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Avgerinou-Kolonia1 and I. Klabatsea1
School of Architecture, National Technical University of Athens, 10682, Athens, Greece *Corresponding author: E-mail: email@example.com, Tel +34 644266913
Abstract In the present study, taking the opportunity of a positive side of the economic crisis on “redesigning” of the urban space, we consider on the release of public space from roadside parking and seek dynamics of transformation on transport habits for the inhabitants of the municipality of Zografou in Athens. Following analysis of quantitative data, a comparison of the transit pre-crisis everyday life of the Zografou municipality inhabitants with other municipalities of Attica region indicates that the municipality of Zografou has the highest density of parked vehicles and simultaneously only one third of them is been moved daily. The above paradox in synergy with economic, energy and environmental crisis in a municipality which has a few open spaces in the urban web can be turned into a favorable factor in upgrading the urban environment through a localized application of car sharing and car free housing. A network of public-use cars satisfies the transport requirements and releases 80% of the roadside parking area in association with the existing private sheltered parking places. The above condition is seen as a transition, with the advantage of the possibility of local application and low financial requirements due to the existing transport infrastructure, to public transport as the dominant means of transport. Otherwise, this condition could be fragile with potential reverse shift from collective to individual mobility. Taking into consideration the route’s social self-worth of an urban trip and the encased spatial presence of the transport network in the destination and origin of it, the consequences of the present proposal are directly related to urban everyday life as well as to ethnic, local, domestic and environmental economy but also indirectly through the participation in the quiver of arguments for a more compact Athens city.
Keywords: Public open spaces; Roadside parking; Compact city; Car sharing; Car free housing
1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Athens metropolitan area The metropolitan area of Athens is a sprawling city  with a population of 3.8 million habitants  and only 3 metropolitan railways lines, one suburban line and a semi-separate rights of way tram line. The great majority of road-side space is used as private car parking space, the car ownership rate is 388 (cars/1000hab.)  and the urban green space has been reduced from 12 (m2/hab.) in 1940 to 2.5 (m2/hab.) in 2005 . Due to the increase in gas price since 2006 and additionally the economic crisis, the private car based transport network seems less viable as a transport solution. New ideas that are friendlier to green and public spaces could be applied. The strengths and weaknesses of these ideas will depend strongly on state policies and the stability of the economic framework. In order to eliminate dependence on state policy and economic instability the proposed solution will be applied to a limited space within the municipality of Zografou and will be based on low financial requirements.
The majority of building are constructed on 60’s and 70’s. TRANSPORTATION ON MUNICIPALITY OF ZOGRAFOY 2. 2011 .The population in the main is aged between 18-35 years old.) . Located peripherally around Zografou there are many supralocal uses such as hospitals and university areas which form barriers to green spaces such as Goudi Park. The municipality is characterized from residential and local commercial uses as well as from the universities campuses .2 Municipality of Zografou. urban and geographical data Zografou is a central municipality of metropolitan area.) and that means there is a fleet of approximately 25500 private cars . It’s obvious that the most important factors that influence car ownership rate are: the economical state (on the west side lives the poorest population) and the density of a municipality.. Figure 1: Athens municipalities’ population density (hab/ha). Social.1. located at the foot of Imittos mountain and which has urban borders solely with the municipality of Athens. 76000 in 2001 and 70000 in 2011. data which directly relates to the urban sprawl of the metropolitan area. Even with this population reduction. The urban green space is about 1. The age category 0-14 years old is shrinking the most. Municipality of Zografou pointed with arrow. 2. . The population is shrinking from about 85000 habitants in 1981 to 80000 in 1991. with average height of 3. Ilissia Park and Imittos. this is still today the most densely populated municipality of Athens (Figure 1). made up of students and lower middle class labourers.4 (m2/hab.4 plants .1 Road side parking phenomenon The car ownership rate on the municipality is 330 (cars/1000hab.
