the Rappahannock. Horses snorted stamped restively. spoke in undertones. Men. though they were. A muffled tread of hoofs artillery wheels. They were scheduled to simultaneously with Buford's arrival at Beverly. The skies began to look a little lighter.

loitering stop . the rate of march of Ames's brigade of the Troopers must have shivered a little when they thought chill water." 129 "The splashing horses "The brown faced men" and their to drink". with pounding hoofs kicking up a drenching spray . "negligent rest on the saddles". the 8th New York he 95 ." No. new battle. most the of one as rated was he promisfact though not yet in rank. That gait made less noise than a trot and. not yet warmed by the summer sun. Sometimes. . for the attack.CHAPTER 1O A TOHN BUFORD'S Ford Is Forced timing for the march of his ist Division to J Beverly Ford was carefully estimated. Even so they would be lucky wading through wet to the waist or higher and pushing on in soggy clothing and squelching boots. This would be no leisurely. . Four miles an hour at the walk should bring him to the river just as dawn was breaking. they say. Colonel Benjamin Franklin Davis headed the vanguard. files. most important. the guidon flags flutter gayly in the wind. "Scarlet and blue and snowy white. commanders and slated to rise high. in unopposed passage such as Walt Whitman painted words in "Cavalry Crossing a Ford. would leave the horses fresh and unblown to the be accommodated must pace of infantry. Furthermore. Buford of could not have picked a better man a born leader and a veteran little a the Indian Wars. old wounds ache before a Davis felt his Perhaps that morning "Grimes" in commander a Now the with brigade scar from a fight Apaches. ing of the Federal cavalry had Behind him rode his former regiment. that would compared spatter following to the poor infantry. they must rush the river under fire.

A pair of gallant and and young officers.4 CLASH OF CAVALRY trained so well. If they could not halt or at least delay surprise attack. Carbines and revolvers cracked At in rising crescendo. respectively. From this passage of the ford onward both young cavalrymen were in the forefront of the fiercest fighting. Captain Ulric Dahlgren and First Lieutenant George A. seekers after glory both and finding it led Dahlgren nine months finally the grave where its path later on a raid to Richmond with Kilpatrick from this same vicinity fearless of Brandy Station. Yorkers' leading troop rushed it. They dashed through in a cloud of heavy Close behind Davis rode two supernumeraries. horsemen spurring reluctant into the water. snatched up their weapons.0. James Church. would be overrun. It was a valiant stand A Company made. They closed in on the constricted column. the rest of the brigade would be caught before it could saddle up. They drove down the road in a flying wedge. In the meanwhile the rest of the 6th Virginia had got to horse in a marvel of swift reaction such as only veterans could manage. then comrade regiments of the Harper's Ferry exploit. It flung the Virginians into the fields and swept them back toward the edge of the woods which skirted the open ground north of St. Custer not until the Little Big Horn. unharnessed and unhitched. Davis and his men would not be blocked. this fighting desperately. Davis had funneled his brigade into column of fours to keep within the shallowest part of the ford and retain formation when it emerged on to the narrow road on the farther side. 6th Virginia Cavalry. Now the New mounts spray. Custer. Jones's Brigade. the sudden apparition of bluecoats bursting through the fog. It took losses but it bought precious time with them. startled pickets of Company A. aides-de-camp to Generals Hooker and Pleasonton. . Pleasonton would commend those two for their valor today and award to Custer the honor of carrying back his report and a captured Rebel battle standard to headquarters. Beckham's exposed batteries.

the pickets had their horses haltered in camp and ready to hand. patriotsoldier. Saving the one shot left in his revolver. while the 7th Virginia was hastening to the support The of the 6th. They killed the sergeant. E. Comrades pounded after them. New 8th Illinois was coming up front into line with the Yorkers. Some A Eight New York!" he shouted back. His adversary in a lightning motion had swung below that position he fired. horse against horse. but Lieutenant Allen and the trooper galloped clear. heavy under-strength regiment. Its weight thrust the 6th an for casualties and horses down. momentarily checked. The colonel's saber swung through an arc that would have cut deep into neck and shoulder. Chaplain Gracey of the 6th Pennsylvania bent over a stretcher being carried to the "Is it possible? Is rear. . Allen.A FORD C. Having been lieved at the river a few hours before. some. Yells and clash of sabers and rattle of revolvers. "Who is that. Flournoy IS FORCED 95 and 150 troopers galloped down on the Major rapidly advancing Yankee column. the lieutenant cantered to within sword's length before Davis heard him and turned. thirty men Virpressed on. sir/' The chaplain. Lieutenant R. It slashed through empty air. In a whooping charge Lieutenant Marshall flung his regiment on the bluecoats. distance in front of his column. led by its picket company." 13 The ist Union Brigade ginia aside. coatless and bootless. "God have mercy on the brave. The bullet drilled Colonel Davis through the brain. said a brief requiem. as he left to rejoin his regiment. From and a sergeant and private who had joined him. rode down on the isolated Union commander. Foremost elements of the Blue and Gray crashed head-on. furious New Yorkers converged to avenge their leader on his slayer the side of his horse. body to hody." he wounded badly?" "A Minie ball through his head. As his body slid from the saddle. the hero of Harper's Ferry. O. sir. Up on its left at that critical moment galreloped the yth Virginia. Davis reined in and waved his saber to rally his men. Colonel Thomas riding bareback. noble. boys?" "Colonel Davis. "Stand Colonel firm. many not having taken time to saddle. Confederate officer.

still having my sabre in my right hand. in a pile on the side of the road. that four bullets had penetrated her. to rush upon the enemy. "Whoa! whoa! whoa!" breast. the next day. as three days down Ibefore. across my path. I hallooed. I turned a bend in the road. when another volley was fired. hard-mouthed mare. I again pulled with superJiuman vigor. the column like a thunderbolt and rushed the road with the rapidity of lightning. I heard the boys charging down the road. when. and no one was in sight. How I escaped remains a mystery. then a line of smoke. someone had stolen my six-shooter. not having uttered a groan or made a struggle. I pulled with all my but to strength and vigor. seeing a single horseman. but I suppose they thought it was the devil. a I man dropped dead at my feet. but. At any rate. a tight rein on his wild-eyed. and there. as my horse was black as night. when I went to get my saddle and bridle. heels over head. they would understand the situation and not fire. she . she shot out from. my horse lying by my side dead. I expected. was a double line of cavalry. and was running at the rate of about forty miles an hour. I no purpose. In a moment they were opposite me in the road. All his strength could not strain her.still rushed madly on. I found. headlong. I thought of jumping off but that would never have done. jumped up. Lieutenant . My hope was that. She took the bit regardless and bolted. right leg felt as if paralyzed. I saw them raise their carbines. My horse did what I too well knew she would do that is. I looked around behind me. and no blood.96 CLASH OF CAVALRY in the first set Young John N. but I had nothing but a sabre. Opie rode of fours galloping down re- the road. and received the fire of several hundred men. as her mouth was fixed against her thought of killing her. I hallooed. After I arose to my feet. "Whoa! whoa!" but all in vain. seeing feeling upon examination I found that My a ball had struck the toe of my boot and plowed a furrow through the sole. as I was only twenty yards distant from the enemy. every moment. both horse and rider tumbled through the air and fell. then a crash.

battered back the Gray horse. and joined in the We broke the Eighth New York. saddling their own horses. Cannoneers. limbered the guns. was the only whirled away. backed by the 2nd. for action. sharpshooters scourging the retreat. of IS FORCED horse and 97 Company "H. mounted in their turn. He was only Yelling Blue troopers. and prepared howitzers left behind. fired almost point-blank. more New Yorkers. he picked himself up and managed to remount. Nothswept The two ." charge. Considering the subsequent splendid service of its guns. 131 The rest of the charge crumpled against the stone-wall resistance of the ist Brigade. In resurgence the Union regi- ments drove for Beckham's exposed batteries.A FORD Morton. jolted from a careening wagon. Captain James F. Major Beckham's field desk. the road with bursts of canister from flaming muzzles. Indiana. loss when line the at galloping St. The Stuart Horse Artillery was within an ace of capture." Illinois. Hart's Battery had been parked close to the road. his mother's in the Testament. batteries executed front into James Church. They would be well lost if they could cover the withdrawal of the rest of the artillery. and rode hard after the column of carriages as the battalion rolled. West Virginia. As the 8th Illinois smashed against the onset. the fate of the battle can be said to have hung in the balance at that moment. For the bulk of the gunner battalion there was not a second to the deftness of long spare for fumbling or lost motion. Sergeant Henry Pearson was bowled out of his saddle by the impact of a bullet. With teams and hitched. It was a gallant sacrifice stand. I seized his mounted him. loaded and fired at top speed. practice drivers threw harness on the nervous then clambered into saddles. that struck him over the heart. and Pennsylvania. No more than shaken and shocked. But the artillerymen had been granted just respite enough while the 6th Virginia still held and the yth rushed to reinforce it. gift. The ball had thudded into "wounded his pocket Bible. Cannoneers manhandled two of its pieces into position and opened with canister on the advancing Blue cavalry.

artillery. Brigade was the Division ist Brigade]. ist Division. . not sparing time to dismount sharpshooters and frontal assault pick off the gunners. Nevertheless Buford must press must press it at the risk of all the Confederate cavalry." ist The had taken a check but not a was a matter of grave alarm that so far no sound of Gregg's guns had been heard downriver he was one hour late in striking Kelly's Ford and the success of the whole operation depended on the closing of that his attack jaw of the pincers. charged them. General "Grumble" Jones rushed in the nth and isth Virginia and the 35 th Battalion the rescue of the artillerymen. Yet and It badly wounded.g8 CLASH OF CAVALRY of lethal balls. thrusting rammer as staffs. not in a suicidal but fanning out around the flanks. ing could live in the path of those spreading cones Blue horsemen. Crews fought them with revolvers.. Covering the two battered regiments that had borne the brunt. the Gray cavalry commenced a fighting retreat.M. Ames's infantry was delivering a well-directed fire from the edge of woods. thunder of hoofs shook the ground. Cannoneers swung trails right and muzzles veering. But now all his troops were over the river and pressing onward. cavalrymen flooded the back the left. Surely Gregg would soon be in action. serious one. Colonel Davis. marked 6 A. converging on his division with its back to the Rappahannock. beating back their assailants. from Beverly Ford. They could not cover a wide enough arc they could not fire fast enough to blast waves. to meet the onrushes. "Enemy has opened with alry. A to and swinging trail handspikes. and shows some force of cav- Had [It is a sharp skirmish. Limbers dashed up. Sabers slashing. along with infantry that might be marching up from Culpeper. The near-lost howitzers were hooked on and in front of the pulled out to add their fire to that of the cannon church. Parts of the 2nd and Reserve brigades were in action or support. 132 commanding Second led his column across. encircling gun positions. Pleasonton sent off to Hooker his first report. On that everything must be hazarded. Buford had met with prompter and stronger resistance than he expected in view of the initial success of his surprise assault.

four regiments to take post on Jones's right Robert E. whatever it with the duty of screening the concentration of the Army of Northern Virginia. 99 . plentifully adulterated with chicory. and sent his wagon Then he rode rapidly train rolling toward the toward the rising din of and Rooney Lee. 133 Aides and couriers were standing to horse a galloper from Jones dashed up with the word that the enemy was across the Rappahannock at Beverly Ford and for reinforcement advancing in strength. prompted by criticism from Richmond where a newspaper branded the Federal onset for what it was: an absolute and complete surprise. were Already those good soldiers. The General wasted no time on rankling reflections. Hampton hurried forward former The marching to the sound of the guns. There would be enough of them later.CHAPTER 1 1 Target: Charging Cavalry JEB quarters was drinking his morning coffee at his hea& on Fleetwood Heights when he heard the first shots from the direction of Beverly Ford. Stuart rushed out orders when of the struck brigade safety of Culpeper. the unforeseen. Here was turnabout. Lee's tall son "had advanced from Welford's down the river toward the firing. STUART That amounted to a light. it must have turned to gall in Ms mouth. Whether the brew was good coffee. the unprovldedfor. the cavalry boot on the other foot: the despised enemy horsemen usurping a Stuart prerogative. or the Rebel article. hit-and-run raid or an attack in force meant surprise. Every report sternly reproached a cavalry commander charged firing. battle. captured from the Yankees.

with excellent cover for his dismounted men behind the stone fence which runs northwest from near the overseer's house. He turned to one of the battery commanders: "Captain Chew. the horses. Wade Hampton. dis- mounted. To the fore were the sharpshooter companies of each regiment. Volleys. Lee's with their carbines leveled over the fine cover of the stone wall. yielding to odds against him." Meanwhile Jones.1OO CLASH OF CAVALRY and had gained a strong position on the Cunningham farm. mowing Now the angled Gray lines transformed themselves into a launched spearhead. If they do. 134 any event he Stuart found Jones's and Rooney Lee's Virginians and North Carolinians in line of battle." 135 There had probably been a temporary suspension from command as a disciplinary measure for Jones's unreadiness to pass in review yesterday. near the Green house. If this onslaught were not stopped. In paid little attention to it beyond that remark. with his and open artillery on the hill behind. had their backs to the railroad and were facing generally north. Saber companies waited poised in the rear. to the right. Rooney Lee's troopers fanned out to threaten Federal right and rear. It was a strong defensive position Jones and Lee held. On the hill near the Green house Beckham's gunners rammed charges down muzzles. extended his to lap half the right around the enemy's left in the woods. it would be the fate of the Union ist Division. Hampton was galloping up from Brandy with four of his regiments and legions. and shells burst in the woods where the Blue infantry was maintaining a hot fire. it. James Church. to be clamped in pincer jaws. give them hell. rippling along the Blue front. as cavalry squadrons emerged from the trees onto the open . the assault recoiled to the woods. The former's regiments. was falling back slowly and stubbornly. forming an angle in front of St. suddenly ceased in the center. I am not in command today. arriving. but do you see that gap in the woods yonder? I think the Yankees are bringing a battery there. while Lee faced east. An enemy attack with dismounted skirmishers and mounted men vainly tried to crack down Before the withering fire of the sharpshooters. not the Confederate Cavalry Corps. ground around him in every direction.


The crashing and smoking. and selects a eagerly off to Elsewhere I hear the cry of the regiment charging.) All the scenes at the batteries rise in details before me again. would have made that charge a grander 136 The 6th. Only a short time before two of these crews had met Blue horsemen at close quarters and nearly lost their guns and their lives. Beside drawn them rode the steady ranks of the hard-bitten Regulars. After firing I see him lean aside and look note the effect. blared "Trot. (the young colonel leads himself this time with brandished sword. leveled with pennons whipping. the hill gunners of the Stuart Horse Artillery saw them galloping forward." "Charge/' With a rolling tattoo of hoofs the 6th Pennsylvania and the 6th Regulars hurtled across the eight hundred yards separated them from the Rebel artillery on the hill. Artillerymen could not ask a better one one that demanded their most rate of Up on rapid and with no shots to be wasted. sighted. the pride of the men in their pieces. The grape like the hum and whirr of wind through the trees. barked again.) . The chief-gunner ranges and sights his piece fuse of the right time. CLASH OF CAVALRY The sun sharpened the colors of standards and guidons now unfurled. that GALLOP Only the discarded scarlet lances of the Pennsylvanians. happily rid of those weapons. Smoking pieces leaped back in recoil were swabbed. loaded.1O2 field." "Gallop. I hear the great shells shrieking as they pass. I see the shells exploding leaving small white clouds. was content with spectacle. muted no longer. Trumpets. Target: advancing cavalry. (tumultuous now the contest rages. The batteries must break the fire charge in mid-course. sabers.

As he fell. another A sergeant caught the sinking banner from his hands and carried it on. . Artilleryman's Vision" Artillery Captain come on. then the flat clouds hover concealing all. And ever the sound of the cannon far and near. and finally of canister. Drum-Taps. Shells. "rode troopers more gallantly than those steady Regulars. battery eyes stirred fire Hart watched that valiant charge by admiration. sergeant reeled and toppled from his horse. exchanged for canister as the range narrowed." and Jones' Charging ranks swept back the first Rebel lines into the woods. His guns were taking counterfrom the Union artillery now.) breathe the suffocating smoke. passing between Hampton's right. no I delay. opening a gap. was riding vividly in his memory. From right and left Gray cavalry closed in on them. "Never. ." Hart remembered. . "The James F. But they had done their utmost they could go no farther nor could they hold. (quickly up. even in dreams a devilish exultation and the depths of all the old mad joy (rousing in my soul. as under a fire of shell and shrapnel. were taking the Blue color cavalry in enfilade as well as frontally. and the two 6th's burst through it.TARGET: CHARGING CAVALRY I see the 103 fill'd gaps cut by the enemy's volleys. CHARGE Doughty Chaplain Gracey. The Regulars thrust them back briefly. to be left The scene etched itself behind.) WALT WHITMAN. with a battery riddling their ranks at a range of fifty yards. . they 137 dashed up to the very muzzles. no man with his Pennsylvanians. Saddles emptied. but he could not tear his from the splendid sight down there in the field. then through left and beyond our guns.

first with the full weight of surprise favoring the Union. sending a shower of limbs." A trumpeter sounded and made prisoners of fire ripped it and sent it scurrying away. shell pass within a ' How many roll they had left behind they would not know until the Major Robert Morris was missing. Four batteries were engaged on each side. with Following troopers the officer beneath it. and hurry us through the woods. was high noon now. twigs. Shells of the well-served Federal horse artillery were taking toll of the Gray cavalry. but several of them had fallen silent. a sweep to the rear of their sheltering cover would cut them off from the ford while the cavalry river. damaged in recoil. the two 6th's reformed as Pleasonton's 139 off dash of Rebel cavalry cut some of the rearmost files. or go crashing through the trees. or bury themselves in the ground. all over us. as more and more It Confederate reinforcements galloped into action. Beaten back but not shattered. Earnest prayers ascend for Divine protection. however. Beckham's guns after their narrow escape had delivered a telling. while the air seems filled with the wickedly-whistling Minie balls.104 CLASH OF CAVALRY The noise Is like deafening thunder. It would be tough to scour them out. had seen his mount hit and crash down. Only such of the wounded as could ride had been brought back. We lie close to our horses' necks. and hug still closer as the crashing shot and few feet or inches of us. and in a few minutes are out on the open plains again. supported on the horses. they supported was driven into the . and at other times impenetrable thickets. whistling shot and screaming shell fall all around us. and earth. jamming against trees. barks. he had been captured and would die in was called. then with the scales tipping back to balance and beyond. It seems impossible that any of us shall ever get out of this alive. Our horses are alarmed and excited. tearing our clothes and sometimes our skin. massed fire from the hill. leaves. tearing through brush. So were Ames's infantry sharpshooters in the clump of woods. and they had been fighting since dawn. but artillery the "Rally. give the horses the 138 spurs. Pennsylvania's Libby Prison. but we heed not these little impediments.

No matter. straining their ears vainly for hours. some soldier students of military history must have reflected. The Yankee horse was displaying such fighting qualities and tenacity as Stuart and his subordinates had seldom seen before. 105 This daring raid by a single enemy division. If sound there was. relentless pressure on the first. More. So in a greater battle. Napoleon listened All ranks in the anxiously for the coming of Grouchy's guns at Waterloo. and no sound of distant firing cut through the din of battle deafening the combatants. Nothing seemed to . He would soon have the bluecoats on the run as on so many previous fields. Only that could relieve the rising. guns that came too late. remain but to stiffen resistance and prepare for a fighting retreat back across the Rappahannock. apparently unsupported. Union ist Division. Where was with the other two divisions? The whole operation of course Gregg on the depended closing of that second jaw of the vise.TARGET: CHARGING CAVALRY Jeb Stuart gathered his brigades for the kill. wind from the south blew it away from them. from Pleasonton and Buford had been down. it was amazingly formidable. Time ticked by. was as impudent as it had been unexpected.

and The delay. The stationing of Robertson at Kelly's should have haunted Stuart's conscience. nor could it be soothed by an answer that he expected no attack. a subordinate an important outpost as Kelly's Ford upon whom he placed little dependence. measure of the distrusted brigadier's failure is the fact that his command took so little part in the Battle of Brandy Station that it suffered not a subsequent A single casualty. despite his superior's imperative orders. which would have grave consequences. 140 106 . If column suddenly Jeb Stuart in the hectic days ahead let his mind revert to Brandy Station. command with his grd Division. he may have ruefully asked himself why he had allotted the guarding of such to Beverly Robertson. as startled as their comrades at the upper ford had been.CHAPTER 1 2 "The Yankees Are /GENERAL GREGG slowness in getting his at Brandy!" VJ Russell's infantry had been late in striking Kelly's Ford. Gray pickets. in that danger area would have told another story for the following action. for instance. One precious hour late the bluecoats rent the shrouding fog and splashed through the Rappahannock. Although no one could have long opposed the surprise onslaught that forced the ford. "Grumble" Jones's defense at Beverly Ford had been as stanch and stubborn as any com- mander could demand. loosed off hasty rounds at the head of the charging upon them. Duffie's 2nd. Robertson's tactics nearly lost the day for Stuart. The same question could not have arisen in regard to the other brigadier who grated on him. the posting of the aggressive Hampton. was due to Duffie's in motion.

judging it best to keep his command maintained his road block and waited for orders. Surely Sheridan would have done St. confronted only by slow-moving infantry. just that. No scout detachment galloped keep Gregg under observation. his second via one of Robertson's scouts. Gregg's decision was to leave Russell's infantry with artillery support to contain Robertson. and smashed through. away from Buford's battle. intact. off on the left fork to and Irvin Stevensburg where their . it would have brought him in on the right flank of Confederate troops hotly engaged with Buford around James Church. It was a good four miles to a road fork at the Willis Madden house. not reinforced. two North Carolina regi- ments. He might have shelled Robertson's road block. and form. Gregg brushed the pickets aside and forged ahead. If Gregg had chosen to continue on that avenue of approach. but their brief resistance enabled their brigade. but he took off to federate leader. simply Gregg trotted away on his long detour. There the General Time flitted irretrievably past. mount. northwest on the road to Brandy Station. The Conto Stuart. They seem. while he and the two cavalry divisions swung almost due south. Kilpatrick's and Wyndham's brigades. with another five miles or more to cover. nor was a stronger force dispatched for a swift onset on the flank of the departing Union cavalry a force that could have been spared even from that small brigade. but Sheridan was still in the West. He sent Duffies and Division. to saddle. for Stuart's first notification that the Federals had appeared in his rear would come from Jones. charged."THE YANKEES ARE AT BRANDY!" 107 Robertson's pickets. to have gone astray. could not hold. a veritable Robin Hood's barn that day. not the couriers. as took his 3rd Division. Again he sent couriers to report the movement no further action. inexplicably. Cesnola's Gregg's brigades. on another road. Robertson watched the long column of Blue troopers go clattering southward. Properly the brigadier dispatched couriers to inform his superior of the enemy incursion. He found that Robertson had deployed his men in dismounted line of battle across the road that runs from Kelly's Ford via Newby's Shop and Fleetwood to Brandy Station.


if The on the vanguard impetuously trotted straight through Stevensburg on the road west which would lead it away from any part in the combat. Alert troopers on the far right of Jones's line had spotted Gregg's vanguard and promptly reported it. Jeb Stuart had already been surprised once today. does he? Well. Gray cavalry determinedly blocked it with results that will be narrated in a follow- Duffie's Then ing chapter. skirting Robertson's road block."THE YANKEES ARE AT BRANDY!" orders were to angle sharply right also led to Brandy. the division prepared to turn north as ordered. 109 that on an almost due north road three-prong attack Pleasonton had planned for his three divisions was under way. Not long before that road had been open clear through to Brandy and all the way to Culpeper. Duffie given check his wide detour. and I'll watch the flanks." officer's "Grumble's" reception of his superior acteristic explosion. B. reply was a char- He'll "So he thinks they ain't coming. off Gregg was on It tioned. The thought that it could happen twice was too humiliating to be credible. was not from the stationary Robertson but. damn soon see for himself. Now it no longer was. McClellan ." 141 let him alone. came The General readily in view of the disliked source of the informadismissed Jones's messenger with the curt answer: "Tell General Jones to attend to the Yankees In his front. Back on Fleetwood Heights Stuart had left Major H. Yet those prongs were spread out now as antlers of a gigantic stag. No wonder Pleasonton and Buford listened vainly for the sound of the guns of their comrade divisions. Buford's was blunted and in of broken. Time was lost while it was recalled and doubled back. The other two were still miles from being danger being embedded in the enemy. as has been menfrom Jones that Stuart received first warning that a fresh force of Federal cavalry was rapidly approaching and threatening the rear. by another one north of Stevensburg. Disbelief tion.

which here skirted the woods. "Ride back there and see what this foolishness Is about!" 143 Scarcely had the gunner officer started when a third messenger. that howitzer was providence on artillery.11O CLASH OF CAVALRY of his staff In charge of a message center. W. He rushed off a courier for It. it had been line of withdrawn from the It Beckham's batteries and moved back its to the foot of the hill because ammunition was almost exhausted. one of Stuart's own headquarters clerks. There a scout from one of Robertson's North Carolina regiments brought a second warning. station. alone on Fleetwood except for his messengers and with the Blue horse converging on him. making the precious rounds last as long as possible. In five minutes the man came pelting back. hard-pressed for used any that came to hand. Jeb barked an order to Captain Hart of the artillery. was doubtful. Under command was the chance presence near Fleetwood of one of Lieutenant R. light ordnance In a war where double its caliber was standard. and loaded. pointing behind him. and make sure you have not mistaken some of our troops for the enemy. They were pressing forward steadily upon the railroad which must in a few minutes be in their possession. small. the Confederacy. . Courier after courier raced off to Stuart. Carter. Still incredulous In spite of his trust of McClellan. sir. now on a undeniable. But to desperate Major McClellan. wheels. he ordered the scout. You can see for yourself. Carter galloped his piece to the crest and unhooked. Ride back. was only a six-pound howitzer. How could they be prevented from also occupying the Fleetwood Hill. Its crew flung open the lid of Its limber chest. which contained a few defective shells and some roundshot. the Yankees are at Brandy!" An outburst of sputtering carbine fire confirmed the Vital phases of a battle can hinge incident. Look yonder. "And so it was!" McClellan recalled. the key to the whole position? Matters looked serious!*' 142 One of his gallopers rushed the alarm to Stuart. single. The howitzer flamed and banged. "Within cannon shot of the hill a long column of the enemy filled the road. fortuitous Now it cannon. They fired slowly. Yankee cavalry coming and almost at Brandy! McClellan. not knowing the man. rode up with a shout. "General.

in force. with the 6th New York Battery. to pull the isth Virginia and . fresh in minds was the recent feat of Pelham. then with one when its fellow was knocked out. The brigade reined in. Stuart. It had swept through Brandy Station and galloped little As Carter's dominating Fleetwood Hill. must have strengthened the 144 thought that his enemy. together with his ignorance of what had transpired with Buford.YANKEES ARE AT BRANDY!*' in It was all important to gain time [McClellan realized]. But the enemy was deceived by appearances. He ordered the nearest brigadier. and advance as skirmishers. deploy. That the head of his column should have been greeted with the fire of artillery as soon as it emerged from the woods must have indicated to General Gregg the presence of a considerable force upon the hill. for his caution. enticing the Blue cavalry to charge into the blast of massed batteries kept silent till the range was point-blank. convinced of the second Yankee attack at last. suffer Colonel Sir Percy Wyndham's 2nd Brigade was leading: ist New and ist MaryJersey. summit a slow fire of dud shells and roundshot from one howitzer had robbed the Federal onset of its impetus. even if that could at all be accomplished. He had every reason to believe that the the New York the From hill was strongly held. a brave and experienced foreign veteran. was rushing up the reinforcements implored by McClellan to save Fleetwood. for should the enemy once plant his artillery on this hill it would cost many valuable lives to recover the ground. Wyndham's right hand rose in the halt signal. and the fact that his advance from Kelly's Ford had been entirely unopposed. We must retain this position or most seriously when enclosed between the divisions of Buford and Gregg. here awaited an attack. ist Pennsylvania land. the regiment he had trained. So once more an artillery stand bought precious time. Let guns unlimber and open. who in a similar situation at Fredericksburg had held up the advance of a full corps of Burnside's for almost an hour with two guns. Yet none can altogether blame Wyndham. howitzer spat at the head of the column from the full tilt to seize eminence. The desultory cannonade could be a ruse. Even if that piece on the hill were a lone gun. Jones. Dismount.

his Dundrearies streaming back like pennons. On their heels rode Jeb himself. As he galloped. But even Jones had one mile and a half while the go. The Blue waves surged up the slopes. to rush an order to Kilpatrick to charge at once. and "minutes expanded seemingly Into hours" last anxious McClellan. refused. was marshaled Fleetwood ridge with the converging Gray horsemen. ist Maine.112 CLASH OF CAVALRY the 35th Battalion out of the line fighting Buford and gallop hard for the hill. his that courier dispatched. mission gallantly accomplished. . two of the on the way. Twice it Lieutenant Meyer. The adjutant delivered his message. took the jump. Gregg made ready to fling in the full weight of the rest of his Shed now was the patriarchal mantle which seemed figuratively always to cloak the dignified General. He began to limber up his howitzer to withdraw. 2nd and loth New York. Captain Weir. coming up behind. no longer deceived. giving the balky animal a lead that carried it over. Regiments of Rooney Lee's latter already to and Hampton's also were urgently summoned. he swung his gauntlets over his head and hurrahed. mounted his troopers and charged at the head of the ist New Jersey. Weir put his mount at a fence. and a District of Columbia to ride hell-for-leather In a race for the company. He snapped out an order to his adjutant. the bright sun glistening on their drawn division. Colonel Wyndham. awaited the aid useless. sabers. lapping the crest. and Kilpa trick's brigade. must come quickly or be Artillery Lieutenant Carter's last round was expended now.

