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Solomon

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Guggenheim Museum

and Archives

http://www.archive.org/details/josephcornellOOcorn

.

JOSEPH CORNELL THE SOLOMON R. NEW YORK . GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM.

New York 67-25057 Number Printed in the United States of America . Guggenheim Foundation.© 1967. The Solomon Library of Congress Card Catalogue R.

VICE PRESIDENT.THE SOLOMON R. VICE PRESIDENT ALBERT H. ARNASON. HENRY OHRE DANIEL CATTON RICH MICHAEL F.H. COUNTESS CASTLE STEWART DANA DRAPER A. VICE PRESIDENT. ART ADMINISTRATION- PETER O. BI'SIXKSS ADMINISTRATION ELEANOR. CHAUNCEV NKWLIN MRS. LAWSON-JOHNSTON. E. PRESIDENT THIELE. B.WETTACH MEDLEY G. WHELPLET CARL ZIGROSSER . GUGGENHEIM FOUNDATION TRUSTEES HARRY F\ GUGGENHEIM.

JOSEPH CORNELL
for he

cannot properly be called a painter or a sculptor
sculpture.

makes neither paintings nor

He

does make collages
to

and boxes and does so with such knowledge and such capacity
earned the designation
term.
into
artist in the fullest sense of this

have

much

diluted

As every

artist does, Cornell translates his

chosen raw material
such materials

forms and images. Translation here means
their

to raise

from

commonplace existence

to a

meaningful state— one within
to gain

which has been lodged a particular awareness so intense as
the broadest validity.

Cornell's

raw materials

in the

most general sense are memories from a

past that will fade

away

in lifeless archives unless they are rescued
first

through a new pertinence. Therefore, Cornell in the

instance

is

an archivist of a vanished age. The rooms of his Long Island house
are filled with the melancholy

mementos

of a past era.

A veritable paper

cemetery they are— a

sic transit gloria

mundi, for great divas and persparkling talent and beauty.
elite sleeps in

formers, the brilliant and noble

life of

The

glitter of

an elegant, erudite, graced and gifted
to

these

files like

an enchanted princess

be redeemed with a

kiss.

If

Cornell were nothing but archivist his passion would have chosen the

hapless

method

of mumification.

But Cornell

is

archivist with an

ulterior motive,

which
is

is

to safeguard the subject matter for his art,
all

while as an artist he
life.

above

capable of imbuing inert matter with succeed through that very

His

efforts at revivication therefore

translation into

form

that Goethe recognized as "the secret of the

master." Through his process, and in Joseph Cornell's hands, the dated,
the banal,

and the seemingly irrelevant assume contemporary relevance
to life in a

and come

new and

intensely vital context.

The Solomon

R.

Guggenheim Museum

is

presenting 10 collages and 78

boxes by Joseph Cornell with that sense of privilege that accompanies an identification with timely validity. Joseph Cornell

who overcame
is

his

manifest need for seclusion to help with his exhibition
of gratitude.

our

first

object

The lenders

of boxes

and

collages, separately listed in this

catalogue, have our sincere appreciation. So does Mrs. Diane

Waldman,

Research Fellow

at the

Guggenheim, whose familiarity with Cornell's
of devoted study has qualified her to select

work gained over years
to present this

and

show.

Thomas M.

Messer, Director

ACMOWLEDGEMEKTS

/

am indebted

to

Mr. Julien Levy. Mr. Donald Windham and Mr. Parker
to this exhibition,

Tyler for information

and advice that proved invaluable
Feigen, Mr. Allan
stages of
its

and

to

Mrs. Eleanor Ward, Mr. Richard

Frumkin and Mr. John Myers

for providing

many

useful leads in the initial
editor of the catalogue,

preparation.

My

grateful thanks also to Linda

Konheim.

and Orrin Riley

for his skillful

handling of the installation of

this exhibition.

D.

JT.

Bergman. and Mrs. E. Encino. University of St. New York York Mrs. Arnold Maremont. New York Margot Stewart. Feigen. Amsterdam Parker Tyler. Solinger. New Mr. and Mrs. New York Mr. Virginia Mr. Chicago Mr. New York Mr. New York The Pace Gallery. New York Collection. Mr. Eleanor Ward. and Mrs. Richard L. Herbert Ferber. Los Angeles Mr. New York Mr. and Mrs. Houston Mr. California Sandy M. Joseph H. New York J. Riverdale. New York New York Illinois Mr. Joseph Shapiro. and Mrs. New York Richard Feigen Gallery. and Mrs. and Mrs. New York Jon N. Stonington. David M. Alexandria. Jermayne MacAgy Houston Whitney Museum of American Art. Norman Borisoff. Mrs. New York Mrs. New York Mr. and Mrs. Howard Barnstone. Neumann. New York Donald Windham. de Menocal Simpson. Morton G. and Mrs. Oak Park. and Mrs. and Mrs. Allan Frumkin. New York . New New York York Mr. Nathan Alpers. Connecticut H. A. and Mrs. New York New York University Art Collection. Campbell. Isaacson. Hirshhorn Collection Robert L. and Mrs. Marcel Duchamp. Chicago Bernard Pfriem. Marc Moyens. Streep. Reis. Chicago James Merrill. Bernard Miss Jeanne Reynal. Alvin S. Thomas.LEPERS Dr. Lane.

10 / . 1949-1953. V 1 •« ilyl / mm>mmmmm%mmmitmmmm ml s \ \\ \ w^ajBwuaBK iJjWH " "mnni)»nn » iiii i['»iiii— mwii 1 i Cockatoo: Keepsake Parakeet. .r r • sspiaaiiSk.

is Queens. Cornell recalls the Sunday afternoons. they speak to us. which launched the movement of the catalogue. that Cornell met most in the of the painters and writers associated with the Surrealist movement who were to United States prior and during World War II. many gal- of the New York and expatriate European would frequent the few avant-garde leries then in existence. These consisted of montages. photographs by Atget. it was also confined. that in his is gone now. boxes and given to us. Way back. time passing. indeed. on cardboard. to the modest house in which he lives. The rhythm to —daytime. a change of season— seemed unfolding of life in him like the the Les Tres Riches Heures du Due de Berry. Cornell first saw Max Ernst's album. most of Cornell's schooling during the early years was largely the result of the lively artistic climate that existed in New York during the 1930's. which opened in 1931. If the scene was lively. The boxes are progeny. The first American exhibition of at Salvador Dali took place there in December 1933. he showed collage to Julien Levy. The next year. Cornell designed the cover The exhibition included collages by Ernst. which Levy included in a Surrealist in group show in January 1932. absorbing and collecting on a small mostly Japanese prints and Americana. he as reluctant to reveal the details of his life as he his is to part with one of his boxes. Moholy-Nagy. The glass motif for showing clocks. before the boxes began. another day. going to the opera. after church. The catalogue preface for another Surrealist exhibition. the mannequin's hand was a standard prop of the Surrealists. paintings by Dali. life and culture of scale. and George Piatt Lynes. A shy and reticent man. or other "bibelots". Massachusetts. Born on Christmas Eve 1903 (the major of exhibitions of his work have usually been held towards the end December) at Nyack. He speaks of the boxes as having been fashioned of a great love of the city— of a city and a time. listening to Protestant services on the radio. Boiffard. Ray. In 1929. in wave after wave of mem- with a pulsating sense of life and as a living presence. held . Cornell exhibited a glass bell containing a mannequin's hand holding a collage of roses. own initial efforts at done in the style of Ernst. with its seemingly endless plethora of books and material. was a common Victorian decorative artificial flowers. For this exhibition. They were created within family life— of commonplace living— not in the isolation of a studio. followed by the other leading Surrealists. they have engaged in a dialogue with him and with each the milieu of of daily life other over the years as. for his second exhibition the gallery. and the great sense of religion within the wonderful warmth of family life. With little formal art training. Picasso. of course. It was at the Julien Levy Gallery. Cornell attended the Phillips Academy at Andover. New York. a commercial souvenir in the shape of a glass globe. and a Man Ray Snowball. Besides the collages. All of this has been captured ories. Dali arrived in Soon after his New York to much acclaim. artists and for lack of a meeting place. New York. New Man York. During the twenties. La Fenime 100 Tetes. Cornell was involved with the classical music. nighttime. he and his still family moved to Flushing. Ernst. Man Ray and others. bell.II JOSEPH CORNELL Little is DIANE WALDMAN known of Joseph Cornell's early life.

