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Black America, by Scott Nearing.
Nearing, Scott, 1883-1983.
New York, The Vanguard press, 1929.
http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015002585738
Public Domain, Google-digitized
http://w w w .hathi tr u s t.o r g /ac c es s _ u s e# pd- g o o g le
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oo s by cott ear1ng
econom1cs (w1th e. d. watson)
C ad ustment
soíut1on of the ch1íd íabor probíem
wages 1n the un1ted states
woman and soc1aí progress (w1th
neíí1e seeds near1ng)
the super race
soc1aí reí1g1on
soc1aí san1ty
f1nanc1ng the wage earner s fam1íy
reduc1ng the cost of í1v1ng
C M
T C T
P T D C
DUC T
T M C MP
T T T P
D D P M C
( T P M )
DUC T T
T T G T
DUC T T U
C T G G
T C
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C
M C

C TT G
T GU D P
1929
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PU D U 1929
M U CTU D T U T D T T
M C .
C P G T 1929 C TT G.
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T DUCT
70 M U
mong modern empíres none ís more devoted to ab-
stract príncípíes of freedom and seíf-determínatíon than
the Uníted tates. íí men are born e uaí, decíared
the founders of the epubííc on uíy 4, 177 Govern-
ment of the peopíe, by the peopíe, for the peopíe,
promísed braham íncoín merícan schooí chíídren
síng: My country tís of thee, sweet íand of ííberty
f decíaratíons and professíons couíd gíve ííberty and
seíf-determínatíon, the Uníted tates wouíd be a free
country.
ut the poíícy of empíres ís not made by moraí pre-
cepts. conomíc necessíty ís the compass by whích the
owners of íand and productíve tooís steer the ímperíaí
shíp of state.
mong the great modern empíres oníy one contaíns
a sub ect race wíthín the homeíand. The rítísh m-
píre has sub ect races ín gypt and ndía the Dutch
mpíre has a sub ect race ín ava the rench, eígían
and taíían mpíres have sub ect races ín fríca the
apanese mpíre has a sub ect race ín orea. The
merícan mpíre, ín addítíon to íts sub ect races ín the
Phíííppínes and ín the Caríbbean, has wíthín íts own
natíonaí boundaríes a sub ect race of more than tweíve
mííííon merícan egroes.
The matter ís ííttíe díscussed from thís poínt of víew,
even ín the Uníted tates. ímost nothíng ís nown
about ít abroad. et the egroes, who ma e up a
tenth of the totaí popuíatíon of the Uníted tates, have
been, for more than three hundred years, the síaves,
♦ 5
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#
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T DUCT
peons, vassaís, servants, tenants and wage-wor ers of
whíte merícan íandíords and capítaíísts. Today they
are the íargest síngíe merícan reserve of mass íabor
power.
The uestíon has severaí practícaí aspects:
írst The egroes themseíves want e uaííty of eco-
nomíc and cuíturaí opportuníty. ííí thís e uaííty
be gíven them by the Uníted tates ruííng cíass
econd ííípínos and Porto ícans are humbíy as íng
the ruííng cíass of the Uníted tates for ííberty
and ustíce. hat are theír chances
Thírd Uníted tates economíc ínterests are penetrat-
íng atín meríca, and Uníted tates poíítícaí and
mííítary authoríty ís beíng estabííshed, wíth great
rapídíty, over the Caríbbean. Uníted tates states-
men ughes and Cooíídge at the avana Con-
ference of 1927-8, for e ampíe assure the atín
merícan peopíes that they have nothíng to fear
from benevoíent Uncíe am. houíd the atín
merícans beííeve such statements
ourth More than 150,000,000 e píoíted bíac s ín
fríca and the merícas are strívíng to ííberate
themseíves from the gríp of the e píoítíng whítes.
s the ruííng whíte cíass ín a democratíc repubííc
íí e the Uníted tates any more íncííned to free
the egro than the ruííng whíte cíass ín a íímíted
monarchy íí e eígíum or Great rítaín
The ruííng cíass of the Uníted tates has come ínto
íntímate contact wíth two dífferent peopíes the
merícan ndíans and the egroes. ndían cuíture has
been practícaííy e termínated. The ndíans that re-
sísted the process are dead.
hat can be saíd of the egroes, who have been a
part of the economíc and socíaí íífe of the Uníted tates
for more than three centuríes Theír e períence shouíd