A.Major General Alfred (Li- Pleasonton.S.S. C. U. brary of Congress lections) Col- Major General Stuart.A. E. J. (Library of Congress Collections) . B.

(Library of Congress Collections) Brigadier General W. Jones. C.S.A.Lieutenant General Wade Hampand Lead- ton. C.A.S.A. E. (Library of Congress Collections) . (From Battles ers of the Civil War) Brigadier General Fitzhugh Lee.S. C.

A.A.S.A. U. U.S. Brigadier General David Gregg.A. McM.irigaclier kiffie. (Photographs on this p a g e r e pro d need p'om the Collections of the Library of Congress) rigadier rick.S.S.A.S. . General Judson Kil- U. U. Brigadier General John Buford. Wynd- . Brigadier General Percy ham. General Alfred N.U.

Trego. (From . Union cavalryman and a Confederate trooper.Dud between a b\ \V. E. Life Studies of the Great Armyi Drawing by Edvin Forbes. Drawing (From Battles and Leaden of the Civil War) The advance of the cavalry skirmish line.

Union horse artillery battery galloping into Drawing by Edwin Forbes. Collections) A cavalry charge. (From Life Studies f of the Great Army) . Drawing by Edwin Forbes. (Library of Congress action at Brandy Station.

by William M.The bugle call. (From Battles and Leaders of the Civil War] Camp of the i8th Pennsylvania Cavalry at Brandy Station. (Library of Congress Collections) . Hunt.

through the brigade in reserve. underfoot. led the charge. and on the left a regi- ment was posted. but had not the courage to come hand to on take us to charged companies. fighting hand to hand. formerly Lancers. On the left of the road. Waud (Harper's Weekly. Against them General Buford sent two regiments." . 1863). The Sixth fell upon these with great gallantry. afterward captured-to till they closed upon the rebs. supported by hand. Charge of General Buford's Cavalry Upon on the Rappahannock. passed round the battalion on the right. by A. These had to come out of the woods and form under fire from the batteries. upon the ridge. and resumed The regiment on the left advanced and position for another charge. against the centre the other battalions.the Enemy near Beverly Ford. in jumping which some horses fell. "On the right of the road three battalions were drawn up on column of a brigade in line of battle. was the extended right along its left a a house used as Stuart's head-quarters. regardless of the chances of flank attack from drove them. and then wheeling about. The Sixth Pennsylvania. July 4. and. R. the flank. which was directed battalion. their riders getting trampled which also At" the other side of this field the ground rose to the woods. the case and men our which shelled battery canister killing more of their men than ours. flank. "This sketch had to be made across a meadow intersected by four ditches.

(Courtesy Los Angeles County Museum) .Sam Sweeney. (Courtesy Los Angeles Coiint\ ^Iwifurn) Sam Sweeney's banjo.

Of the three southerly approaches to Brandy. and drive through to Culpeper.S. must have confidently expected Duffie and his 2nd to come up on their left. REGG Veterans remembered that the clear air of that ninth day of June carried sound well. despite the north wind.CHAPTER Ig The Blocked Division and his grd Division. for Gregg and his men to have heard artillery fire to the south In the direction of Stevensburg. Wickham's 4th Virginia to reinforce him. General Stuart had begun taking overdue precautions. the them between middle. For the moment none could have heeded the distant shots that heralded a third battle within a battle. notifying Stuart who sent Colonel W. Butler had marched his regiment to the railroad town when scouts reported that the enemy was advancing from Stevensburg. Before ordering Wade Hampton into action against the attack over Beverly Ford. 115 Navy fame. C. he had directed that one of that brigadier's regiments be detached to guard the rear at Brandy Station. Without waiting for orders he wheeled and hurried south to intercept. route. a nephew of the Perry brothers of U. Robertson. commanded by Colonel Matthew Calbraith Butler. None of them knew that Gregg infantry. turn the Rebel right. facing Federal was was holding another. but their ears were filled with the pounding of the hoofs of their mounts and the cheers of their charging squadrons. It was possible. Butler and Wick- ham were about to attempt to block one. galloping to the storming of Fleetwood. . Hampton sent the 2nd South Carolina Cavalry. unguarded by thrusting Butler.

one of Stuart's aides. the squadron two companies followed. came up as a bluecoat squadron was forming east of Stevensburg. but it was hesitant and tentative and failed to clear the woods. dismounted. D. ist The ist Union Brigade (ist Massachusetts. then fell He It it was not long in coming. As yet he had been given no direction to advance. They awaited Duffie's attack. General Wade Hampif they could. over a narrow byroad that ran through a dense copse of pine. The first ton's younger brother. relief. back upon his regiment. Rhode Island cavalrymen flooded along the right of the road. then countermarched. guided by Captain W. which Butler had put in the road. In Captain Tewksbury's Massachusetts angry troopers soon had enough of taking it without They shouted to their commander to lead a charge. and Rhode Island) was suffering from Butler's galling rifle fire from squadron action. up across the road and ready to charge again. Steady. Captain Lee Higginson's into the vortex. 6th Ohio. . Wickham was senior to Butler but did not Immediately assume over-all command. men. The second under Lieutenant Colonel Frank Hampton. The young colonel had only thirty-six troopers but he led them forward in a whooping charge which drove the squadron back upon the main body. with more Massachusetts on the left and Ohio dashing Sabers jerked from scabbards in a rasp of straight ahead. the woods along the road. he cautioned. had Stevensburg to develop the enemy's strength and delay him galloped up in sight of the town as Duffie's vanguard passed through. and deployed in the woods along drawn mounted The cover concealed the force's men. But the clamor for a charge spread through the ranks until it seemed to be an order passed down from officers through non-coms. Farley. Confederate Enfields blasted it back. Wickham's 4th Virginia was up now.114 CLASH OF CAVALRY his regiment as skillfully as his uncles handled rushed scouting craft preceding frigates off to Like light were the two detachments he fleets. position. Now with combat about to be rejoined occurred another of those chance incidents that sway the fortunes of battle. swept charged.

and coffee . the horses catch an infection of fear which rouses them to frenzy. A guidon bearer whacked the breath out of a him. struggling to the front. 146 was the rout of the 4th Virginia squadron. shouting themselves hoarse to rally with unavailing curses. remounted and led on. 146 Its officers could not rally it. and all purpose of formation or hope of combined resistance. and the bullets of the enemy whistling the mingled mass sweeps on. Troopers gave chase fleeing Rebel with its lance and captured and forced it into a ditch to a two-horse ambulance. The men. them DufE6 until peremptorily recalled "avoiding the medicines. with clang of sabers and din of hoofs. They went through Frank Hampton's twenty the rest of his men dismounted to guard flanks like a whirlwind. It left the ground strewn with dead and wounded and fifty-three prisoners in enemy hands. trying to stanch regiment was stampeded and ied in panic. Pressing upon one another. Hampton slumped over his horse's neck with a mortal wound. although that vivid description relates to the flight of a Federal regiment on another field. can indicate a place to form. strained to the utmost of their speed. liquor. They tea. a cavalry rout is dreadful. breaking down fences. knocked from his saddle. Captain Tewksbury. Part of in form line of and it cut battle. entangled in the pine woods where hitherto that two. full of stores. until utter exoverhead. having shot the man who had rode after the rout. The Captain.THE BLOCKED DIVISION 115 145 struck Tewksbury's eighty troopers of that impromptu assault the enemy first. officers wild with shame and rage. If a cavalry charge is glorious. losing their places in the ranks. darting under trees." 147 to meet a Confederate counterattack. where it overturned. flung themselves on its contents- medical and helped themselves. The Blue avalanche caught the 4th Vir- it was ginia at a disadvantage. or their commanders. stores. shrilly haustion stops them. a pistol ball in the stomach. rush madly for some point of safety upon which it may be possible Splashing through the pools of mire. Such. unhorsed Mm.

Farley's horse dropped in the road. terribly lacerated. He laid carefully and horse and sheared off his right leg at the knee.Il6 CLASH OF CAVALRY Colonel Butler. Carbines sputtered In a fierce fight with Union skirmishers. a trooper whose horse ran away with into the Rebel ranks. Regimental surgeons arrived with an ambulance and placed Farley In it in spite of his protests that the Colonel be cared for first. spotted the Gray ranks. all. It smashed Into paces Butler's right leg above the ankle. re-formed his regiment and advanced across the little stream of Mountain Run. (its loss would not keep him out of the Spanish-American War) but he managed to reach the more gravely wounded aide to help him put on a tourniquet. and Farley fell with his head on his horse's side. clutched It to him as he was taken to a farmhouse he soon died. but It was outgunned by Battery M. and died there. Lieutenant Artillery. C. 148 Colonel Butler's foot was dangling by a shred of skin . sent by Stuart. snd U. then ploughed through Farley's aide. Butler was now supported by one cannon. My fellow field saddle and horse [Butler wrote] bounded In the air and threw me. where The tide of victory was running strong for Alfred Duffle. He had suffered few casualties. when the poor moved off with his entrails hanging out toward the clover where he had been grazing In the early morning. one flank exposed by the flight of the Virginia squadron. A. routing one squadron. and lost only one captured. given his severed limb at his request. The shell struck the ground about thirty in front of the horsemen and ricocheted. field two mounted officers: Butler and Stuart's snapped an order. Those close-shooting gunners pumped shells Into glasses at his eyes. Farley. flat on my back In the road.S. Pennington. And he yet brought Into action the three Pennsylvania regiments of . as I was afterwards informed. The gunner of one of his pieces fired. The younger man. M. considerably less than the enemy. Butler later was carried from the field. The three regiments of his ist Brigade man him had had not rocked back the two opposing him. Pennington.

1 1 ) Irvin Gregg's 2nd Brigade. His total casualties throughout the four missing. but only its supporting horse battery. . battle amounted only to one man wounded and It was galloping couriers from General David Gregg that hauled back Duffie from the brink of triumph. Rejoin me at once. Duffie wheeled his regiments and retraced his course to the point where he had branched off on the road to Stevensburg. ran the urgent order. Pennington's. There is every reason to believe that Duffie was about to deliver it. as he did for the other two. weight of fresh still moment. and his service was reduced to covering the retreat across the river at the end of the day. wasted strength that should have been used then or earlier.THE BLOCKED DIVISION Colonel J. Return by the route you came. that it be allowed to inscribe Brandy Station on its guidons. The ist Brigade made no second charge. brought the message. given powers of discretion. No summons went back to Irvin Gregg. Then he swung north toward Fleetwood Hill where Gregg was having the fight of his life. So perforce the French officer serving the United States turned his back on glory. He had hesitated and was lost. For his division Pleasonton would not ask. Call up Iran Gregg and with the horsemen smash through the cracked blockade toward Culpeper! The brave and stubborn South Carolinians and Duffle's Now was Virginians holding the road could not withstand a determined assault any longer. "Duffie was on the point of scattering his badly hurt opponents when ordered to rejoin Gregg by the roundabout route Had Duffie been kept where he was he over which he had come most certainly would have broken through into the Confederate rear just when Gregg needed him most/' 149 But the orders delivered by the staffer allowed no option. He remained in reserve. Had a staff officer. he might have been persuaded to allow the 2nd Division to burst through the thin barrier on the road and ride hard for Brandy on the most direct route.

They must not have understood the urgency of their summons. standards and guidons snapping in the wind. W. and that gait would never bring them to the summit in time. Major McClellan. followed by Colonel Elijah V. For God's yards short of it. White's 35th Virginia or Laurel Battalion. its crucial crest stood almost deserted. It was Colonel A. Their column was a slender spear thrust into the 118 . At the last. McClellan spurred recklessly down the hill to meet Colonel sake. charge! They're right on you! The 1 2th Virginia in column of fours pounded up the slope. supremely tense moment McClellan from his vantage point sighted a column in gray approaching at the trot. for they were at the trot. "Grumble" Jones. his last courier dispatched with desperate appeals for help. He watched yards reel by under the galloping hoofs of Wyndham's upsurging Once in possession of that dominating hilltop. its mission valiantly performed. they would hold a natural citadel. drenched battle. Its leading files reached the crest with Wyndham's charging line fifty Harman. Colonel Wyndham. Now r~|pHE -* summit of Fleetwood Hill. Unfaltering the Virginians plunged down to meet the enemy.CHAPTER 14 Combat for a Hill by the sun. had sent those two units of his command. regiments. battle-weary from fighting Buford all morning yet still eager for action. glittering gauge of the only garrison was a single staff officer. Harman's 12th Virginia. charged up its slopes at the head of the ist New Jersey. as ordered. Carter's lone howitzer had fired its last round and was pulling out. was a As Gregg's and Brigade commander.

and to prefer a charge of not at once lead his men on to the attack. while the men of our brigades were scattered wide over the plateau. when only a hundred yards apart. others. chased in all directions by their enemies. for unquestionably he was a man of dauntless courage. and placed myself in the centre. must be taken with more than a grain of salt. "they cut it Major von Borcke of his Stuart's staff had been as incredulous as of the report that the Federals were at Brandy. effect. and threatened spot. who seemed to have to arrest him on the cowardice against him if he did This had the desired and with a enemy. scythe. calling out to would kill every man who tried to pass me. exploits he described vaingloriously in his memoirs. which had been made to facilitate the movements of our artillery. It was. heels. I reached the gap." It was high time for one of the big Prussian's deeds of derring-do. Maryland and ist Pennsylvania fanning Smashing into the 35th Battalion. however. of Fleetwood swiftly disillusioned him. Carried along for a perceived that faint cheer the regiment galloped toward the hostile regiments starting to meet us. This had the effect of arresting the flight them that I for a time.COMBAT FOR A HILL broad sweep of a vanguard. he admitted. and soon outstripping the rest by the fleetness of my charger. and over with the flat of my sabre two of those who had knocking ventured too near me. until at last. the hill. and I then managed to rally around me about a . I rode up [he related] to the Colonel. out at their in two. but two space we were charging over diminished with increasing rapidity. I we were hastening toward a gap in a fence. our disheartened soldiers broke and fled in shameful confusion. glimpse a sight that made the blood run cold in his veins the heights and Stuart's headquarters "perfectly commander A swarming with Yankees. the moment by the torrent of fugitives. lost all presence of mind. Jerseymen ist mowed down They flung the rest of It the Gray regiment's in disorder back over and down On they rushed. Now he dashed toward a breaking Confederate regiment. Some of them he performed to the hilt.

they had undeniably failed in their effort to hold the high ground. Fleetwood was in Union hands. me quite alone in the rnidst of the with some eight charging or ten men. I A great hulking Yankee corporal. and I will now attack the enemy vigorously with my whole force. when I overtook Captain White of our Staff.fields. soon left my pursuers far behind. but whose lines. the noble animal bounded forth against the Federals who were now close upon us. and was so weak as scarcely to be able to keep himself up in the saddle. 150 Confederate regiments. retarded my wounded comrade. I had on a previous occasion led to victor}-. which had responded to McClellan's appeal to save the hill. and now turning to the rear myself. Suddenly. abruptly leaving foe. "Men/" I shouted.I2O CLASH OF CAVALRY hundred of those same men whom. Follow me charge!" and putting spurs into my charger's flanks. Having to support determined to save. I urged my horse to his highest speed. and several Yankees sounded so close at our times the shouts and yells of the horses heels that I gave ever. who had fought so gallantly with me before had lost all self-confidence. General Gregg has joined me. however. they turned again to flight. and after following me a short distance. immediately gave chase after me. however. New York Battery were at its foot. howup the pursuit and I was enabled to draw bridle after a very exciting run. who had received a shot-wound in his neck. calling on me to surrender. The very same men. I had not galloped many hundred yards further. by the length of the pursuit. had indeed been repelled and rocked back The by Wyndham's assault. Not heeding this summons. "remember your previous deeds on these very. Three guns of Captain Joseph W.M. Pleasonton's Martin's 6th 12:30 dispatch to Hooker was guardedly exultant. Although they were by no means so de- moralized as von Borcke alleged. being hauled up to keep the crest secure. on this identical ground. Prisoners report that . the Yankees gave up all hope of escape. whom I was my pace considerably. and one of them was P. and clearing the fence at a part where it was too high for them to follow. had become very loose.

Its commander. Lieutenant Colonel Virgil Jersey was hard pressed. he rushed a courier to Hampton to pull out of the line and recover Fleetwood. Both Lees. yell. His saber pierced a Gray who and crashed to leaped convulsively from his saddle Revolvers spurting in retaliation killed Broderick's . Having left regiments to hold off Buford. Eighth New York. led a dash to cut a trooper. Major Morris. But sight of bluecoats on the slopes his he knew had been all Hampton needed to anticipate the orders superior would surely give. "Give They Rebel charged in close them the saber. boys!" column of squadrons. heralded their coming. Major Beveridge. Cobb's Legion in advance ist South Carolina in echelon ist North Carolina the Jeff Davis Legion- Hart's horse artillery rumbling abreast of the long lines of cavalrysections of McGregor's and Chew's batteries. Colonel Davis. the ground. Harmon was Jones's half-shattered troopers his regiment and the Laurel but carried off severely wounded. are killed. rallied and re-formed.000 cavalry here. Thrice a New Jersey guidon was lost and thrice recaptured. We have had a sharp fight. a prisoner. with a number of heavily. It would be well to send a good force of Fifth Corps toward Brandy Station. high-pitched woh-who-ey. if it can be spared. some straight on.S. as have about 100 in hospitals wounded. Eighth Illinois. and Hampton are with him. men closed in Broderick.COMBAT FOR A HILL 121 Stuart has 30. and was answered The by the ringing. deeper-toned Yankee hoo-ray until the breathless shock of contact drowned cheers with the clash of steel. Sixth Pennsylvania Cavalry. Charged front and rear. twice by its owners. among the number. on the enemy with Hampton's gray waves. His horsemen swept across the field in magnificent order. 151 others.) Cavalry. We Jeb Stuart galloped toward the key hill. and have lost we had the whole force in front of one half of my command. Jones. way out. Stuart waved them on with a shout. which rose above the smoke of battle like an island in a spume-flecked sea. Second (U. Buford and Ames have driven their whole force out of their strongest position. others diverging to thunder along the ridge. once by the ist Pennsylvania. and Captain Canfield.

Embattled Jerseymen ist The New Jersey. The brigade commander himself. Senior officers. and in turn drove him rearward. he snatched up a carbine from the ground. He caught a third's slash on his blade and drove its point into the wielder's forehead. singled out. bleeding from a leg wound. CLASH OF CAVALRY At once Trumpeter officer. prisoner. A swerve saved him from the blow of a second. He drew and fired into the corden.M. The gallant officer. was sitting his saddle a little unsteadily. . close-quarters fighting. sabers swinging. Wood dismounted and turned his mount over to the As the little musician cast about for another horse. was probably dead before he hit the ground. cut down one of his adversaries. and major down. His second in command.122 horse. when weakness from loss of blood forced him out of action. was deep in and Kilpatrick had not yet come up on its right to free it from the pressure that was grinding it down. disarmed and dismounted him. was killed about the same time. a skilled swordsman. his own mount stumbled and fell. Shelmire. a Confederate rode down on him and took him While Wood was being marched to the rear. its colonel trouble. struck by a bullet and deeply gashed by a sword cut. Its sister Maryland and Pennsylvania regiments had their hands more than full. 153 Broderick. Five assailants ringed him. Although he managed to parry the next man's blow. He would not leave the field to have it dressed until 4 P. Fortunately for Jersey. the bullet dropping a horse As he spurred through the gap. Major John H. its dilemma was not yet realized by the Gray cavalrymen who had it virtually surrounded. were meeting death or wounds in this his revolver in his path. 152 RALLY Colonel Broderick was fighting his last fight. Though it was empty. the force of it beat his saber out of his hand. Colonel Wyndham. his body lay across an enemy's. he bluffed his captor into surrender.

But Jersey flooded over the position and carved through an exit. In the heat of combat the officer showed no mercy. I had to allow I tried to the officer to ride up to and strike me. not in an the bluecoats rode yelling down on the guns. down and swung rammer staff to shoot him [Meyer declared]. two lieutenants were cut his killed defending them. he jumped a fence. He saw a Confederate officer sabering a Marylander who was begging for quarter. His horse control of our horses. and as soon as he could recover his seat in the saddle. Primarily because the artillery blocked effort to it. so the point of his saber cut into my collar-bone. however. and having only one charge left in my revolver. This did not take immediate pistol effect. I had. one of whom was dismounted. Before either of us could recover had gotten my sabre in my hand. Lieutenant Henry C. I was then being crowded into a corner. as was the custom. but the weight of the blow cut a two-quart pail. but the ball from my missed him and hit his horse. as Wyndham's command had been repulsed and Kilpatrick had not arrived. where a fence joined a building. nearly in two. that I had borrowed that morning to cook coffee in. an outlet. As I presented the pistol. In their way stood a section of McGregor's battery which had unlimbered to go into action. Finding that I was about to be cut off. by four of his followers. A gunner bowl a horseman out of his saddle. Urging my horse. He was free now. capture In the brief. since he carried copies of all General Gregg's orders on his person let alone the dismal prospect of a sojourn in Libby Prison. 154 it. then a ditch beyond This enabled me to escape with only the loss of my hat. furious fight that raged among the cannon. The latter I saw shooting at me. He then struck at me the second time which blow I parried. Meyer galloped to the rescue. I then sank under him. fallen down on the neck of my horse. which had been hanging from a knot. .COMBAT FOR A HILL charged again to hew out an avenue of escape. he struck at me. Gregg's aide he who had led the adjutant's recalcitrant mount over a fence was caught in the fringe of the conflict. Meyer. Meyer had been particularly anxious to avoid capture. so to be sure of my aim. it missed fire.

124 his CLASH OF CAVALRY painful but not dangerous thanks to the buffer pail After the battle. "Well. through some confusion of had ad- vanced only one of its three-inch rifles to Fieetwood's crest and then pulled it back to join two others at the base. that the gunners were fortified with a little stimulant. aiming with deliberation. Pelham's French gunners from New Orleans always roared out La Marseillaise. another took over the fallen man's duty. guns unlimbered. and for that they were much indulged. Under the heaviest counterbattery fire crews served their pieces coolly. you suppose I am going to cook my coffee?" wound the utensil to its Again 6th artillery. If a cannoneer fell. They swung rapidly around. Troops of other arms watched artillery in action with a certain amount of envy and admiration. Wyndham's Brigade. "They were the only ones remaining in the army who always had brandy. As they fired and loaded. this time Union. Martin's orders. It could be. battered back. they often sang. and the piece . made a valiant stand. (Another section had been detailed to support Kilpatrick. Over its summit into Captain Martin's vision loomed lead streaming pairs of artillery teams. until the inter* mingling of horsemen in blue and gray forced them to hold fire. supporting Wyndham's charge." sourly demanded the pail's congratulations "how do owner. he was greeted with a complaint instead of on his luck. had fought Suddenly a new target presented itself.) They dropped shells around the Barbour house. and Gray cannoneers swarmed around them sections of Chew's and McGregor's batteries. there was only a brief pause in the clockwork precision of their drill. mustering all within was reach. New York Battery. Hampton. reflected the envious. regiments storming up the counterslopes of the hill." 155 Chew's First Sergeant Neese saw round after round rammed into the gun he commanded until after the one hundred and sixtieth shot at top speed fire would flash around the cascabel. Puffs of smoke from muzzles were answered instantly by the three rifled pieces of the 6th New York. when he explained the circumstances that ruined lender. A hammering artillery duel began. its way out of encirclement and was off in retreat toward Brandy.

with the in tangled harness struggling in their death agonies." he recalled. piece. They could neither many for them. be defended teams much longer nor could they be pulled out. Meanwhile he kept it banging away under hot bombardment from the enemy. encircling and rear. White's troopers pistoled the limber horses. The New Yorkers had time for only one round per flanks. The licking.COMBAT FOR A HILL 125 be disabled. Captain Martin and six of his men. "At one time. worthy of laurels canister! won at Chancellorsville. "the Yankee gunners had such perfect range and distance of our position that their shrapnel and shell exploded fearfully close to me and seriously wounded two Whizzing of my cannoneers and howling shell. blasting back the horsemen. Captain Martin and his thirty-six cannoneers. There was no chance to swing the guns around. Lanyards jerked. filled exploding and screaming fragments the air that hung over Fleetwood Heights with the music of war/' 156 Detachments of cavalry supporting Martin mustered for sally up the hill against the Rebel guns. them front. Cannoneers battled with revolvers. and spraying cones of balls burst from muzzles. most of them wounded. Its cavalry support melted away. me shot. Virginia came on again. slashing sabers They were cut down and overridden. The battery commander ordered his guns spiked or wedged by rounds jammed the wrong way into muzzles. Load with Numbers One rammed home the deadly. Hastily the cavalry abandoned the idea of an attack. short-range charges. staffs. rammer were too and trail handspikes. raked the sod all around shrapnel. Yonder on the crest they loaded with canister. Martin knew now that his guns were doomed. burned out at the breech. fought . He had only men down enough left to hold off the enemy moments longer while their comrades disabled the pieces and destroyed fuses. two squadrons of Colonel White's 35th Virginia Battalion came sweeping around the west side of the hill in sudden onset Now They rode savagely down on the New York battery. Muzzles were depressed to take the oncoming horses in the knees with their blasting charges. thrusting into the position. stood to their guns.

driven off by a new attack. Nothing had been heard from Butler since he had marched south to meet the threat from Stevensburg. To the northeast Rooney Lee was being attacked again by Buford. but could not hold them long enough for Martin them to bring up the teams and limbers of his caissons and pull away to safety. Union horsemen recaptured them. The guns were men. Pleasonton would declare in his report. also temporarily taken. wounded. Conflict was widening. did not long keep the trophy guns or those of the other section. 158 had been "prolonged and spirited" and it was far from over. The rest were killed. . but how long could he retain it? The contest for that key point. 157 The Confederate cavalry- thirty-two horses were dead. which asked that the 6th New York Battery be permitted to place the name of this battle it had fought so well on its guidon.126 their CLASH OF CAVALRY way out. he would officially admit. Part of Gregg's assault had been repulsed but it was rallying. and they were ultimately abandoned on the battlefield. rising in crescendo. Today the Union cavalry Stuart had beaten so often was displaying amazing clan and stamina. Jeb Stuart had won back Fleetwood Hill. was hurtling into the Confederate left. and lost with honor. and another Blue brigade. Kilpatrick's. or captured.

and the nerves were strung to the highest tension/' charge We 127 . repulse his his loth The impetuous Lieutenant Colonel Irvine rose in his stirrups and shouted to New York. Lieutenant R. "Gallop! Charge!" For the eager troopers. one of those little things that influence a battle. safety. this fulfillment. In the lead was the loth New York. acting adjutant. Porter. battle flag streaming beside him. "Who/' he wondered. drawn was sabers flashing. Hither had led the long road from the cavalry re- cruiting station. just lost to the enemy through the squadrons his of fellow brigade commander. "can describe the feelings of a man on entering a charge? How exhilarating. then the ist Maine. He felt the blood throbbing hot in his pulses. Kilpatrick received his orders from Gregg to his brigade in echelon of regiments parallel to the railroad tracks. flung at Fleetwood Hill. the first skirmish. rode on his colonel's left. 15S in for it now. with a of Martin's ill-fated New York Battery as artillery support. B. Wyndham. the rigors of training camp. and yet how awful! The glory of success in a One forgets everything. the march to the front. then the 2nd section New York (two guns) or Harris Light.CHAPTER 15 Draw Sabers! Charge! WHEN Judson he had formed attack. the series of conflicts with too many bitter defeats the long road that had brought them now to Brandy Station. hoofs of speeding mounts pounding beneath. Kilpatrick. even personal is intoxicating! were the in one grand thought of vanquishing the enemy. Those orders came a little late seconds were counting at that point in the battle a tardiness partly due to the balky horse of the adjutant carrying Gregg's directive.