without attempting to situate within a larger. and brass springs moving freely about in small round boxes which resembled compass cases. Julien Levy held an exhibition of Cornell's "Minutiae. In 1936 Cornell at was included Art. the Sand Fountains and Sandboxes of the fifties) and implicitly (the Medici his series. Set. metamorphosed the elements The fragile.. the use of this. they were "transformed".12 at the Galerie Pierre Colle in June 1933. ordinary butterflies. Multiple Cubes. : Symbols which recur throughout (associated with work appear here for the first time clay pipes memories of lower New York. The objects lend themselves to a fairly plausible interpretation: the egg as the symbol of life. drawings. pharmacies. paintings. scale. Fantastic Art. per se. etc). are is a particular it charm to them. manuscripts. In the catalogue for his exhibition Sets: the Copley Galleries in 1948. 1 Later that year. The emphasis a plastic. of that The Museum of Modern Soap Bubble same year. shimmering globules become the shimmering but more enduring planets— a connotation of moon and tides— the association of water less subtle. both literally (Taglionis Jewel Casket. Cornell is listed as an American Surrealist. the cradle of life. sniff. it The moon. the glass. surreptitious automatic objects. placed both soap bubble and the world. Both the objects and their containers varied only slightly from their original state. Cornell wrote of the Soap Bubble Shadow boxes become poetic theatres or settings wherein are of a childhood pastime. Dada. Surrealism. with only slight alterations to the readymade. and structure new to the work. cut-up engravings of fish and butterflies. maps. Shadow Boxes. sewing pins. To achieve Later. They were complemented by thimbles propped on needles. a label which has . maps. Glass Bells. in the manner of Duchamp and of the period.e.. context. palaces. is listed in the catalogue as a "Composition of objects. 2 In the same catalogue. colored sand. In reorientation of emphasis in which each of the objects is its its present form and final form there its is a located both within own compart- ment and in fixed relationship to the others— an early attempt to group these separate objects into a coherent unit with a sense of three-dimensional form. This arrangement was later regrouped into subsequently acquired by the Wadsworth Atheneum in 1938. engravings. himself. small bisque angels and miniscule silver balls placed under small glass bells: and bright colored sequins. to greater esthetic control movement became subject appearing in all phases of his work. hands. chairs. fragile and modest in ambition— yet there is common— they i. gives ample evidence of Surrealist obsessions and some of Cornell's as well disagreeable objects. Chambers Street. Cornell's shadow boxes were all small. he temporarily abandoned the random movement of the earlier objects. the largest measuring 5 x 9". blackbirds. photographed with additional effects by George Piatt Lynes". His in a major exhibition. on the object. and at controls the tides. exquisite corpses. Coups d'Oeil. 15 Vi x 14%". and old houses near the water). the four cylinders above are thought to represent his family. All of his objects of this period have several features in small. 1940. glasses. and the above the clay pipe.. is doll's head. Jouets Surrealistes". 1946-48. objects to objects. as when driftwood pieces make up a proscenium to set off the dazzling white of seafoam and billowy cloud crystal- lized in a pipe of fancy. mirrors. books.

. 1932.13 (top) Collage. 1936. 1936. Photograph courtesy Wadsworth Atheneum. (center) Soap Bubble Set. (bottom) Soap Bubble Set.

Thus poem was.. is done with mirrors.. not all. of the object. a process which Breton called the "crisis of the object". shape and intent. Dali. the German word ment for object. 4 The emphasis on the object itself started around 1930: "an 'external object' con- stitutes a closed unity resistant to our imagination and our desire to alter it at whim. figuration. for both a real was Cornell who made the box memorable as a realm and imagined existence. commented: "Much.breaking ties with the rest of the world. arouse multiple images and associathe function of the according to individual sensibility. concept of to re- Paul Eluard. as a symbol. Ernst. They are essentially pure creation. 1939. that brought was this method them close to the technique of the painter. it would be necessary to free words from their customary role— that of description. Foret-noire. in its original context From and the present vantage point. "donner a voir" vealing the object in (to give sight :! ) From this followed the Surrealist its fullest depth by. of desire and resistance. and both Schwitters and box con- Duchamp. tended to was Cornell's selection of the It box as a form. Art Neivs of if December 23. This unity and consistency are the essence of the object— a complex of fantasy and restraint. no ulterior motive but the concrete expression of Cornell's personal lyricism. should be called the one-man show opened on December 1939 at the Julien Levy Gallery. In their efforts to make the dream concrete.. stripping it of its accepted roles and admitted physical properties. the latter with his portable it the Green Box in of 1934. Paul Nouge speaks of the Surrealist as painting the off its "bewildering object and the accidental encounter. of objects. resistance. was the stimulation to of their it presence during the formative years of his career that proved invaluable so him.. in order to renovate poetic imagery. Breton. 6. 6 The estrangeit.. as Eluard said. It is noteworthy that the emergence of the object coincided with Cornell's beginnings as an artist. and its illogical juxtaposition with other words would act as in turn. The selection of the appropriate word.. however.. by isolating the object . that of Cornell. said that he had to juggle the words to determine their proper associations with each other and with the words that were eliminated from the poem but figured in its composition. Although Giacometti..14 persisted to this day. as did to many of the younger artists then at work in New York. in speaking of his thirty-word six poem. differing and would. means counter-stand. particularly its separation from the objects generally associated with became the basic technique of Surrealism. combination with the object. if not the mannerisms. and the reflections . rather than the hard-core painters. The debatable as first one-man show of Cornell to receive in some notice in the press first (it is actually I to which of the shows. no professionalism. They are useless for any purpose except to delight the eye and everyone's desire for a lovable object. it hardly seems accurate or adequate: source of inspiration and ideas It at that time. literally out. 1932 or 1939. of the Surrealists. which possesses a material substance"/' As Marcel Jean pointed Gegenstand. The press release for the show states at- that his objects "derive from a completely pure subsconcious poetry unmixed with any tempt to shock or surprise. Breton and Tanguy were among the many producers museum... a stimulus to the senses of the reader tions. primarily in the ideas of the Surrealist poets. which proved a major innovation. We may cut off a 7 hand and place it on the table or we may paint the image of a cut-off hand on the wall". the Surrealist poets concerned themselves with deIt veloping a vocabulary precise in form and color. we capture the imagery The Surrealist poets realized that. which took him months to write.". he did draw his initial from the methods. It is.