Figure 2: Athens municipalities’ population car ownership rate (cars/1000hab). Figure 3: Daily pictures of road side parking on municipality of Zografou. 2007 . 2012 . The daily picture of the Zografou neighborhood confirms these findings (figure 3). Municipality of Zografou indicated by arrow. The density of cars as illustrated on figure 4 (result of figure 1 and figure 2) shows that Zografou is the municipality with the highest density of cars (280cars/ha) within the metropolitan area of Athens.
Right: origin and destination Zogarfou.Figure 4: Athens municipalities’ density of cars (cars/ha). It is estimated that only about 1/3 of Zografou’s cars are in daily use and most transport trips are being done on foot and by public transports (Figure 5). Figure 5: Zografou’s habitants’ trips. Daily mobility 70%. even to find an arbitrary space and this often leads to the car remaining unused. Municipality of Zografou indicated by arrow. 2007. Difficulties in finding parking places implies increased daily km. Left: origin Zografou to other municipality. 2007 . .
which is about 1/3 of the existing number of private cars. In 2008. The municipality until today has been serviced by 2 metro stations (located 0. parking issues have been an important source of political debate within the municipal authorities. b.2 Traditional policies During the last 20 years. that the Zografou squares are too small and the input-output of the cars and the ventilation equipment requires about 40% of their overall space. c. the traditional economic values of construction often lead to cement roofs being installed instead of green ones. which are both lacking in modern Athens. Based on: a. The effectiveness of that policy depends on public investments and the existence of public space. Based on 2007 OASA statistics  every 24 hours about 4400 cars for inner-metropolitan and 920 for inner-municipality are required for the transport trips of Zografou’s habitants. A traditional car sharing network can replace 10-15 personal cars  but a traditional car sharing network refers to people whose car mobility is infrequent. through the positive European Union and Greek government policies for private and public cooperation in the construction of underground parking stations. creation of private places and the transformation of public spaces into parking stations have been the most usual policies. but are far from the usual standards of western European cities).CAR FREE HOUSING APPLICATION 3. Turning a blind eye to arbitrary parking. Over the last decade most European city centers have become friendlier to public transport. but construction never began. pedestrians and bicycles whilst at the same time seeing car ownership rate and kilometers per passenger stills increasing (much more than the rates in Greece. By subtracting 4400+920=5320 cars from the total number of 25500 existing cars. In addition trips to a destination outside the metropolitan area have been omitted. This contradictory policy is trying to maintain the development of petroleum. One the other hand policies to improve public transport within the municipal area have been designed (tram line ) and announced (metro line 4 ). the statistics showing an increased car ownership rate . at least up until 2007 ). we have 20180 cars that belong to people who use cars infrequently (20180 personal cars/10=2018 car sharing vehicles).1 Car sharing fleet and the parking requirements In the absence of investment to metropolitan public transport and with the impossibility of totally replacing individual transportation by car with mass transport. Therefore a safely estimated total required for the car sharing fleet is about 8000 (5320+2018). CAR SHARING . 3. a car sharing and car free housing policy can resolve the problem of the road-side parking problem and the absence of public space within Zografou’s municipality. The number in reality is smaller as the statistics do not show the concurrency of the trips and were measured before the economic crisis. the authorities announced a construction plan across five of the municipality’s squares. Obviously this phenomenon is much more multifunctional than the above description but this is enough to demonstrate the ineffectiveness of applying traditional European transport policy to metropolitan Athens and the municipality of Zografou. the cost of each parking space amounts to roughly the same as the cost of a new middle range car  and d. car and construction based industries as the cities sprawl whilst simultaneously keeping space in the center operational for other investments.5 km outside the municipal borders) and by bus lines (which are more effective here than elsewhere in Athens because of the university campuses. the results of this plan appear to be destructive according to not only the scientific community  but the inhabitants as well (who complain that their living space is continuously “degreening” ). .2.