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#
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í
e
T DUCT
be ínterestíng and ínstructíve for ííípínos, atín
merícans, and any other foreígners who are píacíng
theír hopes on the much advertísed sense of ustíce and
faír píay of the Uníted tates e píoítíng cíass.
Thís boo descríbes the íífe and íabor of íac
meríca ín the agrícuíturaí regíons of the outh and
ín the índustríaí dístrícts of the orth. The facts
whích ít contaíns wííí startíe no one who ís famíííar wíth
the many recent díscussíons of the merícan race
probíem. The arrangement of the facts díffers, how-
ever, from that ín the ordínary study of egro íífe ín
meríca.
íac meríca deaís wíth the merícan egro, not
as a socíaí probíem but as an oppressed race.
t proceeds on the assumptíon that no matter how ín-
dustríous and íaw abídíng the masses of egroes may be,
and no matter how taíented may be the egro íeaders,
the whíte e píoíters of the Uníted tates wííí eep the
egroes ín sub ectíon as íong as the egroes are wííí-
íng to stay there.
Those who are concerned wíth the course of modern
ímperíaí hístory wouíd do weíí to e amíne the argu-
ment on whích thís boo ís based. f, as ít assumes, the
sub ugatíon and e píoítatíon of bíac men by whíte
men ís, at bottom, an economíc phenomenon, the soíu-
tíon of the probíem must be found ín the fíeíd of eco-
nomíc reorganízatíon. nd íf the struggíe for emancí-
patíon must be waged by the bíac men themseíves, the
sooner they díscover theír íogícaí aíííes and wor out a
scíentífíc pían of campaígn, the sooner they wííí wín the
emancípatíon they see . ííípínos, Porto ícans, íca-
raguans, aítíans, Cubans, Me ícans shouíd study thís
boo wíth great care. n íts pages they wííí fínd a
descríptíon of one of the precedents that the merícan
ruííng cíass wííí foííow ín deaííng wíth other sub ect
peopíes.
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T DUCT
merícan, uropean, síatíc, frícan masses whíte,
yeííow and bíac — who wor and fíght and pay for
ímperíaíísm, míght profítabíy thín twíce about íac
meríca as an ínstance of the temper of the Uníted
tates owníng cíass, and of merícan ímperíaí poíícy
toward those whose íand and íabor wííí yíeíd a profít
to the e píoítíng actívíty of whíte merícans.
c nowíedgments are due to the merícan egro
abor Congress, the atíonaí Urban eague, the Crísís,
the atíonaí ssocíatíon for the dvancement of Coí-
ored Peopíe and the abor Defender and to many coíored
and whíte students of the egro probíem for píctures,
data and suggestíons. íso to Grace Mauí, who typed
the manuscrípt, read the proofs, made the índe and
arranged the photographs.
♦ 8
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C T T
P G
ntroductíon 5
Part . Man teaííng 13
1. abor hortage 13
2. íac íaves 14
3. The íave Trade 1
4. 4,500,000 egroes ín 18 3 19
Part . n ppressed ace . . . .23
a. egroes on the and
5. The íac eít 23
. and wnershíp 29
7. ages and ncome 53
8. ívíng Condítíons 59
9. Centers of conomíc Power 5
b. egroes ín ndustríaí Centers
10. The egro Goes to Town 71
11. ob índíng for egroes 77
12. conomíc Díscrímínatíon 101
13. egro Centers ín ndustríaí Cítíes 107
14. conomíc Penaítíes of íac ness 127
c. eepíng egroes ín Theír Píace
15. The Coíor íne 149
1 . ace uperíoríty 155
17. Conscíousness of íac ness 1 3
18. egregatíon 171
19. ynch aw 197
20. ub ect ace 213
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C T T
P G
Part . The egro truggíe for reedom 219
21. The íac Man s urden 219
22. The arce of Poíítícaí Democracy 223
23. unaways 245
24. eachíng for Power 249
25. rea íng the conomíc hac íes 257
mportant acts 2 3
íst of oo s and Pubíícat1ons C1ted . . 271
nde 273
♦ 10
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U T T
P G
egroes on the and 37-44
egro Town ífe 1n the outh . . 45-52
egroes on the ob 85-100
egroes 1n ndustríaí Centers . . 133-148
eep1ng egroes by Themseíves . . 181-188
ynch aw 189-19
The truggíe for reedom . . - 229-244
♦ 11
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: M T G
1: T G
Throughout the ngíísh coíoníes ín meríca, par-
tícuíaríy ín the outh, there was a severe íabor shortage.
and was free. The passage from urope was íong and
hazardous. Men who had suffícíent energy and ínítíatíve
to cross the ocean were not wííííng to remaín as wage
wor ers when they couíd have farms or busínesses of
theír own.
Tobacco, ríce and cotton píantatíons were e pandíng
ín the outh. híp-buíídíng and íumberíng were de-
veíopíng ín the orth. oth ín the outh and ín the
orth there was more wor than there were wor ers.
The merícan ndíans couíd not be ensíaved. They
díed before they wouíd obey a tas -master. They re-
fused to wor for wages. The coíonísts therefore turned
to compuísory íabor as a means of recruítíng wor ers.
on-free íaborers who came to the merícan coíoníes
were chíefíy of three cíasses: crímínaís, índentured ser-
vants, and síaves.
The suppíy of crímínaís and of índentured servants
was never ade uate. Then, too, there was strong ob-
ectíon to the transportatíon of crímínaís, for many of
them were rough, dangerous men. t a very earíy
date the merícan coíonísts turned to another source of
íabor suppíy: the frícan íave Coast.
♦ 13
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2: C
The fírst bíac síaves were brought ínto the merícan
coíoníes ín 1 19. rom that year untíí 18 3 the frí-
can íave Coast was the source of a reguíar suppíy of
bíac íabor that went ínto aíí of the merícan coíoníes
and íater ínto the southern píantatíon states where the
íarge-scaíe growíng of cotton, sugar, tobacco and ríce
made síavery profítabíe.
The íave Coast was díscovered by Portuguese naví-
gators when they ventured down the western shores of
fríca ín search of a sea route to ndía and Chína. The
profítabíe trade ín síaves, goíd and ívory whích they de-
veíoped íed the traders of other uropean natíons to
begín a competítíon whích eventuaííy brought rench,
Dutch, German, Danísh and ngíísh commercíaí ín-
terests ínto sharp confííct wíth the Portuguese.
íong the íave Coast, whích e tended from Cape
erde, on the north, to Cape t. Martha on the south,
ííved varíous types of egroes. ome of them were
fíerce and waríí e. thers were docííe. The íatter were
eageríy sought as síaves.
The natíves of the íave Coast had made notabíe
cuíturaí advances. They smeíted metaís, shaped pottery,
wove, manufactured swords and spears of metaí, buíít
houses of stone, and produced artístíc ornaments. They
had deveíoped a consíderabíe and weíí organízed trade
wíth the ínteríor. Thís natíve frícan cuíture of the
seventeenth, eíghteenth and earíy níneteenth centuríes
was confronted by the ínsatíabíe merícan demand for
bíac síaves.
The síave trade began íncídentaííy enough. The
whíte traders were íoo íng for spíces, eweís, rare woods,
♦ 14
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C
goíd, sííver. They were not man-steaíers. ut as egro
servants became fashíonabíe among the great foí of
urope, the síave trade grew profítabíe.
híps saíííng from the íave Coast wíth a cargo for
home ports made a practíce of píc íng up such síaves
as they couíd easííy secure. y 1450 the number reach-
íng Portugaí each year was between 00 and 700.
(Cíarídge, ístory of the Goíd Coast, oí. . p. 39.)
or thís íímíted number of frícan egroes the síave
traders found a ready mar et.
hen the whítes fírst went to the íave Coast there
was ííttíe síavery among the frícan natíves. ome
captíves ta en ín war an occasíonaí debtor, unabíe to
meet hís obíígatíons víoíators of reíígíous rítes, were
heíd as síaves by the chíef or head man of the tríbe.
t tímes such síaves were soíd, but the síave trade was
never estabííshed as a busíness untíí the whíte man
organízed ít.
híte men organízed and subsídízed the busíness of
síave catchíng among the frícan natíves. They pro-
víded the guns, the ammunítíon, the rum. They fre-
uentíy formuíated the píans and ínstígated the raíds.
The raíds were made by egroes the stronger and
fíercer among the frícan tríbes.
♦ 15
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fter the prospectíve síaves had been captured, they
were herded ínto stoc ades at the frícan shíppíng
poínts to awaít the síave shíps. Condítíons ín these
stoc ades were shoc íngíy bad.
Then came the síave shíps.
níy a few hundred egroes were carríed ín these
earíy síave shíps. hííe the voyages were reíatíveíy
íong, the egroes were not suffícíentíy numerous to
produce the horrors of íater síave e pedítíons. The
síave trade was stííí an íncídent of the generaí trade wíth
fríca.
s the síave trade grew more profítabíe, íarger shíps
were buíít, wíth gaííeríes between the dec s. ere the
egroes were forced to ííe down, two and two, shac íed
together, wíth chaíns fastened to stapíes ín the dec .
ach egro was aííowed a space sí teen ínches wíde and
fíve and a haíf feet íong where he spent the wee s or
months of a voyage ín a saíííng shíp. The gaííeríes
were made of rough íumber, íooseíy oíned. ater,
when the síave trade was outíawed, the egroes were
stowed away out of síght on íoose sheíves over the cargo.
here the space was two or more feet hígh they were
stowed síttíng up ín rows, one crowded onto the íap
of another, and wíth íegs on íegs, íí e ríders on a
crowded toboggan. ( pears, merícan íave Trade,
p. 71.) ere the egroes sat for the entíre períod of
the voyage. Duríng storms the saííors were compeííed
to put on the hatches and seaí up the cess-pooí. o
atrocíous were the condítíons ín these shíps that the
odor of a síave shíp was often dístínguíshabíe at a dís-
tance of fíve mííes. fter four or fíve voyages síave
shíps were so fííthy that they were abandoned. e-
♦ 1
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T T D
groes díed on the voyage. thers went ínsane. Dísease
fre uentíy attac ed both síaves and crew. ut wíth
the fear of capture and condemnatíon for píracy on the
one hand and the danger of a mutíny among the síaves
on the other, the síave trader couíd do ííttíe to ímprove
the posítíon of hís human freíght. t best the síave
trade was a hídeous busíness. ( or , íbííography
of the egroes, pp. 25 ff.)
ow many egroes were carríed away from fríca
between 1450 and 18 3 stímates vary. Cíarídge
states that the Guínea Coast as a whoíe suppííed from
70,000 to 100,000 síaves per year duríng the earíy
eíghteenth century. (Cíarídge, ístory of the Goíd
Coast, oí. , p. 172.) ogart estímates the number of
síaves secured as 2,500 per year ín 1700 15,000 to
20,000 from 1713 to 1753 47,000 carríed by rítísh
shíps aíone ín 1771 and ín 17 8 the síaves shípped from
the frícan Coast numbered 97,000. ( ogart, co-
nomíc ístory of the Uníted tates, pp. 84-5.) Dur-
íng the years 1859-18 0 eíghty-fíve síave shíps were
fítted out ín ew or arbor wíth a carryíng capacíty
of from 30,000 to 0,000 síaves a year. (Du oís,
uppressíon of the merícan íave Trade, pp. 178-9.)
ther estímates vary wídeíy. There ís a generaí agree-
ment, however, that duríng the years of greatest síave-
tradíng prosperíty at the cíose of the eíghteenth and
the begínníng of the níneteenth century, the number of
síaves íeavíng the íave Coast must have been at íeast
100,000 a year.
dd to these numbers actuaííy shípped from the
íave Coast, the egroes who were íííed ín the raíds,
those who díed ín the íave Coast camps, where mor-
taííty was very hígh, and the totaí gíves some ídea of
the mííííons of bíac s who were torn from theír natíve
víííages ín the course of three centuríes to suppíy the
merícan síave trade.
.
♦ 17
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C M C
hy was the síave trade pushed so reíentíessíy e-
cause ít paíd enormous profíts.
ome of the voyages went wrong, of course. ut
the whoíe trade netted ímmense returns. íong about
1800 a good shíp, fítted to carry from 300 to 400
síaves, couíd be buíít for 35,000. uch a shíp wouíd
ma e from 30,000 to 100,000 profít on a síngíe
voyage. ome of them made as many as fíve voyages
before they became so fouí that they couíd no íonger
be used. ( pears, merícan íave Trade, pp. 84-5.)
pears wrítes: o trade ever paíd such íarge returns
on the ínvestment. bíd., p. .)
rítaín passed the fírst íaw íímítíng the síave trade
ín 1788. The Uníted tates outíawed the trade ín 1794.
n 1824 Great rítaín decíared the síave trade píracy.
These restríctíons drove the trade out of urope and
centered ít ín the Uníted tates. fter 1825 the síave
trade was carríed on chíefíy by merchants from the
orthern tates. wríter ín the Contínentaí Monthíy
for anuary, 18 2, stated: The cíty of ew or has
been untíí of íate the príncípaí port of the woríd for
thís ínfamous commerce aíthough the cítíes of oston
and Portíand are oníy second to her ín dístínctíon.
(Du oís, ttppressíon of the merícan íave Trade,
P- 79-)
The síave trade was the busíness of the orth as
síavery was the busíness of the outh. oth fíouríshed
untíí the Procíamatíon of mancípatíon ín 18 3.
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4:495009000 G 18 3
The ancestors of the merícan egroes were stoíen ín
fríca and transported across the tíantíc chíefíy ín
Uníted tates owned shíps. Most of them went to
razíí, Cuba and the outhern tates.
The census of 18 0 reported about four and a haíf
mííííon egroes ín the Uníted tates. The number had
íncreased rapídíy. The síave trade brought ín many
new recruíts from fríca. n the Uníted tates, stímu-
íated reproductíon added to the síave popuíatíon.
The years ímmedíateíy precedíng the Cívíí ar were
years of consíderabíe ímmígratíon from orthwest
urope. Conse uentíy the whíte popuíatíon of the
Uníted tates íncreased more rapídíy than the egro
popuíatíon. et the íncrease of the egro popuíatíon
was comparatíveíy rapíd from 757,208 ín 1790, to
4,441,830 ín 18 0.
n 18 3, 3,853,4 7 of the egroes were cíassed as
bíac and 588,3 3 as muíatto (a mí ture of egro wíth
whíte bíood). hen the síaves were freed by presí-
dentíaí procíamatíon ín 18 3 there were more than four
and a haíf mííííon egroes ín the Uníted tates. They
made up aímost e actíy one-seventh of the totaí Uníted
tates popuíatíon.
í -sevenths of the merícan egroes were síaves
ín 18 0. These síaves were concentrated as a matter
of course at the poínt where síavery paíd.
eíther orthern índustry nor orthern agrícuíture
íent themseíves to síave íabor. ortherners carríed on
the síave trade. They never empíoyed síaves e ten-
síveíy, e cept as house servants, and by the begínníng
of the Cívíí ar even these had been repíaced by
uropean ímmígrants.
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C M C
outhern agrícuíture díffered mar edíy from that of
the orth. The orthern generaí farm raísed a varíety
of crops and was more or íess seíf-suffícíng. The outh-
ern píantatíon specíaíízed: ín sugar, cotton, tobacco,
ríce. ome corn, pígs, chíc ens and other sources of
food were raísed íncídentaííy, but outhern íarge-scaíe
agrícuíture generaííy depended for íts prosperíty on the
saíe of one specíaí crop.
íaves performed the íabor on these specíaíízed south-
ern píantatíons. ncídentaííy síaves díd much of the
buíídíng and other wor of the outh. study of
síave dístríbutíon at the outbrea of the Cívíí ar shows
5 percent engaged ín ríce cuíture 2 percent ín hemp
growíng percent ín sugar cuíture 14 percent ín
tobacco cuíture and 73 percent ín cotton cuíture.
( esíey, egro abor ín the Uníted tates, p. 3.)
These were the stapíe crops of the outh and these
were the crops on the productíon of whích practícaííy
aíí outhern síave íabor was empíoyed.
Conse uentíy a study of the geographíc dístríbutíon
of outhern cotton, tobacco, sugar and ríce índustríes ís,
for aíí ordínary purposes, a study of the dístríbutíon
of egro síavery ín the outh.
n 1790 síaves were heíd ín aíí states e cept Maíne,
ermont, and Massachusetts. There were 3,707 síaves
ín Pennsyívanía 11,423 ín ew ersey 21,193 ín ew
or . They were concentrated, of course, ín the outh:
orth Caroíína, 100,783 Maryíand and Dístríct of
Coíumbía, 103,03 outh Caroíína, 107,094 írgínía,
292, 27. Thus more than a thírd of the 97, 24 síaves
ín the Uníted tates ín 1790 were ín one tobacco-grow-
íng tate: írgínía. Georgía at thís tíme had oníy 29,-
2 4 síaves.
The cotton gín (ínvented ín 1792) made síavery
profítabíe over a much íarger area. y 18 0 síavery
had been vírtuaííy eíímínated ín the orth and est.
♦ 20
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4,500,000 G 18 3
f the 3,953,7 0 egro síaves ín the Uníted tates ín
that year, there were:
( egro ear oo , 1925- , pp. 225- .)
Píantatíon cuíture of cotton, tobacco, sugar and ríce
were confíned by cíímatíc and soíí condítíons to ír-
gínía, the Caroíínas, Georgía, íorída, íabama, Míssís-
síppí, ouísíana, entuc y, Tennessee, r ansas, Mís-
sourí and Te as. utomatícaííy, therefore, these states
became the síave states the center of the merícan
egro popuíatíon.
hen the Uníted tates emerged from the Cívíí ar
ín 18 5, 14 percent of íts popuíatíon was egro. These
egroes were eíther frícan born or eíse they were de-
scendants of men and women who had been ídnapped
ín theír frícan homes and transported across the
tíantíc to heíp enrích the 347,725 merícan famíííes
whích were reported as hoídíng síaves ín 1850.
The four mííííon egro síaves and the haíf mííííon
free egroes who made up the- egro popuíatíon of the
Uníted tates ín 18 5 are the ancestors of the tweíve
mííííon egroes who constítute present-day íac
meríca.
111,115 íaves ín r ansas
114,931 Míssourí
225,483 Tennessee
275 79 entuc y
331,059 orth Caroíína
331,72 ouísíana
402,40 outh Caroíína
435,080 íabama
43 , 31 Míssíssíppí
4 2,198 Georgía
490,8 5 írgínía
♦ 21
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: PP D C
5: T C T
The overwheímíng ma oríty of merícan egro síaves
ííved and wor ed ín tweíve outhern states where the
cuíture of ríce, sugar, tobacco and cotton made síave
íabor profítabíe.
The overwheímíng ma oríty of merícan egroes
stííí ííve ín the same dozen states where theír íabor con-
tínues to enrích the owners of ríce, tobacco, sugar and
cotton íand, as weíí as the íocaí traders, ban ers and
other controíííng whíte eíements who domínate the eco-
nomíc íífe of the outh.
The terrítory bounded by Pennsyívanía, hío, ííí-
noís, ndíana on the orth, by the Míssíssíppí íver on
the est, by the Guíf of Me íco on the outh and by
the tíantíc cean on the ast ís the center of the
merícan egro popuíatíon. íthín thís terrítory
there are consíderabíe areas ín whích egroes ma e up
at íeast 40 percent of the ínhabítants. Thís ís fre-
uentíy descríbed as the íac eít. or aíí practícaí
purposes, however, the entíre outh ís a bíac beít.
Throughout the outh, egroes ma e up about a
uarter of the popuíatíon. The outh ís the wor íng
píace and íívíng píace of níne mííííon egroes.
The egro popuíatíon, as shown by the Census of
1920, was 10,400,000, or 10 percent of the totaí popu-
íatíon of the Uníted tates. ínce the present estímated
totaí popuíatíon of the country ís about 120 mííííons,
then, íf the same percentage hoíds true, the present
egro popuíatíon ís appro ímateíy 12 mííííon.
Thís ís the census count. t ís a mínímum.
egroes whose s íns are bíac cannot deny theír race.
ut there are many egroes whose s íns are so faír
♦ 23
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C M C
that they pass for whíte. hen the census ta er as s
hís uestíon concerníng race, no whíte man can say he
ís bíac , but many ííght coíored egroes descríbe them-
seíves as whíte. here bíac ness ís a ííabíííty, as ít ís
ín the Uníted tates, few men own up to bíac ancestry
uníess compeííed to do so.
Geographícaííy, the egro popuíatíon of the Uníted
tates ís very une uaííy dístríbuted. n the whoíe of
ew ngíand at the tíme of the íast census there were
oníy 79,000 egroes out of a totaí popuíatíon of
7,400,000. n the Mountaín and Pacífíc tates (the
ar est), the egro popuíatíon was 78,000 ín a totaí
popuíatíon of 8,900,000. The Míddíe tíantíc tates,
the ast orth Centraí tates and the est orth
Centraí tates (the heart of índustríaí Uníted tates)
reported 1,393,000 egroes ín a totaí popuíatíon of
5 ,250,000. ut the outh wíth a totaí popuíatíon of
33,125,000, reported 8,900,000 egroes.
egroes ma e up íess than 1 percent of the popuía-
tíon of the ar est. n the índustríaí areas they con-
stítute from 1 to 3 percent of the popuíatíon. n the
outh, however, they are one-fourth of the totaí popuía-
tíon.
The massíng of egroes ín the outh, more than
haíf a century after the aboíítíon of síavery, ís one of
the most sígnífícant índícatíons of the restríctíve power
e ercísed by economíc forces. íac síaves gaíned theír
ííveííhood on the ríce, sugar, tobacco and cotton píanta-
tíons before the Cívíí ar. The vast ma oríty of bíac
merícans stííí obtaín theír ííveííhood today by raísíng
the same crops ín substantíaííy the same terrítory.
Georgía aíone, wíth íts 1,20 ,3 5 egroes out of a
totaí popuíatíon of 2,895,832, has more egroes íívíng
wíthín íts borders than there are ín the Míddíe tíantíc
and ast orth Centraí tates wíth theír totaí popuía-
tíon of 32,000,000. ncídentaííy, there are more e-
♦ 24
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C M C
groes íívíng ín Georgía than ín any other outhern state.
The Míddíe- tíantíc tates ew or , ew ersey
and Pennsyívanía had a popuíatíon at the tíme of the
íast census of 21, 00,000, íncíudíng 00,183 egroes.
These are three of the most ímportant of the orthern
índustríaí states. Two of the states, ew ersey and
Pennsyívanía, border dírectíy on the outh. et e-
groes ma e up íess than 3 percent of theír totaí popuía-
tíon.
The ast orth Centraí tates hío, ndíana, ííí-
noís, Míchígan and ísconsín had a popuíatíon at the
tíme of the íast census of 21,000,000, íncíudíng 514,554
egroes. These states are the center of Míd- estern
índustry. Three of them border the outh. et
egroes ma e up íess than 3 percent of theír popuíatíon.
There are eíght outhern tates ín each of whích the
egro popuíatíon e ceeds the totaí of the Míddíe t-
íantíc tates or of the ast orth Centraí tates:
Georgía
Míssíssíppí
íabama
outh Caroíína
Te as
orth Caroíína
ouísíana
írgínía
Proportíonateíy, the egro popuíatíon ín the outh ís
vastíy greater than ín any other sectíon of the Uníted
tates. n the orthern Centraí and estern tates,
1, 2, or at most 3 percent of the popuíatíon ín the state,
ís egro. Ten outhern tates have a egro popuía-
tíon of more than 25 percent of the totaí popuíatíon.
The sí outhern tates ín whích the proportíon of
egroes ís greatest are:
1,20 ,3 5 egroes
935.184
900, 52
8 4,719
741, 94
7 3,407
700,257
90,017
♦ 2 - -
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T C T
Míssíssíppí
outh Caroíína
Georgía
ouísíana
52.2 percent egro
íabama
íorída ..
egroes ma e up 28.4 percent of the popuíatíon ín
the ast outh Centraí tates. These states íncíude the
Caroíínas, Georgía, íorída, íabama.
egroes ma e up 20.1 percent of the popuíatíon of
the est outh Centraí tates. ncíuded ín these states
are Míssíssíppí, ouísíana and Te as.
egroes are concentrated ín the outh. ven there,
however, they are not e uaííy dístríbuted. Ta e Míssís-
síppí as an e ampíe. The popuíatíon of the entíre state
ís more than haíf egro, but ín awamba County, out
of a totaí popuíatíon of 15, 47 oníy 1,074 are egroes
ín eshoba County, popuíatíon 19,303, egroes, 2,949
Prentíss County, popuíatíon 17, 0 , egroes, 2,43
míth County, popuíatíon 1 ,178, egroes, 2,594.
These countíes are overwheímíngíy whíte. n the other
hand: dams County, popuíatíon, 22,183, egroes,
15,245 Coahoma County, popuíatíon, 41,511, egroes,
35,205 De oto County, popuíatíon, 24,358, egroes,
18,438 umphreys County, popuíatíon, 19,192, e-
groes, 15,781 efferson County, popuíatíon, 15,94 , e-
groes, 11,959. These countíes are overwheímíngíy
egro.
ther outhern states show símííar írreguíarítíes ín the
dístríbutíon of the egro popuíatíon. t some poínts
ít ís sparse, whííe other areas are aímost entíreíy egro.
Thís varíatíon ín the egro popuíatíon ís íargeíy due
to economíc causes. egroes ííve ín those portíons of
the outh where cotton, ríce, tobacco and sugar can be
profítabíy raísed. The egro popuíatíon ís concen-
♦ 27
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trated ín these agrícuíturaí areas. Throughout the moun-
taínous dístrícts, where the outhern poor whítes
ma e up the buí of the popuíatíon, and where none of
the stapíe outhern crops can be raísed, egroes are as
rare as they are ín ruraí ew ngíand. The dístríbutíon
of outhern egroes foííows the ííne of economíc op-
portuníty drawn by soíí fertíííty and cíímate.
The outh has been rapídíy índustríaíízíng ítseíf sínce
1880. ts stapíe actívítíes, however, are stííí agrícuíturaí,
and the mass íabor upon whích outhern agrícuíture
depends ís the egro.
or on the íand ís the chíef occupatíon of merícan
egroes. hen the Census of 1920 was ta en there
were 41, 14,248 gaínfuííy occupíed persons. mong
them 10,953,158 were at wor ín agrícuíture.
ote the contrast wíth the egro popuíatíon: gaín-
fuííy occupíed egroes, 4,824,151 egroes engaged ín
agrícuíturaí occupatíons, 2,178,888.
uarter of the popuíatíon at íarge ís engaged ín
agrícuíture. mong egroes, however, the proportíon
of gaínfuííy occupíed persons engaged ín agrícuíture ís
45 percent.
outhern agrícuíture ís a bíac man s country ust as
orthern índustry ís a whíte man s country. The agrí-
cuíturaí íabor over great sectíons of the outh ís per-
formed by egroes, as the índustríaí íabor of the orth
ís performed by whítes.
The bíac wor er of the outh does not own hís
country. e does not even share wíth hís orthern
feííow-wor er the íííusíon of runníng ít. e mereíy
ííves ín ít, conforms to the socíaí standards set by íts
whíte masters and performs íts heavíest íabor. Mííííons
of toíííng bíac e píoíted men and women and chíídren
have been the basís of outhern prosperíty for more than
one hundred years as they are the basís of outhern
prosperíty today.
♦ 28
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egroes ín the íac eít do not own the íand they
cuítívate. The great ma oríty of them throughout the
outh are híred farm íaborers or tenant farmers.
The totaí number of farmers ín the Uníted tates
at the tíme of the íast Census was ,448,000. f these
farmers 38.1 percent were tenants.
í -sevenths of the farmers ín the Uníted tates were
whíte (5,498,000). mong the whíte farmers the per-
centage of tenants was 31.7.
The same Census reported 925,708 egro farmers
íess than one-sí th of the totaí. mong these egro
farmers three-fourths (7 .2 percent) were tenants.
Tenancy among egro farmers was therefore two and
a haíf tímes as great as tenancy among whíte farmers.
These fígures summaríze the generaí reíatíon of whíte
farmers to egro farmers throughout the Uníted tates.
The economíc dependence of the egroes ís of course
íntensífíed ín the outh. hííe the egroes form aí-
most e actíy one-tenth of the totaí popuíatíon of the
Uníted tates, they ma e up nearíy one-sí th of the
totaí number of farmers. t the same tíme they con-
stítute aímost one-haíf of the tenant farmers of the
country. n the outh aíone, where most of the coíored
farmers are found, the tenancy percentage of whíte
farmers was 38.9 and for coíored farmers 7 .2 percent.
(U. . Census of 1920, Monograph 4, arm Tenancy
ín the Uníted tates, p. 72.)
The Uníted tates Census ureau íssued a specíaí
Census of grícuíture ín 1927. ne voíume of thís
Census, devoted to the outh, contaíns a sectíon on farm
tenure ín 1925.
Throughout the outh ín 1925 there were 2,299,9 3
whíte farmers and 831,455 egro farmers. egro
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farmers therefore made up about one-fourth of aíí
outhern farmers. ncídentaííy, níne-tenths of aíí the
egro farmers ín the Uníted tates were ín the outh.
mong the whíte farmers ín the outh aímost e actíy
one-haíf (1,173,778) owned theír farms ín fuíí. ess
than one-fífth of the egroes, however (159, 51), re-
ported fuíí ownershíp of theír farms.
The grícuíturaí Census shows 9 5,051 whíte tenant
farmers ín the outh and 3 ,248 egro tenant farmers
ín the outh. Thus, whííe the egro farms constítute
oníy one-fourth of the totaí farms ín the outh, egro
tenant farms ma e up two-fífths of the totaí tenant
farms ín the outh.
Tenant farmíng among egroes ís partícuíaríy preva-
íent ín those states whích have an unusuaííy íarge egro
popuíatíon. Georgía, for e ampíe, has 1 5,018 whíte
farmers and 84,077 egro farmers. The proportíon of
whíte farmers to egro farmers ís thus aímost e actíy
two to one. More than two-fífths of the whíte farmers
(71,07 ) own theír farms ín fuíí. mong the egro
farmers the number of fuíí farm owners ís but 10,032,
that ís, íess than one-eíghth of the egro farmers of the
state. híte tenant farms ín Georgía number 8 ,802
egro tenant farms, 72,20 , a ratío of eíght whíte
tenant farms to seven egro tenant farms.
Practícaííy the same sítuatíon e ísts ín íabama where
there are 152,310 whíte farmers, of whom 8 ,329 own
theír farms ín fuíí, and 85,321 egro farmers of whom
10,953 own theír farms ín fuíí. The number of whíte
and egro tenant farmers ín íabama ís aímost e actíy
the same (73,39 whíte and 70,539 egro).
oth outh Caroíína and Míssíssíppí report more
coíored farmers than whíte farmers. n outh Caroíína
the fígures are: whíte, 82,18 coíored, 90,581 Míssís-
síppí: whíte, 107,08 egro, 150,142. híte farmers
ín outh Caroíína own theír farms ín fuíí ín nearíy haíf
♦ 30
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D P
the cases (37,925). egro farmers, however, own theír
homes fuííy ín íess than one-sí th of the cases (14,47 ).
The number of whíte tenants (40,251) ís oníy a ííttíe
more than haíf the number of egro tenants (72,179).
ígures for Míssíssíppí are símííar save that the pro-
portíon of egroes fuííy owníng theír farms ís oníy
one-nínth of the totaí and the number of egro tenants
(130,79 ) ís three tímes the number of whíte tenants
(44,94 ). (Census of grícuíture, 1925, Part ,
outhern tates, p. 15.)
vídentíy, then, even ín agrícuíture, the fíeíd ín whích
egroes have been chíefíy empíoyed sínce they came to
the Uníted tates as síaves, most of the egroes are
wage wor ers or tenant farmers. níy a smaíí per-
centage of them are owníng farmers.
íth the passíng of the years the proportíon of
tenants among the egroes has íncreased. Census re-
ports show the percentage of farm tenancy among
egroes:
74. percent ín 1900
75.3 percent ín 1910
7 .3 percent ín 1920
etween 1910 and 1920 the number of whíte tenant
farmers íncreased 3.8 percent. Duríng the same years
the number of egro tenant farmers íncreased 4.8 per-
cent.
The Uníted tates Department of grícuíture ( uí-
íetín 1404, príí, 192 , pp. 7-8) gíves the fígures for
egro farm tenancy ín outhampton County, írgínía.
n 1880 the egroes heíd 1, 48 farms, of whích 45 per-
cent were farmed by tenants. y 1920 egroes farmed
more than doubíe the number of farms: 3,550. ow-
ever, 59.2 percent of them were tenants. Thus the
proportíon of tenancy among egro farmers ín thís
county had íncreased nearíy one-thírd ín 40 years.
♦ 31
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C M C
Duríng reconstructíon days numerous e períments
were made wíth dífferent forms of egro farmíng. ut
of these e períments the system of share croppíng
graduaííy deveíoped. Today ít ís the system under
whích most of the egro tenant farmers wor theír
íand.
The share crop system ís an arrangement by whích
the íand owner suppííes tooís, machínery, seed and other
necessary farm e uípment. n return for these ad-
vances the farmer pays the íandowner a stípuíated share
of the crop ordínarííy fífty percent.
Certaín íandíords, ín addítíon to provídíng the capítaí
e uípment necessary to farm the íand, ma e advances
to the tenant ín the form of food, cíothíng and other
personaí necessaríes. The amount of these advances ís
deducted by the íandowner from the share of the crop
beíongíng to the tenant.
very fuíí descríptíon of varíous cíasses of egro
tenant farmers ín the outh wííí be found ín T. .
oofter s egro Mígratíon, Chapter , ífe of the
Tenant Cíasses.
Under any one of these croppíng arrangements the
íandíord eeps the boo s and usuaííy seíís the crop.
s boo eeper he may short-change the tenant. s
crop saíesman he may act as hís own bro er, buyíng the
crop from the egro at a íow príce and seíííng ít on
the mar et on hís own account at a hígher príce.
dvances made by íandíords eíther for capítaí e uíp-
ment or for personaí necessaríes must be paíd for by the
tenants before the íatter are permítted to íeave the
property of the íandíord. Governor ugh M. Dorsey of
Georgía, ín a pubííc statement íssued príí 22, 1921,
cítes a number of cases where egro wor ers ín Georgía
were heíd on the íand agaínst theír wííí and when they
íeft ít for the cíty were arrested and sent bac to the
íand. ere are some typícaí cases:
♦ 32
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D P
egro wor ed for a farmer ín County o. 7
for the íast sí or seven years. The contract caííed
for a certaín wage, but the empíoyer wouíd pay
hím what he chose. The egro íeft three or four
tímes, but was aíways brought bac .
The year 1920, he was to receíve 25 a month
and board. t Chrístmas, the egro as ed hís
empíoyer how much the empíoyer owed hím. The
man toíd hím 5, and paíd hím 10. The egro
íeft and came to tíanta where he was arrested and
carríed bac , anuary 2 , 1921.
nother egro was arrested ín tíanta and
fíned 2 5 for eepíng íate hours. The same whíte
man paíd the fíne ín príí, 1920, and carríed the
egro to the farm to wor upon a promíse of 40
per month, board and íodgíng. Three other e-
groes were carríed there at the same tíme. e re-
maíned for four months, when he escaped. e
was caught and carríed bac , severeíy whípped and
íoc ed up.
e was whípped twíce. e cíaíms to have seen
another egro beaten and then shot by a egro
for runníng away, and at the ínstance of the
whíte. (Dorsey, s to the egro ín Georgía,
pp. -7).
ne Georgía píanter íííed 11 egroes on hís píace,
accordíng to Governor Dorsey s report, ín order to
prevent them from reveaííng the condítíons under whích
they were forced to íabor. (Dorsey, s to the egro
ín Georgía, p. 8.)
egro tenant farmers fínd themseíves ííttíe better off
ín many ínstances than they were ín the days of síavery.
They are attached to the íand. f they íeave ít they are
pursued or brought bac and ín many cases severeíy
puníshed. ínce the machínery of ustíce ís e cíusíveíy
♦ 33
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C M C
ín the hands of the whítes, the egro tenant farmer has
e treme díffícuíty ín gettíng hís wrongs heard anywhere
ín the íac eít.
f the posítíon of the egro tenant farmer ís ííttíe
better than that of the síave before the Cívíí ar, the
responsíbíííty of the whíte outhern íandowner ís far
íess than that of the former síavehoíder. n the eve
of the Cívíí ar, fírst cíass maíe síaves were worth as
much as 1,800. score of síaves thus represented a
very consíderabíe property, whích any ínteííígent íand-
owner was bound to conserve. The modern tenant
farmer eíther represents no capítaí outíay, or eíse the
comparatíveíy smaíí amounts whích the íandíord ad-
vances agaínst hís share of the crop.
Under such círcumstances, why ís ít not possíbíe for
egro farmers to become suffícíentíy prosperous so that
they are no íonger dependent upon the whítes for
advances There are, of course, many egro farmers
who are ín thís cíass. The danger whích they run, how-
ever, ís consíderabíe. f by thríft, índustry or íuc the
egro succeeds ín oíníng the cíass of prosperous
farmers, hís whíte neíghbors fre uentíy ta e revenge
upon hím for the ímprovement whích he has been abíe
to ma e ín hís economíc posítíon.
Governor Dorsey s statement cítes one such ínstance
ín great detaíí. The case ís headed: Thrífty egro.
The egro farmer had saved, and bought a farm of
140 acres, where he ííved wíth hís wífe and 12 chíídren.
Three of hís daughters were schooí teachers. The farm
was weíí stoc ed.
Duríng the war, thís egro was so actíve ín organíz-
íng the saíe of íberty onds and Thríft tamps that
he was praísed ín the íocaí press. whíte neíghbor,
when the íaudatory artícíe appeared ín the newspaper,
remar ed that the egro was gettíng too damned
prosperous and bíggíty for a nígger.
♦ 34
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Troubíe began. t
The whíte man had hís íand surveyed ran hís ííne 25
feet over onto the egro s property drove sta es aíong
thís new ííne and warned the egro not to trespass.
The egro dísregarded the warníng and píowed to hís
oíd ííne.
ne aturday afternoon the egro wíth hís three
daughters and son went to town. The town marshaí
came up to hím ín the street and saíd, have a warrant
for you. n aítercatíon ensued. The marshaí struc
the egro, noc íng hím to the ground. everaí other
whíte men rushed upon hím and began to cho e and
beat hím.
Two of hís daughters started to hím. man
íc ed one gírí ín the stomach. The other reached
her father and began to wípe the bíood from hís
face. The three were uíc íy overpowered. The
thírd daughter and the son were caught. íí were
íoc ed ín aíí. The gírí who was íc ed was men-
struatíng. The bíow made her deathíy síc . he
íay ín aíí moaníng and beggíng that somethíng be
done for her, and for her father, who was bíeedíng
badíy from hís wounds. The sheríff íoc ed them
ín and íeft them wíthout medícaí attentíon and
ígnorant of the charge agaínst them.
e t morníng the egro íearned that hís
neíghbor had sworn out a warrant agaínst hím for
trespass. The sheríff refused to teíí hím what the
charge was agaínst hís son and daughters. The
egro empíoyed a íawyer. Then he found that he
and hís daughters were charged wíth resístíng an
offícer ín the díscharge of hís duty, hís son wíth
carryíng a pístoí. níy one wítness cíaímed to
have seen the pístoí. Thís was the whíte neíghbor
who saíd that he had seen the son put the pístoí ín
♦ 35
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the buggy whííe the crowd was on hís father. The
buggy was searched. The pístoí was not found.
Taí of íynchíng the egro and hís famííy
caused theír removaí to another county. . . .
The man, hís daughters and son were tríed ín
the uperíor Court. The father was sentenced to
serve tweíve months ín the chaín gang and pay
a fíne of 250. The gírís were fíned 50 each.
The son was fíned 100. The egro paíd the fínes
of hís chíídren.
The man s smaííer chíídren and hís wífe were ín
hís home whííe he was ín aíí. mob, íed by the
town marshaí, went to the house, íc ed the door
and demanded admíttance, then shot up the house
and went away. Thís was níght.
e t morníng, the woman wíth her chíídren
fíed from her home, never to return.
fríend went by níght and removed the ííve
stoc beíongíng to the famííy, and soíd ít for them
at a great sacrífíce. Theír crop was a totaí íoss.
They wííí be íynched, ít ís saíd, íf any of them ever
return to theír home.
The educatíon of hís chíídren and the success
of hís thríft seem to be the soíe offense of the
egro. (Dorsey, s to the egro ín Georgía,
pp. 17-18.)
egro farmers are usuaííy tenant farmers. n the
comparatíveíy smaíí number of ínstances where they
have succeeded ín becomíng farm owners, thus estabíísh-
íng membershíp ín the ruííng cíass, they are treated as
outcasts and enemíes and fre uentíy puníshed for theír
temeríty. The egro who succeeds courts dísaster.
♦ 3
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G T D
r. egro boy píoughíng wíth a muíe. Muíes do most
of the farm wor ín the íac eít.
2. egro gírís cuttíng corn staí s wíth fíeíd hoes, íor-
ence, . C.
♦ 37
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3. young íabama cotton píc er.
4. ríngíng the cotton ín from the fíeíd and dumpíng
ít ínto hampers, near ford, íabama.
♦ 38
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í
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G T
D
5. Píc ed cotton, stac ed, ready for weíghíng. Píc ers
are paíd by the pound. hreveport, a.
. Two egro chíídren píc íng cotton near íorence,
. C. maíí gírí ís sí years oíd.
♦ 39
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
o
í
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í
a

U
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í
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s
í
t
y
)

o
n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
0

G
M
T


/


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:
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5
7
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m
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,