a Pandora's box... and intriguing as well as amusing". in on strings. There were even objects which. establishing. In addition to the pieces on exhibit. the forties was witness is to a number major innovations. "to make monument every moment". Some. Cornell's awareness of the physical presence of the spectator. If and the space between. 1939. both set in yellow sand. All but one of the glass bottles bear a label and contain different objects. the relationship between the spectator. was manipuof the The image of the spectator. books and balls suspended dolls showered with confetti. Often a work a is accompanied by a saying (Francesca de Rimini). slivers of plain or frosted glass and a porcelain doll's delicately hand broken in at the elbow. recalls the display cases of a museum or a department store. particles of colored sand.15 which do not have the aid of quick-silver are images drawn from the unconscious". a place to store treasures. or some other "leitmotif". a Victorian oak writing or strong box.". incorporating the photograph of the purchaser into the object. or a December 10. to la Comtesse de G. poem (Taglioni's Jewel Casket. of Modern Art). six inches wide and one inch deep. Placed over the photo but not touching cut to silhouette the form in the photograph. played tunes. The box. thimbles and china and out of shadow boxes. "bubble pipes. Cornell built objects to order. tinted deep blue or brown.) In an effort to secure the a fleeting. artificial green leaves and bits of broken glass. trapped in the mirror's reflection. horizontal boxes. they included. like Francesca de Rimini or Swan Lake for Tamara assembled in depth. like a music box. forerunners of the later sandboxes featured the photo. UEgypte de The Mile. becomes part the form itself (Memoires seems to inedits de Mme. and its strange alchemy of bottles. Much of the interior is covered with an ivory paper marbled brown and blue and framed by bands of marbled paper in blue. 1939. Approximately five inches high. 10. more . Toumanova. much of of the 1930's was a time of tentative beginnings. Cornell to have wanted document and annotate.. at an early date. a half inches is from the bottom which acts as a supporting rack for the Underneath the glass a layer of red sand with a few broken bits— a small piece of comb. often lidded.. Characteristic of much of the early years a feeling for Victoriana— for quaint beauties. 8 In the majority of these early boxes. rarely. Cleo de Merode: Cours Elementaire d'Histoire Naturelle is typical of this type. pictured . resemble his early flat collage Others are table-top. suggesting a jewel box. contains a piece of glass mounted about one and bottles.. elegant fabrics and exotic papers— a recapitulation of the "objects" of the thirties. ballerina in the 1890's. for Christmas gifts. blue- grey. with its rows of bottles and side compartments. slivers of glass and tiny seashells created ever-changing patterns as the box lated. in the collection of The Museum or. birds. A description of one of the bottles gives some idea of its contents: Sauterelles (grasshoppers or locusts) contains a cut-out of two camels and bedouins from an old photo- graph of the Pyramids and a small green Cleo de Merode was a famous ball. there is a definite distinction between the con- tainer and the contained. ivory and orange spots. interior.. The New York Herald Tribune of December described the show as a "holiday toy shop of art for sophisticated enjoyment. a sewing box." of is The New York Times jar. it descripof tive matter (Cleo de Merode). The objects were placed in a darkened room. these "daguerreotypes". a cosmetic case. "whirling eyeball under a bell book which a box in which things slide and kaleidoscope.. mentioned a. the object. was a tinted mirror which Cornell Between these two layers. The goddess Hathor.. became a part object. secured against the rear it wall of the box.

found that offered new possibilities and illusion. to visualize places. symbolic of life repeating it cycle of seasons and a cycle of generations.. ocean currents is form a spiral pattern. the growth of many plants rose petals unfold— as itself in a is that of a spiral— for example. of the character of . Cornell's interest in the films it when he.). as well. etc. alive and very much in the present. Baltimore. whether Cleo de Merode work to the The Machine transition from this is masterpiece of the early its Medici Slot of 1942. His sources. was another major innovation which he has developed and elaborated on since its early inception in the Medici Slot Machine. while the monochromatic images recede into the past. Moroni's Portrait of a Young Prince of the Este Family. The influence of film techniques on his art. to perceive the mystery of certain phenomena of feeling. of the unexpected encounters between his "objects" recalls de Chirico: One must picture everything in the world as an enigma. Cornell made several movies. bringing with references to Duchamp and Leonardo. and the actual translation and incorpora- tion of its devices into his constructions.. the world of the dream. 9 A shy and secluded man. on Hedy Lamarr. with current objects (marbles and jacks) so that the Renaissance child becomes a very real and contemporary child. in the Walters Art Gallery.16 on the inside lid. suggests. his limited him great freedom of the imagination. In a comment published in View magazine. by re-editing and collaging discarded film clips and occasionally having a sequence shot. to release unex- pected floods of music from the gaze of the . both rapid and profound in implications. sequentially strung out (or spliced) like a series of film clips. and illogical juxta- positions. there is live and die. events. with the implication of movement both in time and in space. Cornell wrote of the "Profound and suggestive power of the silent film to evoke an ideal world of beauty. abrupt changes sequence and event. Cleo in the title to the also Cleopatra of Egypt.evanescent fragments unexpectedly travels have permitted human countenance in its prison of silver light encountered". But rather understand the enigma of things generally considered insignificant. is viewed as if through a gun-sight or lens. to the custom of securing tomb the most required by the deceased it in his life after death. Simultaneously. The composition of the box can be paralleled in the Egyptian involvement with the tomb and the articles afterlife. to perhaps no reason in all of this. the ability to lea]) seen. why we are born. is The spiral. reconstructs the history of a Renaissance prince and juxtaposes these images of his imaginary childhood (diagrams of the Palatine fashioned from pieced-together Baedeker maps. forties. in time. for after all. as well as a descripIt tion of the individual's life as he lived life into registers on earth. The image of the young boy. the objects offer clues or Cleopatra. marble or jack. lifted out of context and placed The sensation of disorientation. The complex play of imagery. telescoping both near and far distances simultane- ously. dancing and music. not only the great questions one has always asked oneself— why the world was created. the structuring of on the wall reliefs of the tombs. the way the structure of a chromosome. and one which has to proven of enormous significance originated in the twenties of fantasy many younger artists. also an abstract form. and people never whether movie in a timeless queen or Medici prince. also goddess of the is sky. is the goddess of love. back and forth in time. a Marilyn Monroe of the day. The spiral at his feet evokes multiple associations: in the natural world. are world. the to the essence and mystery of Woman. happiness. the earliest in the thirties. like the Surrealists. The objects are brought into reality with color.

Here. Hans Christian Andersen. sunbursts. creates a sense of order and calm that might best be described as early Renaissance. magic . Carpaccio. Cornell established in a word portrait of the Pagode de Chanteloupe. solariums.etc.the contraption kind of the amusement resorts with endless ingenuity of effect. . superimposed on the surface rather than functioning as the substructure for the image. and arrange into a cabinet. exhibited in 1946.traveling inclined runways. Edgar Allen Poe. that.. one might assemble. Gulliver. in an earlier work like the Cleo de its Merode. space cubistically fragmented into small facets co-mingle. Queen Mab. and play an important. in which an angel world of lyric enchantment. Yet they represent a counterpoint to the if of work. a chinoiserie all of the late nineteenth century. in order to hold fast. after compartment with a symphony of mechanical sight and sound borrowed from the motion picture . reveal his fascination for the game: . . or brightly colored . through tropical skies. 10 is In the Medici Slot Machine. The black lines which crisscross the surface act as connective tissue organizing both the multiple images and the several spatial levels. subsidiary. even to arrive at the point where one can picture the creative geniuses of the past as things. while seashells in and crockery nod of a in a merry enjoyment.into . Elsewhere. worked by coin and plunger. This diagrammatic pattern of horizontals and verticals. . tropical plumage. pin-balls . . .. The numbers on the side wall of the box refer to the title of the construction and to the element of play. snow. Delicately frivolous in spirit. feathers accompany a swan in the midst is performance and sheet music graces the exterior of a box. .into the receiving trays the balls 11 come It to rest releasing prizes difficult to - would be imagine a more startling contrast to the elusive and even melancholy prince than the Pantry Ballet for Jacques Offenbach of the same year. Liszt. owls. . references to theater abound. . Hotel de l'Ange. . childhood. daguerreotypes.into fantasy. Cornell's comments for his Penny Arcade Portrait of Lauren Bacall. . barometers. balloon. Piero di Cosimo. palaces of light. New York. . Red plastic lobsters cavort gaily about with their partners. separate and fuse again in kaleidoscopic effect.through the streets of . Baedeker. .impressions intriguingly diverse. .17 a people. or the later. phases of the moon. they also invoke reminiscences of a child's cardboard theater or a fairy tale. little silver spoons. soap bubbles. equally light-hearted Swan Lake for Tamara Toumanova main body of 1945. shooting stars. assort. playing. . role during the 1940's. star-lit field. The emphasis on the object as a literary symbol. very strange things that we which examine from all sides. or La Favorite of 1948.. whether to the stage sets of the theater or ballet or to the court pagentry of Watteau. . a series of collages and related documents published in the "Americana Fantastica" issue of View magazine of January 1943... gradually gives way first to the object as both symbol and plastic form. For The Crystal Cage: Portrait of Berenice. his interests of this and of times: Mozart. . starting in motion compartment magic of art. and finds realization in the Medici Slot Machine.