In an was mixed up and confused. Every reb in that squadron fired at me. intent Then Ing. Porter Gray countercharge that swept down on them. One sabered him. but strangely enough. Two on the capture of Colonel Irvine. Evans saw two pursuers ride down on the fallen man. But the next jump of the horse was over the embankment and out of their reach. Two flank companies of New Yorkers. One of our boys probed my assailant from the rear. probably of the horse deeming me already a prisoner. if ever. . saw saddles emptying around him. however. The rebel commander gave orders not to kill my horse. the only bullet that found Its mark was the one that burned my upper lip so badly that I thought It had been carried away. a prisoner. banging and yellor three stalwart rebels crowded past me. was delivered with such force as to partially break the parry. followed an Indescribable clashing. Lieutenant Robb and Trooper Evans put their horses at a ditch in an attempt to escape. and a reb squadron was advancing on that point.128 CLASH OF CAVALRY into a They crashed once It revolvers spurting. and Irvine desperate efforts to rally enough of our boys to attempt his recapture. the blade entering his back near the right shoulder and coming out at his breast. It was plain I must get out then. We were now so mixed up with the rebels that every man was fighting desperately to maintain the position until assistance could be brought forward. but It was of no avail. . were cut off. I was of apparent little account in their desperate efforts to reach him. Every man had all he could do to attend to himself. At was hand-to-hand combat. The allow the rear squadrons to come Instant everything front squadrons broke to the right and left to upon the enemy fresh. and left its mark across my back and nearly unhorsed me. Two jumps brought me to the embankment. I parried the blow with my saber. galloping to capture a Confederate standard. . and he dismounted. The only avenue of escape was over a high embankment of the railroad. I made not far away. I found myself with but two or three of our men near a then Just big reb bore down on me with his saber raised. . but the officer's failed to clear it and fell. which.

DRAW SABERS! CHARGE! 129 His horse scrambled out of the ditch. unlimbered. 160 The the It rest of the regiment was also borne back by the enemy's fierce onslaughts. Galloping horsemen raced past to strike the Blue cavalry beyond. a little rebel officer made a cut at me with his saber and struck my hat clean from my and I made head. steadying the ranks. It was the lot of horse artillery to face such desperate situations. dashed ahead. be left unguarded. The gunner officer limbered to the front. wavered. which had begun the advance on the hill at the column's rear. Wilson left the road. directed a short withdrawal to re-form. having to get out of that place. Twice Kilcarriages of several deep ditches. Living up to the best traditions of horse artillery. had been ordered to its front by the brigade commander. "O God. as had already been demonstrated several times in this battle. Some of their number swerved and swooped down on the isolated guns. Wade Wilson's section of the 6th New York Battery. and moved up fast. and blazed away again. squarely on the crest. too. I thought it best to get out of that place. seemingly as good as captured. patrick sent him farther forward. and the Lieutenant clung to him for something like fifty or one hundred feet when he relaxed his hold and fell to the ground. obliqued to the right. Lack- the horse ing the protection which infantry gave light artillery. While he was struggling in the ditch. he let nothing stop him. I turned and shot one of the rebels. I'm shot!" Just then as I was about to dismount to assist the Lieutenant. He cried out. the bullet taking effect in his arm. From the ridge he opened with percussion shells on enemy cavalry. careened down into and out and crashed through a fence. times. was and New York. Lieutenant J. a break for the woods. His plunged through a morass. In difficulty. the section was left the brigade drew back to re-form. batteries could depend only partially on their own cavalry to stave off an enemy assault. Only their . In its exposed when third position. Kilpatrick. Instantly the 6th Virginia charged and overran it. hit by a flank attack and raked by artillery fire. as at the present In the swirl of mounted combat they must at moment.

"Colonel Douty. anticipating the order. because of the its number of sea- men speech. and. The bearer of a rebel battle-flag was shot by Private Currant. for the cannoneers had seen the peril of their gun. I ordered the cannoneers to dismount and restore to its position the limber." Troopers who failed to bring their horses up into line ranks. the Brigade's rearmost regiment. firing with carbine and We pistol. The ist Maine . such nautical terms were part of its even in the regimental histories. cropping up "put in" to a town as a vessel puts into port. out of their perilous position. he barked a question at the regimental commander. Maine sailed Into action. Always. had dis- mounted to the restore it. The order was scarcely needed. With The ist in fine order Maine. In reversing. Such a defense Wilson and his gunners now made. Calvin S. and with revolvers gun as if determined to share its destiny in hand. Perceiving this. the choice was sur- render or stubborn. ammunition almost exhausted. Kilpatrick brusquely told him. one of the gunlimbers was nearly capsized. 162 Go faring in and do in it then.13O CLASH OF CAVALRY mobility. and valor of which any command and country may be justly proud. were surrounded by a squad of rebel cavalry. Douty. was advancing when it was met by Kilpatrick as it emerged from the woods. they defended and make its fate own. Wilson was able to pull his guns. If it came to a halt. the cannoneers being individually mounted. it "hove to. At this time [the Lieutenant declared] was displayed the heroism of the section. could save them were they free to pull out. If encircled. Those ginger sidewhiskers bristling. who would have recovered it but for the great difficulty of approaching the color with a lame and skittish horse upon which he was at the time mounted. last-ditch resistance. The flag was taken their by the ist Maine Cavalry. what can you do with your regiment?" "I can drive the Rebels/' came the answer. one wheel being in the air and the axle nearly vertical. 161 the coming of reinforcements.

Even the horses seemed to enter into the spirit of the occasion. as far as the eye could reach. and of which they were a part. and apparently as active. charging in charge. a scene of the grandest description [recalled one of the regiment's historians who rode with it]. was said to have been given "more headway. helter-skelter. wholesouled excitement as seldom falls to the lot of and thoughts of danger were for the time man to experience. Orderlies and staff officers were riding at full speed in as if the success of every direction. filled with such rare. by shrubbery (known as the "Barber House. which turned Its attention to this regiment as it emerged from the woods. apparently. moving panorama of war. but that is soon crossed. and for a moment checks the advance. were to be seen bodies of Union cavalry advancing with quick movements toward the enemy's cavalry. Officers grouped of orderlies could be seen in different localities. who were also In full sight." More headway was given the ist now as. their right. They were nearly at the with woods at right of a large open field of undulating ground. and strained every nerve to do their full duty in the day's strange deeds. But the boys could not stop to enjoy this grand. furthest from their minds. was a rebel battery. At the left." When column was ordered move faster. Nearly . obeying the least motion of rein or spur with unusual promptness. as if feeling the terrible commotion.BRAW had It SABERS! CHARGE! a 131 to "fallen astern. and one well worth all the risks of battle to witness. days of depletion by detachments and details happily vanished. And now opened before them." where General A Stuart his headquarters) . was one vast field of intense. On they went. amid a perfect tangle of sights and sounds. some squads of battle. and the A and is again on the regiment re-forms with no loss of time front is the Harris Light Cavalry. earnest action. little to one. it made its first charge as a whole regiment. superiority of their riders in this railroad cut breaks the formation somewhat. The whole had plain It was a scene to be witnessed but once in a lifetime. others moving In various quietly watching the tide direction. each the whole engagement depended upon extensive surrounded house a near the right of the front. and with their staffs.

And see! the rebel force that a moment before has driven the Harris has Light now breaks and is in full retreat. and are ready for another race. for the left of the regiment to escape its effects. and bursts a quarter of a mile away. and seeming so near as to make it impossible. as coolly as though they belonged there. and the charge goes up a cheer and a yell that must startle the very stones. On they go. For a moment the result is in doubt. if that were possible. At one two rebel troopers are riding along in the ranks of the First Maine. Some of the men cannot help dodging a bit as this goes by. as they thoroughly appreciate the This is followed by feeling which prompts such a movement. another and another. scorning to run from the "cowardly Yankees. but make poor work of it. turning neither to the right nor to the left. On they go. and the men scatter and flee. and nearly time escaping recognition and capture in the excitement. but keeps on its course. A portion dismount and open fire with their carbines. while swooping down upon them is a rebel force. it was grand! and many a man who was in that charge has at times fancied that if it were allowed to choose. The First Maine falters not. driving the enemy a mile or more. and passing by the lonely and now quiet guns that a moment before were so loudly talking. while the enemy's The . On goes the regiment. over fences and ditches. successful cavalry charge like this!" regiment at last halts. almost. Oh. the companies are re-formed and counted off. in quick succession. breaking through the ranks of two companies in their headlong speed. A shell from the battery on the right comes screaming with harsh voice along the line. The force that drove them keeps on its way. faster and faster. driving the enemy from the battery. and then the Harris Light breaks. he would say. now coming directly for the First Maine. and no one who sees them thinks of capturing them. and the others try to laugh at them." turned to a chase. coming across the field from the woods in a diagonal direction. One defiant rebel. apparently directly over the heads of the men.CLASH OF CAVALRY upon the battery. Now remains firm in his position as the regiment reaches him. exultant. as the excited boys ride over them. "Let me bid this world good-by amid the supreme excitement of a grand.

some were obliged to cut their way through small bodies of the enemy. just as the gunners were going to fire. prisoners. kept well together. as well as by some from the other parts of the field. they simply stepped into the woods at the right. and all took great risks. tearing up the ground where the Maine boys had just been. gives the order "Forwardl" and again the regiment starts. In a moment the regiment was out of the line of fire. and before the guns could be reloaded and brought to bear upon them again. It appears that the gunners left the battery. the boys had cut their way out. as the regiment swept upon it. when they returned and same ground when again took possession of their guns. As soon as he has force enough to make the attempt to return. some met their death in this endeavor. than it was here. which was now between two fires.DRAW bullets SABERS! CHARGE! make lively music about their ears. for who remained together got off the field with while of those who scattered. and were joined by a large force of their cavalry who had taken refuge in the same woods. that the remaining regiments of the brigade would come to its support. that in a battle it is the safest. His command has been scattered somewhat. if any thought was taken of the matter at all. many were taken those small loss. while the grape and cannister which was intended for the little force passed harmlessly by in the rear. Never was the fact more clearly demonstrated. being and no other Union troops enemy are near. and then. some escaped 163 by taking Stuart's headquarters. and assumes command. Lieutenant-Colonel Smith now finds himself the senior officer (Colonel Douty in another portion of the field). but the men are coming up and joining him fast. and rode straight for the battery as if to attempt to recapture it. as well as the best. He finds himself with a small command. The regiment. The is in his rear. . for each individual soldier to stick to his command. Colonel Smith suddenly changed directions to the right. alone. he wheels the command. going back over the it has just driven the enemy from. and could take care of the battery after it had been tamed. The regiment had passed on and left the guns alone. and turned them upon the regiment. supposing. where they remained till the regiment had passed.

As he fell. evanescent. fleeting. Before the Rebel in the rear could react. moves on. Out of the corner of an eye he noticed and was carrying his saber carelessly. The officer's imagination must have pictured the prison doors of Libby clanging closed behind him. They surged up the hill in answer. only a half-dozen miles diswas slow enemy crossing commander. "The moving finger writes. But one foray cut off Captain Bentook him prisoner. Robertson let chances slip when he re- mained inactive in the position he took after the at Kelly's Ford. 164 rest of his brigade. and having writ. a blow when it was its . the Tenth New York! Re-form your squadrons and charge!" he shouted. Seize it now or never. Kilpa trick turned from the ist Maine's valiant onset to rally the "Back. left and behind him. Once more Fleetwood Hill was covered with blue uniforms. Telling infantry support from the Army of Northern Virginia (at the possible cost of revealing its concentration) might have been rushed up from Culpeper. ready to thrust. wrenched the blade away. the Harris Light! Back. Here is opportunity. and sent him Tucker. He whipped it free and with a sweeping backstroke cut that the guard on his left down the mount in captor on his right. jamin to the rear under escort of three cavalrymen. Tucker wheeled his the same arc with his slashing blow. Prudently he surrendered. Tucker herded him back along with the horses of his victims." That which it had several times inscribed for both sides at Brandy Station and poised before setting down an aftermath not half a line thereof to be canceled or a word of it washed out by tears was. Smith had saved from a cannon blast by his swift maneuver. disarmed him. forestall surprise Jeb Stuart's faulty dispositions and failure to had been the first lapse. and it was no pleasant prospect. he found the point of a saber. whom the alert Lieutenant Colonel Charles H. They rode on his right and beat F.CLASH OF CAVALRY Troopers. Tucker suddenly leaned over. in the illness of to quit its bivouac ground and strike needed. Fitz Lee's brigade. and ran its owner through. held together off repeated charges. presented at his heart.

as she does for the aggressor. however. and he wrote Stuart where he could get infantry in case he needed it. Opportunity had knocked oftener at the door of the Union forces. By that time the battle was virtually over. when Duffle" hesitated before the crumbling barrier of Butler's and Wickham's troopers and was recalled to rejoin by the long circuit that kept his division out of action at a decisive moment." the situation. when Gregg himself failed to crash through Robertson's road block and instead ride to made his detour to Brandy by an unguarded route. when Kilpatrick's charge came too tardily to prevent Wyndham's repulse. although Federal reports stated that it had arrived by railroad and was a decisive factor in Pleasonton's withdrawal.DRAW tant. No Gray infantry took part. but urged him to conceal the presence of Confederate foot if it was 165 Confident in Stuart's ability to handle possible for him to do so. at The presence of the main army so close hand constituted. Jeb Stuart would have scorned to call for help except as a last resort. SABERS! CHARGE! 135 Robert E. a highly reassuring backstop. "Lee suspected that the move was simply a reconnaissance. They had not answered when Gregg's attack was delivered late because of Duffies slowness in bringing his division to Kelly's Ford. Now another and a last knock sounded where Buford's ist Division was striving mightily to punch a hole through the weakened Confederate lines and strike the rear of the troops hotly engaged with Gregg. Lee had been informed early in the morning by Stuart that the enemy had crossed Beverly Ford and was attacking. Then he ordered an infantry brigade to report to Hampton. Lee took no action until late in the afternoon when the continued roar of the guns testified to fierce and prolonged fighting. . while he in person rode toward the field. but there it lay if needed.

Yet most were aware neither of fatigue nor hunger. Buford massed his troops and launched them against Lee. Battle buoyed them up. Both Jones and Rooney Lee had ill spared regiments sorely needed to reinforce Fleetwood. and Breathed's Battery on an eminence with a fine field of fire. Lomax's 1 1 th was Virginia compelled to shorten Ms line by falling back to higher ground. few having had any sustenance all day except a swallow of water from canteens. and probably one since the day was waning. Rolling volleys mowed down Lee's riflemen under Colonel John R. Ames's stout brigade of infantry attacked with spirit. thrust onwara. the 86th and The latter because of the New York in support. overrode the sharpshooters behind the stone wall. Chambliss and broke them. when the Brigadier called on them the last was their chance. There was alry. L. to clamp the upper jaw of another Now the vise against Gregg's to the south. still another charge left in the 6th Pennsylvania Cavrushed through the gap Ames had made. scattered them. charge. fighting since dawn. Cavalry and in- T^OR * Buford's men. Numbers of prisoners were rounded up.CHAPTER Crisis in a l6 Dust Cloud had followed with dismounted action. the 2nd and Massachusetts and the $rd Wisconsin leading. interspersed They were boneweary and hungry. withdrawal of Colonel L. dismounted sharpshooters behind a stone wall. charge fantry drew on for still reserves of energy effort. Gray ranks in front of them had thinned. There he held a strong position: horsemen under cover. It But Lee's mounted men had been 136 stationed where they were for .

CAVALRY (Drawing by Charles McBarron) .CRISIS IN A DUST CLOUD 137 2ND U.S.

Wesley Merritt. Williams. the the Carolinians' Rebel raising yell. Beale's gth Virginia drew and countercharged. They hurled the Pennsylvanians back on the stone wall and battered them against it like sledge on anvil. Sol. Not a few Union cavalrymen escaped capture because they seemed to be wearing gray. L. gasped and choked as they drew it into their lungs. the Dust churned up by thousands of hoofs.138 just such CLASH OF CAVALRY an emergency. pursuing 166 led The loth Virginia. Another turn of the screw. "At this juncture. Casualties mounted on both sides. losing most of the prisoners they had taken. It was the turn of the 2nd U. Cavalry now. comIt manding the 2nd though ranking only as a captainhe was destined to become one of the ablest cavalry leaders of the war had his hat sliced from his head in a duel with a Confederate officer. T. and the vise would be closed. Most of the close-beset Blue horsemen leaped or scrambled over the barrier. and Rooney Lee was swaying in his of pistol ball through his one saddle. the its Second North Carolina Regiment. It covered uniforms with a cloak of disguise. Colonel R.S. T." regiments of Fitz Lee's brigade. dust far thicker than smoke of battle. Some elements of the two commands made contact. hand-to-hand combat. reached the by young Colonel. until a rain of shells from a Federal sabers battery lowered a protective curtain behind them. pursued at a gallop. Munford with three them almost to the mouth of the cannon. joined headlong assault. The gallant tradition behind the regiment lent it as strong an impetus as its spurs. "long delayed in coming by reason some uncertainty in his orders/* 16T But Colonel Williams had fallen with a brain. leg gashed by so grave a wound it could no longer grip leather. dashingly hill. Into action on Lee's left rode Colonel T. Revolver Men . but the stubborn Buford drove on for a junction with Gregg on blue-crowned Fleetwood Hill. and swept the regulars back. They fled. swirled around Fleetwood Hill and its slopes. In few battles have the fortunes of war swayed so swiftly back and forth as at Brandy Station. crashed into the flank of the triumphant gth Virginia and flung it back in savage.

and flags dotted with brilliant bits of color where their danced about them. The as clang of the saber. for galloping by one cannot take a second glance. Only those who stood apart and watched from the fringes could catch glimpses of the conflict in all its fury. throwing in his regiments. Blackford rode to him now with a report on the appearance of Federal infantry for which he had been especially detailed to be on the lookout Through his field glasses he had sighted Ames's foot troops advancing with . showed himself the superb battle leader he was. veteran of scores of cavalry fights. It was like what we read of in the days of chivalry. his duty to act as a dispatch rider and observe for his commander. strewn over Fleetwood were found to have perished by the sword." 168 He was spared little time for the spectacle. hurled against each other at full speed and meeting with a shock that made the earth tremble. acres and acres of horsemen sparkling with sabers. but at a target I seldom failed to hit a hat at that distance and in that manner. W. During the action [he declared]. seldom dared shoot for fear of killing their own men. in galloping from one point of the field to another carrying orders. rang ever after the battle. One such was Captain W." He saw "the lines meet on the hill. Pistol practice from the saddle at a gallop was our favorite amusement on the staff and 159 it is surprising how accurately one can shoot in this way. I could not tell with certainty what effects my shots had. In the dense clouds combatants.CRISIS IN A DUST CLOUD and carbine fire sank into diminuendo. Blackford of Stuart's staff. Blackford in fascination watched "a passage of arms filled with romantic interest and splendor to a our war degree unequaled by anything produced. General Stuart. Most of the dead. friend and foe were so mixed together and all so closely engaged that I had some capital pistol practice. unable to recognize an enemy. the commander who had so ably taken over a corps when Stonewall Jackson was wounded at Chancellorsville. and emptied every barrel of my revolver twice at close range. now become face. the horsemen fought face to pre-eminent weapon louder.

If a man must gloriously than astride a gal- loping steed charging into the midst of the foe? So officers and troopers of the Gray and Blue died on Fleetwood Heights that afternoon as they joined combat in milling masses and desperate single encounters. flourished his long. had anticipated the need and started a division toward Brandy. as previously related. Hart's guns rumbling in their wake. nostrils distended. tensed for the moment Mori of impact. The battery swung out lifted. Its com- mander's right arm A clenched punched toward the slipped enemy. and cannoneers pieces. from saddles rearward. The blast of a trumpet. to unlimber the Limbers and led horses trotted salvos of shrapnel at a- The cannon roared. Stuart had sent Lomax's . 17 a cheval. Young and Black led their surging waves straight uphill. Meanwhile Fleetwood was about to be stormed once more by the Gray cavalry. Black's ist South Carolina in echelon to the left. General Lee. The other regiments circled to smash into flank and rear. It was the Union that finally gave way. snorted and catapulted forward. au galop fall in battle. bearded saber and led his squadrons in a thundering charge along the ridge from the direction of St. dispatching his staff officer on the sixmile ride to Culpeper. Three range of two hundred yards burst among the Blue cavalry holding the summit. mangled havoc wrought by the shells plunged the charging horsemen in gray. Teams wheeled. sabers out thrust. To the right and fore the moment of Wade Hampton decision. the Toward Riders bent low over their necks. to find an open fist field of fire. Then the surging ranks of Baker's ist North Carolina and the Jeff Davis Legion. galloped the Cobb Legion under Pierce Young. Stuart in counter-measure at last called for infantry support. soaring above the din. skull-splitting Big. Horses. how meet death more the cavalryman's fate. James Church.140 CLASH OF CAVALRY Buford's drive toward Fleetwood. Now the crisis. repeated his signal for action front.

Todl) .CRISIS IN A DUST CLOUD 141 THE HAMPTON' LEGION (Drawing by Frederli P.

Gray troopers next day buried the dead. ambulances with the wounded. Galling as it was. flushed with success. I Wandered Woods" WALT WHITMAN. conforming in the retreat. and the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac marched back unpursued to its base. and Pleasonton's orders for a general retreat were as welcome as they were wise and timely. brushing aside opposition and riding over Martin's silenced guns. harried by the fire of the Rebel cannon above them. and soldier's grave. this time by the railroad bridge. The Blue squadrons ebbed down the slopes of Fleetwood. true. that cannonade proved a blessing for its target. comes my loving comrade. pulled back as rapidly as he could. That strong regiment made the last charge of the day. the inscription rude in Virginia's woods. More of Beckham's artillery took position on the ridge Hampton was scouring. splashed through Beverly Ford. to threaten the enemy's rear and his line of withdrawal through nth Brandy Station. on the battlefield they held undisputed. made good Gregg's grd Division. Hampton. their own and the enemy's. Buford. Foot and horse. "As Toilsome Virginia's . covered by the fresher troops of the 2nd. had shells launch another charge when the barrier of bursting dropped between him and the enemy. The Battle of Brandy Station was over. his horsemen shielding the gallant infantry who had served him so well. cautious. Gregg's men had reached been about to the cover of the woods.142 CLASH OF CAVALRY Virginia sweeping around the hill. Comes before me the unknown Bold. their crossing of the Rappahannock. Gregg's bolt was shot. Before he could rush a command to the artillery to cease firing. Was it only twelve hours ago that they crossed it? It must have seemed incredible to men who slumped in their saddles as exhaustion from almost constant combat suddenly struck them.


However." 171 Even after the burials on June 10 the once pleasant greensward was noisome. escorted by a strong force of infantry. captured. Official records 172 give the following figures: Union killed. Pleasonton's report of he believed he had prevented "Stuart from making severely. on his opponent's captured orders and letters. tested your mettle and found it proof-steel. wounded. Such has been the aftermath of many a "famous victory" before and since Blenheim. and the bluebottle flies were swarming so thick over the blood stains on the ground room enough to pitch the tents among them. He found the earth "was covered so thickly with dead horses and men. 175 was made in his most "flamboyant" 176 177 he issued to his command congratulatory order Comrades! two divisions of the enemy's cavalry and artillery. he said. have contained such papers. or missing A 866. In any case an attacking force ordinarily suffers more are rival claims a criterion. unlikely to raid. It was a point of pride to place it on the eminence he and his men had fought so hard for and finally won. less 10 stated which he was to have commenced this morning. No such captures had been made except for Major Beckham's field desk. a visit quickly dissuaded him. Your saber blows. with flocks of turkey buzzards gorging themselves on the that there was not bodies of horses. inflicted on that glorious . 173 The Union commander was completely wrong. 174 Stuart at the time contemplated no His duty was simply to screen the concentration of the Army of Northern Virginia for whose northern Invasion General Lee did not receive approval until the arrival of a letter from the Con- federate War Department Stuart's claim to a victory manner. Even June his raid." an estimate based. Brandy Station whose victory? Or was It a drawn battle? count of casualties supplies no answer. The declared: dated June io. excluding the 35th Virginia Battalion were heavy and whose inclusion would have brought totals closer.144 CLASH OF CAVALRY General Stuart the previous night had ordered his headquarters camp pitched on Fleetwood. where losses Confederate 485.

captured three pieces of the latter without losing a gun. routed the cavalry and artillery. wounded. it would at least give no information or comfort to the enemy if he happened to read it. You confronted with cavalry and horse artillery alone this force. "Tell it not in Gath. However the order affected the Gray troopers. publish it not in the Streets of Askelon/' But what verdict would be rendered by Robert E. and added six flags to the trophies of the nation. The anxious father paused to learn with relief that the to When wound was not mortal and across the being taken of his third-born. The troops were well and skillfully managed. in response to Stuart's report. have taught them again the weight of Southern vengeance. Lee? So Stuart and all of the Army of Northern Virginia undoubtedly wondered. "and missing at least double our ing own.CRISIS IN A DUST CLOUD 145 day. Let the example and heroism of our lamented. "The dispositions made by you. causing the entire force to retire beyond the Rappahan- nock. he General Lee rode up from Culpeper toward the close of met his severely wounded son Rooney being carried to the rear. "to meet the strong attack of the enemy appear to have been judicious and well planned. Stuart's screen had not been penetrated. fallen comrades prompt us to renewed vigilance and inspire us with devotion to duty. With an abiding faith in the God of battles. your successes will continue. and the Union high command could be assumed to continue in the dark as to Confederate intentions. and a firm reliance on the saber. make With certain that good care was the Federals in full retreat Rappahannock. possession could be considered nine points of the law of victory. held the infantry in check. An act of rashness on his part was severely punished by rout and the loss of artillery. strongly posted in the woods." ran his letter to Stuart. dealt with the means by which those objectives had been achieved: the conduct of the action. Lee's comment. besides inflicta in loss killed. Nothing but the enemy's infantry. and with few exceptions . saved his cavalry from capture or annihilation. the battle. the battleground lay in the hands of his and cavalry.

consequence originally exposed reinforcements to extreme reluctance greatly needed spare displayed by General Lee.146 CLASH OF CAVALRY "re- conducted themselves with marked gallantry/' 17S That was 179 assuring if not quite so laudatory as might be desired. Taylor. a heady stimulant. Walter H. And Station. formidably sustained in a day-long battle. Surely as some of the combatants sensed it they battled through that long day. was the grave concern caused in the Confederate War Department. But Brandy Station's culmination towered far above any quespoint in the war was increasingly tion of victory or defeat. Another tangible result of Pleasonton's sudden and unexpected attack. It was nearly an even fight/ 1 had not been the purpose of the Union Cavalry Corps. most of them veterans. The invasion of the North by the army might now leave the capital more dangerously the authorities In than envisioned. to hold ground but to develop the strength and discover the designs of the enemy. their replacement at this difficult and gradually approaching the impossible. for with few exceptions itself Brandy it had losses it comported with its accustomed valor. 181 The considerable force of Confederate cavalry it en- countered confirmed suspicions that offensive action by the of Army Northern Virginia was in preparation. into minds dulled . In the retreating Blue column it must have seeped. summed up the battle fairmindedly in a personal letter: "Altogether our cavalry is justified in claiming an advantage. but by the suffered. although neither side can be said to have 18 gained a great deal. too. In those respects it largely It succeeded. In contrast the North could well afford its heavier casualties in the battle and restore the regiments* strength in men and mounts with comparative ease. further drained the South's dwindling manpower. Serious." Lee's adjutant. Troops withheld and some substitutions of untried brigades would have highly unfortunate repercussions at Gettysburg. Richmond could be menaced by another such raid. Hooker planned counteraction. Officers and troopers who had fallen. the Confederate cavalry had been markedly hurt at not in its self-esteem. was the number of horses killed or crippled. making a reconnaissance in force.

fessedly inferior to the Southern horsemen. Now they were learning to ride and fight at the same time.CRISIS IN A DUST CLOUD 147 by fatigue. "disconcerted and disillusioned. would look up with deep pride Station. and gotten away in gray troopers would no longer have it all their good own way. had faced the Rebel cavalry and fought it to a standstill. whose prompt and gallant action saved first Union assault. and October. blazoned on their fluttering guidons: Brandy . July. they conceded. first For the declared] blue cavalry time in the war [another of Stuart's biographers had come over in dangerous force. and the last scene at Yellow Tavern. proinflicted voked combat." would not outwardly admit it. In The Brandy Station. Those Yankees. Up to that time con- One this battle. They had quit the field but in good order. laid at last. 185 Henceforth cavalry regiments in blue. once contemptuously branded Yankee shoemakers and mechanics on horseback. The Union cavalry's gain in self-confidence was priceless. and Sheridan. The specter of the Black Horse Troop was longer could comrades of other arms jeer. which fought on that at an inscription Virginia field. would write: result of incalculable importance certainly did follow it made the Federal cavalry. and for hour on hour these troopers. Fleetwood from the Major McClellan. If Jeb Stuart. Thence- No would never lose it. heavy damage. "Whoever saw a dead cavalryman?" Let them go look at the graves on Fleetwood. they gained on this day that confidence in themselves and in their commanders which enabled them fields of to contest so fiercely the subsequent battle- 182 June. Stuart's adjutant had not considered deeply enough when he wrote that neither side had gained a great deal at Brandy Station. could always fight. Recognition and acknowledgment of the new spirit by the enemy set a seal upon it. order. Gettysburg was foreshadowed. and it bred final victory. the tribute to be rendered by a member of his staff and his future biographer was all that could be forth they asked.