G
o
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d
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í
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/


h
t
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:
/
/
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w
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.
h
a
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a
c
c
e
s
s
_
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e
#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
C M C
7. Cattíe stííí píay a roíe ín outhern farmíng. one-
cow píough, íabama.
8. Píoughíng and píantíng wíth o en, oíígee, ía-
bama.
)
G
e
n
e
r
a
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d

f
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m
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(
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)

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2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
0

G
M
T


/


h
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p
:
/
/
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.
n
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7
/
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9
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5
0
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2
5
8
5
7
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m
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,

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/


h
t
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p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
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h
í
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r
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a
c
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s
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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
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G T D
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
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m
e
m
b
e
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(
C
o
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u
m
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í
a

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r
s
í
t
y
)

o
n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
0

G
M
T


/


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p
:
/
/
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.
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.
n
e
t
/
2
0
2
7
/
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d
p
.
3
9
0
1
5
0
0
2
5
8
5
7
3
8
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u
b
í
í
c

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o
m
a
í
n
,

G
o
o
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í
e
-
d
í
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í
t
í
z
e
d


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
t
h
í
t
r
u
s
t
.
o
r
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/
a
c
c
e
s
s
_
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s
e
#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
C M C
. egro boy and muíe hííííng tomatoes wíth a shoveí
píough.
12. egro cabín, íorence, . C. eat and weíí ept.
The wíwíe door-yard was swept as far as the road.
♦ 42
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
o
í
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m
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í
a

U
n
í
v
e
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s
í
t
y
)

o
n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
0

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
h
d
í
.
h
a
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.
n
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/
2
0
2
7
/
m
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p
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3
9
0
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5
0
0
2
5
8
5
7
3
8
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o
m
a
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,

G
o
o
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-
d
í
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í
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í
z
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d


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
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í
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.
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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
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G T D
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
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r

m
e
m
b
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r

(
C
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a

U
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í
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s
í
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y
)

o
n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
0

G
M
T


/


h
t
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p
:
/
/
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í
.
h
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d
í
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.
n
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/
2
0
2
7
/
m
d
p
.
3
9
0
1
5
0
0
2
5
8
5
7
3
8
P
u
b
í
í
c

D
o
m
a
í
n
,

G
o
o
g
í
e
-
d
í
g
í
t
í
z
e
d


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
t
h
í
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r
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t
.
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/
a
c
c
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s
s
_
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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
C M C
♦ 44
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
o
í
u
m
b
í
a

U
n
í
v
e
r
s
í
t
y
)

o
n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
h
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.
h
a
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d
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.
n
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/
2
0
2
7
/
m
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p
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3
9
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5
0
0
2
5
8
5
7
3
8
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u
b
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o
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a
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,

G
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/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
t
h
í
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r
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t
.
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/
a
c
c
e
s
s
_
u
s
e
#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
G T T UT
1. ow of egro houses, Twenty- írst and ast
ran íín treets, íchmond, a.
2. street ín egro sectíon of a íorída town
overgrown, rutted, aímost ímpassabíe,
♦ 45
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
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(
C
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a

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í
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s
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y
)

o
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2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


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:
/
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5
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/


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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
. íííenthaí ow, Charíeston, . C. 40-
rootn house, accommodatíng 40 famíííes.
There are 4 outsíde faucets and 4 outsíde
toííets for the entíre house.
4. egro dweíííngs, Charíeston, . C.
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
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e
m
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(
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)

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2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
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4

2
3
:
3
1

G
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/


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:
/
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5
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/


h
t
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p
:
/
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w
w
.
h
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s
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_
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e
#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
G T T UT
5. The cotton comes to be gínned ín town, nníston,
íabama.
. The cotton gín, ford, íabama.
♦ 47
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
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í
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a

U
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í
v
e
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s
í
t
y
)

o
n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


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:
/
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.
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7
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,

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o
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-
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í
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d


/


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p
:
/
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w
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.
h
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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
C M C
7. ag Píc ers, íabama.
8. egro cottages and church, obson, íabama.
♦ 48
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
o
í
u
m
b
í
a

U
n
í
v
e
r
s
í
t
y
)

o
n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


h
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:
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d
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0
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7
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9
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2
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5
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3
8
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,

G
o
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-
d
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/


h
t
t
p
:
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w
w
.
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c
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s
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_
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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
G T T UT
9. The cotton baíes as they come from the gín, ía-
bama.
10. aítíng for baíe. egro woman wíth her muíes,
after the cotton has entered the gín. íabama.
♦ 49
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
o
í
u
m
b
í
a

U
n
í
v
e
r
s
í
t
y
)

o
n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


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t
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:
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/
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7
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9
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0
0
2
5
8
5
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3
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,

G
o
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-
d
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í
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d


/


h
t
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p
:
/
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w
w
.
h
a
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h
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r
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s
s
_
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e
#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
C M C
11. aítíng at the gín wíth hís íoad of cotton, nnís-
ton, íabama.
12. The cotton mííí from whích egroes are e cíuded
by íaw. íabama.
♦ 50 #-
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
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m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
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b
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a

U
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í
v
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s
í
t
y
)

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n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
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d
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.
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d
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/
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0
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5
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m
a
í
n
,

G
o
o
g
í
e
-
d
í
g
í
t
í
z
e
d


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
t
h
í
t
r
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t
.
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/
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c
c
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s
s
_
u
s
e
#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
G T T UT
14. The wagon shop, ford, íabama.
♦ 51
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
o
í
u
m
b
í
a

U
n
í
v
e
r
s
í
t
y
)

o
n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
h
d
í
.
h
a
n
d
í
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.
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/
2
0
2
7
/
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p
.
3
9
0
1
5
0
0
2
5
8
5
7
3
8
P
u
b
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c

D
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m
a
í
n
,

G
o
o
g
í
e
-
d
í
g
í
t
í
z
e
d


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
t
h
í
t
r
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t
.
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/
a
c
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s
s
_
u
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e
#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
C M C
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
o
í
u
m
b
í
a

U
n
í
v
e
r
s
í
t
y
)

o
n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
h
d
í
.
h
a
n
d
í
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.
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t
/
2
0
2
7
/
m
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p
.
3
9
0
1
5
0
0
2
5
8
5
7
3
8
P
u
b
í
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c

D
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m
a
í
n
,

G
o
o
g
í
e
-
d
í
g
í
t
í
z
e
d


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
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w
w
.
h
a
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h
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7: G D C M
undreds of thousands of outhern egroes wor
as croppers on íand owned by outhern whítes. ther
hundreds of thousands are fíeíd hands: píoughíng, hoe-
íng, harvestíng vegetabíes, píc íng cotton, cuttíng cane,
for a daííy or monthíy wage. The Census oíume on
ccupatíons (1920) reports 4,5 7 maíe egroes and
527,937 femaíe egroes ten years of age or over oc-
cupíed as farm íaborers. The Census was ta en anuary
1, when empíoyment of farm íabor was at a very íow
poínt. mong these egro wage wor ers there are
íarge numbers of women and chíídren some of the
íatter as young as sí or seven years of age.
egro tenants and egro agrícuíturaí wor ers ííve
upon the same generaí economíc íeveí, cíose to the
margín of subsístence. Theír shac s and cabíns are
much the same ín character. Theír food standards are
símííar. Theír standards of dress vary ííttíe. íí ííve
at the bottom of the economíc scaíe, upon smaíí íncomes,
wíth ííttíe or no margín.
ow much íncome do the outhern egro íand
wor ers receíve
The Uníted tates Department of grícuíture ín íts
monthíy survey, Crops and Mar ets, for príí, 1928,
reports the wages of híred farm íabor by states. The
tabíes do not separate whíte and coíored íabor but the
Department notes that wage rates of the outhern
tates, especíaííy of the outh Centraí and partícuíaríy
of the outh tíantíc, refíect the íow wage rates gíven
egroes. ( etter of une 13, 1928.)
Department of grícuíture fígures gíve wage rates
by the day and the month, wíth and wíthout board.
Monthíy farm wages wíth board ín the orth tíantíc
♦ 53
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C M C
tates and the ast orth Centraí tates are faíríy uní-
form. n the orth tíantíc tates they range from
37.50 per month ín Pennsyívanía to 55 per month ín
hode síand. n the orth Centraí tates, the míní-
mum was reported from Míssourí: 33.50 per month
the ma ímum from owa: 48.25 per month. The same
uníformíty hoíds true ín the outh tíantíc and outh
Centraí tates. ut the íncome íeveís are far dífferent.
arm wages ín the orthern tates are aímost twíce as
hígh as they are ín the outhern tates.
arm wages, per month, wíth board, averaged 45.05
per month ín the orth tíantíc tates 41.38 per
month ín the orth Centraí tates. n the outh,
wages averaged 24.89 per month ín the outh tíantíc
tates and 24.88 per month ín the outh Centraí tates.
Monthíy wage rates wíth board ín the estern tates
were 53.10 weíí above those of the orth and more
than twíce the rates for the outh.
The outh, ín so far as farm wages are concerned, ís
ín a cíass by ítseíf far beíow the íeveí for the re-
maínder of the country. Thís íow wage standard repre-
sents the íow economíc standard of the egro mass
íand wor ers.
There ís some varíatíon ín farm wages from one
outhern state to another. Thus, ín Deíaware and Mary-
íand farm íabor receíved respectíveíy 31 and 3
per month wíth board. abor ín these states ís chíefíy
engaged ín raísíng truc for orthern mar ets. n
outh Caroíína and Georgía, on the other hand, farm
íabor receíved 20 and 19.75 Per month respectíveíy.
These are two of the príncípaí cotton growíng states.
The same íow standard appears ín the Guíf tates:
íabama, 21 per month Míssíssíppí, 22.25 ou-
ísíana, 22.75. ís m these states, from outh Caroíína
to ouísíana, that the heart of the íac eít ííes. t
ís ín these states, from outh Caroíína to Míssíssíppí, that
♦ 54
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G D C M
farm wages are haíf the orthern rate and íess than 40
percent of the estern rate. t ís ín these states that
the depressíng ínfíuence of egro mass íabor on the gen-
eraí wage íeveí ís most manífest.
ccordíng to the Department of grícuíture fígures,
ín the spríng of 1928 there were eíght outhern tates
ín whích the average monthíy wage, wíth board, was
íess than 25. n one state Georgía the rate feíí be-
íow 20.
y ínference these wage rates of farm íabor represent
the appro ímate íncome íeveí of the masses of outhern
egro íand wor ers. f the croppers made íncomes
notabíy íarger than those of the farm hands, the íatter
wouíd be pushíng ínto the cropper cíass. f, on the
other hand, the farm hands made much better íncomes
than the croppers, the croppers wouíd become farm
hands. here movement of íabor from one group to
another ís easy, the íeveí of íncomes uíc íy ad usts
ítseíf.
Therefore, these Department of grícuíture fígures
probabíy gíve a faír pícture of íncome among outhern
íand wor ers. The dírect conse uences of these íow
íncome rates appear ín the form of bad díet and meager
housíng.
arníngs of outhern egro women and chíídren are
correspondíngíy íow. The Chíídren s ureau has con-
ducted a seríes of ínvestígatíons ín varíous parts of the
outh. n the oyster and shrímp canníng communítíes
aíong the Guíf Coast 115 egro women reported wee íy
earníngs rangíng from 1 to 12.50. Twenty-níne
and fíve-tenths percent of the women reported wages of
íess than 4 per wee 48.7 percent reported wages
of from 4 to 7.50 per wee 21.8 percent earned
more than 7.50 per wee . These wages were, of course,
wíthout board. (Paradíse, yster and hrímp Canníng
Communítíes, p. 55.)
♦ 55
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C M C
Many egro chíídren wor for híre on the íand.
The Chíídren s ureau ín two buííetíns, Chííd abor
and the or of Mothers on Guíf Truc arms, ash-
íngton, 1924, and Chííd abor on Maryíand Truc
arms, ashíngton, 1923, made specíaí studíes of the
condítíons surroundíng wor íng chíídren. n the
Maryíand study the ínvestígators found, ín the egro
famíííes studíed, 322 chíídren who díd fíeíd wor .
Twenty-sí of these chíídren, 8.1 percent, were under
8 years of age 5, 20.2 percent, were from 8 to 10,
77, 23.9 percent, were from 10 to 12 years of age 4 .9
percent were over 12. Chííd abor on Maryíand
Truc arms, p. 8.)
Much of the fíeíd wor , partícuíaríy that done by
women and chíídren, ís píece wor and híghíy seasonaí,
dependíng on the tíme of the year, on the weather, and
on the state of the crop. The wor ers are paíd oníy
when they wor and then on a píece rate basís.
The purchasíng power of íncome ís consíderabíy
greater ín the outh than ín the orth and ís íarger
ín country dístrícts than ín índustríaí areas.
tandard of íívíng studíes have not been made ín the
outh as they have ín the orth. hííe no dírect com-
paríson ís possíbíe, the facts may be contrasted.
amííy íívíng for a man, wífe and three chíídren has
been estímated for orthern índustríaí communítíes at
from 2,1 0 to 2, 22 per year ( 180 to 218 per
month). The amount varíes wíth the síze of the com-
muníty. The smaííer fígure refers to smaíí índustríaí
cítíes. These amounts 180 to 218 per month wííí
províde heaíth and decency for a famííy of fíve.
The food ítem aíone ín these budgets, ís from 5 to
95 per month. merícan abor ear oo , 192.7,
p. 38.)
ages of outhern farm hands by the month, wíth-
out board, for príí, 1928, averaged ust over 35.
♦ 5
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G D C M
They were 52.75 ín Maryíand 47 ín est írgínía
45 ín Deíaware 41 ín írgínía 42.50 ín íahoma
40 ín Te as. o state ín the heart of the íac eít
reported monthíy wages for farm hands of more than
37. The rate ín orth Caroíína was 37 entuc y,
3 .50 ouísíana, 34.75 íorída, 34.50 r ansas,
34.50 Tennessee, 33 Míssíssíppí, 31.50. ínaííy
there were three states whích reported monthíy farm
hand wages, wíthout board, at íess than 30 per month:
íabama, 29 Georgía, 28 outh Caroíína, 27.75.
The bottom of the scaíe was therefore touched ín
Georgía and outh Caroíína.
Ta íng the average monthíy wage for the outh of
3 5 and assumíng steady wor , a fíeíd hand wouíd earn
390 per year. n íabama, Georgía and outh Caro- í
íína, fíeíd hands, assumíng steady wor , wouíd earn íess
than 350 per year.
These earníngs do not represent totaí famííy íncome.
The wages of the men are so íow that women and
chíídren are compeííed to suppíement them by wor íng
for wages wherever possíbíe. urthermore, ín these
outhern agrícuíturaí communítíes, rents are very cheap,
and the famíííes are abíe to e e out part of theír e -
ístence by raísíng vegetabíes, chíc ens, pígs. tííí, where
aíí aííowances have been made for wor by aíí avaííabíe
members of the famííy and for suppíementary íncome
deríved from the ítchen garden, the wage rates of agrí-
cuíturaí wor ers ín the outh are so íow that by no
wíídest stretch of the ímagínatíon couíd they be de-
scríbed as heaíth and decency wages. Thírty doííars
a month, for an abíe bodíed man, wíth príces at
theír present. íeveí, ís íess than a famííy subsístence
wage.
egro women are reported ín the ccupatíons Census
as beíng gaínfuííy empíoyed ín a much íarger percentage
of cases than whíte women. The reason ís obvíous.
♦ 57
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C M C
The wages of egro men compeí the women to earn a
share of famííy íncome.
outhern farm wages and íncomes yíeíd íess than
subsístence. They are so íow as to precíude the pos-
síbíííty of even a whoíesome díet and decent cíothíng,
wíthout ta íng any account of the cuíturaí síde of íífe.
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8: G C D T
ív1ng condítíons of outhern egroes, partícuíaríy
those wor íng on the íand, may be characterízed under
three heads: housíng, educatíon and socíaí opportuníty.
n aíí three dírectíons the posítíon of the outhern
egro ís greatíy ínferíor to that of the outhern whíte.
egro housíng ín the outh ís generaííy ínade uate.
The egro shantíes, buíít of íogs ín a few cases and of
wood ín most ínstances, are usuaííy unpaínted, oíd, out
of repaír, s uaííd, íac íng modern conveníences, un-
suppííed wíth the símpíest necessaríes such as runníng
water, ade uate toííet facííítíes, heatíng facííítíes and
the íí e.
Pauí íanshard wrítes of the outhern mííí víííage
( abor ín outhern Cotton Mííís, pp. 7- 8):
t the edge of many of the outhern mííí
víííages ís nígger town, a short stretch of road
fían ed by smaíí, unpaínted cottages whích have
the generaí appearance of beíng run down at the
heeís. ts houses are usuaííy wíthout ííghts and
runníng water.
Chíídren s ureau ínvestígators gíve a símííar report
concerníng the oyster and shrímp canníng communítíes
aíong the Guíf Coast:
The egro dístrícts presented ín generaí a par-
tícuíaríy ramshac íe appearance. They were often
sítuated aíong the raííroad trac s or ín swampy,
ísoíated dístrícts. . . . The streets, even when the
dístríct was near the center of the cíty, were seídom
paved, nor were the roads ept ín good condítíon.
♦ 59
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C M C
et, despíte the íoose boards, the saggíng porches,
and the generaí dísrepaír of the gray, weather-
beaten houses, tíny, neat, weíí- ept gardens whích
were the ruíe rather than the e ceptíon, gave to
the dístríct a cheerfuí aír. . . . (Paradíse yster
and hrímp Canníng Communítíes on the Guíf
Coast, pp. 81-82.)
nother Chíídren s ureau study, The eífare of
Chíídren ín Cotton Growíng reas of Te as, gíves thís
descríptíon of egro housíng ín two Te as cotton raís-
íng countíes:
mong egro famíííes, the three or four room
house was the most common. Practícaííy aíí were
one story, frame buíídíngs, wíth no basement and
no foundatíon other than píííars or wooden bíoc s.
ew houses had any modern conveníences. n
ííí County most of them were heated by stoves,
but ín us County, 89 percent of the whíte and
82 percent of the egro famíííes vísíted depended
upon a fíre-píace for heatíng. . . . mong egro
famíííes ín us County oníy 7 percent, and oníy
2 percent of the egro famíííes ín ííí County,
reported water ín the house or on the porch. one
of the egro famíííes ín eíther county had a sín .
(Pp. 38-39.)
These are typícaí ínstances that gíve a faír pícture of
the housíng of the outhern egro masses who ííve on
the íand and ín the outhern communítíes. egro
housíng ín the outh ís antí uated, ínade uate, un-
sanítary and wretched.
ducatíon ís a second and very ímportant phase of
íívíng condítíons. eíatíveíy ííttíe money ís spent ín
the outh for the educatíon of egroes.
♦ 0
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G C D T
pendítures for educatíonaí purposes are gíven by
the Commíssíon on nter-racíaí Cooperatíon, tíanta,
Georgía, ín íts report, ace eíatíons ín 1927.
verage nnuaí pend1tures
per Ch1íd of chooí ge
or hítes
or egroes
íabama
2 .57
3.81
r ansas
3-3
.48
íorída
42.
7-33
Georgía
25.84
5.78
33-73
5.48
Míssíssíppí
25.95
5. 2
orth Caroíína
25.31
7-52
outh Caroíína
27.88
2.74
Tennessee
21.02
11.88
Te as
31-77
20.24
írgínía
40-27
10.47
These fígures índícate that under the most favorabíe
condítíons, prevaíííng, for e ampíe, ín Tennessee and
Te as, the average annuaí e pendíture for educatíon per
chííd of schooí age ís about haíf as great for egro
chíídren as ít ís for whíte chíídren. Under íess favor-
abíe círcumstances, such as those prevaíííng ín Georgía,
íorída, Míssíssíppí, ouísíana, orth Caroíína and ír-
gínía, e pendíture per chííd of schooí age ís four, fíve
or sí tímes as great for whíte chíídren as ít ís for
coíored chíídren. n outh Caroíína e pendítures for
whíte chíídren of schooí age are aímost e actíy ten tímes
as great as for coíored chíídren of schooí age.
umerous studíes and comments have been made on
the educatíonaí díscrímínatíon whích ís systematícaííy
carríed on agaínst the egro and ín favor of the whíte
throughout the outh. íth segregated schooís and
wíth ínade uate schooí funds, egro boys and gírís are
♦ 1
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C M C
fortunate íf they are abíe to attend the eíementary
schooís. ígh schooí and coííege traíníng ís beyond the
reach of the vast ma oríty.
The Chíídren s ureau ín íts study of Te as cotton
growíng areas found haíf of the egro chíídren ín ííí
County and one-sí th of the chíídren ín us County
not attendíng schooí. ( eífare of Chíídren ín Cot íon
Growíng reas of Te as, pp. 7 -77.) ther Chíídren s
ureau studíes índícate that where the egro chíídren
wor as fíeíd hands, schooí attendance ínvaríabíy suffers.
The educatíonaí sítuatíon ín the outh ís thus summed
up by T. . oofter, r. ( egro Probíems ín Cítíes, p.
201):
chooí funds are not ade uate to meet the needs
eíther ín the orth or ín the outh. The outh,
however, ís not oníy poorer than the orth but
aíso íess dísposed to dístríbute such funds as are
avaííabíe accordíng to the schooí popuíatíon. The
egro schooís are a secondary consíderatíon. n
comparíson wíth schooís for whíte chíídren they
have fewer seats ín proportíon to the schooí popuía-
tíon, more pupíís per teacher, more doubíe sessíons,
fewer teachers, poorer saíaríes, fewer and smaííer
píaygrounds, and íess ade uate provísíon for the
heaíth and comfort of pupíís and teachers.
The Crísís for eptember, 192 (p. 254), pubííshes
the foííowíng anaíysís of schooí e pendítures ín íbb
County, Georgía:
1. o. of Chíídren to 18 years of age 1923
híte 10, 42
Coíored 8,847
2. Dísbursements for 1923
a. Teachers híte 320,8 8.
Teachers Coíored 52,292.00
♦ 2
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b. uíídíngs and epaírs
híte 1 ,941.29
Coíored
c. uípment híte 3,127.57
uípment Coíored
d. uppííes, íbraríes, aní-
tors, ueí and ther -
pendítures
híte 85,344.27
Coíored
e. Transportatíon híte .. 14,9 9.93
Transportatíon Coíored
The same number of the Crísís pubííshed statístícs for
Gíynn County and are County, Georgía, whích shows
substantíaííy the same sítuatíon as that e ístíng ín íbb
County.
Thís report on educatíon ín Georgía was the resuít of
a carefuí fírst-hand study made by the atíonaí ssocía-
tíon for the dvancement of Coíored Peopíe. n pages
2 3-2 4 the foííowíng summary of the survey appears:
írst, ít does not appear that the coíored schooís
enter defíníteíy ínto the mínds of those who are
charged wíth common schooí educatíon. . . .
The data coííected from countíes scattered over
the tate show that ín fífteen countíes the schooís
run íess than months, whích ís the íegaí re uíre-
ment. The churches and íodge rooms whích are
used for egro schooís are chíefíy oíd, dííapídated
buíídíngs, unfít for teachíng purposes. n some
cases, they have no means of gettíng ííght often
there are no des s. n most of the churches and
íodge haíís, the chíídren sít on pían benches whích
sometímes have no bac s to them. n some countíes
there ís not a síngíe schooí buíídíng for coíored
chíídren.
♦ 3
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The fact that there ís great hostíííty towards
egro educatíon ís attested by the burníng of
schooís ín severaí sectíons. Two ínstances are re-
cíted ín our survey. . . .
hen we consíder the saíary paíd egro
teachers we fínd ít as íow as 1 5 per month ín some
píaces. The saíaríes are often suppíemented by
ten and fífteen cents per pupíí, whích ís paíd by
the patrons.
pportunítíes for the hígher educatíon of egroes
are even íess abundant than those for eíementary educa-
tíon. ducatíonaííy the outh puníshes chíídren who
are born bíac .
íttíe need be saíd about the socíaí posítíon of the
outhern egro. e ís a fíeíd hand. e ís a servant.
ven where he has become a s íííed mechaníc, a busíness
man or a professíonaí man, he ís treated as though he
were stííí doíng meníaí wor . The egro, ín the outh,
ís a member of a sub ect, e píoíted race, uníversaííy
deníed e uaííty wíth the whítes. egro chíídren grow
up wíth the fact of theír ínferíoríty constantíy thrown
ín theír faces.
outhern egroes are surrounded by an atmosphere
of racíaí antagonísm, hatred and threatened confííct.
conomíc, poíítícaí and socíaí díscrímínatíon agaínst
egroes ís met wíth at every turn. The egro ís the
ob ect of rídícuíe, attac , assauít, murder. f he at-
tempts to fíght bac , there ís a race war. or íng
condítíons ín the outh are dísadvantageous to the
egro. ívíng condítíons are such that the egro ín
hís housíng, ín educatíon, ín hís socíaí opportuníty, ís
ín a posítíon of constant racíaí ínferíoríty.
♦ 4
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9: C T C M C
P
Ten mííííon egroes ííve ín a dozen outhern states.
í ty-fíve years ago theír ancestors were síaves ín these
same states. Then, as now, the centers of outhern
economíc power were ín the hands of the whítes.
hen the emancípatíon of the síaves was procíaímed
ín 18 3 the number of síave-hoídíng famíííes was about
3 5 0,000. The number of síaves was at íeast four mííííon.
Thus the average number of síaves per síave-hoídíng
famííy was ín the neíghborhood of 12. n síave days
a very smaíí mínoríty of outhern whítes owned and
e píoíted a vast army of outhern bíac s. Today the
descendants of those síave-hoídíng whítes own the íand
and capítaí wíth whích the descendants of those egro
síaves must wor ín order to ííve.
Under the síave system the centers of outhern eco-
nomíc power íay ín the cotton, tobacco, sugar and ríce
píantatíons. Under the new economíc order whích has
arísen from the ruíns of the síave system, the centers
of outhern economíc power ííe ín two dírectíons. n
the one hand there are the raííroads, the índustríes, the
mínes, the ban s, the pubííc utííítíes, the ínsurance and
merchandísíng that ma e up outhern busíness enter-
príse. n the other hand ís the cuítívatíon of cotton,
sugar, tobacco, ríce, corn and other outhern agrícuí-
turaí stapíes.
egroes, ín states such as Míssíssíppí, Georgía and
outh Caroíína, ma e up appro ímateíy haíf of the totaí
popuíatíon. n the other outhern tates the proportíon
of egroes ín the popuíatíon ís a uarter or two-fífths.
To what e tent do egroes own, controí or dírect the
economíc íífe ín communítíes of whích they form so
íarge a part
♦ 5
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C M C
The uestíon cannot be answered statístícaííy, save
for farm ownershíp. There are no ade uate fígures
showíng the dístríbutíon of stoc s, bonds, mortgages
and títíe deeds by race.
vísítor to the centers of outhern economíc enter-
príse does not re uíre statístícs ín order to reaííze the
compíete domínatíon of the whítes. t ís mereíy neces-
sary to pass through corporatíon offíces to read the
names of boards of dírectors to attend conventíons of
men ín varíous íeadíng busíness íínes to díne ín busí-
ness cíubs. The índustríaíísts of the outh are whíte,
aímost to a man.
outhern raííroad and pubííc utííítíes are owned
chíefíy by the whítes. Controí ís e cíusíveíy ín theír
hands. They are the dírectors, the e ecutíves, the mana-
gers. They decíde poíícy, and dírect organízatíon. Tens
of thousands of egroes are empíoyed on outhern
raííroads. Most of them wor as íaborers ín maínte-
nance and constructíon crews. few hoíd s íííed posí-
tíons. There the story ends. egroes do not advance
from the ran s to shape the destíny of outhern
raííroad enterpríse. The outh ís a whíte man s country
where egroes wor under whíte supervísíon.
outhern manufacturíng índustríes are aíso under
whíte domínatíon. The íron and steeí índustry wíth
íts subsídíaríes, the te tííe índustry, the tobacco ín-
dustry, are aímost compíeteíy controííed by whíte
enterpríse. n many outhern índustríaí píants egroes
do not wor at aíí, e cept ín meníaí capacítíes. aws,
ín some of the outhern tates, re uíre separate wor -
rooms for egroes, and thus practícaííy e cíude them
from estabííshments ín whích whíte wor ers are em-
píoyed. s índustríaíízatíon has proceeded ín the outh,
the whítes have monopoíízed not oníy the e ecutíve
posts and the s íííed and híghíy paíd trades. They have
have aíso heíd the run of factory obs.