A certain amount of confusion has developed with regard elaboration or "duplication" of his boxes and the attendant difficulties of dating. Cornell has transferred this procedure— a continuation of a visual process— from one this box to another rather than reworking his boxes over and over again (although he does se. In the second type of series the constructions have a much greater consistency of expression but vary in their imagery from construction to the serial to construction. Erik Satie. Dovecote. and of Surrealist automatism) if not realized in The use artist . Cornell who recognized it as such and gave it its first His working method offers ample explanation for the impulse propelling the use of . a world that still is replaced in the by a melancholy and sophisticated. per did not originate with Cornell. cover. to They are a reprise of a theme worked out over many years. is The dating problem of admittedly severe but no more so than in the working procedure any artist who returns to his canvases or sculpture and reworks them over a period of years. cycloramas. Gilles. Americana Fantastica. It is Rimbaud. in contrast another type— a "theme and variations"— such as the Aviary. of the repetiit is image represents a change in process on the part of the twentieth-century viable plastic expression. Collage. mades. 12 fifties a world of tender innocence. Seurat. camera obscura. January 1943. The idea of duplication. castles. It a premise contained in . for Arp. too). which took shape in a relatively short and concentrated time span. Dada (one need only its fullest think of Duchamp's Readysense. January 1943. Within the fifties is first category the progression from a Medici boy of the forties to one of the of a rich a distillation and elaborate imagery to one of the utmost simplicity.18 The Crystal Cage. View Magazine. Milky Way. lanterns. Vermeer. but innocent spirit. made a practice of tracing the is same drawing over and over again with variations occuring automatically. calliopes. Both the Medici Slot Machine and the Soap Bubble Set of 1936 are ideas that Cornell has developed over the years in constructions which are not radically different from their original premise. View Magazine. in 1918-19. and Observatory series.

Cornell has often spoken of the frustrations of the (poetic. . in a three-dimensional structure. Cornell conveys a physical sense of space. and especially photographs and forms— circles. the sphere. In these line. The duplication or elaboration of a theme becomes a way of working out of an obsession— a natural consequence of the Surrealist belief in taking the inner imagination rather than the outer world as a starting point and the multitude of possibilities this suggests. arcs) which take on added reverberations over the years and establish a physical displacement in time. an extension of the reticulated black lines super- imposed on the Medici boy. are infused with a light that goes back beyond or to Piero della Fran- cesca. filled at the Egan gallery. based on the Aviary theme. Once brought into existence. etc. in their . are given another definition in the Multiple Cubes of 1946-48. cordial glasses. Why not sneeze? of 1921. emotional medium and of his ability to encompass its all the extra-visual material and other ephemera) that went into making. restates idea in another context. classic purity. volume and shape that is breathtaking in in a its beauty and similar to works Cornell moved away from Surrealism manner . an intuitive process in which he grasped certain essentials of Mondrian's art. one of Cornell's earliest explorations into total abstraction. spirals. This grid structure. He a definite fifties and specific and concrete poetry breaks through his bars. The pattern of the paper which caresses the surface of the box blurs the distinction between the three-dimensional box and the two-dimensional paper. whom he knew in New York in the early forties. the boxes appear to act upon one another establishing a familial relationship. bubble pipes. 13 Cornell's works of the bear affinities to Mondrian in their chromatic restriction to white as the predominating color with the primaries blue and yellow as important components. It appears to be.19 the repeat: an initial idea is supplemented by "documents"— both original material and notes —which takes visual shape after a long period of gestation. of around the same time. the curve. His boxes man-made forms and representations Mondrian— to Vemeer. but the differences between the two artists are great. Both approach geometry through sensibility. These new works "of sunbleached and white-washed boxes little with drawers and birds and springs and mirrors have a strict honesty. . . he uses natural and He loves the irregular surface or edge. in Cornell's case. The implications of the repetitive image. seashells. and in their breakdown of space. The earlier interest in literary detail disappears in favor of an abstract arrangement of forms. and fused them with his own highly developed poetic imagery. In December 1949 Cornell showed twenty-six constructions. with connotations of both Mondrian's grid paintings and Duchamp's readymade. cubes. Cornell this sleight-of-hand. a series of in their separate compartments created by a skeleton of horizontal strips bisected by smaller vertical ones. In these and related constructions. The very narrow depth of the Multiple Cubes prevents too much of a reading in is space and tends to flatten out a very real depth into a pictorial one. Cornell was undoubtedly influenced by Mondrian. The photographic images of the Medici box are metamorphosed into white wooden cubes which move freely about cubicles. a concen- tration on texture and ordering of space." 14 that continued the direction initiated by the Multiple Cubes.. which began with the Medici Slot Machine in 1942.. through the reit- eration of certain objects (driftwood. toy blocks. of the figure. for a master at this Nouveaux Contes de Fees. a play of simplicity. functions here in a purely plastic context. by overlapping planes and the use of diminishing forms. nails.. uses color and space to communicate feeling. adapted them to his own needs. Robert Motherwell speaks of Mondrian's "formulation of color relations and space relations arising from a division of space. stamps.

a few feathers in the Deserted Perch suggest the missing bird. In is a less violent mood. mirrors. windows looking out on star- studded skies. or pilasters. more sensual and more painterly. columnettes. the series that he did for View magazine in the forties. They have both a great clarity of image. the Compared with works of 1950-53 (Observatories. for incorporating Both Deserted Perch emptiness into the and Chocolat Menier are notable work— the vacuum of an action that has occured. the rusting chain supporting the perch. His frequent use of mirrors suggests Saint Pol-Roux. Andromeda and Cameleopar- While related to the earlier Hotels in both theme and structure. Hotels) are richer. They restate. while retaining the haunting and poetic mood of the bird cages. dalis. Subtle placements of columns. a poet considered by the Surrealists as one of the precursors. a fabulous mirror that makes you see within". recalling old walls. worn and bare wood. of atmosphere and emotion. old papers. finding beauty in the fading colors. The surfaces are coated with thick white paint. these works take as their departure an even more painterly and two-dimensional approach. in new terms. a dreamstate of unreality.20 that of the Abstract Expressionists who grew out of Surrealism. In he echoes Schwitters both have a fascination for the "found" object. Placed with an impeccable sense of order are glasses. Color almost non-existent. of these aviaries is The austerity offset by other constructions in which the birds play a lively and colorful role. kept to small touches in the use of print. Cornell's love for remnants of human use. Into an aperture cut into the rear wall. the "Aviary" theme. windows and mirrors convey a shorthand version of deep Renaissance perspective. Cornell often places astrological maps which revolve and change their image. in the warmth of human . and yet they are not literary. . Cornell was very early in incorpo- movement within the dimensions of a construction. labels of far- away places. his earlier collages of the thirties. only the reflection of the spectator and another more jagged mirror. and the use of collage over the years in many of his constructions. Forgotten Game restates the its game as idea but includes the it movement of a ball on a runway accompanied by rating sound. labels and other "trivia" from life." 15 The theme for Cornell's show in 1955 at the Stable gallery was "Winter Night Skies". instead. organized into formal relationships by means of compartments and the use of one predominating color— usually white. light and own sounds descends. weathering. The mood of loneliness and Chocolat Menier is established by the slivers of mirror. association. of birds that have flown futility in from the cage. and craftsmanship is incorporated very sparingly into his consructions. of the kind one might apprehend from an illustration of a Renaissance monument rather than from the monument itself. The recent series of collages are a natural outgrowth of this direction toward the two-dimensional. string and feathers. threads. for collecting bits of glass. wire mesh. shattered and whole. He this often speaks fondly of buildings in the process of demolition. and the pitted and chipped away at the edges. and sky charts. These are hotel lobbies such as Colette might write about. waiting to catch the reflection of the departed bird and catching. is offset The geometric simplicity in the precise repeat of the diminishing circles by the peeling surface which surrounds it. who wrote of the poet as possessing the magical powers of a Merlin who can change a world of innumerable objects into wonders by the use of an inner mirror: "I acquired. then. a series of constructions referring to the constellations Auriga. This enabled the poet to reach "the isle of the inside of my being. It is from the time of this show that the literary becomes subsumed of 1949 into the abstract. Night Skies. and in the fragments of decay and destruction.