mounted and dismounted action. Middleburg. And Pleasonton rode to meet him. Only Duffie".CHAPTER 17 "He Has Sounded 33 Forth the Trumpet could be no resting on laurels gained at Brandy Station little for the cavalry of either side no resting after that battle. June 10. Stuart screened the advance of a column through the Shenandoah Valley. four of his officers. but success was marred by the debacle of the unfortunate Duffie". and twenty-seven troopers managed to cut their way out of the cordon and escape. he was cornered by Robertson and Chambliss and his regiment shattered. Now they were convinced. as was the enemy. At both Middleburg and Upperville Stuart was rocked back. All three encounters sustained and increased the confidence the Union cavalry had won fierce at it Brandy Station. The antagonists clashed in engagements. guarding the Blue Ridge gaps. The Federals held the field at the end of the fight at Aldie. suffering more than five hundred casualties and forced to retreat. one of On Lee's corps marched from Culpeper and led off the invasion of the North. 148 through the duration of the . in his turn. that had been no brief candle but a beacon that would light them conflict. and for the remainder of the war. and Upperville. 1863. Detached to make a reconnaissance with the ist Rhode Island. screening the counter- moves of the Army of the Potomac. at Aldie. reconnoitering and.

delivered in the belief that Meade would counterattack been compared to the charge of the Light Brigade at Balaklava. But it had driven two after Pickett's repulse. charges. None of the regiments that launched it . and it was as rashly ordered. Suffice it to say that it him from army had not been effective in providing sorely-needed information. Gregg and his men enemy's rode to meet them. It challenged him to perform an exploit that would reputation. He would take three brigades (his favorite ones) and leave two with the Army of Northern Virginia. battered back. Stuart and his and strike the cavalry attempted to circle the Federal right rear."HE HAS SOUNDED FORTH THE TRUMPET" 149 Another important consequence of the Fleetwood fight took place at this point. described. his troopers and horses weary. roundabout march from Brandy Station to Gettysburg. by Buford's Division. Again was waged such desperate combat. Not only the strength he withdrew but his personal leadership How Stuart executed has often been delayed reaching Gettysburg until the afternoon of the second day. that plan. and its making reaped no redemption but sowed some of the seeds of defeat. a service in which Stuart excelledand was not there to give. and its fine scouting as the battle developed. as bravely pressed. and as definitely shattered. His was a long. It has miles deep into the enemy's lines over stone walls and against artillery and rifle volleys. It was the Gray horse. But the ridge east of town was not another Fleetwood. The two brigades remaining with the would be gravely missed. and countercharges as Brandy Station had known. A little later that day a great charge on the Confederate right flank was made by Farnsworth's and Merritt's men of Kilpatrick's Division over rough terrain. 1863. stretching Lee's permissive orders. Criticism by the Richmond press was stinging Jeb Stuart. that left finally retreated that day and the high ground to their adversaries. and harassing its crossing of the Potomac. "Probably inspired by this/' 18 * Stuart put forward his plan of riding around the rear of Hooker's restore his damaged army. armed now with the new Spencer repeating carbines. Gettysburg saw the stubborn defense on July i. On the third. as he had McClellan's.

became a permanent camp. Army It had made gallant history and it would make still more. Its sidings held many cars loaded with supplies dumps or the wagons of a vast park. Accommodations for visiting wives and sweethearts. Consequently these of most regiments days there were far fewer crippling cases of greased heel. Blue and Gray cavalry clashed again around Brandy Station in 186 During the winter September. wind and weathered it. which turned for transfer to left their for rumps and well to the biting fed. But from the June battle onward it rode downhill. Hooting locomotives of the Orange and Alexandria Railroad hailed the station often. and thrush. toward surrender at Appomattox. A field hospital. . as Brandy Station stalls. was from Brandy Station that the Army of the Potomac marched in 1864 to Petersburg and the siege that marked the opening of the last act in the drama of the great conflict. and November of i86g. headquarters of the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac. Brick fireplaces for generals' tents. blacksmith and wheel- Commission. were well cared The recruits of '61 were cavalrymen now. yet they were plainly fired by its spirit. Sheds and wright shops. Gradually refinements and comforts appeared. layers of brick or plank covered with straw. then also of the II Corps. down slopes steeper that little From the of Northern Virginia than Fleetwood's. renewed in the swallowing mud. soon expanded by the Sanitary A stockade with shelters for prisoners. Mounts had dry footing. scratches. rain-drenched horses. October. Rustic cottages built by the Engineers. Reluctant to squelch through quagmires of red Virginia mud huts troopers to the picket lines where cold. of 1864 the vicinity definitely became Union territory. reviews. confronting the enemy based at Orange Court House. town of the mellow name the Cavalry Corps of had begun its march to final defeat. Once more the battleground was the scene of parades. and balls such as Jeb Stuart It had staged in that bygone June of 1863.150 CLASH OF CAVALRY at had fought 185 Brandy Station.

ravaged by repeated enemy raids notably the fertile Shenandoah Valley. Returns of March. the bowlegged infantryman 187 from the western front. Not until Grant took over the army command and backed him up did Sheridan in a measure get his way. Losses in men and mounts became irreplaceable. Sheridan insisted."HE HAS SOUNDED FORTH THE TRUMPET" Valor was not enough. Rooney Lee. Among the talents of General George Gordon Meade. for his cavalry in the Army of the Shenandoah and the Army of the Potomac showed 591 officers and 12. One by one the leaders fell. Keep the cavalry together and employ it as a cohesive striking force. 1865. as Fitz Paramount were the facts that from Brandy Station on the Con- federate cavalryman was matched in fighting quality and the skills of the arm by his Union counterpart. By the fall of 1863 he headed and soon was able to fight to the hilt with three divisions 10. same. Regiments were scattered again to guard wagon trains and serve as pickets. the latter recovered from desperate wounds sustained at Gettysburg. A bright flame was quenched when Stuart was mortally wounded Yellow Tavern. Never afterward would the Gray horse be the The doughty "Grumble" Jones was killed in action. Leave such duties to infantry. He came none too soon. splendid leader of cavalry. Phil Sheridan. and that a new commander took over the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac. its Stuart from the beginning. After Gettysburg the Federal horsemen were threatened by a dangerous decline The Gray horse had had to something like their former status. the ability to use cavalry effectively was markedly lacking. that hot-tempered. hard-driving. difficult both to obtain and their opponents' They could no longer live off the country in the theater of war. captured in his home as he lay recuperating from his Brandy at to transport. once available.836 enlisted .000 men. was not exchanged for some time. but the Blue had waited long for Sheridan. commanding the Army of the Potomac. Station wound. led on till the end. Those that remained were weakened by scanty rations and forage. which they could not obtain except by capture. They were whittled 151 over- down and whelmed by tremendously increased fire power from the repeating carbine. Such stalwarts Lee and Wade Hampton. then only a few and with little ammunition.

1863. unavoidable. when bitterness who had worn had faded. those returns show that various evils of detachment men had been corrected. that third-officers. Yet memories so vivid they needed neither veterans. However. Grant Petersburg and Richmond his trophies pressed pursuit of the retreating remnants of the Army of Northern Virginia. It would stand as a shining sequel to an inscription on a higher stripe: Brandy Station. His one-time enemies crowded around him on Fleetwood Hill. speech! they told him. not designated as a National Military Park. both sides came there together. Speech. bullet-torn and shell-rent: Appomattox. other way 'round today. and the rest-are outside the province of this The book. and mounts-was ready for not. of the war Five Forks. Their campaigns were a jaws of a large-scale Brandy Station. At last with the victorious Sherman forging up from the south. You fellows outnumbered us here in '63. monument nor parked cannon drew back the gray or the blue. 1906. Yellow cavalry battles of the last year Tavern. One plaque near Kelly's Ford commemorates the gallant Pelham. and that was the end. Surely at the finish of that long. even then. 188 Although many absences were necessary and absent. but it's the The lone Union trooper . Sheridan could call upon only a little over one-third of his assigned forces for immediate battle. joking.X g2 CLASH OF CAVALRY with an aggregate strength. At a joint reunion in August. fighting march there were Union cavalrymen who looked up at their guidons. Again the threatening jaws never met. to the scene of that clash of on mighty cavalry June 9. Years after the war. present and present for duty. A gap remained through which Lee might have slipped to join still-resisting Confederate troops to the southwest and prolong the war for a time. only one Yankee managed to attend. 189 There are few markers on the battleground beside the Rappahannock. of 38. Sheridan flung his cavalry squarely across that last line of retreat. last.6s3. the closing of the vise. as a breeze unfurled their folds. Winchester. Now a new and a final legend would be emblazoned on a stripe of those miniature American flags. combat. troopers.

Thereafter only tokens of the past remained: the crossed sabers insignia with a tank superimposed and the continuance on the army list of the names of famous cavalry regiments. Those bred in the tradition of the cavalry beloved arm were disbanded in the First would chafe when regiments of their World War and find what and consolation they could in serving in the horse-drawn field artillery. and a handful along with their sons in Cuba and the Philippines in the war with Spain. "I desire to say that this visited is to the platform but then came may call you such. as machine gunners and military police. Hoofbeats there before them. "Comrades. Yet surely in the halls of Valhalla who rode they still tell of Brandy Station to fellow cavalrymen on." he declared. and the glint of their sabers has vanished in the mists of time. In them his spirit still lives. and each time experienced a warm re- ception. . names that are imperishable. The Blue cavalry and horse artillery of the Army of the Potomac and the Gray of the Army of Northern Virginia they who fought the mounted arm's greatest battle in our history that day nearly a century ago by the Rappahannock fords they have all ridden have long since faded. that the horse soldier bequeathed to his heirs. some of those cavalrymen who sheathed sabers in 1865. through the Indian wars. the dash and elan. Their grandsons would follow Pershing into Mexico."HE HAS SOUNDED FORTH THE TRUMPET" refused until they dragged 153 him if I through nobly. armored now. the second time in I my life that I have Brandy 19 Station. the armored columns and the air squadrons." They would ride again. Yet more than a token are the tactics.

from the dragoons of the Revolutionary legions to troopers in olive drab. and Philippine and Manchurian and ponies. yet still wearing cavalry's insignia and fulfilling its functions. in swamp and jungle.Appendix A U. when first the Confederate and then the Union horse won a world reputation. after God. too. cavalry came into its own. Bernal Diaz. HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE FAIRFAX CAVALRY DOWNEY A MERICAN cavalry made Its first important appearance XJL Revolution. As the area of conflict shifted to the treeless plains of Mexico and the western frontier. Honored." 154 .S. though greatly limited by the amount of open country available. and Keogh's Comanche to troop horses Morgans. and in the wars the true cavalry with the Indian tribes of the West. are cavalry mounts. on distant islands. Jeb Stuart's Star of the East Virginia. Often as true of the U. Cavalry has fought on three continents. learned spirit. paid the steeds with which Cortez vanquished the Aztec Empire: "For. set an example for the future development of the mounted arm.S. U. we owed all to our horses. developed from a social into a military organization. It reached a high point of achievement in the Civil War. Its actions and campaigns. and trained able leaders and troops. Cavalry was the tribute the Conquistador. from celebrated chargers such as Sheridan's Winchester. on prairie and mountain. Horsed or afoot and finally motorized. Some of the most glorious traditions in American military history were established by cavalrymen by famous commanders from Light-horse Harry Lee to Pershing and Patton and by the men they led. Although with little previous experience men had served only occasionally in the Colonial Indian it in the (horse- wars) . Custer's Vic and Dandy. mustangs.S.

American troop- were able to fight British veterans on equal terms. as at Kings Mountain. One of our few land victories in the War of 1812. and the South. American cavalry distinguished itself in the New Jersey campaign and particularly in the South against the formidable British cavalry ers The commander. uniformed and paid (one South Carolina troop received its pay in "large and small" "tho' his cavalry. years the United States was without any regular However.. the Middle States. and rolls show its captain due 39^4's slaves). first American Chief of Cavalry. Finally cavalry helped pen Cornwallis in on the Yorktown peninsula. a raid by a dozen troopers on a British outpost in New Jersey.APPENDIX 155 An American cavalry action. who was mortally wounded in a charge at the siege of Savannah. the arm was increased to four regiments of dragoons of the Continental Line. consisting of both infantry. brought back prisoners with vital information enabling General Washington to win the Battle of Those twelve dragoons were half of all the cavalry Washington then had members of the Philadelphia City Troop. mustering Negroes. Colonel Banastre Tarleton. Cavalry's promising career came to a full halt after the Revolution the entire army was disbanded except for an artillery detachat when ment West Point. Princeton. and for periods of mounted force. At times troops or regiments were reactivated but soon mustered out for reasons of economy. was made of mounted riflemen who rode to battlefields and then fought dismounted. Some effective use. several separate legions cavalry and light on the Roman model. Long before they were reinforced by cavalry of our French allies. father of Robert E. then called Commander of the Horse. . and in William Washington. was won by a charge of Kentucky cavalry. cavalry in active intervals fought in Mad Anthony Wayne's Indian campaigns in the Middle West and with Harrison at Tippecanoe. Mounted and trained. and troops of the irregular horse such as stanchly fought the well-mounted Tories in New York. too. forcing the British surrender. the Battle of the Thames. Brilliant and dashing leaders appeared in Light-horse Harry Lee. up gentlemen of fortune." From such small contingents he built horsemen in New England. foxhunters and good riders good soldiers. as the General granted. Dragoons. was the Polish Count Pulaski.

service of cavalry in the Civil is War. hard-drinking dragoon regarded himself as belonging . Cavalry.S. Indian cavalrymen in the U. B. Lee. still served against the Creeks and Until shortly before the Civil War.] text. the 2nd Dragoons. Doniphan led a cavalry expedition and Stephen Kearny and his dragoons. Stuart and Fitzhugh Lee. deep into the Southwest. Phil Sheridan. His weapons were sword and pistol unless he belonged to the mounted rifles. On frontier service he was a picturesque fellow. fought in the wars on the tribes of the West and Southwest that extended from 1865 to 1890. J. to an elite arm border wars put mounted troops on of the service. E. the American cavalryman was called a dragoon after his European prototype. Army. He wore a crested helmet as protection against saber strokes. winning fourteen and charged whose service dated battle streamers for its standard. took part in virtually every engagement from Palo Alto to Chapultepec. as did their great opponent. partly covered in the here omitted. Seminoles in Florida. though many a hard-fought field was won by the steady fire of the infantry. His able cavalry leaders in the Civil War. two of them composed of Negro troopers called by the Indians "buffalo soldiers" because of their wooly hair. One regiment. and Scott's campaigns and serve combats emerged cavalry commanders conflict who would in the great Brilliant reconnaissances. back to the Seminole War. bearded and with flowing locks (as late as 1851 only cavalry regiments were allowed to wear mustaches) The hard-fighting. In the lancers War with Mexico. His a permanent basis in the army. Only cavalry could main clinch victory by pursuing and rounding up the hostiles and attack- ing their winter lodges. then an mounted and dismounted. made a tremendous fighting march of more than a thousand miles from Santa Fe through to the California coast. won their spurs in fights with the tribes of the Southwest and West. and breeches in high jack boots. whose original arm was [The infantry. . Ten regiments of Regular cavalry. were made by Robert Engineer officer but later lieutenant colonel of the 2nd U. far superior to mere infantry. later Indian From that Taylor's followed. short jacket.156 APPENDIX also mounted and dismounted. E. shifting to mules when their horses wore out. United States Cavalry met Santa Anna's his batteries.S.

saw action in 1918 as a mounted command. Fighting Joe Wheeler. boys. Horse marines became a to fact when Marine Corps companies were mounted to patrol in Manchuria. led a charge on the Spaniards. but trench warfare and the machine gun of World War I forced conversion of most of them into field artillery. fighting in the Aisne-Marne sector. Regular and volunteer cavalry served in Cuba.APPENDIX such as the Pawnee and Apache scouts. Crook's conquest of the Apaches and his use of pack rnule trains to supply his cavalry. and the Philippines in the Spanish-American War. Only one regiment. such former cavalry leaders as George Patton exchanged chargers for jeeps and tanks. Lieutenant Pershing led a troop against the Moros in the Philippines and rose to command the 1916 expedition into Mexico rode down and after Villa. were invaluable. Commanding armored columns. a mighty march of 145 miles in 28 hours. Two troops of the 6th Cavalry rode with the American contingent quelling the Boxer Rebellion in China. former Confederate cavalryman. At Las Guasimas. Cuba. U. at St. . Porto Rico. We've got the damn Yankees on the run!" Wood's and Roosevelt's Rough Riders fought valiant dismounted actions but had be extricated from a tight corner on San Juan Hill by the loth Negro Cavalry. Black Jack's aide. The advent of mechanized warfare in the First World War and its dominance along with the dive bomber in the Second sealed the doom of horse cavalry. Remaining mounted regiments became field artillery. "Come on. Cavalry reached a strength of twenty-five regiments in 1917. the 2nd. service of our cavalry in the Indian Wars included such episodes as: the feat of Mackenzie and the 4th Cavalry who invaded The Mexico. and rode back across the border. turning the clock back with a yell. killed a Mexican general with his pearl-handled revolver. the pursuit of Chief Joseph and the Nez Perces who fought one of the greatest rear-guard actions of all time.S. Several regiments of Indian Cavalry had served in the Union Army in the Civil War. defeated Indian raiders in a sharp fight. Mihiel and the Meuse-Argonne. young Lieutenant Patton. the Little Big Horn campaign and the wiping out of Custer and a third of his 7th Cavalry.

charge!" The words were scarcely spoken. Army Regu- lations state." is sounded only on carriers as a signal to pilots to man their planes. Charles O'Malley. and amid all the gun carriages and caissons.* Dragoon. Bill Mauldin satirized it when he drew an old cavalry sergeant pistoling his broken-down jeep. The stirring trumpet call. flying artillery galloped of the into with lightning. its name. the pace increased at * The charge described in the extract took place in the May 12. insignia. and colors of the cavalry organizations shall be transferred and perpetuated." NOTE. troop of at forth and.158 APPENDIX The mounted arm's tradition died hard. guns at our called out: left. coats of arms. AS we came on the scene became one of overwhelming excitement. after its withdrawal from Lingayan Gulf to Bataan. and Horse cavalry no longer exists in the U. In World War II the is^-th Cavalry (Texas National Guard) served in India-Burma. . was compelled to destroy its ponies and fight on foot. Appendix I. the welcome sound. -^A. wheeling their top speed. The gunners sprang from their were already unlimbered. and at the same instant the long line of shining helmets passed with the speed of a whirlwind. the 243-245. Yet cavalry's spirit. the voices of the staff officers rose as they hurried along the retreating battalions. "the histories. battle honors. the masses of the enemy that poured unceasingly from the crash of town could now be distinguished more clearly. 1809. when a loud cheer answered the ing fire to cover the retiring seats. and its functions survive in the Armored Force where. during Wellington's Peninsular Campaign of Battle of the Douro. when Sir George Murray. close up. prepared for a flankguns position speed high A column. B Irish CHARLES LEVER. Gill for the following amendmentsAfter World War I the ist-isth Regiments were retained mounted until the iggo's. riding up "Forward. that regiment. Army today. The author is Indebted to Rowland P.S. The last unit to fight mounted was the 26th Philippine Scouts. "Boots and Saddles. the Napoleonic wars.

"Well done. i4th!" said an old gray-headed colonel. as he spoke. and a plunging fire was opened upon the thick and retreating ranks of the enemy. lads!" The blood trickled from a saber cut on his temple. . and it was only when the column wheeled to reform. "There go the Germans!" said Power. but stayed us not as we galloped madly on. too. The scene was now beyond anything maddening in its From the walls of Oporto the English infantry poured forth in pursuit. but he either knew it not. but never till now did I know how far higher the excitement reaches upon the foe. pointing to the remainder of our brigade. the road became blocked. and. and. stirred the very heart within.APPENDIX every stride. irregular discharge from the French guns shook the head of our advancing column. by broken carriages and wounded. we felt all the glorious enthe hound. the ranks 159 grew closer. The artillery thundered from the Sierra. a damaging fire now opened from the town upon the retreating column. interest. as they charged furiously upon the French infantry. to add to their discomfiture. One broken. "gallantly done. and rode them down in masses. behind the advancing squadrons. the smoke. they still continued to cross over. arm to arm. or heeded it not. and cut off the guns of the enemy. Our guns came up at this time. like the dread force of some mighty engine. answered by the cheer of the joyous huntsman. On we went. while the whole river was covered with boats. the crash the cry for with the shout of victory the flying enemy the quarter mingled of shrieks the wounded are all co-mingled in my mind. as. and perceived that we had carried the position. while the brigade of Guards and the sgth pressed hotly on their rear. that I awoke from my trance of maddening excitement. the carnage must have been terrific. the loud shout of "forward" ringing in our ears. when the loud cry of fell when. man to man. along his cheek. The speed of the flying columns grew momentarily more. we ride forward to still the battle-field. saber to saber. I remember no more. agonizing but leave no trace of clearness or connection between them. I have thusiasm of a fox-hunt. as he rode along our line. the din. for the long breaches in their lines showed where the squadrons of the cavalry had passed or the most destructive tide of the artillery had swept through them.

that we were ordered to retire from the road. Column after column and not even a cannonpassed before us. and preresisting pared once more to meet them. we were upon them. unmolested and unassailed. when suddenly some squadrons of cuirassiers debouched from the road. we remained How for the officer take ground galloped up with the order to and nearer to the river. when the full tide of victory ran highest in our favor. which opened a narrow by a bridge upon a large open space. and the cavalry. was now. Here we wheeled. dashed impetuously up. in the uniform of a general. forming with we the in a actually rode front. but not a man appeared. shot arrested their steps. However. little did the sense of praise we had already won repay us shame and indignation we experienced at this moment. swept the broken ranks. the enemy with the stubborn courage of men fighting for their last of ground. "What can he mean?" "Is there not some mistake?" "Are we never to charge?" were the muttered questions around as a staff Some unaccountable timidity of our leader directed this movement. for it was even still contested in places. The French rearguard was at this moment at the narrowest part of the road. he held his plumed cap high above his head as he called out: "i4th. supported by a field-piece. our fellows dashing madly forward where the ranks were thickest. and. This was the moment that the remainder of our brigade should have come to our aid. declivity were twice and the French them down. they broken. So impetuous was the charge of our squadrons that spot we stopped not till piercing the dense column of the retreating mass. there was not an instant to be fire . Twice formed. still further back. and every moment increased our danger. charging the retiring columns. we reached the open ground beyond. showed front against us. The word was scarcely spoken when a young officer. Meanwhile the carnage was dreadful on both sides. and while before our very eyes the gallant infantry were still and inactive.l6o APPENDIX to protect the landing. and bore down upon It their right squares. charging in flank. so that. as with burning cheek and compressed lip we watched the retreating files. and favored by ground. lost. already the plunging of the four-pounder had swept through our files. follow me! Left face wheel- charge!" So with the word.

but I lost every sense of consciousness. So sudden was our charge that we were upon them before they were prepared. when unhorsed. it is true. Charles Stewart. darling. and covered with blood. shot through the forehead. and his voice sunk to a mere whisper at the last words: "You remember what he said last night. forward!" cried out our gallant leader. take a sup. my first glimmering of reason coming to my aid as I lay upon the river bank. It's only water. as he. but he was stone dead not a sigh. Bad luck to them. say that you're not kilt. scarcely an was not wounded. wirrah! whatll I ever say to the master? and you doing so beautiful! Wouldn't he give the best faithful follower Mike bathing my temples with water of lamentations for a running fire baste in his stable to be looking at you today? There. "It was a gallant thing while it but has cost us dearly." cried Power. our Major. his lips trembled. up my being "Are you better. my poor fellow. he lay down on the grass beside me. in return for a wound he gave the General. lasted. as the cavalry of the enemy gave way before us. and felt my as he kept murthered so young. waving his saber." here you are. But what could arrest the sweeping torrent of our brave fellows. 'Poor fellow! he was every inch a soldier/" . from an aide-de-camp of General Foy. Charley. for." As he spoke. Mister Charles? Spake to me alanah. as not a word escaped him. but it's hard work beatin' them. I lifted him up in my arms and bore him along above fifty yards. lost his arm near the shoulder. you've got sore bones too. Power received a deep saber-cut in the cheek. resting yourself. "Poor fellow! he has seen his last battle-field. Oh. That's right now you're coming I. anxiously. Poor Hixley "What of him?" said I. though every moment falling in numbers? officer Harvey. and so stunned that I remembered no more around me. dashed into the thickest of the fray. while I." "Well.APPENDIX l6l "Once more. was cut down through the helmet. " He fell across me. they're only "It's "Where am gone now. I kept my saddle. in my endeavor to save General Laborde. we came out upon the road. And here ensued a terrific struggle. Sir my lads. who poured a withering volley into us as we approached. as his face swathed in bandages. darling do now. we came upon the close ranks of the infantry at half-pistol distance. Mike?" to.

aggregate 95.-each bat- JL talion of two squadrons. aggregate 79.. i saddler-sergeant and i veterinary- The minimum size was 325 and the maximum was 389 and men.020 to . i regimental adjutant (lieutenant) . as additional sergeant. some dismantled guns and broken wagons alone marked the spot. 58 privates. i first lieutenant.ls Such was I APPENDIX his epitaph. 2 musicians. 2 chief buglers [trumpeters]. turned Appendix C CAVALRY TABLES OF ORGANIZATION (SHANNON. my head toward the scene of our late encounter. 16 musicians (later omitted) . 2?2f. The battalion officers were the same as in the infantry. i first sergeant. 4 sergeants. The maximum included 72 privates. i lieutenant-colonel. II. the dust of the retreating columns showed the beaten enemy. each of which was organized as follows: Minimum i captain. 8 corporals. i second lieutenant. as they hurried toward the frontiers of Spain. and each squadron of two companies. i regimental quartermaster and commissary (lieutenant) . 2 farriers. i wagoner. i company quartermaster sergeant. i saddler. while.189 officers and men. officers officers. far in the distance. * [An infantry regiment up to strength mustered from 2. and there were. 18611865. The Organization and Administration of the Union Army. except that the battalion adjutant was not necessarily a lieutenant.) UNION HT HE regiment 1 of cavalry consisted of three battalions. The regiment when it included three battalions totaled from 997 to 1.* The regimental officers were i colonel.

artillery batteries. Col. Some regiments had diminished to 100 by the end of the war. consisting of Cavalry Division. a company of 80 enlisted men and 3 officers. Cavalry Corps Gen. a figure which it thereafter never exceeded. a captain and two lieutenants.APPENDIX 163 CONFEDERATE A regiment originally consisted of two squadrons. a squadron of two troops of companies. Gen. There was no divisional organization for the cavalry. Appendix D ORGANIZATION OF THE UNION AND CONDERERATE FORCES AT THE BATTLE OF BRANDY STATION. and brigade of in- fantry under Brig. XXVII. The staff senior troop commander led the squadron. sank in 1862 to 500. Adelbert Ames. commanding right wing. Cavalry Reserve Brigade. and major. From two Horse to five regiments made up a brigade. were handled as brigade units. Alfred Pleasonton ist Division ist Brig. 1863. Gen. usually four guns. Davis 8th Illinois Cavalry grd Indiana Cavalry . UNION (Official Records. lieutenant-colonel. 650 effectives at the most. in 1863 toward 350. pp. 168-170. ist Brigade. The regimental was a colonel. John Buford. Series I. Vol. JUNE 9. as embodied in Return of Casualties) Brig. The strength of a regiment. Benjamin F. Part I.