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C T C M C P
ccasíonaííy egro management has made attempts
to enter the .índustríaí fíeíd, raísíng capítaí among e-
groes and empíoyíng egro íabor. The ínstances are
rare enough to e cíte newspaper comment. ímost
uníformíy they have faííed after a very bríef e ístence,
íeavíng manufacturíng ín the hands of the whítes.
egro busíness men may be found ín aíí parts of the
outh runníng groceríes, seíííng vegetabíes, conductíng
restaurants, hoteís, barber-shops. There are egro
buííders and contractors, egro ínsurance men, egro
newspaper and magazíne managers, egro prínters.
egroes have entered many other occupatíons ín the
fíeíds of trade and servíce.
Two matters are worthy of note ín thís connectíon:
fírst, these egro busíness men are usuaííy not engaged
ín any basíc índustry. teeí, íumber, te tííe, tobacco
are entíreíy out of theír fíeíd. econd, they usuaííy serve
egroes. n many cases theír patronage ís e cíusíveíy
egro. egroes have not penetrated the ma or índus-
tríaí enterpríses of the outh. ven whoíesaíe mer-
chandísíng remaíns wíth the whítes. The busínesses ín
whích they are actíve ííe on the frínge of the busíness
woríd.
an íng ís a functíon of the outhern whítes. That,
of course, ís one of the reasons why ma or egro enter-
príses have not been more successfuí. The egro has
been compeííed to go to whíte ban ers for hís ííne of
credít. outhern whíte ban ers do not manage theír
ban s for the purpose of pushíng egroes forward aíong
íínes of ma or busíness enterpríse, and there are few
egro ban ers to whom egro busíness men can turn.
Untíí the oríd ar era, egroes had scarceíy entered
the ban íng fíeíd.
urthermore, outhern ban íng and busíness enter-
príse have been dírectíy aíííed wíth orthern ban íng
and busíness enterpríse. Though ít ís no íonger true
♦ 7
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C M C
that outhern busíness ís chíefíy dependent on orthern
busíness, the post Cívíí ar deveíopment of the outh
was pushed forward and fínanced ín íarge part from
the orth. n those days, even more than today,
orthern busíness was e cíusíveíy ín the hands of the
whítes.
eíther ín the outh nor ín the orth couíd egro
busíness men get ade uate credít. s ín every other ím-
portant fíeíd, ban íng was a whíte man s woríd to whích
egroes were oníy grudgíngíy and occasíonaííy ad-
mítted.
ree egroes ín the outh, íong before the Cívíí ar,
were engaged ín many íínes of smaíí scaíe busíness enter-
príse. Today they occupy many of the same fíeíds.
egroes who engage ín outhern busíness are ín areas
of secondary ímportance. They have not touched basíc
busíness enterpríse. n the íess strategíc busíness fíeíds,
sufferíng aíí of the dísabííítíes that go wíth membershíp
ín an ínferíor, sub ect race, egroes en oy meager op-
portunítíes ín retaíí trade, ín servíce to egroes, ín
furtheríng egro enterpríse.
The strategíc centers of outhern economíc power
raííroadíng, te tííe, steeí, íumber, manufacturíng, buííd-
íng, ban íng are occupíed by outhern whíte men.
Merchandísíng ís aíso íargeíy ín theír hands.
ne fíeíd the egroes have entered the fíeíd of
íand ownershíp. The Census of 1920 reported 159, 51
egro farmers who owned theír farms ín fuíí. n a
few sectíons they actuaííy controí better íand and ma e
more profíts from theír íand than do the competíng
whítes. Thís ís e ceptíonaí, however. Most of the
outhern íand ís ín the controí of the whíte race. The
grícuíturaí Census of 1925 reported 3,131,418 farms
ín the outh. f these farms 831,455 were operated
by egroes and 2,299,9 3 by whítes. ven where
egroes have made the most progress, the outhern
♦ 8
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C T C M C P
whítes domínate the economíc sítuatíon. They are the
owníng cíass.
Most outhern egroes wor on íand owned and con-
troííed by whíte farmers. There were 3 ,248 egro
tenant farmers ín the outh when the grícuíturaí
Census of 1925 was ta en. Practícaííy aíí the íand
farmed by these tenants was owned by whítes. The
Census of 1920 reported 1,192,504 egroes occupíed
as wage wor ers on farms. ínce níne-tenths of the
egroes ín the orth and est ííve ín cítíes, these
egro agrícuíturaí wage wor ers must have been em-
píoyed aímost entíreíy ín the outhern tates. (The
Census does not ma e the separatíon by race and by
states.) The great ma oríty of these egroes wor ed
for whíte empíoyers. ut of fíve outhern egro farm
operators, four are tenants. ut of ten outhern e-
groes occupíed ín gaíníng a íívíng on the íand, eíght or
níne are dírectíy dependent on the whítes for theír ííveíí-
hood.
Most of the outhern bíac s wor on íand owned by
outhern whítes. ometímes they wor as tenant
farmers sometímes as wage wor ers. n eíther case they
are economícaííy at the mercy of whíte e píoíters.
egroes have done more ín the fíeíd of íand owner-
shíp than ín any other fíeíd to brea through the
restríctíve cordon of economíc controí whích the outh-
ern whíte race has buíít around the outhern egroes
from the earíy days of síavery. ven ín íand ownershíp,
however, the egroes have bareíy made a begínníng.
conomíc power ín the orth rests as a matter of
course ín the hands of the whítes. egroes ma e up
oníy one-fortíeth of the orthern popuíatíon. They
píay practícaííy no part ín the dírectíon of orthern
economíc íífe.
conomíc power ín the outh ís aíso ín whíte hands.
egroes are reíatíveíy few ín the orth. n the outh
♦ 9
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C M C
they are numerous. ccasíonaííy they ma e up a
ma oríty of the popuíatíon. owhere, however, do
they e ercíse a ma oríty or even a consíderabíe mínoríty
of economíc controí.
The authoríty of any ruííng cíass rests upon íts eco-
nomíc power. The masters of feudaí urope ruíed be-
cause (and where) they heíd the íand. They made
every effort to eep the íand ín a comparatíveíy few
hands because they reaíízed that the íand-hoídíng cíass
was bound to be the ruííng cíass. The masters of
present-day índustry ruíe because (and where) they
own stoc s, bonds, mortgages, títíe deeds. They ma e
every effort to eep thís ownershíp ín theír own
hands because they reaííze that the capítaí-hoídíng cíass
ís bound to be the ruííng cíass. hen deaííng wíth a
sub ect, e píoíted race, íí e the egroes, the members
of the whíte owníng cíass are partícuíaríy carefuí to
prevent members of the e píoíted race from becomíng
e píoíters. Thís not oníy brea s the monopoíy of the
e píoítíng whítes, but spoíís the e píoíted bíac s for
further e píoítatíon. The whítes therefore spare no
means to eep the centers of economíc power under theír
e cíusíve controí.
conomíc power ín the Uníted tates remaíns a func-
tíon of the whíte race. t ís a fíeíd of actívíty from
whích egroes are aímost compíeteíy e cíuded, or ínto
whích they have thus far faííed to penetrate. The whíte
ruííng cíass of the Uníted tates, outh as weíí as orth,
remaíns economícaííy supreme. The cítadeí of ruííng
cíass authoríty property ownershíp and the source of
ruííng cíass profít ob controí are ín whíte hands.
♦ 70
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í : T G G T
T
The typícaí egro síave was a wor er on a outhern
píantatíon. Untíí about 1900 the typícaí merícan
egro was stííí a fíeíd-hand or servant ín one of a dozen
outhern states where ríce, sugar, tobacco, corn and cot-
ton are the stapíe crops. ecentíy there has been a
rapíd movement of egroes away from the farms to
the índustríaí centers, and away from the outh to the
orth and est.
The merícan egro mígratíon of the twentíeth cen-
tury ís part of a woríd-wíde movement away from the
íand. Thís movement has been feít partícuíaríy ín those
countríes whích were passíng through a process of rapíd
índustríaíízatíon. ts basíc cause ííes ín the very great
íncrease ín economíc and socíaí advantages whích the
farm wor er ís abíe to en oy when he succeeds ín get-
tíng s íííed or semí-s íííed wor ín an índustríaí center.
híte farmers as weíí as egro farmers have ta en part
ín thís movement ín the Uníted tates.
etween 1910 and 1920 the ruraí egro popuíatíon
of the Uníted tates actuaííy decreased 3.4 percent.
Duríng the same ten years, the urban egro popuíatíon
íncreased 32. percent. n 1920 there were 224,87
fewer egroes íívíng ín ruraí communítíes than ín 1910.
n 1920 there were 870,244 more egroes íívíng ín
urban communítíes than ín 1910. These fígures índí-
cate a mígratíon on a vast scaíe.
The shíft was stímuíated by the war, aíthough ít was
not confíned to the war períod. egro urban dweííers
numbered 1.5 mííííon ín 1890 2 mííííon ín 1900 3.5
mííííon ín 1920. The movement to the cíty has been
goíng on for decades.
Proportíonateíy there has been a steady íncrease ín
♦ 71
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C M C
cíty-dweíííng egroes. íneteen and four-tenths per-
cent of the merícan egroes ííved ín cítíes ín 1890 ín
1900 the percentage of cíty dweííers was 22.7 percent
ín 1910, 27.4 percent, and ín 1920, 34 percent.
Thís movement from country to cíty was not con-
fíned to the egroes. t affected,the whoíe popuíatíon
of the Uníted tates. etween 1900 and 1910 the whíte
popuíatíon ín cítíes íncreased faster than the egro
popuíatíon. etween 1910 and 1920, however, the
egro popuíatíon ín cítíes íncreased more rapídíy than
the whíte popuíatíon ín cítíes. Thís was due ín part to
the chec of ímmígratíon and ín part to the very rapíd
íncrease ín egro mígratíon duríng the íatter períod.
egro mígrants from country to cíty have not aíí
come north. The egro popuíatíon of many southern
cítíes has íncreased as rapídíy as the egro popuíatíon
ín northern cítíes wíth correspondíng índustríaí oppor-
tunítíes. The egro popuíatíon of ew or , for e -
ampíe, íncreased 51 percent between 1900 and 1910 and
percent between 1910 and 1920. The egro popu-
íatíon of Phííadeíphía íncreased 35 percent between
1900 and 1910 and 59 percent between 1910 and 1920.
n Chícago, the egro popuíatíon íncreased 4 percent
between 1900 and 1910 and 148 percent between 1910
and 1920. n Detroít ít íncreased 40 percent between
1900 and 1910 and 11 percent between 1910 and 1920.
n írmíngham, íabama, ít íncreased 215 percent be-
tween 1900 and 1910 and 34 percent between 1910 and
1920. orfoí , írgínía, íncreased íts egro popuía-
tíon 24 percent between 1900 and 1910 and 73 percent
between 1910 and 1920. The egroes ín ac sonvíííe,
íorída, íncreased 80 percent between 1900 and 1910
and 42 percent between 1910 and 1920. egroes are
íeavíng the country for the cíty outh as weíí as
orth.
asícaííy the egro mígratíon ís a movement from
♦ 72
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T G G T T
the farm to the factory from the country to the cíty.
ncídentaííy ít ís a movement from the outh to the
orth. The ast outh Centraí tates wíth a totaí
egro popuíatíon ín 1910 of 2, 52,000 reported an ac-
tuaí íoss by 1920 of 4 percent. The outh tíantíc
tates wíth a totaí egro popuíatíon of 4,081,000 ín
1910 reported an íncrease duríng the foííowíng decade
of oníy 5 percent. The est outh Centraí tates ín
the same períod showed an íncrease ín the egro popu-
íatíon of 4 percent. Duríng the same ten years the
íncrease ín egro popuíatíon ín the ew ngíand tates
was 19 percent for the Míddíe tíantíc tates, 40 per-
cent and for the ast orth Centraí tates, 71 percent.
hííe the great mass of egroes remaíned ín the outh,
theír proportíonate íncreases were far greater ín the
orth.
The egroes who came orth came to the cítíes.
The Census of 1920 showed that whííe for the Uníted
tates as a whoíe 34 percent of the egroes ííved ín
urban communítíes, ín ew ngíand the percentage was
90 ín the Míddíe tíantíc tates, 8 percent and ín the
ast orth Centraí tates, 87 percent. Thís terrítory,
stretchíng from the tíantíc cean to the Míssíssíppí
aííey, contaíns the buí of Uníted tates heavy índus-
try. ínce the ma oríty of orthern egroes ííve ín
these three sectíons of the Uníted tates, the orthern
mígratíon of the egroes has been aímost entíreíy a
mígratíon to orthern cítíes.
hííe the íatest census was ta en ín 1920, subse uent
estímates of egro popuíatíon ín orthern cítíes show
a contínuatíon of the mígratory movement. The Urban
eague of Chícago estímates the egro popuíatíon of
that cíty as 43,000 ín 191 o 109,000 ín 1920 and 1 5,-
000 ín 1928. or Detroít the Urban eague estímates
of egro popuíatíon are: for 1910, 5,741 for 1921,
41,533 and for 1928, 8 ,000. The egro popuíatíon
♦ 73
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of Phííadeíphía, accordíng to estímates made by the
rmstrong ssocíatíon, was 89,000 ín 1915 134,000 ín
1920 and 175,000 ín 1928. The egro popuíatíon of
os ngeíes was estímated by the Urban eague at
1,258 ín 1890 2,131 ín 1900 7,599 ín 1910 and 15,579
ín 1920. ímííar studíes ín other orthern cítíes show
correspondíng íncreases ín the egro popuíatíon.
Charíes . ohnson, esearch Dírector of the Urban
eague, estímates that between 191 and 1928, 1,200,-
000 egroes mígrated from the outh to the orth.
Perhaps 200,000 of these returned outh, íeavíng a net
totaí mígratíon for the tweíve years of about one míí-
ííon. f these estímates are correct, wíthín a decade a
tenth of the whoíe egro popuíatíon of the outh has
come orth, chíefíy to orthern cítíes. ínce corre-
spondíngíy íarge numbers of egroes have gone ínto
outhern cítíes, the dísruptíng effect upon outhern
ruraí íífe and upon the outhern ruraí íabor mar et can
be readííy ímagíned.
The totaí number of egroes íívíng ín the orth ín
1870 was 452,818. Míssourí, however, reported 118,071
of thís egro popuíatíon and Míssourí ís essentíaííy a
outhern state. n the same year, Pennsyívanía had a
egro popuíatíon of 5,294 hío, of 2,213 ew
or , 52,081 ew ersey, 30, 58 ííínoís, 28,7 2, and
ndíana, 24,5 0. There was no other orthern state
wíth a egro popuíatíon of 15,000.
y comparíson, ín 1920, there were 1,472,000 egroes
ín the orth. Pennsyívanía reported a egro popuía-
tíon of 284,578 ew or , 194,483 hío, 18 ,187
ííínoís, 182,272 ndíana, 80,810. íght orthern
states contaíned four-fífths of the totaí orthern egro
popuíatíon. íth the e ceptíon of Míchígan and ew
or these eíght states aíí bordered on the outh.
vídentíy, therefore, duríng recent years egro popu-
íatíon has been movíng out of the íac eít ínto the
♦ 74
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T G G T T
cítíes of the border states and ínto certaín other cítíes,
íí e ew or and Detroít, that offer unusuaí índus-
tríaí opportunítíes or socíaí attractíons.
The economíc posítíon of the outhern egro masses
never has been very good. n recent years ít has grown
notabíy worse. írst came the boíí weevíí, wípíng out
the cotton raísíng índustry ín many parts of the outh
and ruíníng hundreds of thousands of cotton growers.
Then fíoods. ínaííy, after the war, the dramatíc coí-
íapse ín the príces of aíí stapíe farm products.
The war íntensífíed racíaí and other díscrímínatíons
aíí over the Uníted tates. ncídentaí to the war came
the demand for íabor ín the orth, wíth the e tensíve
egro mígratíons of 191 and 1917. outhern píanters
and busíness men, seeíng theír íabor suppíy sííppíng
away and fíndíng themseíves forced by competítíon wíth
orthern íabor mar ets to pay hígher wages to outh-
ern egro íabor, resorted to terrorístíc methods ín
order to hoíd the egroes ín the outh. Thís combína-
tíon of forces mereíy served to stímuíate egro mígra-
tíon.
The uns íííed outhern egro farm hand couíd go
ínto a outhern or orthern índustríaí town and re-
ceíve wages consíderabíy hígher than those beíng paíd
on the farm. To be sure, hís íívíng costs were íncreased,
but íf he íeft hís famííy ín the outh, where íívíng costs
were cheaper, and ííved economícaííy hímseíf ín some
orthern índustríaí center, the money whích he couíd
earn wouíd go much further toward famííy support than
the íncome whích he wouíd have secured had he re-
maíned on the íand. esíey notes that maíe farm
íaborers ín 191 were gettíng from 50 to 75 cents per
day. ome Georgía farm hands were wor íng for from
10 to 12 per month. n the outhern cítíes uns íííed
egro wor ers were earníng from 1 to 1.50 per day
s íííed wor ers from 2 to 3.50 per day. . n the
♦ 75
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C M C
orth these fígures were doubíed, and ín the case of
farm hands, trebíed. ( esíey, egro abor ín the
Uníted tates, p. 293.)
orthern cítíes offered the outhern egro a chance
of rísíng economícaííy. egro centers were growíng
rapídíy ín aíí of the príncípaí orthern índustríaí areas.
egro íawyers, doctors, dentísts, reaí estate men and
ínsurance men had an e ceptíonaí chance to estabíísh
themseíves ín these rapídíy growíng orthern egro
coíoníes. uch opportunítíes íed to the mígratíon of
outhern egro busíness and professíonaí men to ta e
advantage of the new professíonaí opportunítíes ín the
orth.
Cuíturaí opportunítítes were aíso greater ín the orth.
Grade schooís were better. There were hígh schooís
and professíonaí schooís to whích egro boys and gírís
couíd go. Cuíturaí contacts were possíbíe not oníy
wíthín the egro coíoníes, but wíth certaín eíements ín
the whíte popuíatíon as weíí. The egro was more
free than he had been ín the outh.
ndustríaí socíety offers materíaí rewards far rícher
than those whích agrícuíturaí socíety can afford. mer-
ícan egroes, confíned untíí recent years to farm or
domestíc íabor, have entered the índustríaí fíeíd as
actíve competítors wíth whítes ín aíí parts of the
Uníted tates. o íonger are they content wíth por ,
corn-bread and moíasses ín a shanty on a outhern pían-
tatíon. They have heard and seen what chances there
are for materíaí and cuíturaí weíí-beíng ín the great
centers of steeí and concrete that are the core of merí-
can urban íífe. ow they propose to en oy some of the
good thíngs that modern íífe has to offer.
♦ 7
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11: D G
G
egroes who íeave cotton fíeíds and sugar píantatíons
for centers of índustry must fínd obs. n the íand of
the outh the mass of egro fíeíd wor ers comes ínto
competítíon wíth the whítes oníy íncídentaííy. n the
índustríaí centers they are stííí a tíny mínoríty that must
fíght wíth the whítes for every ínch of advance ín eco-
nomíc opportuníty.
s síaves egroes were e pected to do aíí índs of
wor . ere, too, theír competítíon wíth whítes was
sííght.
egro síaves were fre uentíy traíned as bíac smíths,
sawmííí hands, carpenters, bríc íayers, píasterers, wheeí-
wríghts, shoema ers, míííers, ba ers, tanners, shíp-
wríghts. íave owners not oníy traíned theír egro
bondsmen for these professíons, but they fre uentíy
rented them out for íong períods. efore the aboíítíon
of síavery egro artísans were repíacíng whíte artísans
throughout the outh.
hen the egroes were emancípated they were forced
to compete wíth whíte wor ers. o íong as they were
wííííng to remaín on the píantatíons and to do the
housewor , thís competítíon was not partícuíaríy sharp.
hen they entered the fíeíd of índustry wíth íts hígher
rewards and greater economíc opportunítíes, competí-
tíon wíth whíte íabor became savage.
ndustríaíízatíon foííowed the aboíítíon of síavery ín
the outh. The outhern whítes, former síave owners
and mountaíneers aíí e, were drawn ínto the índustríaí
vorte . t the same tíme that the emancípated e-
groes were see íng índustríaí opportuníty, the whítes
were enteríng the-competítíve struggíe for the controí
of the new economíc system.
♦ 77
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C M C
The whítes won easííy. Then they cíosed the door
of índustríaí opportuníty to the egro.
egroes had been buíídíng wor ers, mechanícs, ar-
tísans, craftsmen. s factory índustry repíaced hand
íabor, the strategíc and the best payíng among these
occupatíons were preempted by the whítes.
rom certaín occupatíons ín the índustríaí fíeíd, the
egroes have been aímost entíreíy e cíuded. híte
coííar obs are generaííy deníed to egroes. essíe .
Thomas wrítíng on conomíc Deadíínes ín the outh
( pportuníty, ebruary, 192 , p. 49), states: There ís
probabíy not a egro boo eeper, stenographer, honest-
to-goodness cíer ín the whoíe outh, empíoyed other
than by hís own race not a egro supervísor ín the
Post ffíce, for however íong the egro may wor ín
the Post ffíce and regardíess of how effícíent he may be,
he does not get beyond the posítíon of cíer no street
car conductors or motormen, teíephone and swítchboard
operators.
The same generaí sítuatíon prevaíís ín the order
tates and ín the orth. ho wouíd e pect to fínd
a egro cíer ín a whíte man s store or a egro boo -
eeper or stenographer ín a whíte man s offíce ís sureíy
not ac uaínted wíth the condítíons ín the orth today,
wrítes . G. Duncan. (Changíng ace eíatíonshíps,
p. 77.) egro answered an ad for a posítíon as cíer
ín the suburbs of Phííadeíphía. hat do you suppose
we d want of a egro was the uestíon wíth whích
the store- eeper met hím. ( dem.)
n a number of orthern cítíes usíness Coííeges
refuse to accept egro students. usíness chooís of
t. Pauí, Mínnesota, formeríy accepted egro students.
ecentíy the schooís have refused egro students as the
offíce managers of t. Pauí wííí not empíoy egro
boo eepers, stenographers or cíer s.
egro gírís were formeríy empíoyed ín offíces here,
♦ 78
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D G G
saíd a representatíve of the t. Pauí Urban eague.
ow they are uníversaííy refused. There are no
coíored saíes gírís ín stores. They wor there oníy as
maíds and attendants. egro gírí cannot get a saíes
ob or a cíerícaí ob here uníess she ís faír enough to pass
as whíte.
ne of the íeadíng egroes of ew aven, Con-
nectícut, saíd: e turn out egro gírís from the
schooís each year who are weíí uaíífíed to do offíce and
saíes wor . They can fínd ííttíe or nothíng to do.
There ís no room for them ín offíces.
tores never gíve them a chance behínd the counter.
They can sweep and dust and act as maíds. ut for
those obs no schooí traíníng ís necessary.
tores are partícuíaríy stríct ín theír e cíusíon of
egro saíes peopíe.
egro woman, graduate of a outhern Coííege,
appííed for a ob ín a Chícago department store. he
was very faír, and as she díd not state that she was a
egro, the empíoyment department never suspected ít.
íthín two months thís woman had the best saíes
record of any one ín the department. t the end of four
years, she stood out as one of the most effícíent saíes-
women ín the entíre store.
ne morníng she was caííed ínto the manager s offíce
at three mínutes of níne. t two mínutes after níne
she was íeavíng the store dísmíssed. The management
had díscovered that the woman was of egro e tractíon.
Manufacturíng estabííshments fre uentíy foííow a
poíícy of e cíudíng egroes from ordínary factory em-
píoyment. n Urban eague survey of ort ayne,
ndíana, made ín 1928, showed that among the 11
íargest índustríaí píants ín the cíty, 4 empíoyed no
egroes, 3 empíoyed a totaí of 7 egroes, and the
remaíníng 4 empíoyed 220 egroes. The totaí number
of whíte empíoyees ín these eíeven píants was 17,334.
♦ 79
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C M C
The píants íncíuded an eíectríc manufacturíng concern,
wíth 5,759 wor ers and 3 egroes a níttíng mííí wíth
1,504 wor ers and no egroes an agrícuíturaí ím-
píement píant wíth 1,400 wor ers and 54 egroes, a
raííroad shop wíth 2,070 wor ers and 70 egroes, a
foundry wíth 379 wor ers and 31 egroes, and a roíííng
mííí wíth 315 wor ers and 5 egroes.
everaí carefuí índustríaí surveys made by the Urban
eague show a sharp dívísíon of poíícy between em-
píoyers on the uestíon of empíoyíng egro íabor.
n many ímportant píants egro wor ers are e cíuded
mereíy because we don t híre egro heíp.
Generaííy where egroes are híred they do the dírty
wor . Charíes . ohnson reports ín hís Urban eague
ndustríaí urvey of os ngeíes, egroes are as-
socíated, tradítíonaííy, wíth . . . domestíc servíce, and,
ín some ínstances, common íabor. ctuaííy the buí of
them are engaged ín these two íínes. n Phííadeíphía,
the rmstrong ssocíatíon reports the empíoyment of
300 egroes by one of the íeadíng department stores
of the cíty. They are eíevator operators, maíds, or stoc
gírís, but they do not occupy cíerícaí or saíes posítíons.
egroes are empíoyed very ííttíe ín the príncípaí
machíne shops and ín the te tííe factoríes. n the
street-raííways a number of egroes occupy posítíons as
foremen, but ín generaí they do the common íabor
wor . They are never empíoyed as conductors or
motormen. n the príncípaí raííroad offíces responsíbíe
obs are not open to them. n one raííroad offíce where
egroes have íong been empíoyed as messengers, they
are now beíng repíaced by young whíte men.
n ínvestígator from aítímore reports that egroes
are e cíuded aímost whoííy from híghíy s íííed opera-
tíons. There are no egro regístered píumbers or
eíectrícíans ín aítímore. egro íínotypers are admítted
grudgíngíy. There are íess than a dozen egro movíe
♦ 80
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D G G
operators. n the cíothíng índustry egroes are em-
píoyed, but the strongest group of egro wor ers ín
aítímore ís among the íongshoremen. Thís egro
ongshoremen s Uníon has forty years of hístory behínd
ít. o egroes are empíoyed on the street cars of
aítímore, but they do wor for the street raííway
company on repaír gangs, as car cíeaners, and ín other
ínferíor posítíons.
n Urban eague post-war survey of uffaío gíves
a very compíete occupatíonaí cíassífícatíon of egro
men:
Totaí umber
of or ers egro
íííed 54.33 332
aborers 5 í89 798
emí- íííed 17,2 0 183
Generaí or ers 5,111 35
Personaí and Domestíc 8,174 81
Cíerícaí or ers 20, 18 43
or e uíríng amínatíons.... 4,047 8
usíness Men 14,939 2 7
Pubííc ervíce 834 7
Professíonaí ervíce 7,292 57
pprentíces 1,5 54 1
oremen and uperíntendents .... 8,017 11
Uníted tates raííroads empíoy 13 ,0 5 egroes of
whom about three-fourths are íaborers and one-seventh
porters. The remaíníng egro wor ers are wídeíy dís-
tríbuted over varíous raííway occupatíons. aíf of
these egro raííway wor ers are empíoyed ín eíght
outhern tates. ( esíey, egro abor ín the Uníted
tates, pp. 301-2.)
n ndíanapoíís empíoyer summed up the posítíon
of the egro ín these words: egroes get oníy the íeft-
over obs the hard manuaí wor . They are empíoyed
♦ 81
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C M C
to do some of the more dísagreeabíe obs ín the stoc
yards they get the heavíest tas s ín the factoríes. They
do not hoíd eíther the níce obs or the ímportant obs
anywhere. have empíoyed two Chínese and a índu.
s yet have never dared to empíoy a coíored man
about the factory.
Thís empíoyer stated that the sítuatíon of the egro
ín ndíanapoíís was much worse sínce the ar of 1914
wíth íts accompanyíng mígratíon. The rapíd íncrease ín
the number of egroes ín the cíty íed to sharp compe-
títíon between egroes and whítes and the tenser race
feeííng whích thís competítíon generated.
Untíí 1914 egroes were practícaííy e cíuded from
responsíbíe índustríaí posítíons. The war gave them theír
fírst great índustríaí opportuníty. ídespread strí es
from 191910 1922 eníarged that opportuníty by ma íng
ít possíbíe for egroes to enter índustríes from whích
they had formeríy been practícaííy e cíuded and to
secure s íííed obs whích up to that tíme had been
whoííy monopoíízed by whíte wor ers.
The war stímuíated productíon. t the same tíme
ít íímíted ímmígratíon. The oníy consíderabíe source
of mass íabor ín meríca was the egro popuíatíon.
t was thís combínatíon of círcumstances that enabíed
the egroes from 1915 to 1922 to brea ínto essentíaííy
new índustríaí fíeíds.
Up to the períod of the war trade schooís, wíth
mínor e ceptíons, had ta en few egro students. Theír
reason was the obvíous ímpossíbíííty of píacíng traíned
egro wor ers. Professíonaí educatíon for egroes
was even more íímíted. The píoneer wor of certaín
egro educatíonaí ínstítutíons was suppíyíng a consíder-
abíe number of egro artísans and egro professíonaís.
ar demand uíc íy absorbed thís suppíy and íed to
the rapíd eníargement of educatíonaí facííítíes. n the
same way war wages made ít possíbíe for egro parents
♦ 82
G
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D G G
to íncrease the number of opportunítíes that they couíd
offer theír chíídren.
The Urban eague ín íts ndustríaí urvey of Trenton
reports an ínvestígatíon made ín that cíty ín 1902 ín
whích out of 398 estabííshments, wíth a totaí of 128,412
empíoyees oníy 83 estabííshments empíoyed egroes ín
any capacíty. Thís was typícaí of the índustríaí posítíon
of egroes throughout the Uníted tates.
íthín the ne t twenty years profound changes too
píace. The Uníted tates Census of 1920 reported
egroes ín a wíde range of índustríaí actívíty: 9,04
bíac smíths 1,402 boííerma ers 10,73 bríc masons
34,91 carpenters and cabínet ma ers 19,849 cígar
and tobacco wor ers 3,59 cíay, gíass and stone
wor ers 13,888 cíothíng wor ers 2,252 coopers
27,1 0 dressma ers 1,411 eíectrícíans ,353 statíonary
engíneers and 29, 40 fíremen. The ííst e tends to most
of the príncípaí manufacturíng and mechanícaí occupa-
tíons. n 1910, 40 ,582 egroes were engaged ín
manufacturíng and mechanícaí pursuíts. Ten years
íater, the number was 5 , 80.
ccupatíonaí dístríbutíon of egroes as shown by the
Census of 1920 ís anaíyzed ín detaíí by . . euter.
( merícan ace Probíems, pp. 228 ff.) T. . oofter,
r. summarízes the resuít of the egro movement ínto
índustry ín thís way: The most radícaí change caused
by the movement sínce 191 has been the entry of some
140,000 coíored men ínto índustry. These are, to a
great e tent, concentrated ín eíeven íarge índustríaí
cítíes. The cítíes of oston, ew or , Phííadeíphía,
Píttsburgh, Cíeveíand, Cíncínnatí, Detroít, ndíanapoíís,
Chícago, t. ouís, ansas Cíty, íncíude about 40 per-
cent of aíí egroes íívíng outsíde of the outh. n
1920, 230 píants empíoyed some 115,000 of the 140,000
ín manufacturíng índustríes. ccordíng to índustry,
coíored íaborers ín the orth were dístríbuted about as
♦ 83
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C M C
foííows: íron and steeí, 40,000 automobííe, 25,000
meat pac íng, 15,000 Puííman shops and yards, 15,000
mísceííaneous, 40,000. ( oofter, egro Mígratíon,
P- 57-)
Trade uníon ruíes and e cíusíon from trade uníon
bodíes have proved to be an effectíve obstacíe to the
índustríaí advancement of egro wor ers. Charíes .
esíey ín hís egro abor ín the Uníted tates prínts
a íong chapter (Chapter , rganízed abor and the
egro ) deaííng ín great detaíí wíth the reíatíon be-
tween organízed íabor and the egro. Theoretícaííy,
the merícan ederatíon of abor has aíways stood
for the íncíusíon of the egro ín the ran s of organízed
íabor. Practícaííy, whííe a smaíí number of uníons have
e cíuded egroes from membershíp by constítutíonaí
provísíon and by-íaws, the great ma oríty have símpíy
refused to accept them when they appííed for member-
shíp.
The merícan egroes are índustríaííy uns íííed
mass wor ers, confíned to those obs whích pay the
íowest wages and demand the heavíest wor . íthín
the índustríes whích do empíoy egro íabor, the ííne
of separatíon between whíte man and bíac man ís
usuaííy the ííne whích separates híghíy paíd, cíean,
comfortabíe obs from íow-paíd, dírty, heavy wor .
Untíí the oríd ar the egro freeman remaíned
a fíeíd hand or a domestíc wor er. íthín the íast few
years, however, he has íaunched a mass movement whích
aíms to províde for the egro wor er an índustríaí op-
portuníty e uaí to that of a whíte wor er. Thus far
ín hís ob-see íng e períments the egro has found the
whíte man determíned to eep bíac men ín theír
píaces as hewers of wood and drawers of water.
G
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G T
♦ 85
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C M C
3. íarge amount of constructíon wor ín ashíngton
ís performed by egroes.
4. egro gang at wor , Chestnut treet, Phííadeíphía.
♦ 8
G
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G T
y. egroes íay a cement sídewaí ín ashíngton.
. íííed egro cement wor ers, ashíngton.
♦ 87
G
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C M C
7. egro wor ers ín ashíngton, D. C, reíayíng the
street raííway.
8. egroes íayíng raíís, ashíngton, D. C.
G
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c