1. New York. altering their original condition— glass is usually tinted. The idea of the box as a frame establishes an aware- ness of the frontality of the images and.. no. View. June 1942. both emotional and visual. Surrealism.. 14.. January 1950. Art News. p. Surrealism: The Road Absolute. changing within each box and from box to box. re-created in three-dimensional terms. December Cornell. Julien Levy. vol. cork balls. 15. New York. lobby full of and a paper parrot brings to life a hotel filled sounds and movement. is old print from books. 2. as are maps and charts covers the exposed surfaces of his boxes. His space is the illusionistic space of a painter.21 In speaking of a frame for one of his collages. particularly Vermeer. and brass cages with brilliant birds. Anna Balakian. New York. 6. The Black Sun Press. wood. cit. Marcel Jean. Copley Galleries. 4. "Americana Fantastica". Marcel Jean. 3. The slightest scrap of paper sets off an endless chain of associations. the frame of each construction is considered in relation to its contents. 219. 9. cit. "'Auriga. pp. 11. 22. the over-all attention to the surface of the box. 86. 11. Marcel Jean. in rela- tion to Cornell. the work enters the domain of painting. p. 1948. 1936. September to the Joseph Cornell: Objects. in this sense. Series 2. 243. Tenderness and despair. Text. 9. Griffin. 227. op. Review vol. 48. 41. poignancy and loneliness are locked into each compartment. p. with their carefully missing corners. p. 1. 59-60. nos. 1960. One thinks of painters. 8. p. T. . nails. sumptuous is wallpaper. Robert Motherwell. p. p. Hess]. 8. Anna Balakian. Beverly Hills. New York.H. All of his objects are as carefully considered as his frames and many of them are reworked. Fantasy and architectural constructivism exist side by side in a world where knowledge alternates with the innocent wonder of a child. 115. green or brown. Ibid. New York. never divulging the mystery of existence. Press. p. drift. no. 1946. Gallery. Art News. and the very real existence of the objects contained within. p. >OTES 1. which often usually stained in tints of blue. December 1957. op. Howard no. 45. Portraits of Women: Constructions and Arrangements by Joseph 12. 9-10. Cameleopardalis". The Noonday 4. New York. p. 117. Andromeda. p. 10. VVV. Grove Press. The History of Surrealist Painting. [Thomas B. "Notes on Mondrian and Chirico". 53. Cornell mentioned that he wanted a Victorian frame to ''take it out of this time*'. 63. p. January 1943. 1942. The frames themselves. It is this ability to maintain a dialectical tension between the painterly and the sculptural that is unique to his work. New York. View. Text. 13. Indeed. Hugo Series cit. op. 1959. re-situate the work within the context of the sculptural. New York. 3. no.B. New York. of exhibition at the Egan Gallery. 28. Ibid. His work its deeply personal and ultimately elusive. 5. and toy blocks are painted. 7.

and Mrs. E. Collection Sandy M. Collection University of St. New York. 1940. c. *SOAP BUBBLE SET. Construction. and Mrs. Bergman. CLEO DE MERODE: COURS ELEMENTAIRE D'HISTOIRE NATURELLE. 10% x 14 x 4". PINK PALACE. A SWAN LAKE FOR TAMARA TOUMANOVA. Lent by Richard Feigen Gallery. and Mrs. Houston. Bergman. UNTITLED. Object. 1939. ENCRUSTED CLOWN (SOUVENIRS FOR SINGLETON). Chicago. % x \ A" (diameter). E. Collection Mrs. Bergman. Construction. 2 1/4 x 2" (diameter). Thomas. J. UNTITLED (RED SANDBOX) Construction. Construction. A. Bernard Reis. UNTITLED. Feigen. Construction. SHADOW BOX. 1946. Collection Mr. * Construction. Richard L. 1948. 5%". New York. 1945. 10 x 8% x 4%". * PHARMACY. Construction. Collage. Collection 1939. 14 x 9 x 2%". and Mrs. Collection Mr. and Mrs. 9% x 14 Vi x 2". Lent by the artist. l A PANTRY BALLET FOR JACQUES OFFENBACH. Jermayne MacAgy Collection. Construction. Collection Mr. Chicago. Lent by Richard Feigen Gallery. 10% x 2Y4". Chicago. A. Bernard Reis. %x 12 x 4%". FRANCESCA DE RIMINI. 1933. and Mrs. Campbell. Construction. BLACK HUNTER. 1943. Object. Collection University of St. New York. Collection Mr. A. J. 15 *A x 12 x 3%". 1939. 4% x 10% x 2%". 2 x 4%" (diameter). Construction. Chicago. FOR THE SYLPHIDE LUCILLE GRAHAM. and Mrs. A. Chicago. December 1942. New York. New York. 10 x 15 x 3%". and Mrs. New York. Houston. Connecticut. lO 1^ x lS 1/^ x 2". Private collection. Private collection. 1945-47. Collection. 14 x 14% x 10^ x 2%". 1940. *L'EGYPT DE MLLE.22 WORKS l\ THE EXHIBITION ^UNTITLED. Construction. 1946-48. 15 1942. LA FAVORITE. Houston. Construction. 1940. c. Feigen. Collection Mr. 9% x 13 x 4". New York. 11% x 8 x 2%". Collection Mr. UNTITLED. A. Marcel Duchamp. :: Construction. ^MULTIPLE CUBES. 'MEDICI SLOT MACHINE. Construction. . VARIETE DE MINERALOGIE. New York. E. 1945. MEMOIRES INEDITS DE MADAME LA COMTESSE DE G. Construction. New York. Richard L. Construction. Collection Mr. Thomas. New York. 17% x 11% x 4 ¥4". 8% x 7 x 2Va". E. Collection Mr. Construction. 1933. . 4% x 4% x Wz". 1939. 1 x 2%" (diameter). Object. Jermayne MacAgy James Merrill. Bergman. and Mrs. Stonington. Collection Mr. c. Construction. 4V2 x 1931. c. and Mrs. Howard Barnstone. Collection Mr. Lent by Richard Feigen Gallery. 1V\ x 10% x 2%". 1948. Bergman. Lent by Richard Feigen Gallery. 1946. 1933. MUSEUM. E.