daily transfer of personal or mass materials and requirement needs for child car seats. however with this application they will also benefit. Because of non-existent data regarding disabled mobility. and further to this. will be ameliorated as Greece’s economy isn’t car or petrol production based. they will be able to park much more easily. Family and municipal finances. and a large part of the entire economic cycle of car transportation could be transformed from imported products to national labor. This fact would suggest that the economic crisis is an important factor that influences the future’s transport traditions. Obviously the worst “clients” of car sharing networks are people who use their cars daily. not having to pay rent for a parking spot). That means that the 8000 strong car sharing fleet needs an additional 4000 road-side parking places which will result in the evacuation of around 80% of road-side parking. as well as national ones. . Due to the fact that this scheme falls in line with friendlier legislation. This action also serves as a serious factor towards decreasing the amount of private cars and increasing the participation of private parking places within the network. The private residential spaces (estimated by comparing the results of a chaotic legislation and the construction area data). quickly and cheaply (less gas consumption. In addition a progressive edition of this application could be implemented in terms of tolls or parking costs for visitors (there is no concurrent usage with inhabitants) and private car users to ameliorate revenue for the network. it is difficult to design a definitive quantitatively representational network. special treatment for such groups should be provided within the car sharing network. 3. It’s clear that the above numbers do not highlight the priority issue that is generated from public use of a private area. Growth in public transport should be seen immediately through smart and low cost financial solutions in municipal territory to decrease intermunicipality car usage which should be followed by an economic policy that promotes public transport use. It’s obvious that the environmental footprint will be positively impacted due to reduced consumption and greener urban environment. safer bicycling and bicycle sharing (which is a small factor due to the hilly terrain of the municipality) will help as well. In addition the infrastructure of this alternative scheme is low cost as the fleet already exists (the existing private cars whose value can be slowly depreciated in a period in which second hand car prices are plummeting) and in which only a small electronic conversion is needed to transform them to car sharing vehicles.2 Strengths and threats In Greece in 2013 about half a million car owners chose not to pay their car taxes and left them unused for economic reasons. the public stations (not including the open spaces that could be transformed into green areas) and the private building stations (by impression counting) are safely estimated to be able to provide more than 4000 places. With the hope that post crisis will see boosted public richness this application should be shown as transitive and should create space for public transport growth. Even the universal application of a car sharing network could increase car use considerably more than the solution offered by private car ownership. In addition to this the small section of the municipality’s labor force that works on car services could be incorporated into the services of car sharing network. services and production costs the total cost of car usage will be reduced. this will be addressed below.At the present time cars are parking not only on the road-side but also in private and public stations. Motorcycling as a transitive transport form. In any case the ameliorated pedestrian experience will undoubtedly improve quality of life.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Results Most of the streets within the municipality are currently used primarily whilst searching for parking space and only a few of them function as main thoroughfare [Figure 6]. Figure 6: Darker grey: Municipality of Zografou. The above is amplified due to the fact that only a small section of the municipality’s streets are used for transport trips to and from other destinations [Figure 7]. Black lines: Main streets . 4.The “technical” threats for the application are few and have to do with the disadvantages of using cars and private parking space as public. and leisure occupations. Public walkways could be increased in size and made greener due to the fact that non-main streets will require a reduced car corridor width of 2.75m and main streets 3m . This could be applied for a low cost based on the cooperation of local inhabitants and this will completely change the internal urban landscape. and define the dominant use as for pedestrians. bicycles. Also as the circulation needs are much lighter the street network could return to a 30km/h limit . However many solutions such as rent on the space and a wide selection of car types on offer can be applied as means of recompense. children and disabled people.
. The current solution of sprawling cities to respond to such other needs is neither democratic. and of a fear of collective solutions. Black lines: Streets used for transport trips without stopping on the municipality territory 4. of the car being used as an extension of our homes.1 Conclusions In conclusion cars waste valuable space that is necessary for other purposes more important to improved quality of life. or ecological. and the idea of changing our transportation culture is clearly more logical. It was highlighted in the above that there is no technical or economic limitations to this application.Figure 7: Darker grey: Municipality of Zografou. in opposition there are many advantages to be gained by the municipality of Zografou. of the culture of consuming. The real threat to these types of applications is the domination of the ideology of individualism throughout daily life.
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