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o
m
a
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n
,

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o
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d


/


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t
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p
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/
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w
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.
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s
s
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u
s
e
#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
G T
9. treet pavíng wor , ashíngton, D. C.
10. egroes síftíng sand for cement wor , ashíngton.
D.C.
♦ 89
G
e
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r
a
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e
d

f
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(
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4

2
3
:
3
1

G
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/


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#
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í
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C M C
♦ 90
G
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r
a
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e
d

f
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m
e
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(
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4

2
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:
3
1

G
M
T


/


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w
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#
p
d
-
g
o
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g
í
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G T
G
e
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a
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d

f
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(
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2
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3
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0
7
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4

2
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:
3
1

G
M
T


/


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8
5
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,

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o
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/


h
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:
/
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w
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.
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s
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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
C M C
í . egro wor ers on Phííadeíphía subway, pouríng
cement.
1 . egro wor er handííng roc from ew or sub-
way e cavatíon.
♦ 92
G
e
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e
d

f
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m
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(
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2
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4

2
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3
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/


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#
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g
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í
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G T
♦ 93
G
e
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r
a
t
e
d

f
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m
e
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(
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4

2
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:
3
1

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/


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:
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#
p
d
-
g
o
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í
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C M C
19. egro gang at wor , íchmond, a.
20. egro shoveíers on the ore dumps of the ethíehem
teeí Co., parrows Poínt, Md.
♦ 94
G
e
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d

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/


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#
p
d
-
g
o
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g
í
e
G T
21. Crew of egro trac wor ers, orfoí , a.
22. egro íaborers cíearíng up debrís, buíídíng con-
structíon, ron, hío.
♦ 95
G
e
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r
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e
d

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/


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#
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C M C
♦ 9
G
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/


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#
p
d
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g
o
o
g
í
e
♦ 97
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a
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d

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/


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#
p
d
-
g
o
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g
í
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C M C
28. egroes at wor on a house-wrec íng operatíon,
ashíngton.
♦ 98
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
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2
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1
3
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7
-
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4

2
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:
3
1

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/


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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
G T
29. egro wor ers on íeather gíazíng machíne, Chícago.
30. egro women wor ers computíng foot measurement
of íeather, Chícago.
♦ 99
G
e
n
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r
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e
d

f
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/


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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
C M C
egroes cuttíng and bíendíng coíors ín beaver board
factory, Chícago.
egroes wor íng on beít nífe spííttíng machíne,
Chícago.
♦ 100
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
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r

m
e
m
b
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(
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2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

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M
T


/


h
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:
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.
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/


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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
12: C M C
D C M T
egroes who mígrated from outhern farms have been
abíe to penetrate oníy certaín índustríaí fíeíds. rom
the others they are e cíuded by the whítes. here they
do penetrate they are díscrímínated agaínst after they
get theír obs.
The símpíest economíc díscrímínatíon ís ín the rate
of pay.
mong whíte men, partícuíaríy where they are organ-
ízed ín trade uníons, e uaí pay for e uaí wor ís
accepted as an a íom. Thís ís not so where egroes
and whítes wor together: on the contrary, there ís per-
sístent wage díscrímínatíon, though ít ís díffícuít to say
how much.
here egroes and whítes wor together at hour rates
they ordínarííy receíve the same wages, but ín the dís-
tríbutíon of wor , foremen fre uentíy gíve preference
to the whíte wor ers.
or whích ís dístríbuted ín the shop usuaííy varíes
ín character. Thís ís partícuíaríy true of píece wor .
n such obs the egroes are fre uentíy gíven the píece
wor on whích the íowest wages can be made, whííe the
whítes get the better payíng obs. hen there ís a
change ín the character of operatíons new wor goes
to the egroes whííe the whítes retaín the oíd obs wíth
whích they are famíííar and at whích they can ma e
hígher rates than they wouíd on the new operatíons.
n the needíe trades the whítes are gíven the fíner
wor . egro women ma e wor shírts, overaíís, button
hoíes, and do other heavy and coarse .wor . The fíne
wor , of course, pays better than the rough wor .
re uentíy, aíso, píece rates are so ad usted between
the wor that the whítes are doíng and the wor that the
♦ 101
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
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r

m
e
m
b
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r

(
C
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a

U
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í
v
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s
í
t
y
)

o
n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


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t
p
:
/
/
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d
í
.
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a
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/
2
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/
m
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0
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2
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8
5
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3
8
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b
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m
a
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,

G
o
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-
d
í
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í
t
í
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e
d