12 x 10 x 5%". E. MEDICI PRINCESS. Chicago. Isaacson. Collection Mr. New York. A. and Mrs. and Mrs. Construction. early 1950's. Bergman. Los Angeles. 11% x 3%". 1950-51. 19 x 11% x 4%". c. 18 x PARROT. Collection Jeanne Reynal. New York. 18 x 1950. Construction. Construction. Collection Jean Frumkin. Construction. Collection Parker Tyler. Nathan Alpers. Construction. . Collection Mr. c. 14 x 11 x 4". 17 x 8 ¥2 x 4". Construction. 20% x 12 x 5". Collection Mr. %x 13 x 4". 18% x 11 x 5%". and Mrs. New York. Collection Mr. 12% x 10% x 5%". Construction. c. DOVECOTE. Joseph Shapiro. E. : YELLOW CHAMBER. and Mrs. MEDICI PRINCE. Collection Donald Windham. Neumann. Collection Dr. Construction. 17 x 12 x 4%". c. de Menocal Simpson. Lent by the artist. SOAP BUBBLE SET. New York. 1949. c. GRANDE HOTEL SEMIRAMIS. Collection * Collection Jeanne Reynal. New York. Bergman. 1952. Construction. *COCKATOO: KEEPSAKE PARAKEET. A. Encino. E. DESERTED PERCH. Collection Margot Stewart. A. New York. 18 x 12 x 4". and Mrs. 1949. 1952. HOTEL DE L'ETOILE. 1952. Oak Park. New York. 11% x 5%". Morton G. WEATHER PROPHET. 14% x 11 x 5". Construction. Construction. Norman Borisoff. 4".23 'SOAP BUBBLE SET. 1949-1953. Construction. 14 x 11 x 4". Collection Mr. Construction. AVIARY. 1952. New York. Construction. FORGOTTEN GAME. Collection Mrs. 11 x 8 x 3%". *MEDICI PRINCESS. Construction. Construction. A. 21 x ^CARROUSEL. Collection Robert L. Construction. 1949. THE CRYSTAL PALACE. c. 3% x 7%" (diameter). 1952. Construction. 9% x 14% x 3%". early 1950's. 1950. Lent by the artist. New York University Art Collection. Collection Mr. 1948. SANDBOX. Allan Frumkin. 1952. c. Illinois. and Mrs. Collection Bernard Pfriem. Chicago. and Mrs. 16% x 11% x 3%". Collection Mr. New York. 1949. 1948. New York. Construction. 15% x 19% x 13 x 6". Collection Mr. and Mrs. 1950. 1949. Arnold Maremont. Chicago. Chicago. Chicago. Construction. and Mrs. GARDEN. New York. Construction. OBSERVATORY. Collection Mr. 16 1949. Chicago. Bergman. 'NOUVEAUX CONTES DE FEES (POISON BOX). Construction. E. California. Bergman. 17% x 12% x 4%". 9 x 13 x 3%". and Mrs. 1950. *CHOCOLAT MENIER.

*HOTEL DE x L"E'tOILE. 17 x 11 x 4". 12% x 8% x 3%". Collection Mr. I8V2 x 14 x 7%". Eleanor Ward. 1956-57. 1950's. Bergman. 11% x 8% x 5". c. DOVECOTE-AMERICAN GOTHIC. mid GRIS. Chicago. Lent by the artist. c. DISCARDED DESCARTES. Eleanor Ward. A. New York. Construction. Herbert Ferber. 19 x 12 x 6%". Construction. . New York. mid Construction. MELISANDE. 14% x 9% x 2%". 19 x Collection c. 17% x 11% x2%". *HOMAGE TO BLERIOT. Construction. Art. Collection Mrs. Collection H. i. Lent by the artist. Construction. Collection Mr. Chicago. and Mrs. SAND FOUNTAIN. PORTRAIT. x 10% x 4". 11 x 8 x 4". Marc Moyens. 17% x 10V2 x 5%". and Mrs. Lane. Arnold Maremont. Lent by the New York. Construction. *LA BOULE D'OR. Construction. mid Lent by the 1950's. HOTEL DU NORD. E. Construction. 15% x 12 x 3%". mid 1950's. Chicago. Virginia. 15% Private collection. 1957. 13 x 10% x 3%". 1953. artist. New York. HOTEL BON PORT (ANN IN MEMORY) . *SUN BOX. Whitney Museum of American Construction. 13% 9% x4%". Bergman. 1956. 1953. artist. 14 x 8% Construction. 15 x 11 x 2%". Chicago. Collection Mr. 1956. 1950's. Construction. New York. mid x %". and Mrs. Construction. c. 17% x 12% x4%". New York. 1955. E. MOND-OBERFLACHE. mid 1950"s. 1956. Construction. Construction. A PARROT FOR JUAN Construction. OWL. 1953-54. 1954. Construction. Lent by the artist. 18% x 12 x 4%". mid 1950's. Eleanor Ward. VIA PARMIGIANINO (FOR ALLEGRA Construction. Collection Mrs. 13% x S 1/^". Construction. artist. 18% x 11% x 4%". mid Lent by the 1950's. c. Alvin S. Riverdale. BIRD. Collection Mr. -PAVILION. 1952. Lent by the artist. *HOTELDEL'EUROPE: OLGA CARINI AGUZZI. 1955. and Mrs. Collection Mr. 1956. 15% x 2%". BEBE. Construction.24 SAND BOX. 18% x 12 x 6". Lent by the * artist. A. Lent by the artist. Lent by the artist. and Mrs. Collection Mrs. Construction. and Mrs. A. HOTEL. 10% x 15% x 3%". 1950's. Construction. Alexandria. BOX WITH WINDOWS. Bergman. 1954. Construction. E. 17 x Collection Mr.

15% x 8% Collection Jon N. 1965. New York GERALDINE FARRAR— "IN REMBERANCE". 1966. SAND BOX. 13% x 19% x 4%". Lent by the . Joseph H. 11% x 8% ". Construction. Thomas. 10% x 15% x 4%". Amsterdam. 11% x8%". Solinger. David M. 13% x 9% x 2%". x 4%". Construction. c. Collage. Lent by the artist. Hirshhorn Collection. 1965. 17% x 10% Collage and watercolor. c. Construction. INTERPLANETARY NAVIGATION. 1967. 8% x 12%". Drawing. The Solomon R. 10% x 8 x 3%" '. 9% x 15 x 3%". HOTEL DU CHARIOT Private collection. *SAND FOUNTAIN. 14% x 16 x 4". Jermayne MacAgy Collection. Construction. Lent by the Construction. Amsterdam. Collage. and Mrs. Construction. late 1950's. Private collection. artist. 1935-39). FIGUREHEAD. Lent by the x 2%". 9 x 12 x 3%". Houston. LUNAR LEVEL NO. 1950's. Construction. 1957. 1966. Collection Jon N. Collage. 1965. Lent by the Collection University of St. artist. x 5". THE SMILE IN THE GIFT SHOP. late Construction. Lent by the artist. ICE. 14 x 9 x 3%". 1958. CHERUBIM SWITCH. 11% x8%". 1966. Collage. Lent by the Lent by the artist. Joseph H. 7% x 10% x 3%". 1957. Streep. Construction. late Construction. ^UNTITLED. -SUITE DE LA LONGITUDE. 11% x 17% x 5%". artist. c. CARROUSEL. Construction. Joseph H. 1950's. SAND BOX. Walter N. Hirshhorn Collection. Lent by the artist. 1960's. c. 1960. Pharr. 11% x8%". Construction. Collection Gift of 11% x 8%". 1. Mr. SPACE BOX. Collage. 1964. Collage (with original drawing by Robert Cornell late 1950's. Lent by The Pace Gallery. MOZART-CASSIOPEIA. 8% x 11%". Streep. Hirshhorn Collection. Lent by the artist. Collage. 1964. ANDRE BRETON. TRADE WINDS. c. artist. 11 VixSV*". New York. RATTLE AND MUSIC BOX. late 1950's. late Construction. SPACE OBJECT BOX. Collection Mr. 10% x 17% 11% x8%". UNTITLED. 9% x 7%". Lent by the artist. D'OR. THE STORM THAT NEVER CAME. 1950's. Lent by the artist.25 SUZY'S ROOM. 1966. 1966. artist. 1958. Guggenheim Museum. Collage. and Mrs.