Irvin Gregg grd Division. District of Columbia Cavalry 2nd Brigade. Cavalry 6th U. Col.164 APPENDIX 8th New York Cavalry Batteries B and L 2nd Artillery 2nd Brigade. Cavalry Battery E.S. ist ist Massachusetts Cavalry 6th Ohio Cavalry ist Rhode Island Cavalry Dufiid di P. David McM. Brig. CoL Percy ist Wyndham Maryland Cavalry ist New Jersey Cavalry . Gregg ist Brigade* Col. Cavalry 2nd U. Cavalry 5th U. Louis Brigade. Charles Gth Pennsylvania Cavalry ist U. 2nd Artillery J. Whiting 2nd Division. Col. Cesnola Col. Maj. Devin 6th New York Cavalry gth New York Cavalry 17th Pennsylvania Cavalry 3rd West Virginia Cavalry Reserve Brigade. Alfred N. Thomas C.S.S.S. Gen. 4th Artillery J. 2nd Brigade. 3rd Pennsylvania Cavalry 4th Pennsylvania Cavalry i6th Pennsylvania Cavalry Battery M. Col. Judson Kilpatrick ist Maine Cavalry 2nd New York Cavalry loth New York Cavalry Orton's Company.

Cavalry Corps. B. E. Maj. pp. ist Artillery Brig. XXVII. Adelbert Ames 2nd Massachusetts Infantry 33rd Massachusetts Infantry 86th New York Infantry i24th New York Infantry 3rd Wisconsin Infantry Battery K. 2. Vol. David A.APPENDIX ist 165 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry New York Battery Attached Troops Brig. Gen. Russell 2nd Wisconsin Infantry yth Wisconsin Infantry 56th Pennsylvania Infantry CONFEDERATE (Official Records. Gen. Part J. Stuart Robertson's Brigade 4th North Carolina Cavalry 5th North Carolina Cavalry Hampton's Brigade North Carolina Cavalry South Carolina Cavalry 2nd South Carolina Cavalry Cobb's Legion ist ist Jeff Davis Legion Phillips Legion Fitzhugh Lee's Brigade ist Virginia Cavalry 2nd Virginia Cavalry 3rd Virginia Cavalry 4th Virginia Cavalry 5th Virginia Cavalry . Series I. Gen.

H. commanding Second is Brigade. Vol. Sen I. Col. Lee's Brigade 2nd North Carolina Cavalry gth Virginia Cavalry i5th Virginia Cavalry Jones's Brigade 6th Virginia Cavalry 7th Virginia Cavalry Virginia Cavalry isth Virginia Cavalry 35th Virginia Battalion nth Stuart Horse Artillery Breathed's Battery Chew's Battery Griffin's Battery Hart's Battery McGregor's Battery Moorman's Battery Appendix E i. gth Virginia Cavalry loth Virginia Cavalry i F. 1863. ENEMYHad a sharp alry. has opened with Division. CAVALRY CORPS Beverly Ford? June 9. force of cav- skirmish. 902-905.M. . Pt. Davis. ist column and badly wounded. led his artillery. GENERAL ALFRED PLEASONTON'S REPORTS Official Records. and shows some across. XVII. 6 A.1 66 APPENDIX W. HEADQUARTERS.

Major Beveridge. It would be well to send a good force of the Fifth Corps toward Brandy Station. Eighth Illinois. Gen. Tomorrow morning Stuart was to have started on a raid into Maryland. wounded. hand to hand. as well as from prisoners. Colonel Davis.] Cavalry. to A short time after Gregg. joined my me which point I had driven the enemy. amongst number.M. He reported that he had encountered a and had a Brandy much superior number of the enemy's cavalry severe fight. and Hampton are with him. and have lost heavily.000 cavalry here. Eight New York. so captured papers state. Buford and Ames have driven their whole force out of their strongest positions.S.30 P. with the enemy. Gregg's guns are being heard in the enemy's rear.M. that the enemy had of 12. a prisoner. Jones. who opened on his men. I also learned from contrabands and prisoners that a large force of infantry had been sent from as Longstreet's command to Ellis' Ford. I also and official received information from letters upward reports captured in the enemy's camp. I returned with my command to the north side of the Culpeper as well Rappahannock. and I will now attack the enemy vigorously with my whole force. 12. Second [U. You may rest satisfied he will not attempt it. I arn holding them until Gregg can come up. with his infantry and last dispatch to you. and Captain Canfield. with a number of others. We have had a sharp fight. Gregg's command crossed at Rappahannock Bridge.APPENDIX 167 II A. Major Morris. General: All the enemy's forces are engaged with me. Buford's cavalry had a long and desperate encounter. Both Lees. General: the river. are killed.M. if it can be spared.000 cavalry (which was double my own force cavalry) and twenty-five pieces of artillery. And having the enemy by desperate fighting so that he could not crippled follow me. Sixth Pennsylvania Cavalry. in which he drove handsomely before him . Prisoners report that Stuart has 30. 8 P. Gregg has joined me. We have about 100 in hospital. General about 2 miles from cavalry. also that a train of cars had been run up to Station filled with infantry. as we had the whole force in front of one-half of my command.

and are entitled to the highest praise for their distinguished conduct. under the orders of Brigadier-General J. but we drove them over 2 miles We before Gregg came up.000 cavalry and twenty-five guns. and. showing that they were reinforced. .. had splendid fighting yesterday. Gregg lost two guns before he joined me. The On command other command. and his battery without support. At least a the latter. McM. June 10. pp.30 A. which he was to have commenced this morning. all his people were engaged. Buford's loss officers is dozen among One gun in the same battery burst Sixth New York. My old division and the regulars have covered themselves with glory. under the orders of Brigadier-General D. They did not attempt to follow us with any vigor. a perfect hornet's nest. Toward night. when I found out he had had as hard a time as ourselves. with his orders. and he was camped at the ford we crossed. and Brigadier-General Ames' of infantry constituted the command. I retired to the north bank of the Rappahannock. Over 200 prisoners were captured and one battle-flag. and no fresh troops to call on. R. they opened so-pounder Parrott guns at a long distance. Buford. Tell the general I will send in a report today. 250 wounded. We [Foregoing report to Brig. and I think it will prevent Stuart from making his raid. The troops are in splendid spirits. Ingalls.M. Gen.l68 APPENDIX very superior forces. and killed a number. The enemy lost very heavily. to cross the river at Beverly Ford. letters. op. cit. 18635. but they were lost with honor. killed not yet known. We captured Stuart's camp.] FINAL REPORT O. the Reserve Brigade. The battery men fought their pieces until cut down at their side. 1044*?.R. two commands were formed as follows: The First Cavalry Division. 8c. Army of the Potomac. I don't know Gregg's losses yet. Preceding reports to General Hooker.. He was to move to Maryland with 12. Chief Quartermaster. as soon as I can collect the facts. have the honor to submit the following report on the of the expedition placed under my orders operations by your inGeneral: I struction of the yth inst: the 8th. blew up a caisson for the enemy.

rally enemy. These the were Orders the of given to Gregg to retire by Rappahannock. when I directed the movements of the whole. and advanced on the enemy. as was also a heavy up column on We had also captured infantry to withdraw to the north side me determined soldiers. the distant boom of Gregg's guns was heard coming up on the left and rear of the enemy. myself remained with Buford's command until the junction of the two forces near Brandy Station. Davis. who. fantry I The orders to each command were on the gth instant and push rapidly for to cross the river at daylight Brandy Station. and was shot through the head. this movement commenced. Regiments never and would the of yielding. charged with the head of his column into the midst of the enemy. however. was captured. that I determined to hold him until I could hear from Gregg. a of foot from Culpeper. and their officers were seen to saber and shoot their men to keep them up to the fight. charge again. F. I immediately ordered the whole line to advance. A junction was then formed headquarters with Gregg. and Gregg's force seized with all its documents.APPENDIX 169 Gregg. was to cross the Rappahannock at Kelly's Ford. and would have captured his guns but for the untimely loss of the brave and accomplished Colonel B. of the 8th New York Cavalry. the camp of the Stuart Horse Artillery with imStuart's portant papers. covering the field. Russell. brigades and always crushing the mass opposed to them. A. and orders were issued to press the enemy at all points. attacked the enemy at once before he had time to form. . and was composed o the Second and Third Cavalry Divisions and the in- command of Brigadier General D. Buford's command at half past 4 o'clock in the morning crossed Beverly Ford in splendid style. After very heavy skir- mishing and artillery firing for several hours. His force was so superior to mine. facts Beverly of the grand attack was made by our right. retire should while Buford at ford by way Rappahannock Bridge. I rapidly reinforced this battle. This was done until it was discovered infantry was being brought on the cars to Brandy Station very rapidly. while commanding a brigade. and the enemy gave way rapidly. The enemy's cavalry would retreat. at least three to one at every point. In less than an hour I succeeded in forming my entire line. and the finest fighting would our of took war charge whole cavalry place. Before. Ford.

commanding the regiment. aides-de-camp of MajorGeneral Hooker. Cavalry. Captain Dahlgren was among the first to cross the river and charged with the first troops. under the immediate orders of General Gregg. he afterwards charged with the 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry when that regiment won the admiration of the entire command. and his horse was shot four times. commanding First Division [Second Brigade]. were captured in this battle. I Third Divi- sion. Martin.l^O APPENDIX his and General Buford withdrew command in beautiful style to this side. 6th Cavalry. Captain Waite. as Gregg had his whole force engaged with superior masses and the section could not be properly suphonor on Lieutenant ported. but showing his chagrin and mortification by an angry and sharp cannonading. including a number of officers. party killed and wounded. and would have advanced more had Colonel Duffie. Devin. commanding the Second Division. and all the fuses were destroyed by the gunners. Captain Merritt. The records of these officers are and 279 also fully indorsed: following officers came especially under my notice: Colonel 6th New York. guns useless by spiking one and ramming a shot the wrong way into the other. Major McClure. I have the honor to recommend Brigadier-Generals Buford and Gregg for promotion for the gallantry and ability with which they fought their respective commands. inflicted a severe loss on the enemy near Brandy Station. Illi- nois. the enemy not daring to follow. 8th Illinois. I request this battery may be permitted also ask the to place the name of Beverly Ford on honor be accorded to the regiments of the their guidon. His dashincr . commanding the regiment. commanding the regiment. who fought guns and then rendered his with 32 horses. the First Division. Three colors prisoners. Captain Lord. and the Reserve Brigade of Cavalry. brought up his command to his assistance in the time he should have done. The Third Division. but this mishap only reflected higher had to the 21 men of his small his last. Captain Harrison. and were untiring in their generous assistance in conveying my orders. Captain Farnsworth. ist The 2nd Cavalry. This delay caused the loss of two guns of the 6th New York Battery. 8th Captains Dahlgren and Cadwalader. grd Indiana. but 30 rounds were left to those guns when taken. were frequently under the hottest fire. commanding the regiment.

Fifth Cavalry. commanding Brigade of Horse Artillery. Lieutenants Vincent and Williams. your obedient servant. Fourth Michigan Infantry. First Lieutenant Walker. were and the on in other and field. A. M. and serving the artillery were distinguished as were those of Captain Elder. rendered valuable and important service in obtaining information of the enemy's movements and communicating with General Gregg.APPENDIX 171 bravery and cool intelligence are only equalled by his varied accomplishments. Thompson. I can than several hours. First Lieutenant Yates. of the horse batteries. Lieutenant-Colonel Smith. To Brigadier-Generals Russell and Ames. formed efficient and ample arrangements for the wounded. Robertson.].il. very respectfully. with whose camp. Second Cavalry. Captain von Koerber. PLEASONTON Brigadier-General. is entitled to higher commendation with the battle-field A sketch of the reports [not found-O. Sixth Pennsylvania Cavalry [probably Lieutenant George H. and by their operations facilitated the return of the troops. with their respective commands. First Lieutenant Custer. First is New Jersey Cavalry. commanding. 5th Cavalry. medical director. chief of staff and adjutant-general. Captain Newhall of the Sixth Pennsylvania. his services in placing batteries. and Assistant Surgeon McGill. Captain Green. First Lieutenant Thompson. Captain Graham.R. charged with Colonel Davis. aide-de- mentioned most favorably by General Gregg. Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander. First Rhode Island Cavalry acted as aides-deO. aide-de-camp.] of brigade commanders and a nominal list of casualties are herewith transmitted. took an accurate sketch of the entire field during the engagement. Fifth Cavalry. topographical engineer. and rendered valuable assistance. . and Captain Drummond. Second Artillery. frequently under capacities camp hot fire. Sixth New York Cavalry. had two horses shot under him. and was conspicuous for gallantry throughout the fight. Captain J. column he served. First Lieutenant Thompson. I am under many obligations for the efficient cooperation General Ames they gave at all times. in the taking of Beverly Ford. while serving on my staff. I am. of the Sixth Pennsylvania. Major Crocker. The marked manner in which of the held and managed his troops under a galling fire enemy for bestow. Surgeon Pancoast.

F. on Jones' right. C. whose pickets were at that ford. drawing toward him T. B. where I enfrom General Robertson's pickets. Colonel [M. Lee's brigade. having heard the firing. XXVII.] Black's First South Carolina Cav- each having a section of [James] Breathed's battery. at Kelly's Ford.] Munford. Before the commands had reached Fleetwood I received notice camped the night before. heights. 679-687. was hastily hitched up and put in position. put the remainder of his command quickly in the saddle. near Wellford's. that road. and orders were given to Brigadier-Generals Hampton and Robertson to move their brigades to the front. 2. excepting the Second South Carolina Cavalry. and repaired to the support of his pickets. to move his brigade Fitz. Records. Lee. that the enemy was crossing infantry with some cavalry at that point.] Butler. F Pt. and to W. indicating a crossing of the Rappahannock by the enemy. down check till at Brandy. The Horse Artillery. notified me of it. Ser. H.172 APPENDIX Appendix GENERAL Official J. I. STUART'S REPORT Vol. 1863 /GENERAL: I vJ have the honor to submit the following report of the battle of Fleetwood. E. which was held in reserve alry. CAVALRY DIVISION June 13. and having first sent forward his grand guard. fought on the gth inst: Soon after dawn on the morning of the gth. encamped on the Beverly Ford road. commanded by Colonel [Thomas toward Beverly. sharp firing of small- arms was heard in the direction of Beverly Ford. of Hampton's brigade. to hold the enemy in Robertson's brigade could relieve him. Brigadier-General Jones. two regiments being already over. HEADQUARTERS. While these dispositions were being made. I therefore sent Colonel [John L. Hampton's brigade was directed to a more central position between the two roads. Jones' brigade became .

still crossing that the cavalry that had crossed there (apparently two regiments) was moving in the direction of Stevensburg. and found the enemy checked. one of the approaches from Kelly's.S. Colonel Butler's First [Second] South Carolina Cavalry was ordered at once and and Wickham's regiment. and much of it wooded. determined me to make the real stand on the Fleetwood ridge. B. S. while I was absent on the Major left. promise wagons of the to the latter point. to attend in person to the posting of a dismounted battalion of Hampton's brigade down the road from Brandy Station toward Carrico's Mills. near Saint James' Church. of more if he needed it. Army. which were advancing through the extensive woodland on the Beverly Ford road. in observation.APPENDIX hotly engaged with the enemy's infantry and cavalry forces. Lee's brigade toward Beverly Ford contributed to check the advance of the enemy at this point. the Horse Artillery taking position to command the road and the open space on either side. he seriously upon his left flank. toward Culpeper Court-House. Brigadier-General Jones had sent me an infantry prisoner of Slocum's corps. Gen. and extricated the Horse Artillery from its exposed position. I had all the force. presenting to the enemy so many avenues of approach. being at the same time in plain view of Fleetwood. [H. while Hampton closed in flank. and posted there my adjutant-general. was sent to his support. Engineer F. attacking him threatened his rear. (in Brigadier-General Jones commanded in this contest which Acting Brig. including every vestige of my own camp. I deemed it highly injudicious to separate my command into detachments to On . for. B. Davis. These facts. also division sent to the rear. and the alry.] McClellan. F. To this point I also ordered a section of artillery in reserve. General Robertson reported the enemy in sequently ward ascertained force of artillery and infantry in his front. Fourth Virginia Cavone piece of artillery. Robert- son to Brandy. Hearing from General Robertson that the enemy was at Kelly's. The movement of W. de- ploying sharpshooters in the woods in his front. I repaired in person to Jones' position. and the cavalry bearing farther to his right. and was connever posted. F. H. I afterthat this battalion could not be found. Robertson's brigade having been sent toward Kelly's. I also sent Asst. a field geographically so extensive. as well as the strength and advantages of the position. U. and his advance apparently abandoned. was killed) .

Harman's and White's regiments (Jones' brigade) led the advance. notifying General W. having turned to the right from the Stevensburg road. for which he was endeavoring to gain position on the hill. F. as in such case the enemy could concenupon any one. and just as the piece of artillery. H. and then strike him with my whole force. and then sent orders to Hampton and Robertson to move up their brigades. and. overwhelming it. force moving on Fleetwood was at approached.] to leave the house to Flournoy commanding) was ordered by me the right. especially as I was aware that the entire cavalry force of the enemy crossed the river. as I rejoin the command on the left. was retiring from the hill. deranged very much White's column. which had up to that time checked the enemy's advance. and the former reached the hill about 50 yards in advance of the enemy. and. and penetrated to his artillery. and had seven on the road to Beverly Ford. with the brave spirits he could hold together. That dashing officer. driving back his advance. I regiments. but. and supported by nine regiments of infantry on the road to Kelly's.174 APPENDIX all guard trate the approaches. having fired its last round. The more effectually to support White. Major McClellan reported to me that the column referred to appeared to be advancing upon the Fleetwood Hill. in doing so. The contest for the hill was prolonged and spirited. Ordering more artillery to that point. excepting sufficient to watch and delay the enemy as to his real move. broke the enemy's advance. but broke in confusion at the approach of the enemy's reserve. The artillery sent to that hill unfortunately had little ammunition. Harman's regiment (Twelfth Virginia Cavalry) attacked the enemy. the Sixth Virginia Cavalry (Major [C. and attack that portion of the enemy . take the others in detail. I repaired in person to that point. Lee to The enemy in his front. and directing General Jones to send two regiments without delay to hold the heights. facing southward. leaving General Jones with the remainder of his brigade to occupy the first reported to be two saw that the force was larger. I conceived it to be my policy to keep my command concentrated. which was advancing to his support. and lessened materially the force of White's charge. and to Jones to follow. with a large proportion of artillery. but the enemy was too strong for him. E.

in withdrawing from the vicinity of of acKelly's Ford. I had heard nothing from Stevensburg since Colonel Butler first moved down from Brandy. thus checking his advance on the hill. Colonel Lomax. which Colonel Lomax was directed to do.APPENDIX in flank it 175 front. M. sweeping around on Young's left. dispersing the enemy a after encounter that at pursued his fleeing forces down point. Lieutenant-Colonel Waring (Hampton's brigade). sharp the road toward Kelly's till the fire of our artillery.] Young's Georgia regiment) came up. This regiment. which. of cutting off a large portion of the force which attack our right flank. but the fire of our artillery. B. charged directly over the crest. Until this time. and made a brilliant upon the flank of the enemy. and. of charges most successful and brilliant. At this critical artillery The moment. and parin their charge to such an extent that the cannoneers were ticipated time a for engaged hand to hand with the enemy. made it necessary to desist. a short distance to his front right. being directly on the enemy's flank. also reached the enemy's battery. it. made a series charge . had some distance to march. directed upon the retreating column. . but was unable to hold was hurried up after White and Harman. facing southward. and it was soon after . while the First North Carolina Cavalry (Colonel Baker) supported by the Davis Legion. to it appears. Jeff. General Hampton had an opportunity. . Cobb Legion and South Carolina Cavalry) were near Fleetwood. The dust was so great that it was impossible to distinguish friends from foes at that distance. and My was soon effected. took the enemy's artillery (three turned upon pieces) capturing the cannoneers. stopped First flat him also. which Harman and White engaged in appears. which he was directed to improve. the leading regiment of Hampton's brigade (Colonel [P. Eleventh Virginia Cavalry (Jones' brigade) .first care now was to open communication with Culpeper and which Stevensburg. Two of his regi- ments (the ordered by me our artillery. Colonel Lomax pushed thence directly and to Brandy Station. reached the scene tion too late to participate in the fight. the enemy. supported by Black's First Carolina South Cavalry. as a support to reform in the Robertson's brigade.

had also a portion of its column thrown into . The First [Second] had the advance South Carolina Cavalry (Colonel Butler). This advance upon Fleetwood made it absolutely necessary to desist from our pursuit of the force retreating toward Kelly's. and its stampede on this occasion is unaccountable. and was ordered in at once to the attack in flank. About the time of General W. arrived opposite this portion of the field. At this moment. Our whole line followed the enemy to the river. with artillery on the and his sharpshooters were engaged with the enemy's inleft. Lee having joined our left. Our infantry skirmishers. Lee engaged the enemy in a series of brilliant charges with his regiments. . General W. Jones' brigade was posted behind Fleetwood. terminated the pursuit. W. which there. heights. Colonel Wickham's is herewith report forwarded. alternately routing the enemy. F. advancing through the woods. This continued till Munford's brigade. F. skirmishing with his rear. This regiment usually fights well. and Munford's sharpshooters pressed him all the way to Beverly Ford. F. H. while the infantry skirmishers pushed through the woods to within 500 yards of our position. falling back to reform. did not engage the enemy. The two regiments sent there failed to resist the enemy effectually. particularly as the infantry known to be on that road would very soon have . on the same range of hills. and our line of pickets was re-established that night. now debouched rapidly from the direction of Thompson's house and Saint James* Church and threatened an immediate (Jones' late position on our left) attack on the hill (Fleetwood) firing furiously. in spite of every effort of the colonel to rally the men to the charge. faced Our artillery had exertions were made scarcely a round of to supply it. The enemy fell back. and. overpowered. as we now left. fantry to the Hampton's brigade was in position on the right (northward) . H.1^6 APPENDIX The enemy. I received intelligence of affairs at Stevensburg. Lee's hot engagement on the left. facing northward. which. and one (the Fourth Virginia Cavalry) broke in utter confusion without firing a gun. was closely followed by Buford's division. H. with infantry and artillery. having been anxiously expected. Gen. ammunition but great Brig. on the left. composed principally of regulars.

was exposed to the enemy's artillery fire. though not engaged. * See Robertson's report of June 13. p. as usual. harder fighting and severe loss on itself as well as on the rest of the command. W. of which he was cognizant. which confusion entailed. plore the casualty hoped. this. H. H. enemy to the right. so as to hold him in check or thwart him by a corresponding move of a portion of his command in the same direction. The movement of the enemy on Stevensburg ought to have been checked by the force sent there sufficiently long for re-enforcements to be sent. J. which extended through the whole of the Fourth Virginia. Lee. and conformed readily to the Brigadier-General Robertson kept the enemy in check on the Kelly's Ford road. Colonel Munford's delay in coming to the field has not been satisfactorily accounted for. it is deprives us. all five regiments having been engaged twice. Attention is called to the accompanying reports of subordinate battle. who received a highly satisfactory severe wound through the leg in one of the last of the brilliant abcharges of his command on the heights. especially because his brigade being not so much under my own eye. but did not conform to the movement of the emergencies arising.* General Jones' brigade had the hardest fighting. Gen. F. R. Owing to the casualties to officers of the First South Carolina Regi- ment. I am unable to mention with particularity the I degallantry of the officers and men of his brigade. and behaved well. Thirteenth Virginia Cavalry. His detailed report will.APPENDIX confusion. . Lee's brigade was handled in a handsome and that gallant officer. Chambliss. commanders for a more detailed account of their operations in this and the names of those specially distinguished. 734. F. The command of his brigade thereafter devolved upon Col. and Jones were prompt in the execution of orders. W. Still more do time for a short which only. account for General Robertson's command. The Twelfth Virginia Cavalry broke unnecessarily after a successful charge. Brig. I hope. no report has yet been received of its operations. He was too far off for me to give orders to do so in time. jr. as the distance was not very great. of his valuable services.. Brigadier-Generals Hampton. I regret very much the manner by sence of his report.

is before an opportunity was afforded to count them. larly knocked one of the enemy off his horse with the sponge-staff. 6 flags. of the same battery. the other was disabled. enemy [William] with their detachments. Beckham.] the Horse of the Stuart Hoxton. Col. and it is not claimed that this hospital received all. 1863. Solomon Williams. p. while he claims to have carried off his dead officers and all his wounded. The officers and men behaved with the greatest gallantry. wounded. R. Maj. . and missing. be careon the field. appended. I am grieved to record Col. and the manof their fire. Two gled bodies of the enemy show the effectiveness of the enemy's guns were turned upon him with decided effect. amounting to about 480 total. Frank Hampton. Second North Carolina Cavalry as fearless as he was efficient. A large number of arms. horses. though at times the canpiece noneers had to fight pistol and sword in hand in its defense. together with the fully concealed by him. Among on the battle-field will The limits of this report will not admit of the names of those brave spirits who have fallen in the ranks.l^S APPENDIX daring and efficient the deserves F. 720. and will. The accompanying report of Major Beckham shows one instance particu- The conduct of the Horse Artillery. 7 to 11 to Stuart's report of August 20. The names of the other officers killed will be found appended. pp. mortally wounded. among whom were several field officers. under that Ford and deserving special mention: Lieutenants [C.* our gallant dead. Second South Carolina. the brave and chivalrous Lieut. Their dead. The enemy's loss is not known. and Private Sudley. E. and 3 pieces of his best ordnance A list of captures is (2 of which are serviceable) were captured. as far as possible. were buried on different parts of the field were infantry as well as cavalry. as well as a statement of our killed. but their names are recorded on the muster-rolls of fame. charged Artillery. exceed our entire loss. the memory of whose deeds of heroism be an heir-loom to posterity. A list of in Alexandria. officer. 719. and will live in the lasting remembrance of a grateful people. Not one of the hands the was ever in enemy. equipments. and in that list thirty-six regiments are represented. 718. and Cooke's report. highest praise. His dead wounded and prisoners taken. * See Inclosures Nos. among 192 of his wounded who reached one hospital whom published in his papers.

Talcott Eliason. A. and checking the wavering and broken. Colonel Young. talion. Surgeon Eliason. W. D. as Col. Farley. the last-mentioned. on this. D. received a severe wound. and always with distinction. gallantry. Dabney. He had served without emolument. animating by his presence and prowess.APPENDIX Lieutenant-Colonel . M. H. and Maj. displayed the same zeal. so distinguished him as to cause his selection for his present post. Clarke. C. faithfully. serving on my staff. long. mirably. and efficiency which has on every battle-field. of South Carolina. Maj. was wounded in the neck. McClellan. and Lieutenant-Colonel White. Surg. Benjamin S. or on the march. assistant adjutant-general. Colonel Lomax. causing the loss of his foot. is still in command of his regiment. W. on active and important duty. No nobler champion has fallen. and was wounded painfully in the neck. but retained com- mand Col. his spirit abide with us! own staff. engineers. W.] Phillips. was mortally wounded by the same shell. 179 [J. Capt. a gallant Prussian. First Lieut. John Eston Cooke. though painfully wounded. W. C. Capt. Second South Carolina Cavalry. all in their respective spheres acquitted themselves in a highly creditable manner. handled their regiments adand behaved with conspicuous daring. Fitzhugh. and displayed even in death the same loftiness of bearing and fortitude which have characterized him through life. Venable. Butler. a volunteer aide on my staff. though . as on all other occasions. Norman R. C. May My Maj. behaved with the most distinguished gallantry. of the regular army. White. Capt. in the camp. till M. Georgia Legion. Eleventh Virginia Cavalry. Thirty-fifth Virginia Bat- coming under my own eye. acquitted themselves handsomely. division quartermaster. while bravely leading his regiment. Andrew R. assistant adjutantgeneral. Twelfth night. was everywhere. which deprived his regiment and the country of his gallant and valuable services for a time. Heros von Borcke. Harman. (a gallant officer) are among the wounded. who has fought bravely and served faithfully for one year. Blackford. Thirteenth Virginia Cavalry Ball. Eleventh Virginia Cavalry. chief of ordnance. B. Maj. Capt. aide-de-camp. and Maj. J. volunteer aide. L. Capt. Virginia Cavalry.

met near Brandy a party of the enemy.l8o APPENDIX without a superior in his profession. Provisional Army. R. would. Commanding. R. First Lieut. CHILTON. Cavalry: Commanding GENERAL: I have received and read. and Lieut. B. your obedient servant. was captured by the enemy. and a guidon. L. Confederate States. . Insp. with much pleasure. HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF NORTHERN VIRGINIA. Private Foy. Gen. Gen. Captain Blackford. acting as they did in the capacity of They discharged their duty zeal. fidelity. Gen. aide-de-camp. lately adjourned. J. 1863. members of general court-martial. B. your report of the recent engagement at Fleetwood. E. Fourth Virginia Cavalry. was the first who me reliable news of the enemy's movement toward Stevens- Capt. 6 privates. brought burg. The dispositions made by you to meet the strong attack of the enemy appear to have been judicious and well planned. most respectfully. J. STUART. B. Collecting a few stragglers. E. Jones. I am. excel as a colonel of cavalry. Lee's brigade. Goldsborough. oral or written. H. The troops *See p. Lieut. has prepared a embraced in these operations. with a and intelligence deserving high praise. capturing a lieutenant. they attacked and routed the party. W. Second Virginia Cavalry. while bearing an important message to Colonel Wickham. while en route to join their commands. engineers. Major-General. STUART.* ranks. Asst. of General Robertson's escort. y AdjL and Army of Northern Virginia. I map of the country To members of my personal escort. J. general. Kennon. Maj. Wooldridge. B. composed of privates from the am specially indebted. 686. bearers of dispatches. which was more than double their number. June 16. from his conduct on the field. Brig. Addenda. Robert H. Fitz.