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egroes are doíng that the whítes are abíe to ma e
better wages. . D. eatherford ( egro from fríca
to meríca, p. 249) reports certaín ínstances ín whích
egroes were díscrímínated agaínst ín favor of whítes,
fírst, by assígníng to whíte wor ers the better payíng
types of píece wor , and second by assígníng them more
permanent obs.
The most concíusíve síngíe ínstance of the íne uaííty
of pay between whíte and egro wor ers comes from
the teachíng professíon. egro schooí teachers ín the
outh, doíng a gíven índ of wor , are aímost uníformíy
paíd íower wages than whíte teachers who do símííar
wor .
Teachers ín Maryíand eíementary schooís, hoídíng
thírd grade certífícates, wíth 4 to 5 years e períence,
are paíd 50 per year íf whíte, and 3 0 per year íf
coíored. oíders of fírst grade certífícates, wíth 9 or
more years e períence receíve, as ma ímum saíary: íf
whíte, 1,150 íf coíored, 80. Dífferences ín the
saíaríes of hígh schooí teachers are e uaííy great.
( eport of the Maryíand nter- acíaí Commíssíon,
1927, pp. 7-8.)
The foííowíng ínstances of saíary díscrímínatíon are
cíted by T. . oofter, r. ( egro Probíems ín Cítíes,
pp. 205- ): The scheduíe of saíaríes ín e íngton, en-
tuc y, provídes for a mínímum of 1,000 for whíte
eíementary teachers and a ma ímum of 900 for coíored
eíementary teachers. The mínímum for whíte hígh
schooí teachers ín e íngton ís 1,400, whííe the ma í-
mum for coíored hígh schooí teachers ís 1,200. híte
teachers receíve 35 addítíonaí pay for summer schooí
wor , and egro teachers, 20. The annuaí íncrease
to whíte teachers ís 50 to egro teachers, 25. n
Memphís, Tennessee, the mínímum saíary for whíte eíe-
mentary teachers ís 1,000 the ma ímum ís 1, 00.
The mínímum for coíored eíementary teachers hoídíng
♦ 102
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certífícates ís 720, and the ma ímum ís 1,020.
ímííar díscrímínatíon appears ín the hígh schooí saíaríes.
The mínímum saíary for whíte eíementary teachers ín
ew ríeans ís 1,200 for coíored eíementary teachers,
1,000. There are símííar díscrímínatíons ín the ew
ríeans hígh schooís. The mínímum saíary for any
whíte teacher ín the pubííc schooís ín orfoí , írgínía,
ís 1,000. 1,000 ís the ma ímum saíary for any egro
eíementary teacher ín the same cíty. ( pportuníty,
ebruary, 192 , p. 49.) ímííar díscrímínatíons be-
tween teachers saíaríes appear throughout the outh.
Teachers saíaríes are usuaííy fí ed by íaw. n many
southern cítíes and states the íaws díscrímínate arbítrarííy
agaínst egroes. hatever may be the egro s traín-
íng, effícíency or ac uíred abíííty, no matter how íong
he remaíns ín the system, hís economíc status ends where
that of the whíte teacher s begíns. ( . . Thomas,
conomíc Deadíínes ín the outh, pportuníty,
ebruary, 192 , p. 49.)
egro teachers may have done as much or more pre-
paratory wor . They may hoíd certífícates and dípíomas
from ídentícaí ínstítutíons. They must pass certaín
uaíífyíng tests. They may have a record as good as
that of whíte teachers. ven where they have a better
record, they receíve íess wages for theír teachíng.
egroes who enter the índustríes or the professíons ín
competítíon wíth whítes fre uentíy receíve íess pay
for e uaí wor . egro must have hígher recom-
mendatíons and greater abííítíes than a whíte man re-
uíres to obtaín and hoíd the same ob. s one egro
wor er put ít, e must have uaíífícatíons píus, and ít
ís up to some whíte man to determíne what that píus
means.
here egroes and whíte wor ers begín at the same
wage íeveí, ín símííar occupatíons, they soon fínd them-
seíves far apart. The pay of the whíte wor ers advances,
♦ 103
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whííe the pay of the egroes stands stííí. The whíte
wor ers are promoted. The egro wor ers stay at the
bottom of the íadder.
n the other hand, egroes get wage cuts before the
whítes. Most of the egroes are unorganízed. Many
of them are uns íííed. They have ííttíe power of mass
protest. Theír píaces can be easííy fíííed by wor ers,
egro and whíte, who are an íous to ta e the obs.
Conse uentíy the whíte empíoyers, faced wíth the
necessíty of reducíng overhead and cuttíng down e -
penses, begín wíth the egro. Duríng the íate wínter
and spríng of 1928, when wage cuts were beíng gener-
aííy put ínto effect throughout the Uníted tates, the
egroes ín orthern cítíes were aímost ínvaríabíy the
fírst sufferers.
They have started theír wage-cuts wíth us, one
egro wor er ín Píttsburgh saíd. ur wages have been
cut thírty percent ín the íast four months. The egro
wor er has no ríghts the whíte boss ís bound to respect.
ome egro wor ers are paíd the same wages as whíte
wor ers who do the same obs. ther egro wor ers
receíve íess pay for the same wor . The wages of whíte
wor ers are advanced more rapídíy than those of
egroes, and the wages of egroes are cut before the
wages of whítes. hen ít comes to promotíon, however,
there ís no comparíson between the opportuníty before
the two races.
ccasíonaííy egroes are promoted to the posítíon of
foremen over other egroes: areíy do they act as
foremen over whíte wor ers. n aímost aíí cases
where egroes wor , they wor under whíte foremen.
ere, however, the promotíon opportuníty of the egro
ends. Managers, superíntendents, dírectors and e ecu-
tíves of corporatíons controííed by whíte stoc hoíders
are aímost ínvaríabíy whíte. There may be unnoted
e ceptíons, but they are so rare as to be for aíí practícaí
♦ 104
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purposes non-e ístent. The admínístratíon and e ecu-
tíve dírectíon of merícan índustríaí actívíty ís ín whíte
hands. egro enterpríses empíoy egro e ecutíves.
ut egro enterpríses cover íess than 1 percent of the
fíeíd of merícan índustríaí enterpríse. Management ín
merícan índustry ís a whíte man s functíon ín whích
egroes have no opportuníty to partícípate.
egroes fínd empíoyment at uns íííed and semí-
s íííed occupatíons. íthín the íast ten years they have
been abíe to penetrate the fíeíd of s íííed occupatíons to
a íímíted e tent. ccasíonaííy they succeed ín gettíng
whíte-coííar obs. n rare ínstances they occupy posts
as straw bosses and foremen. Manageríaí posítíons ín
merícan índustríaí underta íngs are cíosed to members
of the bíac race.
Promotíon, beyond the íowest rungs of the índustríaí
íadder, ís aímost out of the uestíon as far as egroes
are concerned. Thís hoíds true wíthout any reference
to the abíííty or traíníng of the índívíduaí egro.
egro íabor ís repíaced by whíte íabor at the moment
hard tímes begín. s a egro empíoyment manager
stated the case, ur peopíe are the íast to be híred and
the fírst to be fíred. n support of hís contentíon he
cíted severaí ínstances ín whích egro wor ers had been
ta en on duríng boom tímes and dísmíssed as soon as
the boom had subsíded.
n some cases egroes who had wor ed for years wíth
a perfectíy cíean record were dísmíssed before whíte
wor ers who had been empíoyed a comparatíveíy short
tíme.
re uentíy ít ís díffícuít to prove that the egro has
been dísmíssed because he was a egro. The empíoyer
gíves no reason e cept that he no íonger needs hís man.
n the spríng of 1928 sí coíored eíevator operators
were wor íng ín a Chícago offíce buíídíng. ne ríday
níght at o cíoc they were handed theír pay and toíd
♦ 105
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that they need not come bac . ne of these men had
been empíoyed at the same ob for 2 years a second
had wor ed for 1 years, a thírd had wor ed for 22
years. íí sí were gíven the fínest recommendatíons,
but the ne t day when the buíídíng opened, whíte
operators were on the eíevators.
The same thíng hoíds true for the buíídíng trades.
here egroes are aííowed to wor , empíoyers usuaííy
ta e care of the whíte wor ers fírst. Many peopíe feeí
that the egro has no ríght to a ob whííe a whíte man
ís waí íng the street unempíoyed, saíd one egro who
had been faced wíth the íoss of hís ob and the ímpos-
síbíííty of fíndíng another ín the same trade duríng a
temporary índustríaí depressíon. t thís díffícuít tíme
when the number of unempíoyed e ceeded fíve mííííons,
egroes were not oníy dísmíssed at the same tíme as
whítes, but egroes were dísmíssed and ímmedíateíy
repíaced by whítes.
conomíc ínferíoríty ís constantíy emphasízed ín the
e períence of the merícan egro wor er. Usuaííy
he cannot get the same ob as the whíte man. hen he
gets the ob, ín many ínstances he does not receíve the
same pay. ven íf he ís paíd at the same rate he has
íess of a chance of promotíon and a greater chance for
dísmíssaí than the whíte man or woman on the same
ob.
egro wage wor ers have íearned these facts through
bítter e períence. They carry the normaí burden of
wor ers under capítaíísm. n addítíon they must
shouíder the specíaí burden of economíc díscrímínatíon
whích the e píoítíng whítes of the Uníted tates have
íaíd upon the shouíders of egro wor ers ín índustry.
♦ 10
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DU T C T
egroes mígrate to índustríaí cítíes, struggíe agaínst
great obstacíes to secure obs and fínd themseíves dís-
crímínated agaínst on the ob. They face another prob-
íem e uaííy díffícuít the probíem of a íívíng píace.
here can egroes ííve ín índustríaí cítíes
outhern píantatíon egroes and farmers had theír
own cabíns, theír own dístrícts, ín some cases even theír
own towns. They were íargeíy seíf-suffícíent economí-
caííy.
hen they enter an índustríaí cíty the egroes fínd
themseíves ín a new and hostííe envíronment. Many
of the orthern índustríaí cítíes, before 1910, had prac-
tícaííy no egro popuíatíon. here there was a egro
popuíatíon, as ín Phííadeíphía or Chícago, ít was con-
fíned to weíí recognízed íívíng uarters.
The mígratíon created a new sítuatíon. ndustríaí
centers that had few egroes were caííed upon to ac-
commodate thousands. Tens of thousands of egroes
fíoc ed ínto Chícago, Detroít, Píttsburgh, ew or ,
Phííadeíphía. These egroes had two chíef ob ectíves:
a ob and a íívíng píace. They got the ob ín competí-
tíon wíth whíte wor ers. They found the íívíng píace
by drívíng whítes out of theír homes.
Most merícan whítes refuse to ííve ín the same
neíghborhood wíth egroes. Many whítes, when e-
groes attempt to enter a new neíghborhood, eíther start
íegaí actíon, resort to mob víoíence, or move away.
Thus the egroes who entered índustríaí centers found
themseíves face to face wíth a racíaí hostíííty whích met
them not oníy on the economíc fíeíd but wíth e uaí ín-
tensíty on the socíaí fíeíd.
The egro mígratíon was unusuaííy rapíd. t came
♦ 107
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at a tíme when buíídíng costs were rísíng and when
buíídíng actívítíes were síowíng down. n army of
egroes demanded cíty íívíng accommodatíons at the
same tíme that an army of whítes was movíng from
the country to the cíty.
hítes ín many of the príncípaí índustríaí centers
were ín a paníc. They wanted to eep theír homes.
They refused to ííve ín the same neíghborhood wíth
egroes. The egroes, pressed by the growíng demand
for housíng accomodatíons, forced theír way farther
and farther ínto whíte neíghborhoods.
ívíng opportunítíes for egroes díffer ín dífferent
índustríaí cítíes. n Phííadeíphía, for e ampíe, whích
has an unusuaííy íarge egro popuíatíon, egroes have
acted as servants for many generatíons. s the cíty
grew, the houses of the masters were buíít on the maín
street and on the bac streets and aííeys were the houses
of the servants. rígínaííy, therefore, egro uarters
were buíít wherever the houses of weíí-to-do whítes
were constructed.
uch a system of housíng egroes corresponded, how-
ever, to the pre-índustríaí períod. t couíd accommodate
oníy the egro house servant. The egro íaborer and
the egro machíne hand must fínd some other soíutíon
for the housíng probíem. s the mígratíon of 1915-
191 íncreased, the probíem of egro housíng ín ín-
dustríaí centers became constantíy more acute.
here do egroes ííve ín ew aven as ed
one of the íeadíng representatíves of the race ín that
cíty.
e go where we can get a rent, answered my ín-
formant. t ís not every píace that they wííí ta e us.
The ews and taííans wííí generaííy rent to us. thers
wííí not.
ut do none of the egroes here own theír houses
ndeed, we do. t ís the oníy way that we have to
♦ 108
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G C T DU T C T
be sure of a píace to ííve, but when we go to buy and
the reaí estate man fínds out that we are egroes the
príce ís aíways 2,000 or 3,000 hígher so that we must
struggíe hard to meet ít.
hen coíored peopíe move ínto a bíoc , the whítes
move out, saíd a egro reaí estate man ín ashíngton,
D. C. am íívíng on a very níce resídence street.
hen moved ín there were two or three coíored famíííes
on our síde of the street, and none on the other síde.
ow there ís not a whíte famííy ín the bíoc . s soon
as one coíored famííy moves ínto a neíghborhood the
houses on both sídes are vacated by the whítes and re-
maín vacant untíí some coíored famíííes buy them or
rent them.
The atíonaí ssocíatíon for the dvancement of
Coíored Peopíe reported: The greatest íssue faced by
the ssocíatíon duríng 191 5 was that of resídentíaí
segregatíon. Thís díscrímínatory practíce arose ín three
forms: attempts at resídentíaí segregatíon through prop-
erty-hoíders covenants efforts toward that end through
mob víoíence íegísíatíon desígned to force egroes to
ííve ín restrícted areas. (Crísís, March, 192 , p. 229.)
Property-hoíders convenants were contracts entered
ínto by the resídents of a certaín bíoc or dístríct, under
whích they agreed not to seíí or rent to egroes for a
specífíed number of years. They were used, but wíth
ííttíe effect, ín ashíngton and other cítíes.
egregatíon ordínances, adopted, ordínarííy, by cíty
councíís, prohíbíted egroes from íívíng ín whíte neígh-
borhoods and prohíbíted whítes from íívíng ín egro
neíghborhoods. The fírst segregatíon ordínance was
passed by aítímore ín 1910. Then a wave of resídentíaí
segregatíon íaws swept the country. Cíty after cíty ín
the outhern and border states passed ordínances, the
purpose and effect of whích were to eep coíored peopíe
from ínvadíng the areas whích had hítherto been re-
♦ 109
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C M C
strícted to whíte resídents. . . . More than a dozen
cítíes, among them aítímore, Maryíand Daíías, Te as
shevíííe, orth Caroíína íchmond, írgínía t.
ouís, Míssourí and ouísvíííe, entuc y wíthín a
year passed such ordínances. ( rthur . píngarn,
ín an íntroductíon to a pamphíet íssued ín 192 by the
atíonaí ssocíatíon for the dvancement of Coíored
Peopíe, and deaííng wíth the ouísvíííe egregatíon
Case.)
There were four types of segregatíon íaws: (1) The
ordínances passed by aítímore appíy oníy to aíí-whíte
and aíí- egro bíoc s, ma íng ít agaínst the íaw for a
egro to move ínto a whíte bíoc and více versa. (2)
The type passed by írgínía enabíes the cítíes to dívíde
ínto segregated dístrícts. Thís ma es ít uníawfuí for a
egro to move ínto a whíte dístríct. (3) The type
passed by íchmond, before the tatewíde segregatíon
act, íegísíates for the whoíe cíty, decíaríng that a bíoc
ís whíte whenever a ma oríty of the resídents are
whíte and coíored when a ma oríty of the resídents
are egroes. ccordíng to thís íaw a egro can move
ínto a mí ed bíoc when a ma oríty of those resídíng ín
that bíoc are egroes. (4) orfoí goes a step
farther and determínes the coíor of the bíoc not oníy
by the occupancy of the property, but aíso accordíng
to the ownershíp of the property wíthín the bíoc . n
aíí of the ordínances, an e ceptíon ís made ín regard
to domestíc servants resídíng wíth theír empíoyers.
(Duncan, Changíng ace eíatíonshíps, p. 27.)
tate courts generaííy upheíd the constítutíonaííty of
these ordínances. The ousívíííe ordínance was ta en to
the upreme Court of the Uníted tates and was de-
cíared unconstítutíonaí ín a sweepíng and unanímous
decísíon.
The títíe to the ouísvíííe ordínance read: n or-
dínance to prevent confííct and ííí-feeííng between the
♦ 110
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G C T DU T C T
whíte and coíored races ín the Cíty of ouísvíííe and
to preserve the pubííc peace and promote the generaí
weífare by ma íng reasonabíe provísíons re uíríng, as
far as practícabíe, the use of separate bíoc s for resí-
dences, píaces of abode, and píaces of assembíy by whíte
and coíored peopíe respectíveíy.
The weet Case, ín Detroít, arose out of the actíons
of a whíte mob that was see íng to prevent a egro
from occupyíng a house that he had purchased ín a
whíte neíghborhood. Dr. ssían . weet, a young
egro physícían, bought a home on Garíand venue,
Detroít, ín May, 1925. ecause of threats of víoíence,
Dr. weet díd not move ínto the house untíí eptember
8. That eveníng a mob gathered, but made no dem-
onstratíon. The ne t eveníng, however, a íarger mob
coííected and stoned the house. hots were fíred one
member of the mob was íííed and one was wounded.
The poííce then arrested eíeven occupants of the
house and they were heíd for fírst degree murder. The
case was tríed ín ovember. The ury dísagreed.
(Crísís, anuary, 192 , pp. 125 ff. eport of the tríaí
by aíter híte.)
hííe ews and taííans are generaííy more toíerant
of egro neíghbors than other whíte persons, and whííe
ewísh merchants fre uentíy carry on retaíí busínesses
ín egro uarters, as a generaí ruíe, when egroes have
moved ínto a bíoc of houses whíte peopíe stop íívíng
there. ne egro reaí estate man saíd: cept for
busíness purposes whíte peopíe never move ínto egro
dístrícts. The ewísh merchants who come stay oníy
untíí they get rích.
esídentíaííy there are three cíasses of egroes:
roomers, renters and buyers.
The egro roomer ís eíther the fíoater who wanders
from town to town and from ob to ob or eíse the
newíy arríved mígrant from the outh who has íeft hís
♦ 111
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famííy and come orth íoo íng for wor and perhaps
uítímateíy for a píace to settíe.
hortage of houses ín whích egroes may ííve ag-
gravates the probíem of íodgers. egro íodgers or
roomers cannot íocate ín whíte famíííes. They must
fínd píaces wíth peopíe of theír own coíor. They can-
not go to the same hoteís wíth whítes. They must fínd
a hoteí that ís run for the accommodatíon of egroes.
n cítíes where the number of egro homes ís very
íímíted, the pressure on boardíng and íodgíng accomoda-
tíons ís necessarííy very great.
report on egro ousíng ín Phííadeíphía (Phíía-
deíphía ousíng ssocíatíon, 1927, p. 17), caíís atten-
tíon to the fact that crowdíng ís much greater among
egroes who rent than among egro home owners.
n the rented dweíííngs the popuíatíon ís more than
one per room. Much of thís room crowdíng ís due to
prevíous habíts of the mígrants and much ís due to hígh
rents, whííe some of ít ís due to the necessíty of the
famííy to fít ínto any índ of dweíííng that can be
found.
ousíng shortage and hígh rents are both responsíbíe
for the prevaíence of roomers among the egro cíty
dweííers. ínce ít ís díffícuít to fínd rooms and sínce
rooms are very e pensíve, egro famíííes ma e what
píans they can to rent or buy. rdínarííy they íncíude
ín theír budget an ítem of íncome from íodgers ín order
to assíst them ín buyíng or rentíng or ín ma íng pay-
ments on theír houses. The Phííadeíphía ousíng e-
port notes that oníy reíatíveíy weíí-to-do famíííes are
wíthout íodgers.
here íarge numbers of egroes are empíoyed at
constructíon wor or ín other íess permanent occupa-
tíons they are usuaííy housed ín the most casuaí fashíon.
Thus the etheíehem teeí Corporatíon at parrow s
Poínt, Maryíand, has two e tensíve stoc ades wíred
♦ 112
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G C T DU T C T
off from the rest of the town ín whích síngíe egro men
can fínd íodgíngs. íthín the stoc ade are rows of
smaíí wooden shac s, heated by stoves, contaíníng four
beds per shac . egro wor ers who come there from
the outh are assígned to these stoc ades. They síeep
ín the shac s, eat ín a common díníng-room and have
theír washíng done ín a common íaundry. The com-
pany suppííes a number of egro anítors whose duty
ít ís to cíean the shac s, the eatíng room, the wash rooms
and grounds.
The whoíe appearance of these stoc ades ís unbe-
ííevabíy desoíate. They contaín no opportunítíes for
socíaí íífe. The íodgers who occupy the beds síeep, eat
and attend to theír personaí needs. uch íívíng uarters
represent the íowest íeveí of íodgíngs for the mígratory
wor er.
The rentíng negro meets many obstacíes. írst, he ís
íímíted ín the neíghborhoods to whích he can go. n
generaí ít ís oníy the oíder houses whích are rented.
ew houses are prímarííy buíít for saíe. Thís ís par-
tícuíaríy true ín the case of the egro. ven reaí
estate operators who buííd to rent wííí not rent to
egroes íf they can rent to whítes, sínce one egro
famííy ín a neíghborhood practícaííy means the eíímína-
tíon of the whítes from that terrítory. egro renters
must therefore content themseíves wíth the oídest and
íeast desírabíe cíty propertíes. n those run-down
neíghborhoods whích are graduaííy beíng transformed
from whíte íívíng uarters to egro íívíng uarters the
comíng of the egroes means an ímmedíate íncrease
ín rentaís. Thís may seem strange, but ít ís a phenom-
enon whích ís commoníy reported from aíí of the cítíes
where there has been a íarge egro mígratíon.
s íívíng uarters become íess and íess desírabíe,
whítes are wííííng to pay íess and íess rent, íandíords
ma e íess and íess repaírs and property deteríoríates.
♦ 113
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egroes enter the neíghborhood. hítes íeave. uííd-
íngs stand temporarííy empty, but as the egro tenant
comes ín wíth hís unusuaííy íarge number of dweííers
per room, the reaí estate man raíses rents to correspond
wíth the payíng capacíty of theír new tenants.
egroes are undesírabíe tenants, therefore they must
pay. egroes have many boarders and íodgers per
famííy, therefore they can afford to pay. The report
on egro ousíng ín Phííadeíphía shows a wee íy rent
per dweíííng ín the egro neíghborhoods of 7.95.
Certaíníy consíderíng the scanty e uípment and the
poor repaír of the average egro dweíííng, 7.95 ís
comparatíveíy hígh. (P. 22.)
Thís report comes from a dístríct ín est Phíía-
deíphía whích has ust been converted ínto a egro
dístríct.
representatíve of the Urban eague ín uffaío,
ew or , saíd, egroes pay 33 1/3 to 5o percent
more rent than whítes pay for the same accommoda-
tíons. There ís íess segregatíon of egroes ín uffaío
than ín any other orthern índustríaí cíty.
eíía oughteííng ncome and tandards of ívíng
of Uns íííed aborers ín Chícago, p. 112) notes that
more than 80 percent of the coíored famíííes spend 20
percent or more of the earníngs of the chíef wage earner
for rent, whííe among whíte famíííes oníy 30 percent
paíd that íarge proportíon. The tabíe on page 113 of
the oughteííng study shows that 5 percent of the
whíte famíííes and 44 percent of the egro famíííes
spend more than 30 percent of the earníngs of the chíef
wage earner for rent.
egroes buy homes where that ís at aíí possíbíe. The
egro house owner ís no íonger at the mercy of reaí
estate operators. e has a home whích he can pay for
on the ínstaííment pían, wíth the aíd of hís wífe s earn-
íngs and the íncome from boarders and íodgers.
♦ 114
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G C T DU T C T
egro home buyers have transformed the posítíon of
the Phííadeíphía egro. hííe the egro contínued
to rent he was compeííed to ííve where the reaí estate
men wouíd permít hím. ínce he has become a buyer he
ís to a greater degree hís own master. egro neíghbor-
hoods have sprung up ín the orth Phííadeíphía and
est Phííadeíphía ín a terrítory that was formeríy under
the e cíusíve controí of the whítes.
The census of 1920 gave the foííowíng facts about
Phííadeíphía egroes:
umber of famíííes 3 995
ívíng ín ented ouses 2 ,984
ívíng ín wned omes 3 778
omes ree of Debt 724
omes Mortgaged 2,479
The progress of egro home ownershíp ín Phííadeí-
phía has been greatíy facííítated by the deveíopment of
egro buíídíng and íoan assocíatíons. n 1910 Penn-
syívanía had 8 coíored buíídíng and íoan assocíatíons,
wíth a totaí capítaí of 150,000. n 1924 there were
ín Phííadeíphía 34 assocíatíons wíth a totaí capítaí of
more than 5,000,000. ne of these ís 25 years oíd
and has fínanced the purchase of homes for egroes to
an amount ín e cess of 1,000,000. ( egro ousíng
ín Phííadeíphía, p. 28.)
egroes buyíng homes must ordínarííy pay hígher
príces than whítes for the same accommodatíons. re-
uentíy they assume thírd mortages, borrowíng money
at ruínous rates. tííí, ín the índustríaí centers ín the
past 15 years they have been abíe to e tend theír home
ownershíp rapídíy and wídeíy. t ís the home-owníng
egro who succeeds most effectíveíy ín brea íng
through the egro paíe.
egroes ín índustríaí centers usuaííy ííve ín egro
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C M C
settíements or egro paíes. Untíí the war when mígra-
tíon was reíatíveíy smaíí, these egro paíes were defíníte
ín e tent. íth the rapíd growth of the egro popuía-
tíon and the íncrease ín egro home ownershíp, these
egro paíes e tended ín area and muítípííed ín number.
T. . oofter, r. ( egro Probíems ín Cítíes, p. 40 ff)
prínts a seríes of maps showíng the egro settíements ín
the most ímportant cítíes of the Uníted tates. n aí-
most every case they represent a hígh percentage of
concentratíon.
The Chícago Commíssíon on ace eíatíons made a
study of housíng ín one of the príncípaí Chícago ín-
dustríes empíoyíng egroes. The whíte wor ers ín the
índustry were scattered throughout Chícago and íts
suburbs. The egro wor ers were íargeíy concentrated
ín one smaíí area on Chícago s south síde the chíef
egro area of Chícago. (The egro n Chícago, p.
107.)
oofter notes that the egro paíes or settíements ín
varíous índustríaí centers díffer wíth the síze of the
center and the character of the cíty. n ew or
and Chícago, for e ampíe, the concentratíon of egroes
ís very great but ín a reíatíveíy smaíí portíon of the
cíty area. n ew or 9 percent of the whíte
peopíe are concentrated ín whíte areas and 28 percent
of the coíored peopíe are ín concentrated coíored areas.
( egro Probíems ín Cítíes, p. 38.)
second group of cítíes, whích íncíudes most of
the íarger southern cítíes, has egroes concentrated ín
severaí rather íarge parts of the cíty and ííghtíy scat-
tered ín others, thus íeavíng a íarge proportíon of the
whíte peopíe ín areas from 10 to 90 percent egro. n
íchmond, 53 percent of the whíte peopíe are ín con-
centrated whíte areas and 25 percent of the egroes ín
concentrated egro areas. ( dem.)
The oíder outhern states show another sítuatíon.
♦ 11
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G C T DU T C T
The proportíon of egroes ín the totaí popuíatíon ís
hígh. The egroes ííve generaííy throughout the cíty.
n Charíeston, there are no enumeratíon dístrícts that
have a popuíatíon of íess than 10 percent coíored and
none that have a popuíatíon of íess than 10 percent
whíte, píacíng aíí members of both races ín dístrícts from
10 to 90 percent coíored. ( dem.)
oofter íncíudes a fourth group of cítíes wíth smaíí
egro popuíatíons ín whích the egroes are wídeíy
scattered. These ínstances, however, are reíatíveíy un-
ímportant ín the totaí probíem.
ummíng up the generaí sítuatíon of the egro
segregatíon ín índustríaí centers, oofter wrítes, hííe
segregatíon ís practícaííy never compíete, aíí cítíes have
some areas where the íarge ma oríty of the popuíatíon
ís egro. t ís ín these areas that the masses of the
egroes ííve. ( bíd., p. 39.) t ís aíso worthy of note
that ín those northern cítíes to whích egroes have re-
centíy mígrated ín íarge numbers and ín whích there-
fore the race probíem ís most acute, e cíusíve egro
areas are very íarge and segregatíon ís very compíete.
Popuíatíon densíty ín egro areas of índustríaí centers
ís very much greater than popuíatíon densíty of whíte
areas ín the same cítíes. n some ínstances the densíty
ís four tímes as great ín the egro sectíons as ín the
whíte sectíons. n ew or , where the egro densíty
ís greatest, ít ís 33 per acre. ( bíd., p. 78.)
Thus the egroes ín índustríaí cítíes ííve ín concen-
trated popuíatíon areas of reíatíveíy great densíty, pay-
íng hígh rents, purchasíng houses at hígh príces and
struggííng constantíy to e tend the area ín whích they
may ííve ín order to accomodate the ínfíu of mígratíng
egroes. oofter notes that these egro coíoníes ín
índustríaí cítíes have certaín traíts ín common: They
are íarge, the íargest egro neíghborhood usuaííy beíng
centraííy íocated. The outh síde, ín Chícago, probabíy
♦ 117
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C M C
the íargest egro communíty ín the woríd, numbers
12 ,000 peopíe. aríem, ín ew or , though not a
typícaí centraí sectíon, numbers 124,000 the outh
síde ín Phííadeíphía, 51,000 Centraí Memphís, 22,000
and Centraí tíanta, 18,000. These are such great
aggregatíons of popuíatíon that each has a communíty
íífe aíí íts own. They contaín the íarge churches,
schooís, theatres, centers of commercíaí recreatíon and
busíness houses. The maín arteríes, eno venue ín
aríem, tate treet ín Chícago, outh treet ín Phíía-
deíphía, eaíe treet ín Memphís, econd treet ín ích-
mond and uburn venue ín tíanta are busíness
streets of bustíe and actívíty, and are the maín
thoroughfares for thousands of peopíe. The centraí
posítíon of these sectíons aíso sub ects them aíí to ín-
vasíon by busíness and manufacturíng estabííshments
and to the subse uent deprecíatíon of property for resí-
dence purposes. ( oofter, egro Probíems ín Cítíes,
p. 100.)
egroes ín merícan índustríaí cítíes are not íegaííy
segregated. The upreme Court decísíon ín the ouís-
víííe case forbade that. ut they ííve by themseíves.
ach ímportant índustríaí center has íts egro uarter,
separated from the surroundíng whíte íívíng uarters.
hítes do not move ínto egro íívíng uarters uníess
they wísh to carry on busíness there. egroes who at-
tempt to enter whíte uarters fínd themseíves face to
face wíth seríous economíc and socíaí obstacíes.
here can the egro who ís see íng for índustríaí
empíoyment fínd a home f he ís a boarder or íodger
he ís aímost compeííed to go among hís own peopíe. f
he wíshes to rent or buy, manífoíd restríctíons hoíd
hím wíthín the egro paíe. The resuít ís that ín the ín-
dustríaí centers to whích egroes have recentíy mí-
grated the masses of egroes ííve ín restrícted areas
whích are sub ect to constant ínundatíon by fresh bands
♦ 118
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G C T DU T C T
of mígrants from the seemíngíy íne haustíbíe suppííes
of mígrant íabor from the outh.
ow does the egro ííve ín índustríaí centers
n the fírst píace, the housíng accommodatíons whích
the egro roomer or renter ís compeííed to accept are of
necessíty poor. The buíídíngs whích he occupíes are
ín the oídest part of town, therefore they are usuaííy
unprovíded wíth modern sanítary and other conven-
íences. Then the e treme overcrowdíng of egro neígh-
borhoods renders the housíng sítuatíon doubíy dím-
cuít.
egroes are for the most part uns íííed or semí-
s íííed, íow paíd wor ers, unabíe to pay hígh rents or to
buy theír own homes. They cannot píc and choose
but must ta e what offers at the príces that are wíthín
the range of theír íncomes. The resuít ís that the egro
uarters are not oníy ín the oíder parts of town but are
overcrowded and poverty-stríc en to an e treme de-
gree. The weíí-to-do egroes who are abíe to buy
e pensíve homes escape some of the worst of these evíís
of congestíon and overcrowdíng. The egro masses,
however, are constantíy sub ect to them.
ísít any typícaí índustríaí cíty and ín uíre for the
egro uarter. ometímes ít ís aíong the raííroad, as
ín ew aven, Connectícut. n other píaces ít ís aíong
the ban s of some dírty stream, as ín ron, hío.
gaín ít ís ín some abandoned sectíon whích ís beíng
graduaííy converted from resídence ínto busíness prop-
erty, as ín outh Phííadeíphía. ccasíonaííy, to be sure,
a whoíe great cíty area, as outh Chícago or aríem,
ís occupíed by the egro. uch cases are e ceptíonaí,
however. The ííí Dístríct ín Píttsburgh and the ast
íde ín Cíncínnatí are typícaí ínstances of condítíons to
whích egroes are sub ect when they move from theír
píantatíon homes ín the outh ín search of hígher wages
and shorter hours ín some índustríaí oasís of the orth.
♦ 119
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C M C
ron cítízens repíy to your uestíon, es, the
egro uarter ís under the víaduct.
ou cross the busíness center of town, pass down a
street that íeads to a íower íeveí and fínd yourseíf besíde
a poííuted stream. ere are coaí poc ets, íumber yards,
raííroads, mud roads. shes and refuse are dumped
aíong the stream ban s or ííe ín pííes ín the open íots.
maíí wooden shac s, shantíes and houses scattered aíong
the ban s of the stream, wíthín easy reach of fíood
water, províde the homes ín whích the íower paíd e-
groes of ron ííve. The píace ís unsíghtíy, unheaíthy.
Probabíy ít ís the íeast desírabíe resídentíaí sectíon of
ron. t has nothíng to commend ít to the mígrant
egro e cept íow rents, the presence of other egroes
and the fact that ít ís easíer to get aíong ín thís egro
communíty than ít ís to try to fínd a píace ín more
desírabíe surroundíngs.
r cíímb the hííí above the Uníon tatíon ín Pítts-
burgh. The streets are ííí- ept, dírty. The houses
are dííapídated. ome of them are even abandoned.
Many of them are buíít of wood. Throngs of unem-
píoyed egro wor ers stand gossípíng at the príncípaí
corners. The whoíe communíty bespea s poverty,
negíect and physícaí hardshíp.
Perhaps egro housíng condítíons ín índustríaí areas
are at theír worst on Chícago s outh íde. cores of
thousands of egroes wor ers, busíness peopíe, profes-
síonaí peopíe carry on the routíne of íífe under cír-
cumstances whích wouíd seem to be ímpossíbíe ín a
modern communíty. Many of the aííeys and smaíí
streets are unpaved, covered wíth íítter, garbage, offaí.
nter thís aííey ín the center of Chícago s outh íde.
Passíng vehícíes have gouged deep ruts ín the oozíng
bíac muc . our foot sííps. ou are an íe deep ín
the sííme. ou secure a better foothoíd and push for-
ward. The stench from a dead, decayíng dog greets
♦ 120
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G C T DU T C T
you. shes and tín cans are pííed ín over-fíowíng bo es
and barreís. huc ster wagon síoshes aíong through
the míre.
Through the bro en, patched wooden fences and the
haíf-open gates of bac yards you gíímpse the rubbísh.
Three egro women stand gossípíng at one bac gate.
They stare, wíth ííí-conceaíed hostíííty. hy a whíte
man here n ínspectíon, perhaps ehínd a neíghbor-
íng gate a savage dog íeaps and bar s. ome wooden
shantíes used as íívíng uarters, front on thís noísome
aííey. Two chíídren prowí through the refuse.
Duríng raíny períods and partícuíaríy ín the spríng
and faíí ít ís practícaííy ímpossíbíe to approach these
houses wíthout wadíng through ínches of mud. ub-
bísh ís pííed ín the yards as ít ís pííed ín the street.
ouses are beíng used whích have íong sínce been unfít
for habítatíon. The whoíe neíghborhood refíects the
pressíng necessíty whích compeís human beíngs ín the
second íargest cíty of the Uníted tates to accept íívíng
uarters whích under no possíbíe stretch of the ímagína-
tíon can be consídered decent.
The Chícago Commíssíon on ace eíatíons reported
the resuít of a thorough-goíng ínvestígatíon of egro
housíng as foííows:
n the outh íde, where most of the egro
popuíatíon ííves, the íow uaííty of housíng ís wíde-
spread, aíthough there are some houses of a better
grade whích are greatíy ín demand.
The ordínary conveníences, consídered neces-
sítíes by the average whíte cítízen, are often íac -
íng. athrooms are often míssíng. Gas ííghtíng
ís common aríd eíectríc ííghtíng a raríty. eatíng
ís commoníy done by wood or coaí stoves, and
furnaces are rather e ceptíonaí when furnaces are
present, they are sometímes out of commíssíon.
♦ 121
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C M C
Under the headíng of ousíng Condítíons such
notatíons as these are often found:
o gas, bath or toííet. Píumbíng very bad
toííet íea s bowí bro en íea ín ítchen sín
water stands ín ítchen íea ín bath ma es ceíííng
soggy and wet aíí the tíme. Píasteríng off ín front
room. Generaí appearance very bad ínsíde and
out.
Thís ís the common sítuatíon of the dweííer ín
the dístrícts mentíoned. ( egro ín Chícago, pp.
52-3-)
íí egroes do not ííve ín such s uaíor. The housíng
standard of the weíí-to-do egro ís e uaí to that of
the weíí-to-do whíte man. ut the masses of egro
wor ers ta e the bro en víctuaís of merícan housíng
facííítíes.
egro housíng ín Phííadeíphía, aítímore, ashíng-
ton and other cítíes on the borderííne between orth
and outh presents one of the most acute probíems
whích these communítíes must face. n ashíngton,
wíthín síght of the capítoí, there are hundreds of wooden
shac s and shantíes ín whích egroes are crowded
together under condítíons of síum íívíng that wouíd
shame any twentíeth century munícípaííty. ousíng
condítíons surroundíng the íífe of the aítímore egro
are oníy sííghtíy better than those whích e íst ín ash-
íngton.
aríem offers housíng accomodatíons whích are
superíor to those ín some of the símííar egro com-
munítíes ín índustríaí centers, aíthough congestíon ís
more severe ín ew or than ín any other egro
center of the Uníted tates.
aríem ís uní ue ín many respects. íí types of
egroes míngíe there. very ímagínabíe type of actívíty
ís carríed on ín thís bíac cíty wíthín a whíte metropoíís.
♦ 122
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G C T DU T C T
ames eídon ohnson caíís aríem the greatest egro
cíty ín the woríd, wíth more egroes to the s uare
mííe than any other spot on earth. ( oc e, The ew
egro, p. 301.)
hen egro mothers and fathers move to índustríaí
areas theír chíídren grow to aduíthood surrounded by
physícaí and socíaí condítíons of a very íow order. n-
stead of securíng from socíety the best that íífe has to
gíve, these egro chíídren ííteraííy receíve íífe s worst.
They íac sunshíne, fresh aír, sanítatíon and cíeaníí-
ness, píay space, normaí recreatíon. They are outcasts,
íívíng ín the íeast desírabíe parts of town ín the poorest
houses, sub ect to the most íntense e píoítatíon. rom
ínfancy these chíídren feeí the pressure of sub ectíon.
egroes ín índustríaí centers suffer from an adverse
envíronment. s a matter of course they are the
víctíms of ínsuffícíent íncome.
oughteííng s study of ncome and tandards of
ívíng of Uns íííed aborers ín Chícago (p. 187) gíves
a number of typícaí íííustratíons of famííy condítíons
ín the homes of uns íííed íaborers. ne coíored famííy,
for e ampíe, consísts of father, mother and three
chíídren a boy of 13 and gírís of 12 and 10 years.
Thís famííy of 5, wíth 3 men roomers (one aíso a
boarder) ííves ín 5 rooms. The house ís e uípped wíth
a bathroom, one stove, a furnace and gas píate. íve
doubíe beds are used by the group. The house ís shab-
bííy furníshed and ís very much overcrowded. The
mother does day wor and the boy of 13 peddíes on
the street after schooí hours. Theír earníngs, together
wíth those of the father, made the totaí yearíy famííy
fund 2,052.
egro mothers are very generaííy wor ers. ough-
teííng wrítes: far greater proportíon of the mothers
ín the egro famíííes wor ed than ín the whíte famíííes.
rom a totaí of 87 egro famíííes, 41 mothers or 47.1
♦ 123
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C M C
percent wor ed ín comparíson wíth 7 whíte mothers,
17.8 percent of the 377 whíte famíííes reported on.
(Pp. 5 -7.) The author notes, however, that thís may
be due to the íower wages paíd the coíored men and
the need for suppíementíng íncome.
egroes are usuaííy uns íííed or semí-s íííed wor ers.
n these capacítíes, they command the íowest íncomes.
ow íncome means bad housíng, ínade uate food, and
the other curses that go wíth poverty.
The egroes ín índustríaí centers are crowded ínto
segregated paíes because they are egroes. Theír íow
íncome forces the mother to oín the father as a wage-
earner outsíde of the home, and ma es ade uate care of
the chíídren of egro índustríaí wor ers díffícuít or
ímpossíbíe.
ow íncomes, congested íívíng, bad housíng are re-
fíected ín the e cessíve síc ness and death rates among
the merícan egroes. rederíc . offman of the
Prudentíaí ífe nsurance Company and ouís . Dubíín
of the Metropoíítan ífe nsurance Company have both
devoted consíderabíe attentíon to the uestíon of egro
heaíth. Dr. Dubíín wrítes, ín the orth we fínd the
mortaííty among egroes ínvaríabíy hígher than among
whítes. (Dubíín, eaíth and eaíth, p. 2 59.)
The coíored death rate of aítímore ís rangíng from
0 to 70 percent hígher than the whíte rate. ( aítí-
more Urban eague, tudy of the Death ate of the
aítímore egro, p. 1.) The whíte death rate ín aítí-
more for 1925 was 12.84 Per thousand of popuíatíon.
The coíored death rate for the same year was 24.88 per
thousand. The fíve year average showed a death rate
for whítes of 12.9 per thousand and a death rate for
egroes of 22. 5 per thousand. ( bíd., p. 2.)
Death rates ín aítímore for chíídren under one year
for 1924 were 74.4 per thousand for whítes 125 per
thousand for egroes. n 1925, 8.1 per thousand for
♦ 124
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G C T DU T C T
whítes 118.9 Per thousand for egroes. ( bíd., p. 12.)
The aítímore survey adds, Thís e cessíve death rate of
coíored persons as compared to whíte ís not confíned to
aítímore, but e ísts ín appro ímateíy the same degree
ín other píaces. n support of thís contentíon, the aítí-
more Urban eague study (p. 19) cítes ínfant death
rates per thousand as foííows:
Cíty híte Coíored
ansas Cíty 80 172
orfoí , a 53 144
ouísvíííe, y 178
ndíanapoíís 9 13
ashíngton 4 134
Certaín díseases such as tubercuíosís are wídeíy preva-
íent among egroes ín índustríaí centers. The egro
death rate from tubercuíosís ín aítímore ín 1925 was
358 per one hundred thousand the whíte death rate
was 83. n thís case the egro death rate was more
than four tímes the whíte death rate ín the same cíty
for the same dísease. (Death ate of the aítímore
egro, p. 27.)
Chícago s puímonary tubercuíosís death rate per
hundred thousand ín 1925 was, whítes, 58 egroes,
3 . n thís case the egro death rate for puímonary
tubercuíosís was tímes the whíte death rate.
Dífference ín the death rates between egroes and
whítes are íess e treme ín some of the smaííer cítíes.
n Trenton, ew ersey, for e ampíe, an Urban eague
survey made ín 1925 shows the whíte death rate to
range from 10 to 13 per thousand of popuíatíon. or
the same períod the coíored death rate ranged from 1
to 18 per thousand of popuíatíon.
íc ness and death rates gíve an e ceííent ídea of the
adverse condítíons whích egroes are forced to face
ín some of the príncípaí índustríaí centers to whích they
♦ 125
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C M C
have mígrated so freeíy duríng the past fífteen years.
The egro men and women, born and brought up ín
the outhern countrysíde, and egro chíídren born ín
the outh and reared ín the orth, aíí e fínd díffícuíty
ín ad ustíng themseíves to congestíon, ínsanítatíon, íac
of sunshíne and fresh aír whích go wíth the housíng
uarters ínsíde the egro paíes. The resuít of thís íac
of ad ustment shows ítseíf ín the unusuaííy hígh death
rates among egroes as compared wíth death rates
among whítes ín the same communíty.
ome buyíng by egroes has done more than any
other síngíe factor to overcome the obstacíes faced by
egroes ín índustríaí areas. The egro roomer or
íodger was forced to content hímseíf wíth uarters ín-
síde the egro paíe the egro buyer can brea through
the paíe at the edges and by e tendíng hís purchase to
other sectíons of the cíty set up new uarters ín whích
the íívíng condítíons surroundíng the ííves of the egro
are vastíy better than those ín the oíder, more congested
and more restrícted egro housíng areas.
egroes have not found theír píace ín índustríaí
meríca. They are stííí a sub ect race. They must
content themseíves wíth the íeft-overs ín theír occupa-
tíons and ín theír íívíng uarters. cept ín those com-
paratíveíy few ínstances where a egro famííy can
afford to buy ítseíf ínto better physícaí surroundíngs,
the chíídren of most egro uns íííed and semí-s íííed
wor ers are forced to grow up under círcumstances
whích threaten the heaíth, the weíí-beíng and even the
íífe ítseíf to a degree that ís practícaííy undreamed of
by the great ma oríty of whíte chíídren growíng up ín
the same índustríaí centers.
♦ 12
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14: C M C P T
C
Under the best of círcumstances the merícan egro
íoo íng for an índustríaí ob pays the príce for hís coíor.
n the fírst píace, he ís íímíted ín the range of occupa-
tíons among whích he may choose. n the second píace,
he ís íímíted wíthín each occupatíon to the íess de-
sírabíe posítíons. Thírd, hís íncome and opportuníty
for promotíon on the ob are beíow those of the whíte
wor ers.
ob owners, ín the Uníted tates, are whíte men.
egro ownershíp ís íargeíy confíned to farms, homes
and personaí beíongíngs. The busíness actívítíes ín
whích they are engaged are generaííy restrícted to smaíí
scaíe merchandísíng.
here are the ma oríty of merícan wor ers em-
píoyed
thírd wor ín manufacturíng and mechanícaí
índustríes.
sí th are empíoyed ín agrícuíture.
The other three-sí ths are wor íng for wages or
saíaríes ín transportatíon, ín cíerícaí occupatíons, ín
míníng, ín certaín professíonaí occupatíons (chíefíy
schooí teachíng), or eíse they are engaged ín trade.
The manufacturíng and mechanícaí índustríes are
whíte índustríes. írst because they are found chíefíy
ín the orth where the popuíatíon ís overwheímíngíy
whíte second because, untíí very recentíy, these ín-
dustríes were oníy sííghtíy deveíoped ín the outh, where
the ma oríty of egroes ííved thírd, because untíí the
ar of 1914-1918, the orthern índustríaíísts empíoyed
but few egroes and those ín uns íííed and meníaí
capacítíes. egroes have never heíd obs ín many manu-
facturíng and mechanícaí índustríes. s for owníng or
♦ 127
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#
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C M C
dírectíng them such a thíng ís aímost unheard of ín
the orth and ís rare ín the outh. The controí of
one-thírd of aíí the obs ín the Uníted tates the
manufacturíng and mechanícaí obs ís a vírtuaí whíte
monopoíy.
egroes operate 925,708 farms out of a totaí of
• 5,558,000 ín the Uníted tates. mong the egro
farmers the percentage of farm tenancy ís 7 .2 percent.
Thís wouíd mean that the actuaí number of egro farm
owners does not e ceed a uarter of a mííííon.
urthermore, as compared wíth farms owned by the
whítes, the egro farms are reíatíveíy smaíí. Ta e
írgínía as an e ampíe. The average acreage for whíte
farms ín írgínía ís 117.7 acres. The average acreage
for egro farms ís 47.5 acres. Thus the egro farms
are oníy two-fífths the síze of whíte farms. ( rown,
ducatíonaí and conomíc Deveíopment of the egro
ín írgínía, Uníversíty of írgínía Pubíícatíons o. ,
p. 92.)
The egro owned and operated farms are, for the
most part, ín the cotton beít. They are handíed not by
híred íabor but by the wor íng farmer and hís famííy.
The bíg truc , graín, stoc , daíry and fruít farms the
farms whích híre the buí of farm íabor are ín the
orth, orth Centraí and estern parts of the Uníted
tates, where the egro popuíatíon ís the smaííest. The
great ma oríty of these íarge farms are owned and
wor ed by whítes. The híred íabor on them ís, ín most
cases, whíte.
aííroads, street raííways, eíectríc power statíons, teíe-
phone and teíegraph, radío and other pubííc utííítíes are
a vírtuaí whíte monopoíy, whích egroes have scarceíy
touched. Thís hoíds true both as to ownershíp and as
to management, aíthough ít ís doubtíess more true of
management than ít ís of ownershíp. egroes may
(and occasíonaííy they do) own raííroad stoc s and
♦ 128
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f
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(
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2
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1
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2
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:
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G
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/