.26 Medici Slot Machine. 1942.

27 Medici Princess. . 1952.

28 Untitled. 1931. .

1939. .29 Soap Bubble Set.

Cleo de Merode: Cours Elementaire D'Histoire Aaturelle.30 L'Egypte de Mile. . 1940.

. 1945.31 m I For the Sylphide Lucille Graham.

32 Pharmacy. . 1943.

. 1945-47.33 Museum.

34 Multiple Cubes. . 1946-48.

(Poison Box) .35 Nouveaux Contes de Fees. c. 1948. .

1948.36 Soap Bubble Set. .

1949.37 Deserted Perch. .

1952.38 Dovecote. .

• • • 1 -W. . 1952... ..K Chocolat Menier.39 . HOCOt..

.40 Carrousel. 1952.

1953.41 Pavilion. .

42 Hotel de UEurope: Olga Carini Aguzzi. . 1954. c.

. ~T*i 1 1 .p««%fe-T* 4P< 1 i BON P0P1 J 1 J tfo£e/ 5on Port (Ann in Memory).enseur hydrauli 200cha»br£s et salons t*« tarns.43 II JiitWii 1 1 GRAND HOTEL FONTAINE mm r mmmwm . 1954.

1956.44 Homage to Bleriot. .

1956. . c.45 Sand Fountain.

.46 Sun Box. 1956. c.

1957. . c.47 Suite de la Longitude.

48 Hotel <le I'Etoile. . 1956-57. c.

1957.49 La Boule D'Or. .

50 Untitled. 1960. c. .

51 Interplanetary Navigation. 1964. .

pp.52 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS breton. its Edwards. 101-102. Grove Press. 106. The Mary Reynolds Collection. pp. La Sculpture de ce Editions du Griffon. p. Revolution and Tradition in Modern American Art. Herbert. New York. p. ill. 611-643. p. 1960. 70. Surrealism and Affinities. . 289. in Dictionary of Modern Sculpture. 1964. American Art: A Historical Survey. ed. breton. 1959. p. Phot". 1936. sam. Modern American Painting and Sculpture. Paris. marcel. pp. 314. 1966. New York. Harvard University Press. julien. 1964.p. "M. Le Surrealisme baur. Inc.. no. read. seuphor. Neuchatel. Milan. green. Tudor Publishing ed. JANis. 348. Cambridge. Chicago.. samuel m. (Scenario) by Joseph Cornell. Abstract and Surrealist Art in America. Reynal and Hitchcock. Surrealism. pp. What is Surrealism? London. New Metro. Robert. michel. Praeger. Galerie Beaux Arts. p. Dell Publishing Co. Sidney. 313. andre. Frederick A. The Black Sun Press. jean. Brentano's. John j. International Directory of Contemporary Art. 20. 64-65. 307. New York. Faber and Faber Limited. New York. New York. The Ronald Press Co.. H. andre. 31. 1945. York. Editoriale Metro. 273. 1938. 1960. Abrege du Surrealisme. andre. p. 1959. levy. goldwater. Laurel Edition. Co.. New York. 1956. ill. pp. 349. 317. 1944. Siecle. et la peinture. The History of Surrealist Painting. 264. "Joseph Cornell". 26. 1951. A Concise History of Modern Sculpture. 252. New York. Dictionrtaire breton. The Art Institute of Chicago. 1936. HUGH. p. Robert Maillard. 184. n. hunter. 260.

"Exhibition at the Stone Gallery". 9-23. coplans. no. 127-131. Badenp. nos. April 1966. Art and Literature. no. Howard. hess. A statement on Cornell a proposed "Arcadia Enclosed: the Boxes of catalogue for a Joseph Cornell exhibition held at the Joseph Cornell". vol. 1966. cortesi. 8. Letter". July 12-August 1953. vol. Series 2. 64. pp. no. 1961. Baden-Baden. Paris. h. waldman. vol. at nordland. vol. "Show the vol. nos. 3. 38-41. Minneapolis. Cleveland. December henning. B. pp. Text 30. New York. Arts. 1965. pp. XVI. 4. Minneapolis. View. 27-29. Novem- ber-December 1962. April 1963. September-October 1965. 8. 24-27. New "Americana Fantastica". 67. 3. p. New York. New York. 8. Annual) hopps. "Joseph Cornell". porter. 10. artists Alexandra. New to a York. San Francisco. "Artists: zine. Quadrum. 39. pp. Das Kunstwerk. p. Walker Art Center. Art International. "Boxes". fairfield. no. Cameleopardia". Time Maga- Art International. thomas "Eccentric Propositions". 2. ill. Das Kunstwerk. "Language of Art". XV. pp. no. Arts. no. 2. Zurich. ellen h. 120-130. p. "Auriga. Los vol. pp. motherwell. 10. Series no. Series p. New York. no. 39. December 1957. no. "Museum of Modern New York: Art of Assemblage". 32 (review of the Cornell's constructions and collages at Whitney vol. 1962". goossen. . 133-140. View. Spring 1966. griffin. De- Angeles. 221. Brus- Annual XXXII. The Compulsive Cabinetmaker". March 1962. vol. no. 12. 5-6. "New York XVI. 6. 8. gerald. "Joseph Cornell". April 1942. "New York Art. 10. Recorded conversations of with Belle Krasne. JOHNSON. pp. Oberlin College Bulletin. VIII. p. no. no. "Notes on the Nature of Joseph Cornell". vol. vol. Robert. pp. . Art News. Spring 1966. 30. no. 8. Art News. of sign Quarterly. 12. "The Plastic Poetry of Joseph Cornell". 56. York. 1. ashton. January 1943. Art News butler. 61. c. London. E. 1961. "Loan Exhibition Cornell Boxes". "Steel mistletoe: the Whitney's exhibition of 110 sculptures". nos. sels. 35-37. e. Studio. no. Fall 1961". Art News. Cleveland Museum 1941-January 1942. February 1963. 1. November 1964. 5-6. john. July B. raynor. pp. vol. no. "Preface hibition". 1959-60. 63. dore.A. 63-65. November -December 163. Walker Art Center. Ferus Gallery". was never published. 1966. Baden-Baden. D. March 1964. Lugano. March 1. New York. 9-10. p. 56. pp. v. no. B. Oberlin. pp. 9-27. pp. 51. Das Kunstwerk. February 1963. hess. 27-31. New York. 827. Walter. dore. 1. no. pp. 84-94. (throughout). vol. Johnson. Artjorum. 42-45. no. Andromeda. pp. vol.. 56-57. 10. ill. Bulletin. 23. Baden.S. p. 4. 219- View. "Art U. pp. ashton. e. 3.53 PERIODI4 AL* . Artjorum. T. Barbara. 23. New York. 53. Ohio. 37-40. March 1965. 1954. New York. Joseph Cornell Exfor "Cornell: the compass of boxing".