Very respectfully. DURIVAGE With bray of the trumpet And roll of the drum. cavalry come. conducted themselves with marked gallantry.APPENDIX 1 8l were well and skillfully managed. LEE. stop the splashing horses loitering Behold the brown-faced men. a picture. The . the negligent rest on the saddles. E. General Appendix G POEMS AND SONGS OF CIVIL WAR CAVALRY "CAVALRY CROSSING A FORD" WALT WHITMAN. your obedient servant. R. others are just entering the ford while. and. each group. it in long array where they wind betwixt green islands. in to drink. "THE CAVALRY CHARGE" FRANCIS A. The guidon flags flutter gayly in the wind. silvery river. with few exceptions. and is honorable alike to the officers and men engaged. Drum-Taps ALINE They take a serpentine course. Sharp clank the steel scabbards. Some emerge on the opposite bank. And keen ring of bugles. each person. their arms flash in the sun. Scarlet and blue and snowy white. hark Behold the to the musical clank. The result of the action calls for our grateful thanks to Almighty God. The bridle-chains ring.

shout. With ear-rending Peals forth to the squadrons. wild chargers Tramp! tramp! o'er the green sward That quivers below. Scarce held by the curb-bit The fierce horses go! And the grim-visaged colonel. Like demons. The wild troopers ride. And swift is their rush As the wild torrents flow. . And each rowel is pressed To a horse's hot flank.APPENDIX And foam from The red nostrils fling. crag "Charge!" thunders the leader Like shaft from the bow Each mad horse is hurled On A the wavering foe thousand bright sabres air. Are gleaming in A thousand dark horses Are dashed on the square. Resistless and reckless Of aught may betide. When it pours from the On the valley below. not mortals. The troopers move forward In line on the plain. As rings the word "Gallop!" The steel scabbards clank. And one on the rein. The order-"Trot out/' One hand on the sabre.

But war's a chance game. Some saddles are empty. The random-shot Are wasted in Triumphant. . "THE DEATH OF PELHAM" (From Southern Bivouac. Author unknown) Up Up to the forefront. 1884. Who but linger to Rein up your hot horses And call in your men. remorseless. The trumpet sounds "Rally To color" again. The wounds By that that are dealt steel murderous Will never yield case For the surgeons to heal. Vainvain That bursts the red volley from the square bullets air. the cannon and death. March. to the battle. Some comrades are slain. And weeping is vain. Unerring as death. And some Lie stark noble horses on the plain. No sabre that's stainless its Returns to sheath.APPENDIX Cut right! 1 83 and cut left! For the parry who needs? The bayonets shiver Like wind-shattered reeds. Hurrah! they are brokenHurrah! boys. boys. spoke never a breath. they fly- None linger save those die.

muffle the tread. Out rang the saber notes. Into the fight! Bash on beneath the smoking dome: Through level lightnings gallop nearer! One look to Heaven! No thoughts of home. STEDMAN Our good steeds snuff the evening air. Weep. Our pulses with their purpose tingle. Rode young John Pelham. He leaps to hear our sabres jingle! Halt! Each carbine sent its whizzing ball: all. On with the cavalry. Now. hissing balls then- Saber and pistols and horses and men Over the hills went. the battle is near. Out spoke bold Stuart. Out rang the order from Fitz Lee the brave "Charge the left battery!'* GodI 'tis his gravel On by the crashing balls. Backward the wind blew his bright yellow hair. Rein down the charger. clear as a bell. Light Artillery. no business there. Down by the sulphur smoke to the red On the left battery Pelham is slain. our cavalry lord: "Back to your guns. Pelham is dead. fire. Fitz Lee and cavalry. Back blew the battle-smoke from the red Up rose the battle-dust higher and higher." never a word Uttered the gunner as onward he spurred. . The foeman's fires are twinkling there. Heard above bursting of shrapnel and shell. cling! clang! Forward.184 APPENDIX Up to the fierce guns over the ford. over the dead. "THE CAVALRY CHARGE" EDMUND C. Gently now comrades. Bear it back quickly. his hat on his sword. take up the bier. Pelham ahead! plain. lad.

All red with our valor. have won! Up. Lo! in the starlight their white tents appear! Ride slowly! ride slowly! the onset is near! More slowly! More slowly! the sentry may hear! Dim Now Strike fall down Strike. Home. As he feels the bold rider's firm hand on the rein. stout hearts for a fray! is is Our Captain mounted strike spurs.APPENDIX 185 The guidons that we bear are dearer. Now. But the wind of our speed floats the galloper's mane. Charge! Cling! Clang! Forward. up with the stars! we have won! we . And The leave the foeman to his dirges. comrades. Wheel! bugles sound the swift recall: all! Cling! clang! Backward. and away! breeze shakes the blossoms or tosses the grain. bear our wounded back. brave comrades. on the rebel a tempest of flame! the false banner whose triumph were shame! strike for the true flag. the war-bugles play saddle. and good-night! "CAVALRY SONG" ELBRIDGE JEFFERSON CUTLER The squadron To No forming. we welcome the sun. for freedom and fame! Hurrah! sheathe your swords! the carnage is done. all! those whose horses fall- Heaven help Cm left and right! They flee before our fierce attack! They fall! they spread in broken surges.

and forward I move. Now As the torch to their camp. I burst on his pickets they scatter. We are the boys that went around McClellian. back that tear till the day when I come. And all my bright harness is living and speaks. late they Too awaken 'tis only to die." being repetitions stanza. the smoke-stains. die. ho. The I'll foe all secure. I'll make it a lamp.l86 APPENDIX "DRAGOON'S SONG" GEORGE H. Nay. Went around Went around McClellian. Bully boys. your lover is here. has laid down by his gun. ho. We McClellian. keep back that bright tear. Bully boys. BOKER Clash. kling go the rowels as onward I ride.) first Each stanza contains only one new line. they fly. back to my quarters so slowly I tramp. the rest of all or part of that line as patterned in the i. I wave my buff glove to the girl whom I love. as I ought for my country and you. are the boys that went around McClellian. clash goes the sabre against my steed's side. hey Bully boys. And under my horse-shoe the frosty ground creaks. "JINE (Sung to the tune THE CAVALRY" known as now usually "The Old Gray Mare. open his eyelids before the bright sun. darling. . hey Bully boys. Keep bright Kiss. Then join my dark squadron. Bully boys. bullet half through the bosom so true. kiss kiss off me my To With a To the low wailing fife and deep muffled drum. Kling. ho.

. And then . jine the Cavalry.. Cavalry Drill and Sabre Exercises. Dutch gals hand around the bread-iurn. . SABRE EXERCISE (Cavalry Tactics. Jine the Cavalry. For this lesson the squad is composed of from 6 one rank. 9 to 8 feet armed only with each other. . Want to have a good time. sabres. Chorus: 4. fat . I. Etc Chorus: 3. they are placed in men. Then Etc. . . . GEORGE COOKE. G. . from PATTEN.) ST. Chorus: Appendix H 52-65. W. jine the Cavalry. Chorus: 5. Etc. Bully boys. the big. we went into Pennsylvania. Jine the Cavalry.APPENDIX Chorus: If 187 you want to have a good time. COLONEL PHILIP Illustrations 28. from . hey. o' the Wilderness. Old Joe Hooker won't you come out Etc. We are the boys that crossed the Potomacum. 2.

less and their result is more prompt. When the troopers execute all the motions with regularity. instructor explains what is meant by right and left side of the gripe. as a preparation for the other motions. lesson is therefore commenced and ended with moulinets. that the blade shall cially. The parries against the lance are the same as against the point. The instructor pays particular attention that the men do not employ a degree of force in the sabre exercise. the sabre being held with the full grasp. which not only is less necessary than skill and suppleness. the instructor requires each cut to be given without decomposing it. They should be directed quickly home to the body of the adversary. He observes. 28. the flat it to the front. he requires more espein of motions the the sabre to the rear. by tierce. No. for fear of wounding the horse. but which is even prejudicial. the last syllable of a command is the signal for the quick execution of All the cuts are then terminated by a half-moulinet. 2. The left side of the gripe is the side next to the guard. the instructor conforms to is prescribed. Quarte the left. ing a circle. not fall too near the body. is the position in which the edge of the blade is turned to the nails upwards. To what 30. and decisive. Thrusts should always be used in preference. the nails downwards. the instructor commands: . the thumb pressing against the guard in the direction of the blade. or his haunches. and of the blade should be to the side. In describmanner as to lose the seat. The right side of the gripe is the side opposite to the guard. and by quarte. No. The 29. in such a when mounted. the sabres being returned. and as it adds to the confidence of the men when isolated. which brings back to the position of GUARD. rest. or the knees of the rider. sure. also. they should first be exercised at it. The troopers being placed as prescribed.l88 APPENDIX The object of the moulinet is to render the joints of the arm and wrist supple. it. by increasing their dexterity. executed with a quickness proportioned to the progress of the Each troopers. and the edge should be so directed as not to touch either the horse's head. Tierce is the position in which the edge of the blade is turned to the right. that they do not lean to one side. as they require force.

APPENDIX l8o . raising the an angle of about 45 degrees: the sabre in a make a slight pause. straight line with the arm. to its arm full extent. at SABRE. 2. the back of it against the hollow of the shoulder. draw the blade 6 inches out of the scabbard. run the right wrist through the sword-knot.7 Draw SABRE. i. 2 times. the wrist resting against the hip. and bring the hilt to the front. . the little finger on the outside of the gripe. pressing the scabbard against the thigh with the left hand. At the first part of the command. carry the blade to the right shoulder. unhook the sabre with the left hand. draw the sabre quickly. At the command. seize the gripe. which seizes it at the upper ring.

carry the sabre vertically to the thumb opposite to and 6 inches from the neck. place the left hand closed. At the command. which. at the same time. MOULINEX. the of the gripe. front to its full . the point a little raised. the hand about 10 inches carry right in front of the right the blade in an hip. the hand in tierce and as high as the eyes. the litte finger nearer than the thumb. or feeling the weight of the sabre. return the blade. the edge to the left. 2. 2. the little finger by the side of the others. the right hand without constraint. i time. is raised. carry the right foot about 20 inches from left. 6 inches from the body. the heels on the same line. and 32. the back of the blade resting in the hollow of the left arm. drop the right hand by the side. until it is nearly under the right hand. extend the right arm to the length. carry the wrist opposite to and 6 inches from the left shoulder. i time. Si motions. free the wrist from the sabre knot. and so round drop the left hand. oblique position. The sabres being drawn. and as high as the elbow. 2 times. the thumb extended on the right side 31. the fingers towards the the body.) at the same time. front. the point to the front. as near the body as possible. At the command. make rapidly a circle 33. SABRE. At the command. (position of the bridle hand. and a little higher than the hilt. toward the body. At the command. Left MOULINEX. hook up the sabre. GUARD. also at the same time.1 90 APPENDIX Return SABRE. the blade vertical. the instructor commands: GUARD. turning with the left the hilt to the rear. Commencing by lowering the blade. turn the eyes slightly to the left. RETURN. i. the edge upward. the left hand. revolve the point of the blade to the rear. takes hold of the upper part of the scabbard.

ct *>**- 33 Right J -Mouttnet Tar 34- .APPENDIX 191 Left -Mou.lln.

the thumb extended on the back of the gripe. the arm being motionless to the wrist. and then to guard. and as near as safe. the edge to the right. MOULINEX. right. return to the ist position and then to guard. At the command. MOULINEX. to the horse. 2 motions. i time.1Q2 APPENDIX to the left of. To execute the moulinet without stopping. i. circle 2. Commencing by lowering the blade. without stopping at motion. returning to the first position. to the 35. arm to the right to its full extent. 2 motions. commencing from the position of GUARD. and to the elbow. 2. At the command.!. time. At either of these commands. time. the instructor . If he wishes to begin by the he commands: Right and i left MOULINEX. 33 and 34. left. if the instructor wishes to begin by the he commands: Left and right i MOULINEX. any r i MOULINEX. and as high as the eyes. raise the 37. make rapidly a round the hand. 2 motions. the body slightly turned to the right. Describe a circle in rear. and then Righ t MOULINEX. the troopers. and a little higher than the hilt. commencing by motion of the sabre towards the left. and rear When the troopers execute the moulinets well. front to 34. the point to the front. to guard. to the right of the horse and body. 2 motions. round the hand. extend the right arm to the its full length. time. execute alternately what is laid down in Nos. 36. the hand in quarte. returning first position. the point of the sabre upwards.

edge to the left. extending the arm to its full length. Thrust forward. 2. as the right ear. 3.APPENDIX requires them to execute several in succession. throw back the right shoulder. as high and 7 inches from it. 38. front. Thrust to the right. 39. the point a little higher than the wrist. In i tierce time. . the thumb extended on the right side of the gripe. 3 motions.!. Return to the position of guard. extending the arm to its full length. At the command. edge of the sabre up. 3. At the command. In q uarte i POINT. POINT. the thumb on the back of the gripe. and a little below the horizontal. lower the hand in quarte near the right hip. time. Return to the position of guard. the edge upwards. raise the hand in tierce.!. until the command GUARD. POINT. 3 motions. the 2. the point of the sabre to the carrying right of the horses's head and neck. the edge of the blade to the left. the elbow to the rear.

the edge of the blade upwards. 2.Point ^ Far 41 Right i time% motions. and 7 inches from it. . 3 motions. (half face to the left in the saddle. the edge upwards. turn the head to the left. Riokt . 41. At the command. i time. POINT.!. Thrust to the left. turn the head to the right. the edge up. the point directed to the right. the point directed to the left.194 APPENDIX POINT.) carry the hand in quarte near the left breast. 3. At the command. extending the arm to its full length. Return to the position of guard.) raise the hand in tierce as high as the right ear. or left front. POINT. 40. the thumb on the back of the gripe. (half face to the right in the saddle.

i time.) raise the hand Return to the position of guard. i time. i. 2. turn the head and rear. 3. Return to the position of guard. extending the 2. . Against infantry right POINT:. the blade arm to its full Against infantry i left POINT. At the command.) in front of the right shoulder. 2. Rear POINT. the arm horizontal. bring the hand in quarte half extended. extending the arm to edge to the front. turn the head and body toward the right. Return to the position of guard. 3. to the left in the saddle. Thrust down in tierce. (half face to the right in the saddle. 3. right. the point of the sabre directed at the height of the breast of a man on foot. 3. Thrust to the rear. POINT. the point to the rear. POINT.APPENDIX 2. or right rear. edge to the right. the thumb on the back of the gripe. left. the point of the sabre directed at the height of the breast of a man on foot. 195 its Thrust to the full length. Thrust in quarte. the thumb on the right side of the gripe. Return to the position of guard. At the command. 3 motions. At the command. i. the edge upwards. 3 motions. to the right 43. 44. time. length. or right front. POINT. turn the head to the (half face in tierce near the neck. 3 motions. 43. carry the hand in quarte near the right hip.

raise the sabre. . 45. point 2. POINT. horizontally. Cut to the right of the horse's neck. i time.!. 3 motions. and resume the guard. tended. extending the arm to its full length. the hand a little arm half ex- higher than the head. the to the rear and higher than the hand. bear the weight on the right stirrup. 3.-At the command. bend well down to the right. and.196 APPENDIX Against infantry FRONT POINT. Front i Cm. thrust forward. Return to the position of guard. CUT. time. extend the right arm well downwards. At the command. the edge upwards. with the back of the sabre upwards. the 46.

the 48. At the command. 3 motions. Return to the position of guard. time. 3. 47. turn the head to the right. R igh i t Cur. This is used against infantry. (half face to the right in the saddle. This is also used against infantry. give a backhanded Return to the position of guard. 3 motions. Extend the arm quickly to its full length. Return to the position of guard. to the left in the raise the sabre. and cutting at Rear CUT. the point of the sabre upwards. in tierce. the sabre perpendicular.!. carry hand near the left shoulder.-!.) CUT. i time. give a back- . CUT. in tierce. saddle. bending well forward and down. turn the head ing back the right shoulder. At the command. to the right. its full the edge to the left. CUT. 2. front At the command. 3. the arm extended (half face to the and right. 3. the edge to the 2. left. and handed cut horizontally to the rear. in quarte. Left-CvT. Extend the arm quickly to 2. left. the point higher than the hand.!. and cutting at the necessary angle. turn the head to the in quarte. cut horizontally. the hand and as high as the head. length.) carry the hand near the left shoulder. leaning the necessary angle. throw- 49. i time. to the right. 3 motions. Cut diagonally to the left.APPENDIX USED AGAINST CAVALRY AND INFANTRY.

execute the ist motion of right cut. At the arm to the right. left cut. to 4. PARRY. CUT. execute the ist motion of No. No. and cut horizontally 4. At the command. the command. CUT. 4 motions. Execute the sd motion of right cut. Left. to the left. 4 motions. 50.!. 2. At the command. 51. time. time.ig8 APPENDIX Right. 52. Return to the position of guard. Turn the hand in quarte. hand in tierce. 3. in tierce and quarte i GUT. 48. in quarte i and tierce CUT. Return right. 2. i time. 47. extend the hand moving horizontally. the point at the same . grasp the sabre firmly. No. Execute the 2d motion of left cut. and cut horizontally to the 3. Turn the the position of guard. i. 47. 2 motions. 48. No.!.

the Head PARRY. holding the edge upward. head. Return to the position of guard.!. and about seven inches in front of elbow somewhat bent. Return to the position of guard. 2. At the command. . i time. left. the point to the left. or rear. The hand is carried more or less to the right. it 54. and parry as strongly as possible the blow aimed at the left side. 2. 53. raise the sabre quickly above the the arm nearly extended. the eyes. edge to the left. and about 6 inches higher than the hand. Raise the hand above.!. Return to the position of guard. utmost with the firmness. 2 motions.APPENDIX 199 time describing a circular motion upwards. PARRY. point downwards and about a foot outside the horse's left shoulder. time. Par Left i PARRY. and with the edge to the right. accord- ing to the position of the adversary. 2. 2 motions. parry as strongly as possible the blow aimed at the right side.

PARRY.) raise the sabre. 2. 55. turn the head to the right. i. the thumb extended on the back of the gripe. the point upwards. i time^ 3 motions. Parry the bayonet with the back of the blade. by a rapid . At the command.2OO APPENDIX bifanfry Right Par 55 ~ Parry Against infantry right^-J?AKKY. the arm extended to the right and rear. the edge to the left. (half facing to the right in the saddle.


20 1
to front, bringing the front.

motion of arm and blade, from rear
to the position of guard.




high as the head, the point upwards, edge to the

Against infantry



time, 3 motions.
to the left,




command, PARRY, turn the head


upwards, back of the gripe, the back of the blade to the front. 2. Parry the bayonet with the back of the blade, by a forcible circular motion of the arm and blade from front to rear, bringing the hand above the left shoulder, edge to the rear, the point upwards. Return to the position of guard. 3.

face to the left in the saddle,) raise the sabre, the the front and right, the point the thumb

arm extended to extended on the





time* % motions.





quickly to the front

command, PARRY, carry the forearm and blade and right, the elbow but little moved, edge


being carried

to the right, thumb on the back of the gripe, the point to the right front, at the height of the eyes.


to the position of guard.

In quarte PARRY.

time, 2 motions.

58.!. At the command, PARRY, carry the arm and blade quickly
to the left front, edge to the left, the point as high as the eyes, the thumb on the back of the gripe.





cation of

and them by combined motions, such In tierce POINT AND FRONT CUT. In quarte POINT AND FRONT CUT. Left POINT AND GUT. Right POINT AND cur. Rear POINT AND CUT. Against infantry right POINT AND CUT. Against infantry left POINT AND CUT.

to the position of guard. the troopers begin to execute correctly the above cuts, them to make the appliparries, the instructor requires
as follow:


it is

prescribed in No. 50,


carry the right foot to the side

of the


Great attention should at all times be paid to maintain the proper position and balance of the body; as by too great an exertion in delivering a cut or point a horseman may be thrown, or be so


as to lose

advantage of his


both for attack and

defence; and he should have confidence in
to his avoiding the attack of his

his parries,

and not


opponent by turning or drawing

back the body.

In delivering a forward point very little force is necessary when the is in quick motion, as the extension of the arm, with a good direction of the point, will be fully sufficient; nor should a cut, under



such circumstances, be given too strong, as the impetus of the horse will give effective force. Even the drawing of the edge can frequently be applied with advantage, particularly when the point, by being given too soon, may not have taken effect; by a quick turn of the

your opponent, or other when exposed part. very near and closely pressed upon by an adversary by suddenly extending the arm and directing the edge across his face, or where an opening is given. When sufficient space is allowed for choosing the point of attack you should endeavor to take advantage of it; if not, at all events to avoid its being made on your left rear, when a change of position alone can bring you upon an equality with your opponent; it may be done either by making a sudden halt, so as to allow him to pass, and then pressing upon his left rear, or by turning to the

wrist the edge

drawn along the

face of


forcing, also, of the edge can be resorted to




and thereby having your

right opposed to his. Should

you be prevented from doing this, and he still keeps upon your left, you must bear up as close as possible to him, otherwise your opposition will be ineffectual; for in his situation, by keeping at the proper distance from you, his cut will reach when yours will not, and consequently you will be reduced to the defence alone. In meeting your opponent on the left front turn sharply to the left on your own ground, which brings you immediately with your sword arm free, and at liberty to act upon his left. And in meeting him upon the right front, press your horse quickly on, and by a
sharp turn to the right gain his left rear, or if pursued endeavor to keep your adversary on the right rear. When attacked by more than one you will naturally endeavor to keep them both either to the right or left, but when they have been enabled to place themselves

on both

sides, press close


the left opponent,

and endeavor


keep the right one at a distance. The attack or defence against the lance (it weapon of the mounted Indians) depends much



upon horseman-

and the judgment of the rider. It is parried like the sword; and must you press in at your opportunity to close upon your antagonist. You must invariably endeavor to gain his right rear when he is least able to attack or defend; the left rear and left, weakest for the sabre, are the strongest positions for the lance; the same may be said of the bow and arrow; in pursuit always approach at the right rear.



to meet an opponent on opposed to infantry, endeavor be struck, and by the must your right; in the parry the bayonet as well as attack defence a form cuts stronger part of your sabre; the in pursuit. used be should but the point chiefly




In the use of the sabre at speed, it is important that the horseman should aid the impetus of the cut, and secure his own seat by supwith the opposite leg to that side on porting the sway of the body in the left cut he or which he intends to cut point; for instance, the inside of the of a should support the body by strong pressure
right thigh support the


and horse; in the right cuts leg against the saddle left leg, the lower down the grip can be the with body

larly applicable

taken the better, not touching the horse with the spur. It is particuand necessary in pursuit over rough and varied

ground. Cuts very often fail from the sabre turning enough to make the blow one with the flat; at best the wound is generally trifling comthrusts. pared to those made by should The instructor impress upon the recruits such occasional be taken become as observations applicable. Opportunities should

in pauses of rests; the squad should not be kept very long in positions or movements.

Appendix I
(Cavalry Tactics.









the decisive action of cavalry.

Cavalry, like each of the three great arms, depends on the others, the battle once begun awaits their action. Its opportunities

pass in moments.

Its successful

commander must have a

cavalry eye;

once launched, its bravery is successful. Infantry columns, battered by artillery, have failed in their attack upon a position. The cavalry charges the batteries and
the infantry hastens to

make good the advance;




moment to overthrow his battalions. An enemy expecting a charge should be
some demonstrations.

cavalry, disunited and attacked, or threatened by the enemy, rallies under cover of the other arms. At the moment of the enemy's first successhe has perhaps broken the first line, and makes a disordered pursuit-the cavalry seizes the

he attempts


deceived, if possible, by change his order, then

instantly begin the gallop. If possible, at the moment of the charge, assail your enemy in flank; or charge him in flank, when seriously engaged with your infantry in front.

Cavalry charges the enemy's cavalry to drive him from the return against his battalions with more liberty.


surprise, the cavalry should instantly decision will give the advantage. line of cavalry should meet the rapid and disordered charge of another at the trot. The enemy's line, already broken, will recoilbe thrown off from its imposing order.

Meeting an enemy by





relative circumstances of the armies,

pursuit of cavalry broken by a charge depends upon the but specially upon the cavalry


effort of

impetuosity should be

defeated line
defeat. It


a second, so as to disorder

made to throw a and involve it in

disorganized in flight; but this

well to push the defeated until they are thoroughly may be carried out by the flanker

squadrons. It

is generally important to rally promptly. This can be done with advantage while advancing. Then attack the enemy in

rear or flank.

The commander of cavalry sends two well-mounted officers or non-commissioned officers to precede his advance and reconnoitre ground over which he is likely to charge, and of which he is ignorant; if the enemy is in sight, they will gallop straight toward him, and as near as they can without risk of being captured; they may discover features of ground of which advantage may be taken, or which may have been ruinous or destructive in a charge. Cavalry never charges without a reserve. The charge is made with the greatest velocity and regularity possible; in speed and order there must be mutual sacrifice; seek in the charge, with a judicious proportion, to attain the maximum
of each.

the Colonel wishing to charge. disposed in squadron columns 300 to 400 yards in the rear. the flanking squadrons will sometimes second the The charge of the line by thus charging the enemy in the flank. every jostle or rub diminishes his strength. from close order or by skirmishers. then galloping with increasing speed. the is charge commanded at 50 or 60 yards. The centre of the squadron exactly follows the Captain. Although rapidity in the approach to the enemy is generally important. or support. 2. Crowding and pressure. and make him uncontrollable. or even distressed or blown. it is the usual charge against batteries. MARCH. the flankers must not be in advance. he commands: TroJ-MARCH. when the horse is exerting his powers. (it body from those whose movements are prescribed). impede him. and less loss of fire. he then commands: 1. if sabres be not drawn. Forward. Attention to charge. After passing over 150 paces at this gait (according to circumstances) he commands: GaZZop-MARCH. the gunners being more or less covered by their pieces and isolated. very important too it is that the horses should not arrive exhausted. this third dispensable. the second. the charge in line. the line approaches within 200 paces enemy at the trot. and it prepares the way for a decisive shock of charge as foragers. . The regiment being order of battle. more here considered a distinct body . and alignment by The formation for attack should seldom consist of more than a third of the cavalry. the regiments charge in column of squadrons. . The regiment being in regular motion. the pistol is used in it at will. . 3. Under circumstances which require and admit of a more concentrated attack. has the advantage of granting freedom of motion and will in the troops. the reserve equally in their rear in close column. commands them to be drawn.2O6 APPENDIX of the Circumstances permitting. If the is enemy be is deficient in cavalry. the troopers do their best to preserve their intervals the centre.

in line. approaching very near. they slacken the take time to turn about. the individual chances of being shot down.APPENDIX 207 it is After galloping about 150 paces. suffering the disgrace of defeat. thus adding two-fold to their exposure to fire. or pass by other faces of the square. doubling . he directs the charge be sounded repeated by all the trumpeters he commands: CHARGE. In charging infantry. the troops shout. against cavalry silence is recommended. The enemy's infantry once struck. . the charge is successful. .~or turn in front of other infantry gait. but charges which fail utterly. .

on his European inspection trip. Battles in Culpeper County. Virginia. 1954)." Colonel Hawley in Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research. 2. the beauty. 122. 8. No. Agriculture. still in use in the U.S. 1 2 3. as designations were m partial CHAPTER 6. or of Beverly's Sometimes called the Battle of Fleetwood Heights r . 92- in preface to Rodenbough." Col. 2 S. K 4 Grimsley. The Officers' horses should always be realize to the colour of the men's. Artillery. Army as late as 1851. Lee. Jr. 6. Harry C. JR. 449Freeman.Motes and References CHAPTER i. I. E. XXVI (1948). It followed 208 . troop. McQellan's report 10. 9. tying the trumpeter's gray well out on the end of the line not only provided the benefits of rountine orderliness. the troop columns. "On horses of the U. Charles King The Army of the United States. Larter. Squadron and of cavalry units. . Table IX. "Uniformity in troops is should be of a piece. entering the corral. although battalion use at the time and are generally employed in as cavalry terms through continued and current also and company were and for some years after the Civil War. In a regiment everything alike. every thing 7. Early iSoo's. all Department of . VI. was due for a much longer probationary that accorded a 'recruit' of the same familiar period of bites and kicks than hue as the Veterans/ A black from 'B' Battery would be given short shrift if he wandered away from his own kind into a group of grazing bays from 'A/ In earlier times. been and Historians (MCH). Lee's Lieutenants. had practice." 1914. Capt. 67.. "Old horse cavalrymen and horse or horse-drawn artillerymen can recall that a new horse of a different color. . modified so that the musicians of the Civil period were easily This War the simple device of addidistinguished from their comrades-in-arms by tional rows of braid on the front of their jackets and tunics. Ford. 'Tis a greater disadvantage than people have them otherwise. but it saved that battlefield marker many a nip and drubbing. the text." Journal of the Company of Military Collectors 11. of the traces of a battery. S. III. p. Freeman. "Breeds of Horses Recognized by the U. 3 (Sept.. p.