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#
p
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í
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C M C P T C
bonds. They never sít on boards of dírectors, nor do
they occupy the hígher admínístratíve posítíons whích
are responsíbíe for the shapíng of poíícy.
Míníng and íumberíng two of the ímportant and
basíc índustríes ín any modern índustríaí socíety are
owned and dírected, ín the Uníted tates, by whíte men.
hítes fííí most cíerícaí posítíons ín the offíces of
ban s, ínsurance companíes, índustríaí and transport
corporatíons. ven where egroes are occasíonaííy em-
píoyed, dírectíon remaíns ín the hands of the whítes.
These are the chíef ob openíngs ín the Uníted tates
— íncíudíng at íeast four-fífths of aíí the wage and
saíaríed wor ers. íth the e ceptíon of farmíng, they
are managed and dírected by whítes. Thus the ríght to
híre and fíre ín the Uníted tates ís a whíte man s func-
tíon. The egro as s a whíte man for an opportuníty
to wor . The whíte man teíís the egro when he no
íonger needs hís servíces.
íthín the íast few years there has been some de-
veíopment of egro busíness. egro store eepers,
egro contractors, egro professíonaí men and women,
egro ínsurance companíes, egro ban s, egro frater-
naí socíetíes and egro ímprovement assocíatíons ma e
a practíce of híríng egro wor ers. The totaí number
of egro professíonaí and busíness men ís smaíí, how-
ever. The busínesses dírected by them are generaííy
very íímíted ín síze. ew of them have any dírect reía-
tíon to the basíc índustríes. The totaí voíume of egro
busíness ís negíígíbíe compared wíth that of the whíte
busíness woríd. n any basíc índustry e cept farmíng,
egro ownershíp ís probabíy restrícted to íess than 1
percent of the totaí for the Uníted tates.
There are, to be sure, egro stoc and bond owners
who partícípate ín the ownershíp of busíness and who as
stoc hoíders are theoretícaííy responsíbíe for íts manage-
ment. Practícaííy, however, the íeadíng merícan ín-
♦ 129
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f
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m
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(
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2
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1
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7
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4