by Joseph Cornell. 1938. Glass-Bells. Text by Barr. 1966). art. 1932. art. January 17-March 3.54 ONE MAN EXHIBITIONS GROI'P EXHIBITIONS julien levy gallery. Whitney museum of American art. whitney museum of American New York. Portrait of Museum. 1940. egan gallery. 1936. Contemporary the new gallery. Watercolors and New York. Boxes and Draivings. Organized by York. Portraits of Women. Ondine. Joseph Cornell. Pasadena. March 17- and An ExJoseph April 17. December 6-31. 10. 1958. julien levy gallery. Watercolors and Robert schoelkopf gallery. Paris. December 1949. 1953. l. January-February. New York.l. Various comments and texts. New York. Shadoiv Boxes. ferus gallery. 1944. 1954 Annual Exhibition of Contemporary American Sculpture. 1953. d'Oeil. Surreal- New York. Chicago. Beverly Joseph Cornell. December 1950. November 26-December New York. 1954. November the j. Text by Group Shoiv. New York. November bara Museum May 7. egan gallery. Fan- Alfred H. New New December December 1940. Seattle Art 1-15. Objects art of this century. 1967. Chicago. January 9-29. Santa Barof Art. 1956. February 8-March Abstract and Surrealist Art in the 12. 1962. allan frumkin gallery. Watercolors and Draivings. Ten Years of His Art. New York. hugo gallery. New York. galerie beaux arts. Night Skies by Joseph Cornell. (A revision of article from Art and Literature.June 10. Exposition International du Surrealisme. September 28. contemporary arts museum. 62nd American Exhibition. April 26-May 14. 1953. ploration of the Colombier. 1956-January 6. Dada and Surrealism. Houston. Los Angeles. whitney museum of American ber 14. whitney museum of American Detroit. 1966. Bonitas Solstitalis— selected works by Joseph Cornell American Sculpture. Vermont. . February 10-March 10. April 9- Cornell— Selected Works. January 9February 11. 1932.m. York. Collages. Coups hibition of Objects by Joseph Cornell. 1948. May 29. Text by Donald Windham. 1953 Annual Exhibition art. 1957.m. April 10-May Joseph Cornell. Contemporary American Sculpture. March 26-April 23. julien levy gallery. New of York. and Sidney Janis. Parker Tyler. December 1946. Hills. Joseph Cornell. December Cornell. pasadena art museum. Novem- 1957. December 2-30. 1939. Objects. New York. Aviary by Andre Breton and Paul Eluard. 1942. December 3-18. The Disquieting Muse: Surrealism. January 9-February 16. 1957. Cincinnati Art stable gallery. Box-Valise by Marcel Duchamp. Text by Frederick A. ist Joseph Cornell. Group Show. Sur- Exhibition of Objects by Joseph Cornell. Joseph Cornell Exhibition. 1957 Annual Exhibition of 1965. Joseph Museum. julien levy gallery. Watercolors and Draivings. 20. December tastic Art. United States. Denver. Hudson gallery. julien levy gallery. New York. New York. Loeb Student of Contemporary American Sculpture. June-July. Text by Fairfield Porter. Drawings. university art collection. museum of modern art. Night Songs and other New Work by Joseph Cornell. 1957-January 12. the art institute of Chicago. California. realist New York. Ex- 30. 1956 Annual Exhibition new york Center. Sweet. New York. Travelled to stable gallery. November 20-December 15. Copley galleries. wittenborn. through October 30. 1958. Spring. egan gallery. New York. Night Voyage by Joseph Cornell. December 12. Bottles by Lawrence Vail. Constructions and Arrangements by Joseph Cornell. Minutae. 1955. 1963. December 10. New York. 1959. 7. New York. denver art museum. Winter Texts by g. Jouets Surrealistes. Bennington. Bennington College.

December whitney museum of American 16. January 11-February 15. for Con- temporary Arts. SculpSiecle. November 15-December 31. Seattle world's fair. Rene d'Harnoncourt. Text by Norman Davis and Sam Hunter. Text by William C. art. 1961. Modern Sculpture from the Joseph H. January 4-29. Dallas. The Art of Assemblage. Annual Exhibition 1960 Con- 1966-February 5.55 whitney museum of American 19. Surrealist Intrusion in the Enchanters Do- Memorial Exhibition. 1958-January 4. October 6. York. New York. Annual Exhibition 1964 Con- Montreal Museum of Fine Arts. John Maxon and James Speyer. main. 1958-February 8. rose fried gallery. December 1960-January 22. 1958 Annual Exhibition Much has Happened 1910-1959. Vassar College. Annual Exhibition 1966 Prints. New York. 1960-January New York. The Art that Broke the Looking Glass. February to 6. University of Notre Dame. January 9-February Francisco 1962. 1961. H. New musee rodin. Text by H. April 8-28. November 25-December 21. New York. Bloomfield Hills. 1966. Art Since 1950. Cranbrook Academy of Art. September temporary American Sculpture. Travelled Williamstown. October 2-November 12. January 12- April 12. 27-October 18. 1962. Watercolors and Drawings. art. December Chicago. Institute. 1963. art. Hirshhorn Collection. 1964. Text by Douglas MacAgy. Texts by 1959. 1963. 1965. The 1958 Pittsburgh Bicenof Modern Masters. April 21-October 21. Arts Club of New Acquisitions. York. whitney museum of American 9. 1965. Carnegie 5. Robert schoelkopf gallery. Texts November Waltham. Exhibition Etats-Unis. February 2-29. Art and the Found Object. February 28- American federation of arts. the art institute of Chicago. November 28. 1961. Chicago. Williams College. Arnason. martha jackson gallery. 20-June 20. 1964-January 31. 4-24. New York. Massachusetts. New York. New York. International Surrealist Exhibition. the solomon 3. New York. New York. New October 15. 1959. the museum of modern art. 1962-February 3. 1964. temporary Sculpture and Drawings. Collages by Joseph Cornell. Drawings art. Seitz. Text by American Sculpture. Robert Cornell: d'arcy galleries. Poughkeepsie. ture de Paris. November of royal marks gallery. 1960. Contemporary Sculpture and Travelled to the Dallas Museum 11. Angeles. 1964. Boxes. Brandeis University. Text by Gordon Bailey Text by Walter Hopps. San Museum of Art. 1967. 1961. 67th American Exhibition. 14. 1964. whitney museum of American art. Seattle. 1962. 1959. Dore Ashton. Annual Exhibition 1962 Contemporary Sculpture and Drawings. department of fine arts. December 15-January 15. New York. by Robert Cornell. September 18- February 22-March 15. XX by Cecile Goldscheider and Massachusetts. whitney museum of American 7. Michigan. 1962-January cuggenheim museum. New York. . March 5-April 15. tennial International Exhibition Contemporary dwan gallery. Los Painting and Sculpture. December 12. r. Washburn. July 1-21 May . dallas museum for contemporary arts. 1963. December New York.

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Helmuth Lucinda Hawkins Business Administrator Glenn H. Congdon Ann G. Gleason Manager Agnes R. Jr. Easton. Stern Building Superintendent Peter G.THE SOLOMON R. Loggin Head Guard Fred C. Administrative Assistant Office Viola H. Messer Elizabeth Secretary Gwin Vestner Curator Librarian Louise Averill Svendsen Mary Joan Hall Diane Waldman Research Felloiv Conservation Orrin Riley and Saul Fuerstein Photography Design Registrar Robert E. Funghini Judith E. Mates Arthur S. GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM STAFF Director Thomas M. Hanes Assistant to the Director Everett Ellin Pu blicity Membership Ann S. Mahnken . Connolly Elizabeth Purchasing Agent Sales Supervisor M.

51 Robert Mates.PHOTOGRAPHIC CREDITS E. 35. p. 34. 33 18. Guggenheim Foundation on the occasion of the exhibition "Joseph Cornell" . 31. Taylor and Dull. 39 48 Schiff. p. Irwin Blomstrann. John D. p. 45. pp. 46. 43 49 Exhibition 67/2 May 1967— June 2. p. p. p. 44. pp. 50 Geoffrey Clements. 13 top and center. 29. 28 Nathan Rabin. 13 bottom Ferdinand Boesch. 32. 37. p. Eric Pollitzer. Charles Swedlund. pp. 42. 30 Hickey and Robertson.000 copies of this catalogue 1967 designed by Herbert Matter have been printed by Sterlip Press in April 1967 for the Trustees of The Solomon R.

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GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM 1071 FIFTH AVENUE. NEW YORK 10028 .THE SOLOMON R.

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