" 15. II. 29. and for liberty of requesting you to afford Colonel Schurz of this plan. Stuart's and gallant promenade around McClellan's unguarded enpicturesque campment OH the Chickahominy. 12. They so familiarized themselves with the country in which they operated. In view of the required provision of horses and equipment. The regular dragoons he had were quite sufficient for all needs. 231. The Government will provide the regiment with arms. that they kept the enemy constantly speculating on their movements by checkmating them at every point in the game of war. "During the first two years of the war the Confederate cavalry exercised a tremendous moral effect. "They wielded their sabres like the cuirassiers of old. Scott in refusal declared that the war would be over long before any cavalry could be made fit for active service. IV. The Secretary's letter." PH. War Years with Jeb Stuart. For these necessaries we rely upon the Carl Schurz in his Reminscences. 50. 72." 16. and used their pistols with the truth and nerve of expert marksmen. Rhodes in PH. Blackford. . relates that he made an General Scott to raise a regiment of cavalry from German immigrants with previous service in that arm. but cannot provide the horses and equipments. this purpose I take the your aid in the execution wonder that Schurz abandoned infantry command. 17. 3if." However. continued until about 1855. Richmond Times. Thomason. he is instructed to enlist principally such men as have served in the arm before. the war record of the Southern horse notwithstanding its decline and the final disasters the use of full plastrons of the branch color. in 1862. PH). 23. For the purpose of rendering it as efficient as possible. Feb. . Beginning with the cry of 'The Black Horse Cavalry/ at First Bull Run." Rodenbough in Photographic History of the Civil War (hereof inafter 14. offer to patriotism of the States and the citizens. p. on the Black Horse Troop. as early as May i. ran: "I have authorized Colonel Carl Schurz to raise and organize a volunteer regiment of cavalry. p. it is small his cavalry scheme and accepted an . addressed to the Governors of the Several States.NOTES AND REFERENCES 2OQ Mosby's frequent dashes at poorly guarded Union trains and careless outposts. . "and the surface of Virginia was so cut up with fences and other obstructions as to make operations with large bodies of cavalry impractical. 1861. Schurz succeeded in obtaining an authorization with strings on it from Secretary of War Simon Cameron. 13. 52. IV. that the theater of war would be Virginia. IV. Jeb Stuart. and achieved such prestige by their strange ubiquity and stratagem that the name of the little legion became a watchword for danger and a signal far action with the Union troops. subsequent 1864-65 will always illumine one of the brightest pages of cavalry history. but they never received the recognition that was deserved. Their "firm front probably saved a large part of the main body from capture. 1896. so terrible to the panic-stricken Federal troops in their race to Washington and safety.

74. but their purchase tended to The Long Arm of leaving the heavier horses for the light batteries/* Wise. 36. The Life and Campaigns of Major-General J. I. 26. "Govern- ment 41. Downey. is mentioned in a number of regimental histories and other works. Sound of the Guns. see Appendix B. "Morgan Horses in the Civil War. 19. p. 35. 257. IV. 332. 23. PH. Cavalry Volunteers. In November. 21. 30. Preston. 37. 205. 33. pp. History of the First Regiment of Massachusetts I. NOTES AND REFERENCES Sheridan. History of the First 27.21O 18. 3 For stories of some of the famous chargers see PH. Jeb Stuart. Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War. 47. 31. New York CHAPTER 29. Charles F. IndianFighting Army. 355. gf. Lee. 32nd Congress. Crowninshield in Papers of the Military Historical Society of Massachusetts> V. Session. O'Malley. Stuart." Report No. 2. The Guns 20. House Reports. A 6. 32. See Note 17. Crowninshield. Blackford. draught purrelieve the situation in Virginia by poses. 39. p. such as of the Civil War. Charles Maine Cavalry. fascinated would-be cavalrymen History of the Tenth Regiment of Cavalry. Henderson. 35. A Rebel's Recollections. 22." Vermont Horse and Bridle Trail Bulletin. pp. Lever's novel. first published in the United States in 1841. purchase of 1. No. p. Davis. Massachusetts Historical Society. Ibid. Proceedings. p. p. II. Crowninshield. II. Eggleston. Hammond bought Morgans at from $125 to $225 a head for Company H. 198. 5th New York Cavalry. artillery 34. 30. its martial passages and illustrations served as cavalry recruiting pamphlets and posters. Downey. 38. p. 22. 1862. Charles F. p. 32! 25. enrolled by his son John. For an extract. 720. Personal Memoirs. Widely read. at Gettysburg. Trooper's 24. p. Tobie. Thomason. V. State Volunteers. more dreaded by the savages who preferred to match their own fine horsemanship against riders in blue rather than launch a charge against the volleys of the steady foot/' Downey. the Irish Dragoon. 28.. "Staunch infantry.000 horses "These small animals were of course unsuited for in Texas was directed. B. 40. viii. Cavalry Volunteers. 2nd Contracts. War Years with Jeb Stuart. 292-318. 13. McClellan. A History of the First Regiment of Massachusetts . IV. Hammond. Manual (1861). iff. E.

101.NOTES AND REFERENCES 42. p. XIII. If a rider began to sway. Ibid. World War I. II. 52. 45. wandered off at a tangent. MacLeod. and the animal was lamed. 14. French Army. A CHAPTER 58. 16. 211 Adams. 758-777. Lee. were discarded in field service. "The Artillery Horse's Prayer. PH. JE. wear. IV." 53. 54. There was an increasing tendency to empty the revolver before closing for combat with the saber. A Cycle of Adams Letters. Warty growth appeared. The skin around the pasterns and fetlocks grew hot and cracked. Stable frocks. I. II. Many cavalrymen learned to sleep bolt upright in their saddles. but the increased accuracy and rapidity of fire provided by the revolver soon began to affect tactics. N. but the chief preventive was keeping the feet clean and dry. Tobie. Horse-wise cavalrymen took infinite pains to provide dry footing for their picketed mounts with such planks. Massachusetts Historical Society Papers. 252. E.. Cycle of Adams Letters. 16. 15. Cavalry Tactics. History of the First Maine Cavalry. The 48. 3-6. Denison. 324. pp. antiquity and long called "farcy. H. The American Sword. saber in . Glanders at times all but immobilized the Known since only known treatments were isolation or the destruction of the infected animal. A.. 44. p. 417. pp. 1841 (republished in 1863). 4gif. or were carried past the officer at the head of the column. Information from Dr. Under favorable conditions a horse might recover. 57. Some. See Ramsdall. Cooke. R. 25. also Freeman. acute cases resulted in death within a few days. 50. Cavalry Tactics. 4 "There are many recorded instances of bodies of horsemen charging hand during that war. 51. or bits of tile as they could find. 55. sound asleep." Peterson. or a comrade might catch him. veterinarian. bricks. and some engagements were decided without the drawing of a blade. Ibid. maintaining balance for hours. It was transmitted by the close contact of war conditions and by drinking from a common trough or pail. Greased heel also flourished under war hardships when horses were forced to stand night after night in mud or snow. he might waken before he slid to the ground. XXXV. 43. Freeman. Lebanon. %$L cavalry of both sides. Glazier. III. 46." this highly infectious disease is manifested by running noses and nodules and sores inside the nostrils or elsewhere on the skin. p. p. Captain de Condenbove. "Lee's Horse Supply" in American Historical Review. 56. II. Sabres and Spurs. 47. legs swelled. for base camp or garrison Three Years in the Federal Cavalry. Rubbing with oil sometimes helped. Lee. R. L. 49.

77. A Cycle of Adams Letters. with 76.*' 72. Bibliography. p. 1957. March 29. cit. B.. See Buckeridge. p. even on a march which might be changed at any moment into a battle. Through the Looking-Glass. Rustics in Rebellion." Thomason. 50. 46f. 71. The Organization and Administration of the Union Army. 14. Gluckman. and cavalry began to be equipped with breech-loading carbines their brass cartridges. E. "Dr. a certain famous old division and corps general quarreled with Wilson." American Heritage. Catling and His Gun. pp. 62. lacked teeth to bite off ends of paper cartridges. Life and Campaigns of Major-General J. 170. and Stuart's laugh on such occasions was sure to be heard as an accompaniment as far as the minstrel's voice could reach. p. cit. op.212 NOTES AND REFERENCES 59. p. History of the First Maine Cavalry. 69. was a rare one. Ser. Tobie. Ibid. drafts for that arm increased from men who MCH. The author. i.. Stuart. October. Scott. 66. XVII. "One o these guns was brought to bear on a squadron o cavalry at 800 yards. like Pleasonton a dragoon in the Mexican War. op. Rhodes in PH. 2 (1955). however. mentions use of the Geary machine gun against enemy cavalry at Middleburg. Kearny. Pt. Vol. 61. 65. Lincoln's Choice. New York Tribune . U. When Vol. The ist Maine Cavalry was a frequent victim i. 64. Dodgson. Official Records of the Rebellion (hereinafter OR). 1863.S. Aug. See Philip Van Doren Stern. "Keep him away keep him away from my camp. 60. 128. United McClellan. 26ff. playing and singing. II. Gen. 78. Rifles and Carbines. No. 64. "I Sweeney and his banjo. The Story of a Cavalry Regiment. Hill said of the cavalry leader. P. 232ff. lost his left arm charging the gates of Mexico City. forcing them to fly. 260! The States Muskets. Scott. pp. of detachment 73. Cf. 63. Shannon. Virginia. p. Thereafter he rode with reins . because that able cavalryman refused to break up one of his brigades to supply the usual escorts to brigadiers and outposts for infantry camps. 70. 7. Tobie. "Even as late as the beginning of the last campaign of the war. Rebel's Recollections. 75. cit. 438." Eggleston. Every time Jeb Stuart comes around. calls.. pp. 67. 29. 68. xviif. IV. or who had had teeth pulled out to escape the call. and it cut them to pieces terribly." This instance. A. A have known him [Sweeney] to ride with his banjo. he makes all my division want to *jine' the cavalry. 1862. pp. 5 Townsend. Jeb Stuart. p. op. CHAPTER 74. quoting a Union officer's speech. 43. 17. Adams. pp. War Department. Buckeridge.

His undoubted Union only Sheridan but for Grant." Crowninshield in Papers of the Massachusetts Historical Society. although engaged in the exacting work of covering Sherman's flanks. it is a pity he could not have been placed over the cavalry. might "General Phil Kearny was spoken of as a natural cavalry leader. James H. Kilpatrick himself. 82. XIII. but was killed while leading his infantry division at Chantilly. Gen. Magazine. Cornhill 91. lost ground during the command of the Army of the Potomac by Meade who. Giant in Gray. Hard. II. it is generally conceded. 83. 89. Wellman. 578-597. 86. who gave his brilliant subordinate full scope. 92. 80. and both men and horses were cared for in a manner unknown before. Swarthout. under Sheridan.NOTES AND REFERENCES in his teeth." At the "The Death 87. 88. he well have hand. becoming U. December." Toombs. Foreword. Letter to the author. At a later day. 1862. 85. and a different story might have been told for 1861 and 1862. made him a promising leader. Gen. 1863. 81. The mounted arm therefore was forced to wait not for flair for cavalry and his foreign armies. Officiating at Cyprus. p. March 17. C. A Eighth Cavalry Regiment. 4026:. A. Illinois Volunteers. 90. Given command in the earlier years of the war when the Federal horse was neglected and misused. and the sufficient answer to this is that neither he nor anybody else could have done better under the system in vogue. under Wilson in the West. Baehr. 79. History of the First Regiment of Massachusetts Cavalry Volunteers. the cavalry was used more in masses. as well as our own. have done. failed to make proper use of his horsemen. History 93. New Wise. 115. The Campaigns of the of the First Maine and First District of Columbia Cavalry. p. who wrote in Kilpatrick's biography in Cullum: "The severest criticism ever made of Kilpatrick was that he did not take proper care of his horses. The Long Arm of Lee. After the war both Duffle" and di Cesnola.S. Merrill. See Appendix G. Crowninshield. They Came to Cor dura. The other three were and James H. If he was as bold and resolute a commander as many think. 41. Battle of Kelly's Ford. of Pelham. took as good care of his horses as "Fighting Joe" Wheeler and Matthew Calbraith Butler of the Confederate. citizens. Wilson. Army any other cavalry commander of the war could Jersey Troops in the Gettysburg Campaign. Wilson of the Union men and 84. pp. The improvement in the cavalry. following Hooker's reorganization. . A stanch and authoritative defender of Kilpatrick was a fellow cavalryman. London. The Guns at Gettysburg. front. were rewarded for their services by consulships. saber in right distinguished service with 2 13 redeemed it. and rear in the March to the Sea and through the Carolinas. 113. Downey. di Cesnola organized the excavations that founded the fine Metropolitan Museum of Art collection named in his honor. 28. p.

II. Pyne. in 1863: April 29. Peck. 6. B. A thread of cavalry yellow runs through the works of Douglas Southall Freeman and one of artillery scarlet through Wise's. 98. Reminiscences of a Confederate Soldier of Company C. and it was not until the great battle on this same ground on the 9th of June. which was rarely.L. not listed by O. See Appendix G. Blackford. NOTES AND REFERENCES Denison. I. 1862.214 94. Heros von Borcke. ." Stoneman's report. October engagements at Brandy Station on August 20. B. 101. i72n. Preston. Memoirs. 1863. June 9. Ill. August i. Sabres and Spurs. the Prussian officer on Stuart's staff. "This corps did great service value of the Pleasonton .R. not only in diminishing the numbers but in impairing the spirit of the men. & L. 273. and Stuart could not get through to communicate to Lee what was going on. of Pelham. 4. Wise. The History of the First New Jersey Cavalry. and whenever we got a chance at them. and November 8. among the Brandy Station engagements.. 6 and the following and 13. for General Hooker moved the three corps with hirr> with such celerity that they passed between Stuart and Lee's army. Many of the men knew that when their horses were disabled they could not get others. is known as the Battle of Kelly's Ford. 2nd 97. 82. New York State Volunteersf p.R. and U. The various biographies of J. . The Long 104. p. 105. 153. E. thus depriving General Lee of their services. CHAPTER 100. This fight. Stuart of course devote much attention to the arm he led. Up to this time the cavalry of the enemy had no more confidence in themselves than the country had in them. Lieutenant Colonel Blackwood of Stuart's staff states in War Years O. W. R. quoted in B. The by drawing General Lee's cavalry. B." off initial stage of Stoneman's raid was estimated as follows by in an article in B. lists with Jeb Stuart. 98: "At that time their cavalry could not stand before us at all. 103. 99. September 8 11-12. History of the Tenth Regiment of Cavalry. 96.. Ill. was closely concerned with Brandy Station in his Memoirs and in his small volume on the battle. under General J. Virginia Cavalry. Stuart. 95." 102. p. Notable among contemporary chroniclers of the Confederate cavalry were H. E. . they were willing to risk getting shot themselves but not willing to risk being sent into the infantry service if their horses were killed. they came to grief. 27. From that time the difficulty of getting remounts acted distressingly upon the strength of our cavalry arm. and 9. to Brandy Station and Culpeper. Arm of Lee. McClellan. Brooks. and this injured their dash. Tleetwood Fight/ that they offered us any determined resistance. Borcke. W. "The Death 432. Die Grosse Reiterschlacht bei Brandy Station.

cymbals. for full text. and instead of being relegated to the usual duty of carrying off the wounded and assisting the surgeons. 71 in." In August. It was first used for a military funeral by 06. much to the regiment's sorrow. the band. two E-flat cornets. Tobie. Lysle.and bass drums. Stuart Landstreet. 1862. one of Sheridan's commanders. 2nd U. 88. and a friend. 2nd Division. And it carried the cheering 7th into battle behind its streaming standards and wind-whipped guidons/' Downey. which had cheered the regiment and won an enviable reputation for its fine music. At the first dress parade the bandsmen " 'beat off' mounted. As soon as the newly-organized regiment received saddles. joined with a . It was the custom of the regimental commander. The tradition of Sweeney's banjo was carried on in the First World War. B-flat bass. Tlay!' Custer shouted to his chilled bandsthe battle men. and only the drums rolled on. who guitar and had brought one to the played Fielding with him. 108. three E-flat basses. Its instrumentation consisted of two B-flat cornets. See Appendix G no. To the assembled talent I contributed war S. side. his brother. 109. History of the First Maine Cavalry. all former members of the Yale Banjo Club. "Sheridan's bands were generally mounted on gray horses. Pell Foster. they were brought out to the front and made to play the liveliest tunes in their repertory. and did it wonderfully well for the time the horses had been under drill with music. was adopted by buglers of other commands as a night call. three E-flat altos. CoL Manus field teleMcCloskey. This was the second cavalry band from Maine. his brother Faber. But to the Indians that brazen blast from the snow-covered hills. sounding like a deep-throated. A bar or so and the instruments were jammed solid with frozen saliva. 7th's song. <fr L.S. was mustered out as a needless and costly luxury and went home. p. it began to practice on horseback. Custer. were members of the banjo quartet of the isth Field Artillery. which.' was terror-striking." "McCloskey must have recruited his headquarters staff from Yale. a fine lad who died shortly after the war. for it included Fairfax Downey. and James C. carried on the tradition into the Indians wars when he used his 7th Cavalry band on the bitter cold day " of the Battle of the Washita. Robinson.NOTES AND REFERENCES 215 CHAPTER 1 7 "Taps/* composed by General Daniel Butterfield as an identifying the units of his infantry brigade." B. 107. IV. terrible shout. The second Maine band was formed for the ist District of Columbia Cavalry. The author of this book. Indian-Fighting Army. Artillery. an officer of one of the batteries. which contained many Maine men and often served alongside the ist Maine. three B-flat tenors. call for Battery A. a cousin.. with great effect on the spirits of the men. though it never managed mounted performances. blared forth. Garry Owen. The first had performed creditably. played in dugouts in the line. on a quiet night to call up French generals on the to a lively rendition of "The Darktown Strutters' Ball" listen to phone or "Madelon.

NOTES AND REFERENCES Nearly every evening we had music/' Harbord. The original remained the South's anthem until after Appomattox when Lincoln. eve of the Kilpatrick-Dahlgren raid on Richmond. 3. p. These animals are generally tabooed in the cavalry. I." Davis. Lee's Lieutenants. 116. 3 (Spring. Vol. Three Years in the Confederate Horse Artillery. since they are gun shy/' Scheibert. 117. Freeman. 397. p. States during the 120. The American Army in France. Thomason. on Davis's staff thought the letter amusing and sent suggesting "that he cease his attentions to the ladies or make general/' Stuart. them more ." cit. The new version and alligators/' His efforts bitterly referred to Dixie as "the land of traitors were vain. receiving the letter on his march through Pennsylvania. op. 167. 113. 288. credits Joel Sweeney with the invention of the skin head for the banjo (formerly it had been strung over a gourd) and with the addition of a fifth string. If such a maneuvre were its state of forwardness. corps or more reached Culpeper? Was any force in motion to the west of that town. Seven Months in the Rebel pp. I think. the Confederate the "The problem before General Pleasonton was to ascertain whether army or any considerable portion of it was moving upon road between Fredericksburg and Culpeper. asking a band in front of the White House to 112. he was to ascertain something as to Had one Gettysburg Campaign/' Cavalry Journal. III. 121. "It was a genuine pleasure to see the skill and assurance with which the men managed their horses. 111. declared he cared little about his own dismissal but that "the mule looked a little bit surprised. Stuart's friends him a copy. 328. and the genuinely fine breed of horses that passed before the spectators. as well as in the artillery. North American War.2l6 violin. although a sporadic mule was running along here and there among them. and if so. strongly loyal to the Union. the spirit with which they rode. and this knowledge would be of avail in determining the strength and composition of his reconnoitering columns. Bruce Lancaster in Night March describes the arrival of a train load of ladies at Brandy Station for a Washington's Birthday ball on the play it. was infuriated. Emmett. No. 8 CHAPTER 114.. "Cavalry in the in progress. which cost him his prominent position in the grand cavalcade. Jeb Stuart. Neese. p. expressed his resentment by rewriting the words to his song to blast the Secessionists. VII. 118. Neese. 169-170. in what direction? He knew that Stuart's command was bivouacked somewhere in the vicinity of Brandy Station. f p. p. Arthur Woodward in Los Angeles County Museum Quarterly. 1949). felt ashamed of himself and his waving ears. 115. declared that now it belonged to the nation. i. Freeman. 119. op. 87. and. cit.

the it mounted troops of the Confederacy. See 217 Appendix D. 1863. The Confederate the Rappahannock cavalry was carelessly strewn over the country. pp. "my horse ran away with me. But the country pays dearly for the blunders which encourage the enemy to overrun and devastate the land. "The more the circumstances of the late affair at Brandy Station are less pleasant do they appear. After (1858). Thomason. Rebel Cavalryman with Lee. Appendix C. p. 157. the Richmond Examiner did not name Stuart. The surprise on this occasion was the most complete that has occurred. Organization of the Union Forces at the Battle Brandy 124. History of the Civil "Lord Dundreary. with a cavalry which is daily learning considered. In its article of June 12. 125. See Station. 397. 130. p. Stuart. 158. For Pleasonton's reports see Appendix E. might be excused under the convenient head of accident or chance. and such repeated accidents can be regarded as nothing but the necessary consequences of negligence and bad management. Battle of CHAPTER of 9 123. 127. But this puffed up cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia has been twice. but the target of its bitter accusations was unmistakable. Paris. or was driven. 128. That night in camp Opie's company acclaimed him as "Charles O'Malley" and Murat. CHAPTER 11 133. "O pshawl boys. Gracey. invented and supported for the pleasure of a few vain and weakheaded officers. and Jackson. If the war was a tournament. across the river. i48f. 462. if not three times. See Appendix D. 131. these disasters might be dismissed with compassion. it is not yet our cost to despise the known which.NOTES AND REFERENCES 122. If this was an isolated case. surprised since the battles of December. Annals of the Sixth Pennsylvania Cavalry. CHAPTER 129." he replied." a character in Our American Cousin the play President Lincoln was attending when he was assassinated." 132. 126. Organization of the Confederate Forces at the Brandy Station.. with it and an enemy who has already proven his enterprise to between only In the end the enemy retired. Gracey. p. III. A Annals of the Sixth Pennsylvania Cavalry. Jeb Stuart. War in America. Nor is it certainly known whether fortunate result was achieved by the cavalry alone or with the Events of assistance of Confederate infantry in the neighborhood this description have been lately too frequent to admit of the supposiclearly the . Opie. 10 For full text see Appendix G.

I call them now the Seventh Regulars. pp. 270. 142. E. Major-General J. Crowninshield. present on the field. 27. Gracey. Quoted in McClellan. They had frequently proved their valor on other battle-fields. 141. f CHAPTER 13 145. enforce a stricter discipline among officers in the dis- charge of their very important duty/' On the other hand Stuart's devoted partisan. defends him at every point in Stuart's Cavalry in the Gettysburg Campaign. 2. 268. History of the First Regiment of Massachusetts Cavalry Volunteers. that arm. he stayed where he was nearly all day. p. p. 30). 139. E. They are the effects of causes will produce like effects while they are permitted to operate. p. 737. 173. Stuart." reappeared the name CHAPTER 140. 183. They did " not respond to the efforts of their officers .2l8 NOTES AND REFERENCES which tion that they are the results of hazard. V. and they require the earnest attention both of the chiefs of the Government and the heads o employ the Army. 1880. i6of.. Myers. inspecting the 6th Pennsylvania the following day. He had not then gone more than a mile from the river." "It is clear. and on many subsequent occasions they confirmed their good reputation. isgf. 12 The Comanches. June 26. Pleasonton. However. commended it highly: "Those men did splendidly yesterday. 289) writes of the 4th Virginia: "There was not a finer body of men in the service. 134. "that Pleasonton was more surprised than the Confederates were. according to Mosby. Even the posting of Beckham's artillery in its ex- posed position was. 144.R. B. McClellan. Neese." the writer concludes. pp. 137. "fortunate.. p. op. 146. McClellan. Major-General J. s66f. Blackford and other Confederates. Hart in The Philadelphia Weekly Times. Mosby. 136. cit. sGgf. But on this day a panic possessed them. the cavalry commander John S. The only effective is The enemy is evidently determined to and has spared no pains or cost to perfect means of preventing the mischief it may do the to reorganize insist our own men and on more earnestness among the forces. pp. Curiously the 6th Pennsylvania's disliked and early discarded lances as decorations around its Gettysburg monument which bears Lancers. Pt. Stuart. 135. McClellan (p. 143. Three Years in the Confederate Horse Artillery. 138. B. pp.. op cit. McClellan. O. Annals of the Sixth Pennsylvania Cavalry. It was the commanding ability of won Stuart that 'from the nettle of danger plucked the flower safety/ and the battle of Brandy/' (p. his cavalry extensively. support the surprise charge.

io26ff. Jersey in the Rebellion. Part of the citation of Brigadier de Dragons Gaston Bonnett. 167. 96. 215! phrase volume. Kennedy. See 14 Memoirs.R. Merrill. The Campaigns of the i. killed in a First World cavalry charge. Freeman. Part 3. pp. Brooks. 876. Pt. Sieben Monate. pp. Scheibert. Wilson's report. 151. Gutter. p. p. cit. Meyer. op. p. V. 15 Tenth Regiment of Cavalry. 55 (Battle of Cross Keys. Civil War in Song and Story. Borcke. p. 1956). Butler and His Cavalry. Crowninshield. Ibid. . The New and for successive reports by Pleasonton. 164.. 1862). Tobie.-Feb. p. Mort a cheval. ist Maine and ist District of Columbia Cavalry. Gregg. Pleasonton (see Report) blamed the loss of the New York guns on 158. Appendix E 152. and concise account of the battle. 177. is the theme of a by Edmond Rostand in his 1914. V. 22. pp.. Ibid.. 87f. 163. Neese. CHAPTER 159. 153. au galop." Armor (Jan. the best phase of the battle despite some minor errors. See Stuart's Report. op. Kilpatrick. 157. Preston. Merrill. 148. History of the First Maine Cavalry. 31. Appendix F. 147. pp. 149. O. Blackford. First Lieutenant William V. 27ff. 155. 154. 171. III. 16 27. 133. 156. The War poem la Marseillaise. 217. i68f. Beale. History of the State Volunteers. Civil War Experiences under Bayard. p. 31. p. War Years with Jeb Stuart. Ibid. 165. pp. Three Years in the Confederate Horse Artillery. and Foster. June 8. 217. The History of the First Jersey Cavalry. Ibid. New York 160. 162.. II. Le Vol de 169. pp. "The Brandy Station. 161. 170. O. 86. Duffie"'s delay. This article Cavalry Battle at is an admirable CHAPTER 150... op. September 14. 4536:. i47ff. p. Moore. cit. E. 168. cit. Blackford.R. CHAPTER 166. Lee. R.NOTES AND REFERENCES 219 The New description of a cavalry rout is from Pyne. A account of this Lieutenant of Cavalry in Lee's Army.

<r L. V. 3 (Nov. . 1862. Thomason. III. III. "The Federal Commander. 32. E. Freeman observes that hurt Stuart to think that the bluecoats could at any time hold him. and not Richmond. 180. CHAPTER 184. 2. . VII. E. 17 Freeman. A Lieutenant of Cavalry in Lee's Army. demonstrative reviews of more troops than ever had been under his command. of whom 486 were prisoners of war. 24. 173. Freeman. Major-General J. I think Lee's army. Union. 183. Lee's Lieutenants. Stuart. 320. his intentions at so early prudent a man as General Lee had formulated a period in the campaign. The Federal Lincoln's dispatch to authorities refused to approve Hooker's plan Hooker on the day after Pleasonton's raid shows a grasp of matters quite unlike that of the year before..' 182. 27. 177. McCIellan gives the casualties as: 172. 265. June 18. E. 18." Telegram to i. The reference to Yellow Tavern is of course to the mortal wound General Stuart received in the battle. V. Ibid. I. 181. Appendix a remarkable circumstance if so been have "It would certainly 174. 170. . . 41. Jeb Stuart. is your true objective " Pageant of America. and to do something to retrieve his reputation. Pt. p. "The Operations of the Cavalry in the Gettysburg Campaign.. however. quoting Taylor mss. 186. 27. . 2. 185. Dr. Union high command.. "The Richmond papers Criticism of Stuart was noted by the of the i3th blame Stuart much call upon him for allowing himself to be surprised in his camp by Pleasonton. Freeman. yigf.R. 423. f p. thrilling victory that every there was sarcastic talk of an exposed rear and of a surprise!" General Order No. O. 41. 1863. 1888). Halleck. it man in the army would have to acclaim. Pt. O. He (Hooker) planned to move around to planning check it by throwing an overwhelming force against Fredericksburg and. 936. 178. ". f III.. V. B. 128-132. A good account of the October action is found in Beale. pp. Ill. Pt. Hooker estimated on the Confederate left and was correctly that Lee was concentrating the Federal right. No.. O. For cavalry actions at Gettysburg see B. dt. 27. R. 179. Tour long dispatch of today is just received. 409. McCIellan. Freeman. &* L. E. to move against Richmond. i. 687. Instead of a 176. Confederate. at if successful that point.22O NOTES AND REFERENCES Pt.R.R. 187. May 20. 109. III.. 393-406.. . 18. 719. B. Sheridan's first cavalry assignment was as colonel of the 2nd Michigan. point.. it is still more remarkable that he should have entrusted them in writing to even a trusted subordinate." Davis. Lee. Lee. p. He had fought his heaviest battle after thunderous. 175. See Pleasonton's reports. p. op. 294. had accomplished his mission and reported to Hooker the information he had gained." Cavalry Journal. R. .

cases to recover from wounds or sickness. (d) Escort duty for other supply matters. courier service. vedettes. at Chancellorsville. Ibid. 189. With the charge of the French cuirassiers at Sedan.. The Little Fork Rangers. (c) Engaged in transferring horses to and from Remount Depots and units in the field. etc. we can place the effective charge of the Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry under Huey. (f) Temporary attachment to various commands. ."Side by side with the charge of the German cavalry at Mars-la-Tour. missions." 190. wagon trains. History of the Cavalry of the Army of the Potomac. 221 The in Rhodes. p. we can name that of the lamented Farnsworth upon the Confederate right flank at Gettysburg. Hackley. For the charge of the English Light Brigade at Balaklava. or that of the Sixth United States and Sixth Pennsylvania upon the Confederate artillery at Brandy Station. following would cause personnel to be listed on returns as not present for duty: (a) Wounded or sick in hospitals. some (e) Screening pickets. pp. i8gf. we can class the devoted charge of the First and Fifth United States Cavalry at Gaines* Mill.NOTES AND REFERENCES 188. 172. (b) On leave or furlough.

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1896. New Tenth Regiment of Cavalry. CARL. York: D. MAJOR JUSTUS. STEELE.. CHARLES D. SCHAFF. SCHEIBERT. Appleton Co. RAMSDELL. New * SOUTHERN HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Papers. New York: The McClure New York: SHANNON. The Story of a Cavalry Regiment. FRED ALBERT.. Krieges. American Campaigns..228 PETERSON. POAGUE. SCOTT. PHILIP H. Stettin. The United States War and Peace. RODENBOUGH. Richmond: 1914- SPAULDING. G. NOBLE D. eds. PYNE. H. HENRY R. Clark Co. The Spirit of Old West Point. History of the Cavalry of the Army of the Potomac. Putnam's Sons. The History of the First New Jersey Cavalry." American Historical Review. History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 3 vols. Glendale. P. History of the New York State Volunteers. 758-777. The Army of the United States. Gunner with Stonewall Jackson. Webster 8c Co. . 1871. WILLIAM L. Sieben Monate in den Rebellen Staaten wahrend des Nordamerikanischen 1868.. York: Maynard. Tennessee: McCowat-Mercer Press. Washington: War Department Document No. The American Sword. 1775-1945. WILLIAM THOMAS. Merrill 8c Co. 1893. 1907. vols. Lee's Horse Supply. 1888. CHARLES M. and HASKINS. 324. 1907-1908. 1957. 1862-1865. COLONEL OLIVER LYMAN. 35 (1930) . MORRIS. 1954. York: Charles L. BIBLIOGRAPHY HAROLD L. A. Historical Sketches of Staff and Line... Beecher. "General Robert E. 1-50. RHODES.. STINE. 1928. History of the Army of the Potomac. Missouri: Hudson-Kimberly Printing Co. 1943. Indianapolis: 1906. J. Germany: SCHURZ. The Organization and Administration of the Union Army. 1892. California: Arthur H. The Reminiscences of Carl Schurz. 2 vols.. SHERIDAN. Pennsylvania: Robert Halter. Army 2 in MAJOR MATTHEW FORNEY. 1861-1865. 1900. 1937. Personal Memoirs of P. Sheridan. N. Trenton: J. v. H. W. Kansas City.. Putnam's Sons. WILLIAM FORSE. JPRESTON. vols. Co. P. New Hope. Philadelphia: 1892. Boston and New New York: Houghton MifiHn 8c Co.. JR. PICKERILL. THEOpHiLus F. New York: G.

1863 U. TOOMBS. Military Commission to Europe. 130 vols. Oklahoma: c. History of the First Maine Cavalry. JOHN W. West Point: 1953. TOWNSEND. WAR Tactics. Remarks upon the Organization.S. 3 vols. Selected Readings U. GENERAL JOHN C. Washington: Government . MILITARY ACADEMY. New 1887.S. Command. They Came to Cordura. published 1841) WAR DEPARTMENT. WAR Civil DEPARTMENT.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY. EMORY. Campaigns of the Army of the Potomac. Fort Sill. THOMASON.S. New York: Charles B. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Printing Office.. 1950. Report of Captain George B.. Georgia: 1953. Missouri: Hudson-Kimberly Publishing Co. 1861-1865. 1958. North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. States. Washington: 1857.S. Evening Mail Publishing House. Bobbs-Merrill Co. The War of the Rebellion: Official Records. WAR DEPARTMENT. 1855- 1856. 1896. U. Cavalry (first in the Office. Richardson. Jeb 1934* Stuart. New York: Random House. TOBIE. maries of Selected Military Campaigns. Cavalry Studies from Two Great ^WAGNER. Glory-Hunter. McClellan. 1907. THE INFANTRY SCHOOL. VAN DE WATER. TIDBALL.S.S. Based on Experiences of the Civil War. U. U. U. 1861-1866. Typescript MS in Library. GLENDON. Fort Benning.S. Washington: 1880-1901. Troops in the Gettysburg Campaign. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY. Orange. Indianapolis: ARTHUR CAPTAIN L. Davis. a Life of General Custer. Washing- FREDERIC. The Military Policy of the United ton: 1917. Boston: Emery and Hughes. U. ed. UPTON. 1866. EDWARD PARSONS.. 1888. The Wars. Artillery & Guided Missile Center. . 1861-5. WILLIAM. Rustics in Rebellion: A Yankee Reporter on the Road to Richmond. Bibliography of State Participation War. GEORGE ALFRED. in American Military History. Washington: Government Printing DEPARTMENT. paign" by Lieutenant Colonel George B. SAMUEL. "The Operations of the Cavalry in the Gettysburg CamKansas City.BIBLIOGRAPHY SWARTHOUT. and Employment of Field Artillery during War. 1934. SumJersey New Jersey: U. SWINTON. Chapel Hill.

of Liberty. WOOD. The Long Arm of Lee. and Co 1865. and TRUE. Giant in Hampton of South Carolina. JENNINGS CROPPER. 7. The Life of Johnny Reb. Maine: Nelson Dingley. Virginia: 1915. S. . 1928. BELL IRWIN. WELLMAN. 2 vols. MANLY WADE. Indianapolis: BobbsMerrill Company. The Life of Billy Yank. New Haven: Yale University Press. a Biography of Wade York: Charles Scribner's Sons. WISE.230 BIBLIOGRAPHY Gray. 1951. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Com- pany. New WHITMAN.. Jr. v. Lewis for ton. 1943. CHARLES H. WILEY. WILLIAM. Lynchburg. WILLIAM E.. In Defense Pageant of America. Maine in the War the Union. RALPH HENRY. and GABRIEL. .

C. Cav. 63!. 55 97. Cav.C.C.. (4th and 5th N. 97 Hampton's ist ist N. Confederate Vrmy of Northern Virginia.. 85 f. i5th Va. 85. 75 77.. 138 9th Va. ist 67. 60. Batt. 67. 94 f. Cav. 113. ii4ff. 140 Jeff Davis Legion.. 99.. 95. 85 f. 121. Hart's Btry. 65. dexed separately). 112.Index MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS following units. the Potomac. 74 2nd Va. 124 W. 6. 68 Breathed's Btry. S. 152 f. McGregor's Btry... i5ofL 84 V II Corps.. Cav. 44. Cav. 71. 121 . F. 63.. 140 Chew's Btry. 69. Cav. 138 loth Va. Cav. 140 S. 136. where units not The in the text. Cav. Lee's Brig. 67 f.. 140. 60. 8. 150 Robertson's Brig. 85.. 5th Va. 46. 121. 125. f.C. Stuart Horse Artillery. 60. 150 Corps. Cav. 144 140 Phillips Legion Fitzhugh Lee's Brig.. 148.. Brig.. f. 12.. 121.. See also names of commanders in main body of index. 123 Moorman's Btry. 60. Cav. L t Brandy Station are listed. 84. 98. Cav.. 144 ff.. 98. 2nd n8. 121. 29. ff. 60. H.. 136 Cavalry Corps. Cav.. looiGE. 83. 6. 60. 80. 118 35th Va. 121. in- 150.. 4th Va. H. 121. Cav. 90. 141 121. 78.. 149* 3rd Va.C. 49 f.. 100.. Cav. 140 7th Va. 98.. 59. are noted as they A complete list o all units on the field will be found ppear a Appendix D. the Black Horse Troop. 68. 59. 138 i3th Va. 111. 138 2nd N. 60 Cobb's Legion. Cavalry).. 86. 77 f. 121. Cav. 97 nth Va. 94 6th Va. 142 12th Va. engaged at Brandy Station. 86. (Co. Union Army o 66. (Laurel). Cav. Cav. Jones's Brig. 97 L. Va.. 63 f. 87.. 72.. 64.

. 142 ist Brig.. i6th Pa.S. 114.. 117 ist Brig. Cav. 111. 117 ist Mass. Inf.. 29.C. Cav.. 69.S. 111. 98. Cav. 57!. 122 NJ. 38. ist Brig. Inf. 100 ff. Cav. 129 . 107. ist Div.... 53. 107. 53. 105.. Arty. 127. 89. 88 6th Pa. 50. 134 loth N. 88 2rxi U.. INDEX B and L. Cav. Cav. Cavalry Corps. 26 8th N.S. Cav.. Cav. 4th U. f. Cav. 106 also f. 88. 95..S. 112. Cav. 2nd Div. 9.. 112.. 63.. 88. 136 86th N. 4th Pa. 77..S.. inf. 136! ist U. 57. 5th U. 139 Inf. 2nd Mass. Cav. Cav. Md. 114 6th Ohio Cav. 71. see Appendix D . 136 Russell's Brig. f.. 107. Cav... Arty. Cav. 97 3rd Ind. 97 6th N.S. 95 f. 54..I. 88. 137 .. 88. Brig. 120.. B. 146. 89.. 59.Y. Cav. 106 if. 130 ist Me. Cav. inf. 93... Btry.. Inf. 134 Orton's Co.. Cav.. Brig. 57. 53.. 88 Btry. 118 ist 122 f. Cav. Cav. Infantry Ames' Brig. 129. 127. ist U...Y. f. 91. 87.. E.. 95. Inf. 112. 52. 90.. 57.Y. 107. 46. 58. 3rd Div. ist R. 106 113.232 Btries. 88. 57' 63. i24fL..Y.. Cav.. Res... 8th 2nd N. 89.Y. 95. 55. 63. and U.Y. 13. M. 116 148 2nd f. 127. Cav. f. in. 97 .. 88 Btry. 89.S. and U. 88. 121 89. 136 i24th N. Cav.. 1506:. 57. Arty. 116 6th N. Pa.. 63 . 114... 3rd Pa.. 142 Btry. 124. Cav. 21 28 f. K..Y. 112. 114 136 33rd Mass. 89 f.Y.. 58 f. 57. 57. 63... 59..S.. 131 f. Arty. 88 6th U. 111. 53. 127 2nd Brig. 67. 89. 136 3rd Wis. 92 ff. inf.. 1 7th Pa. 2nd Brig. 59.. ff. 142. 88. 9. ist ist 101 ff.1306:. 88. 89. 9th N. Cav.. 70. 3rd W.. 9. Va. 127. 136.

Aldie. U. pikes. 74 .A. 641. 46.. 68 June 9. 59. Third Battle. C.. U. 37 ff.. William W. 36. C. 67 .. ff. see also Co. et passim Breathed.. 138 Beauregard. 105. Heros von. 64. William W.S. John (quoted).S. L. U. 53. J. Toutant.A. 59 Blenheim. Turner. Bands. 85 L. 4o. 144 Borcke. f.S. 34 139 revolvers and pistols.. Col. 56. Bene"t.. George D. 121 L.. Beckham. passim October and November. iigff. R.. battle.S. 47 Averell. 186$.A. L. 9 Bayard. f. 81.S. 1863. 1862. Battery B.. 98 f. C.S. 139 Army of the Shenandoah. August 20.. 149 Balloons.A. 121 f. April 29.A. 60 ff. Gen. T. Lt. 68 Baker.A. passim. 70 f.A. Col. battle. U. C.. C. Stephen Vincent Maj.. 131 86..S. 112 114. Maj. Va. 89. Col. C. under Military Organizations and 39 lances.. 142 Black. R.A. 65 f. 38 C. horse.. 87.. 4th U. 49. 90 ff. Col..80. sabers. battles. . Beale. Tiernan. Brandy Station. Charles Francis. 38.S.A. 98.S. Capt.O. U. 233 ... 3 .A. James. 76 March 17. 140 Battle (Kelly's Ford).S. no. H. Lt. Lt.S. Capt. 90 55. Artillery. Pierre Gustave town. 5. 148 Alexandria. 63 f.. Col. 144 F.. 61.. 150 .. Gen. 152 Arms cannon. 124.S. Jr... 1863.A. Gen.. U. 88. Col. 12.S. 107. 32 ff. Gen. 65 ff. 25 Brandy Station First Battle.. 113. 121 73 Beveridge. 4. 100 Blackford. et 1863. Buford.S..74.A. 151 battle. 97 rifles. John. Boston. R. Balaklava.Index Adams.A..A.. 140 Appomattox. f. 150.S. 95 Ames. Gen.S. 40. 8. 4th Virginia Cavalry... 142. Gen. carbines 68. f. Barbour House. Beverly Ford. 149 Black Horse Troop.. Ashby. battle. Maj. Second C.. 40. 62 ff. 66 136 Brien.. Lawrence S.. 10 Broderick. C. Adelbert.A. 39. 23 Allen... 51. 6. Virgil.

.A. 56. 148 Chancellorsville.. U.. horse. L. 74 Five Forks. 62. C. 98 f.S.. U.A.) 107. B Robert P. 93 fL.S. 4 Crimean War.S. 9 Cromwell. 65 .. 49. 99. battle... Calbraith. Col..A. 47 Crook. Stephen D. battle. Col.. 54. battle.S. 25 Dodgson. Butler.. Maj.A...S. 5 Gen.. 58!.. 84. R. 79. Calvin S. U. 64 Burnside. U. 152 Fleetwood Hill.. Alfred N. 86. 50 "Charles O'Malley. U. 117. U.A.... Lt.. C. Dan.A. 135 138. 25 100 Cincinnati. 53. C. i5th Mississippi Infantry. battle. 47 Culpeper County. C. horse. horse.A. Evans. Benjamin Franklin. 152 Flournoy. battle.. Capt. 80 Col.S. 62 Gen.S.S. Va. 109. C.S.. 142. U.S.A. 130..S. 77 fL. Cedar Mountain. battle.. Gen. 5. 78 Exchequer.A. 113!.A.. 83 Devin. Lt.A. 67. 8th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Diomede. . Gen. 48 George. Elon 149 J. U. 69. 73 Equipment. Col. 121 Davis. Charlottesville. 5!. passim Second Battle. no. 126. 109 et passim. 68. 136. 52. 4. 47. 62. 128L Ewell.. 121. W.A. 67 St. di.S.. Ulric. 144.. Thomas C. C.S. Eclipse. W. Luigi P. Matthew C. 3. 95 Fontenoy. 1136:. 74 Col. Cunningham Farm. Col. 94 Dandridge. see Horses.A. 42 Douty. U. Gen.. 1 2 Capt.. 71 "Canucks".. 133 Duffie". 150. 41 .S. 140. C. 111 Butler. Va. President Jefferson.. 69 Emmett.A. 130 Gushing. 88 Canfield.. Brandy 100 Station.S. R. E. D. Charles W. 112. 22 Custer.. Ambrose. Cesnola. 63. U. Farley. Il8. 147.. Crcy.A.A.A. 10 C. 36. 26. horse.S.A. Va. Private. battle. Gen.S. 44 f. Richard S. Pvt. Va.. Buford. Philip U.. Col." Cooke. (Lewis Carroll). 88. 148 116 Farnsworth.. John (cont. 135 Dahlgren. 98. Welby. horse. 1 18 et passim. 5.. see also Appendix Chew. Fallen Timbers.S. 118 Carter. 24 Col.. 121 Dinwiddie Court House. quoted. 90. ICQ. A. 56.. 114. Fairfax.A.5*34 INDEX Currant. Bull Run 94 First Battle. U. 53. 25 125. Gen. U. 139 Chantilly. 90. 62." 22. Davis.88 Chambliss. 6. George. 8. 76 f. 53.S... 88. 149 George A. 5 Culpeper Court House. 112. John battle..S.A. Gen.. Lt. 51 . 106. breeds Carter. Gen. Capt. 80.. Oliver.S. 24 "Company Q. C.

. C. 52. U.. 6 *> 6 9> 9 1 *39 River. . Col.S. Col. 82. 98. 151 Gen. Johnston. J.. 105 ("Stonewall"). 135.. 65. 8gff. Grant. C. Gen. Sioux..S. 641. 31 64. 100 Gen. Sen. 68.. 138. 53 ' 18. 50 Kelly's Ford. 109. 121. Henry ("Light-Horse 9. 140 151 Karge". Gen. 78 Gracey. Kearny. 151 24.S.. Wade. C. 40. 114 Hill. 77. 126 f. 77... U.S. W. Gen. C. C. Hampton. 90 Hooker. 13 Hampton. 68. 121 Col. io6f.. 50 Lt. Thomas Jonathan 10. 27 care. 78 Lee. 65 Hazel Run.... 53. Gen. . f. 94.. 120. 12. 106. 111 L. 67 .. Col. 53.. 67 f.. 99 ff.. Jones..A.. Gregg. 57 Kilpatrick.S. 13 .. 52 121. 122 ff. 60. Hood. Judson. 118.. 67 ff. C. Gen. Gen. 106. ff. casualties. 105 ff.A.A. Col. Gen.A. C.. 112.A. 121.. 9. Harry"). 47. P. 149 Gregg.. 126 ff. Gen.A. et passim cost. 98. 88 Grouchy. ff.. ("Grumble"). Gettysburg. 111 5. via. 75 f.S. 47.. 32 color. 142. 72.. 77.S. Chaplain Samuel L. 127 L Jackson. 43 f. 85 ff.. U. 47 Fort Monroe.. C.. 46. U. 89. 151 f..A.A.S.S.A. Va. 135. Fredericksburg. 86. Va..A. Gen. Kellyville.. 53 12 f. battle.. ii4ff. Gen. Wm. 13 C. 82. U.S. 98. U. 5 James 49.A. vii. Albert E. 24 Fredericksburg. Genghis Khan. Robert E. 149 King's Mountain. Gen.S. 50 ff..A. 78 25 f. Horses. U. Wade (Revolution). 120.A. 123. (6th Pennsylvania Cavalry). 136. 92.. 64 Hanover Court House. 149. 95 Harrigan and Hart. Bedford.A.A. 109. 12 Col. W. 94. Gen..S. Green House. Joseph. Lt. 8. J. 64 ff. 112 f. A. 76!. 12. 82 ff.. S. Sydney. 65.A. 6. 124. Gen.. } Comanches. 83 98 63f.S. 12 Hartwood Church..S. Benjamin (quoted). 12.S. 13. 38. battle. Va. Lt. Brandy Station. 73 Hardee. 60. 89. 75. C. John B.. 84. 5 Franklin. 151 Indian tribes Apaches. U...A.INDEX Forrest. 149 Lee. 30. 146 . 112ff. ff. 146. U.A. C.. 93. Hampton. 152 Harman. 63.S. 47. Marshal... Lee. 89 L.A.S..S.. Joseph. 47. 5 Harper's Ferry. 92. 235 Gen. *4> 35^ 49> 62. Frank. Ira. U. 14. A.A.S. 82. 135 . Capt. 88.S. 49 L. 54. 45 breeds... 24.. 12 Irvine. 64. 76 ff. William. 14. 88 Harris. C... 84 Higginson. David McMurtrie. 95.. 54. Irvin.. Philip. Kiowas. Fitzhugh..S. 103 f.A. battle. 118. 117 L. 22 Lee.

S. George Gordon.. 149 Maj. 99 L. 121. Lincoln. 49. C.A. 47.) 86. 68 f... B. John J. Marshal Michel.. U. Pope... 22 Moorman. C. 8. March. 150 Merritt.. Thomas. 47 Oak Shade Church. U. 36.S. Maj. 149 Pleasonton. 109 &.. 77.A. 148 N. 116 i2o. 66 f. 44.. Gen. 68 Morgan. INDEX Morton. A. Mackenzie. H. Little 123 vii. Gen. Wesley. 140. M.. 16 Neese. Meyer. 38. Com. S. 138. 82 Mud f. Va.A.. 97 Pelham. U. (cont. U. 147 William M. Brandy 84 Station.. 80 War George . Lt.A.A.S. F. Robert E.S. 87. 5. 135. 148 battle. 121. 152 Pennington. 95 Martin. Princeton. 104. Madison.. Philadelphia Light Horse Troop. 111. siege.S. 54 Pershing.S. 96 f. 17 Randolph. Capt.. see Bull Hill. Pvt. 68.A. 78 Lomax. 85. U. Daniel. 56. CoL L. George. 149 Morgan.S. C. Col. Perry.S. Henry. 5. Station. Joseph W. 142 Meade. 142. Gen. Secretary of W. Pearson. 112. Gen.A. C. 94 Murat.A.236 Lee. 99. 124! Newby's Shop. 3> 5> of.A. President Abraham... Thomas.A. 98. Lt. Va. 67 Mulatto Bob (Stuart's servant).. Gen. C.A. James. 50.A.S.. 47 Morgan. 145. Lt. 77. Porter.. 56. S. 49..A. Gen. Gen. Gen. 144 fL. Brandy ("Rooney"). 120.. 144. 140.S. Capt. John. C. 9. C.A.. 121 104.. Duke Opie. C. CoL John S.. Henry 123 f.S.S. 80 fL. 127 f. 113 U. 142 Longstreet.A. W. Oliver Hazard. 64.. 113 Com. B. Middleburg. 94. 126.. U. John. Gen. breeds Morris. 50. Mexican War. Perry. f. C. 78 79> 150 Malvern 14 Manassas. 146. 62. 9.. see Horses.S. A. Marshal Joachim. 55 f. 116 Lee. 49. George. Gen. Munford. Potomac River. 78 McClellan. John N.. 118.S. R. 123 f....A.. Lt. 136. 16 Marshall.. U. 148 152 Mountain Run. 50 C. Emperor. Lt. 107 Ney.S. 46. Big Horn.A.S. 105 ist Sgt. C. Mosby. 149.. Orange. 76. 112.. 5 Marbot. 150 Orange and Alexandria Railroad.. Lt. L. Gen. U. George McClellan. Napoleon.S. C..A. Col. 14. 57 138 84. C. Libby Prison. 96 f. 136. 153 Petersburg. Matthew Calbraith. H.. Gen. 62 ff. Run Manassas.S. 124.A. battle. 25.. Ranald.S.... 126. f. C. 120 f.S.S.A. 18. 5 Marlborough.A. Marcellus Maj. U. Alfred. battles. battle.A. John H.S. A... Gen... 149 12. 5. 9 Pickett. U.. 89 ff. McGregor.. U.S.. Sgt. battle.S. Robert.... 72.A. 151 Medal of Honor. 47 90 . Va. Gen. Brandy Station. 73 Mules. B.A. 151 53. Col. U.. 109. 16. C.

237 River.. 48. ff. ff. 55. U.A. 126. 21.. George.. Gen. 150 Scots Greys.. Gen. Gen. George. Va.S. J.. U. 88.. Gen. 105 Rappahannock 142... Gen. 87. E. 90. D. 4f.A. Station. 52 Tewksbury. 107.. Gen. 50. 149. 64. 145. ff. 41 United see States Military Academy. ... 65. 63. U. 109.A. f. 49.A. Gen.A..S.A.A. 18.. 52.S. 25 Warrenton Junction. 19. 69 Smith. 38 Tucker. 69 Seydlitz. 8 f.. Gen. James Church. 114 f. 9 6th New York Cavalry. 109. 67.A. 48 . 113. 124 Spanish. West Point i7th Virginia Battalion. Timoleon. horse. 73 ff. 119. 113 . 5 ff... 140 Sanitary Commission. 82. 73 Sweeney. Gen.. 68 f. L.S. 24 100. io6. 94. U.. St... 63 f.. 133 f. 60. Capt. Maj.American War. Col. Capt. Charles H. 50 Seven Days Battles. 151 Verdiersville. 74. Beverly.. 12. Upperville. 16 Songs. Richmond.A. 75 Waterloo. British cavalry. 66 69. Robertson.S. 121.. 152 Station. 99. 72 99. 52. Robb. 25 Traveller.. *4> 47> 53> *<>7> i47 *5i * War of 1812. Rupert. 153 Spotswood. 34. Joel.. 62 i7th Pennsylvania Cavalry. 30. Winfield. 56. B. 80. Gen.S.S. 107. River. i47fL. 78 ff. 4 .. 105 Wayne.S. 53 Taylor. U.S. St. A. Uniforms. Gen. William T. Va.. 59. David 89 ff. f. Capt. Benjamin 134 F. 75. 62 ff. 113.. 83 .. 50. U. 8. Washington. . Anthony.A. U. 152 Lt. U. 148 139 144 . Philip ]. 68 I Red-Eye.. 5. Taylor. 12 Stoneman. 146 Col.S.... 134.A. i28f..S. 77 85 89 Stevensburg. Prince.. 9. 25 Revolution. 112 Wellford's Ford. Zachary. Friedrich Wilhelm. C.S. battle. Walter H. U.. 77.. 24. 109 133 ff. 97.. 78 Russell..S. 5. 71 ff. 14 Va. 152 Sir Archy. 48 Weir. Dragoons. C. Lt. 86.. . 47 ff. 89 Sherman.. 19. Shenandoah Valley.. 8 f..C. 148..S... 17 Washington. 63 Virginia Central Railroad. 68 Sheridan. 9o. Russian Army. U.A.S. Brandy 94. 68. Va.INDEX Rapidan Rappahannock 92.. 63 f..A.A. horse. horse. C. Stuart. battle. 146. Seminole War. 13! 2nd U. 48. 63.. 16. 67$. 105!.. 38.. 10. 85. 57. 54 . 99 West Point (United States Military Academy). 148 78 Shelmire.. Sam. Sweeney. U.. 116. 12 6th Michigan Cavalry. i5of. 84. John H.. . battle. horse.. J. 23. 117 98 . 13. 122 5. Governor Alexander. 5 35. Scott. Spotsylvania. Cyr. 62.

113 . 93.. 5 Young. 72 Williams. Solomon.A. 101 C.. U. f. Wickham. 127. U. 118 Whiting. Pierce... 5.A. U.S. C.A.. battle. 89. 24. U. 10.S. 24 151 York River. Winchester. 17 .. C. Col. Viscount Garnet Joseph. 53^ 57> 88 Whitman. Maj.S. 73.238 INDEX Wolseley. Wade. Walt 142 (quoted).S. Col.S..A.A. 47 Wilson. James H. 54 f. Col. Elijah V. White. inf.. C.A.A. 147. C.. Sir Percy. Col. 152 Winchester.A. Gen. 118. U...S. 59. 122 World War I. Col. 122 ff. 153 Wyndham. 135 Yellow Tavern... W..S. . Lt.S. 120. battle. battle. Trumpeter.A. 135 Wilderness. horse. Wood.. J. 129!. 138 Wilson.S. Charles J. 140 .. 44..







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