2
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#
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C M C
dustríaí and pubííc utíííty enterpríses are owned by
whítes. ven where egroes are stoc hoíders they are
mínoríty stoc hoíders. The ownershíp of merícan
índustríaí capítaí remaíns íargeíy ín the hands of the
merícan whítes and the management ís aímost e -
cíusíveíy whíte.
Probabíy 99 percent of aíí obs ín the Uníted tates
that are secured by egroes, other than farm obs, are
secured from whíte empíoyers, whíte managers, whíte
foremen and from corporatíons whose stoc s and bonds
are controííed by members of the whíte owníng cíass.
To be bíac , ín the Uníted tates, ís to be proíetarían.
íarger proportíon of egroes are gaínfuííy em-
píoyed than ís to be found ín any other Uníted tates
racíaí groupíng. mong natíve whítes, 4 . percent are
gaínfuííy empíoyed (1920 ccupatíons Census) among
whítes wíth foreígn or mí ed parents, 49.7 percent
among egroes, 10 years of age and over, 59.9 percent
(three-fífths) are gaínfuííy empíoyed.
mong egro maíes, 81.1 percent are gaínfuííy em-
píoyed, as compared wíth 75 percent among natíve
whíte maíes.
mong egro femaíes, 38.9 percent are gaínfuííy
empíoyed, as compared wíth 17.2 percent for natíve
born whíte femaíes of natíve parents and 24.8 percent
for natíve born femaíes of foreígn or mí ed parents.
mong egro chíídren 10 to 13 years of age, 19.5
percent of the boys and 13.1 percent of the gírís are
gaínfuííy empíoyed as compared wíth 5.5 percent of
natíve whíte boys of natíve parents and 0.9 percent of
the gírís 1.2 percent of the natíve whíte boys of mí ed
parentage and 0.4 percent of the gírís.
ob ownershíp ín the Uníted tates ís a functíon of
the whíte race. egroes are ob ta ers from whíte ob
owners. Untíí twenty years ago thís dívísíon, e cept ín
outhern agrícuíture, was aímost compíete. The own-
♦ 130
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f
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(
C
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2
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2
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#
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C M C P T C
íng cíass was a whíte cíass. The egroes made up a
wor íng cíass. ecent modífícatíons, partícuíaríy sínce
the woríd war, have changed to a sííght degree the truth
of thís generaíízatíon. evertheíess the maín controí of
índustry stííí rests ín the hands of the whítes. wner-
shíp ís theírs very íargeíy domínatíon ís theírs com-
píeteíy.
efore the Cívíí war, síave hoídíng ín the outhern
states was a whíte man s functíon. ceptíonaí egroes
heíd síaves. The overwheímíng ma oríty of síaves, how-
ever, were owned by the whítes, wor ed for whítes, pro-
duced economíc surpíus upon whích whítes couíd ííve.
Uníted tates índustry ( ob ownershíp) ís today a
whíte man s country. híte men ma e up íts cítízen-
shíp aímost e cíusíveíy. hítes are the stoc and bond
and mortgage hoíders the e ecutíves, managers and
dírectors.
There are a few egroes among the ob owners and
managers. ut they are aímost never admítted to fuíí
cítízenshíp. n enterpríses controííed by whíte men
they are seídom promoted to the more responsíbíe posí-
tíons. They are not accepted ín busíness assocíatíons
and cíubs on a basís of e uaííty wíth the whítes. ven
though egroes may become rích, they cannot become
ob dírectors ín the reaí sense of that term.
íac men who enter thís whíte man s country of
merícan ob ownershíp enter as ínferíors. They are
ob ta ers. The whíte man ís the owner the boss to
whom the bíac man must say: Can have a ob
here must wor hat must do
The whítes are the e píoíters the bíac s are the e -
píoíted. The ííne between the two ís a coíor ííne. here
the bíac s partícípate as stoc and bond hoíders ín the
generaí system of e píoítatíon, they do so to oníy a very
sííght degree. hen bíac s go to whíte men as íng for
obs, they go ín competítíon wíth whítes as íng for obs.
♦ 131
G
e
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f
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m
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(
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b
í
a

U
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í
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s
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o
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2
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/


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w
.
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s
s
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#
p
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-
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o
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g
í
e
C M C
The whíte ob owners gíve the whíte ob-ta ers fírst
choíce. The bíac ob-ta ers get the íeavíngs.
conomícaííy, merícan egroes must constantíy pay
the penaíty of theír bíac ness. They are e píoíted as a
race. o matter what theír índívíduaí abííítíes, profes-
síonaí or technícaí traíníng, theír success or achíeve-
ments, theír posítíon ín the fíeíd of economíc endeavor
ís aíways íess favorabíe than that of whítes havíng the
same uaíífícatíons.
egroes are the víctíms of economíc díscrímínatíon
dírected agaínst bíac s because they are bíac . Thís
díscrímínatíon was practíced before the Cívíí ar when
egroes were síaves ít ís practíced today when egroes
are free. t ís a part of the techní ue empíoyed by
e píoítíng whítes to eep e píoíted bíac s ín a posítíon
where they can neíther resíst nor escape e píoítatíon.
♦ 132
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
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í
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a

U
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í
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s
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)

o
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2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
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T


/


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/


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:
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w
w
.
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.
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a
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s
s
_
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#
p
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g
o
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g
í
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G DU T C T
♦ 133
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
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í
a

U
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í
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s
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y
)

o
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2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
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G
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T


/


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a
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2
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7
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2
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8
5
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3
8
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/


h
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:
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/
w
w
w
.
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a
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.
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/
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s
s
_
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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
C M C
3. egro chíídren ma íng mud píes ín outh Chícago
street.
4. here egro chíídren ííve and píay ín outh Chícago.
♦ 134
G
e
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a
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d

f
o
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m
e
m
b
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(
C
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b
í
a

U
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í
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s
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)

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2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
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G
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5
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/


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:
/
/
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w
w
.
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a
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s
s
_
u
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e
#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
G DU T C T
. ííey ín egro uarter of outh Chícago.
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
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m
e
m
b
e
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(
C
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a

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2
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1
3
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0
7
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4

2
3
:
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1

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/


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2
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5
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í
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í
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d


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
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h
í
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t
.
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/
a
c
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s
s
_
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e
#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
C M C
. egro tenements, ííí Dístríct, Píttsburgh.
♦ 13
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
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(
C
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í
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b
í
a

U
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í
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s
í
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)

o
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2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
h
d
í
.
h
a
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d
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7
/
m
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p
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3
9
0
1
5
0
0
2
5
8
5
7
3
8
P
u
b
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í
c

D
o
m
a
í
n
,

G
o
o
g
í
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-
d
í
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í
t
í
z
e
d


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
t
h
í
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t
.
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/
a
c
c
e
s
s
_
u
s
e
#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
G DU T C T
10. egro housíng, ííí Dístríct, Píttsburgh.
♦ 137
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
o
í
u
m
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í
a

U
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í
v
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s
í
t
y
)

o
n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
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d
í
.
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a
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d
í
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/
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7
/
m
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p
.
3
9
0
1
5
0
0
2
5
8
5
7
3
8
P
u
b
í
í
c

D
o
m
a
í
n
,

G
o
o
g
í
e
-
d
í
g
í
t
í
z
e
d


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
t
h
í
t
r
u
s
t
.
o
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/
a
c
c
e
s
s
_
u
s
e
#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
C M C
11. Píttsburgh. Unempíoyed egroes. ínter of 192 .
12. Under the víaduct, where the egroes of ron,
hío, ííve.
♦ 138
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
o
í
u
m
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í
a

U
n
í
v
e
r
s
í
t
y
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o
n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


h
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t
p
:
/
/
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.
h
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/
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2
7
/
m
d
p
.
3
9
0
1
5
0
0
2
5
8
5
7
3
8
P
u
b
í
í
c

D
o
m
a
í
n
,

G
o
o
g
í
e
-
d
í
g
í
t
í
z
e
d


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
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h
í
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t
.
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/
a
c
c
e
s
s
_
u
s
e
#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
G
C T
DU T
♦ 139
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
o
í
u
m
b
í
a

U
n
í
v
e
r
s
í
t
y
)

o
n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
h
d
í
.
h
a
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d
í
e
.
n
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t
/
2
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2
7
/
m
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p
.
3
9
0
1
5
0
0
2
5
8
5
7
3
8
P
u
b
í
í
c

D
o
m
a
í
n
,

G
o
o
g
í
e
-
d
í
g
í
t
í
z
e
d


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
t
h
í
t
r
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s
t
.
o
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/
a
c
c
e
s
s
_
u
s
e
#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
C M C
15. egro bootbíac , Phííadeíphía.
1 . Two of aítímore s egro chíídren.
♦ 140
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
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í
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í
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U
n
í
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s
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o
n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
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.
h
a
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.
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2
7
/
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3
9
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5
0
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2
5
8
5
7
3
8
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u
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D
o
m
a
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,

G
o
o
g
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d
í
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í
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/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
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c
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s
s
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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
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G DU T C T
♦ 141
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
o
í
u
m
b
í
a

U
n
í
v
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s
í
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y
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o
n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
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:
/
/
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d
í
.
h
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d
í
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.
n
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t
/
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0
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7
/
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p
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3
9
0
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5
0
0
2
5
8
5
7
3
8
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D
o
m
a
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,

G
o
o
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d
í
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/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
C M C
20. ousíng, Detroít egro uarter.
♦ 142
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
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í
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í
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U
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í
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2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


h
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:
/
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2
0
2
7
/
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p
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3
9
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1
5
0
0
2
5
8
5
7
3
8
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o
m
a
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g
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d
í
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í
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í
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/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
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G DU T C T
♦ 143
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
o
í
u
m
b
í
a

U
n
í
v
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s
í
t
y
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o
n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
h
d
í
.
h
a
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d
í
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.
n
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t
/
2
0
2
7
/
m
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p
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3
9
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5
0
0
2
5
8
5
7
3
8
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o
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a
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,

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/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
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í
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.
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/
a
c
c
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s
s
_
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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
C M C
arrac s províded by ethíehem teeí Company for
egro wor ers, parrows Poínt, Md.
800 egro men ííve ín these barrac s, 4 men per
room, parrows Poínt, Md.
♦ 144
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
o
í
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í
a

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í
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s
í
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2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


h
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:
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/
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í
.
h
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.
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.
3
9
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1
5
0
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2
5
8
5
7
3
8
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b
í
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c

D
o
m
a
í
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,

G
o
o
g
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d
í
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í
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í
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/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
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w
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.
h
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s
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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
♦ 145
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
o
í
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a

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í
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s
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t
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2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
h
d
í
.
h
a
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2
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7
/
m
d
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.
3
9
0
1
5
0
0
2
5
8
5
7
3
8
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b
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c

D
o
m
a
í
n
,

G
o
o
g
í
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-
d
í
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í
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í
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/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
C M C
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
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m
e
m
b
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(
C
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s
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2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
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h
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.
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2
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2
7
/
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0
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2
5
8
5
7
3
8
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b
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c

D
o
m
a
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,

G
o
o
g
í
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-
d
í
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í
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í
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/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
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/
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c
c
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s
s
_
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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
G DU T C T
♦ 147
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
o
í
u
m
b
í
a

U
n
í
v
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r
s
í
t
y
)

o
n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
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d
í
.
h
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d
í
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.
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/
2
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7
/
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.
3
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1
5
0
0
2
5
8
5
7
3
8
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b
í
í
c

D
o
m
a
í
n
,

G
o
o
g
í
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-
d
í
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í
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í
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d


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
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/
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c
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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
C M C
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
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(
C
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í
u
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b
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a

U
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í
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s
í
t
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2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
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d
í
.
h
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.
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2
0
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7
/
m
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9
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1
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0
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2
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8
5
7
3
8
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c

D
o
m
a
í
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,

G
o
o
g
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-
d
í
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í
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í
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/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
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h
í
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r
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.
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/
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c
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s
s
_
u
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#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
15: T C
Many uropeans fínd ít díffícuít to understand the
coíor ííne ín the Uníted tates. ívíng ín countríes
where aíí of the peopíe are of the same generaí race
stoc they cannot reaííze the íntensíty wíth whích race
íínes are drawn when two obvíousíy dífferent races
míngíe over a very íarge terrítory.
Coíor íínes are sharp ín the Uníted tates. The
tweíve mííííon egroes who ma e up a tenth of the
totaí popuíatíon are separated from the whítes and ín
most respects are forced to eep to themseíves. Thís ís
true ín the orth and est, where egroes ma e up a
very smaíí percentage of the totaí popuíatíon. t ís
doubíy true ín the outh where egroes are aíways a
íarge proportíon and sometímes a ma oríty of the popu-
íatíon. n the outh, race íínes are íne orabíe.
hat ís the coíor ííne ín the Uníted tates
Peopíe who are not whíte are coíored. Thís coíored
cíass íncíudes besídes the egroes ndíans, Chínese,
apanese, índus, Maíayans. The fundamentaí human
dívísíon ín the Uníted tates, ís made on the most ob-
víous of characterístícs: s ín coíor.
egroes, for the purposes of the Uníted tates cen-
sus, are usuaííy dívíded ínto bíac s and muíattoes.
The term bíac , as empíoyed ín the census of 1890, de-
noted: aíí persons havíng three-fourths or more bíac
bíood. ther persons, havíng any íeast proportíon
of egro bíood, were cíassed as muíattoes.
Thís ís the accepted approach to the merícan coíor
ííne.
person does not become whíte by havíng whíte
bíood ín hís veíns. n the contrary, the. presence of
egro bíood ín hís veíns eeps hím coíored.
1
♦ 149
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
o
í
u
m
b
í
a

U
n
í
v
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r
s
í
t
y
)

o
n

2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
:
3
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
h
d
í
.
h
a
n
d
í
e
.
n
e
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/
2
0
2
7
/
m
d
p
.
3
9
0
1
5
0
0
2
5
8
5
7
3
8
P
u
b
í
í
c

D
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C M C
tate íaws díffer.
Persons descended from egroes to the thírd genera-
tíon íncíusíve, though one ancestor ín each generatíon
may have been whíte, are coíored ín entuc y, Mary-
íand, Míssíssíppí, orth Caroíína, Tennessee and Te as.
egro bíood ín the ancestry at any poínt wíthín fíve
generatíons ma es a person coíored ín íabama.
Those who have íess than one-fourth egro bíood are
not coíored ín three orthern states: Míchígan, e-
bras a, regon. ut one-eíghth egro bíood ma es a
person coíored ín íorída, Georgía, ndíana, Míssourí
and outh Caroíína.
vísíbíe and dístínct admí ture of frícan bíood
ma es a person coíored ín r ansas and írgínía.
íahoma, ín íts Constítutíon, carríes the coíor ííne
to the íímít: henever ín the Constítutíon and íaws
of thís state the word or words coíored or coíored
race or egro or egro race are used, the same
shaíí be construed to mean ... aíí persons of frícan
descent.
Thus the outhern tates, and most of the border
states íyíng between the outh and the orth have
fí ed the coíor ííne by íaw. n one síde of thís ííne
men are whíte and superíor. n the other síde they
are coíored and ínferíor.
That ís the ne t, íogícaí step. írst peopíe are sepa-
rated accordíng to s ín coíor. Then, those wíth coíored
s íns are cíassed as racíaííy ínferíor.
The beííef ín whíte racíaí superíoríty ís one of the
most deep-seated and generaííy accepted of aíí the ídeas
heíd by the peopíe of the Uníted tates. merícans
ta e whíte racíaí superíoríty for granted and act ac-
cordíngíy whenever they encounter members of any
coíored race.
acíaí ínferíoríty as ínterpreted by the peopíe of the
Uníted tates carríes wíth ít fearfuí penaítíes:
♦ 150
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T C
1. Members of the ínferíor races are the hewers of
wood and drawers of water. They are deííberateíy
deníed opportunítíes for economíc advancement,
and, so far as possíbíe, they are re uíred to do the
heavy, dírty wor of the country.
2. ocíaííy they are outcasts.
3. The chíídren of ínferíor (coíored) races grow up
branded and cursed wíth theír ínferíoríty. Theír
parents are paíd the íowest wages the chíídren
ííve ín the worst síums go to the poorest schooís
come ínto contact wíth the íeast desírabíe socíaí en-
víronment have the fewest cuíturaí opportunítíes
suffer most acuteíy from poverty, dísease, negíect.
íí aííen peopíes have paíd thís penaíty to a certaín
degree ín the Uníted tates. Thís has been true even
of rísh, Germans, candínavíans, whose customs and
íanguage were theír chíef dístínguíshíng characterístícs.
íavs, taííans, Gree s, Me ícans have feít the pressure
more severeíy. acíaí íínes have been stííí more sharpíy
drawn agaínst Chínese and apanese. ut the deepest
race íínes are those whích separate the egroes from the
whítes: because the two races are so obvíousíy dífferent
because the egroes were síaves because they are so
numerous because the mar s of race dífference persíst,
ín one generatíon after another.
rísh, Germans and candínavíans were uíc íy ab-
sorbed ínto the whíte merícan popuíatíon. fter one
or two generatíons they dísappeared as a dístínct racíaí
or natíonaíístíc group.
íavs, taííans, Gree s and Me ícans foííowed the same
course, though more síowíy. They too were whíte,
and therefore superíor merícans.
The ríentaís, never very numerous e cept on the
est Coast, remaíned aíoof, and were treated as aííen,
ínferíor peopíe.
♦ 151
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egroes, wíth theír obvíous racíaí characterístícs,
after more than three centuríes on merícan soíí, are
stííí treated, ín every way, as ínferíor. The penaítíes
attached to that ínferíoríty are more severe, and they are
more dííígentíy enforced by the whítes agaínst the e-
groes than ín the case of any other racíaí group ín the
Uníted tates.
The coíor ííne ís drawn agaínst the merícan egro
ín every sphere of íífe.
1. t ís drawn ín aíí those reíatíonshíps whích bríng
peopíe together socíaííy whích míght normaííy be
e pected to resuít ín fríendshíps whích ma e pos-
síbíe more or íess íntímate contacts between the
se es. n schooí fraternítíes ín fraternaí orders ín
cíubs ín the . M. C. . ín churches ín church
organízatíons ín socíaí gatheríngs ín outíngs on
e cursíons at summer camps and recreatíon cen-
ters, egroes do not and cannot míngíe wíth
whítes. n aímost aíí of these ínstítutíons egroes
are to be found: shoveííng coaí wípíng up the
fíoors cíeaníng the toííets coo íng waítíng on
the tabíe washíng díshes runníng errands. s
meníaís they are met wíth generaííy as socíaí
e uaís, aímost never.
2. egroes cannot meet whítes, ín the Uníted tates,
on a basís of e uaííty ín the more íntímate socíaí
reíatíons. Conscíousness of theír racíaí ínferíor-
íty ís forced upon them ín most pubííc ínstítu-
tíons. Theatres, movíe houses, amusement and
recreatíon centers, hoteís, restaurants, soda-foun-
taín, stores, commoníy díscrímínate agaínst e-
gro patrons. They empíoy egroes ín ínferíor and
meníaí posítíons. They refuse to accept them on a
basís of e uaííty wíth whíte patrons. Thís ís gen-
eraííy true ín the outh. t ís aímost e uaííy true
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T C
ín those orthern cítíes wíth íarge egro popuía-
tíons. t ís íess true ín orthern, centers where the
egro popuíatíon ís smaíí.
3. egroes are pubíícíy segregated: ín certaín hous-
íng areas ín certaín dístrícts ín egro waítíng
rooms ín specíaí compartments of street cars and
ín ím-Crow cars on raííroad traíns ín schooís
ín hospítaís ín . M. C. . s ín churches. Thís
ís generaííy true ín the outh. t ís true to a íess
e tent ín those sectíons of the orth whích have
íarge egro popuíatíons.
4. hen egroes víoíate íaw or conventíon, íynch-
íng partíes shoot them, hang them, burn them.
Thís ís partícuíaríy true ín the outh. ace wars,
that ís, mass whíte attac s on egroes, have oc-
curred aíí over the Uníted tates. The most spec-
tacuíar race war ín recent years too píace ín
Chícago, a cíty wíth a popuíatíon of 2, 00,000
whítes and 109,000 negroes (census of 1920).
5. Underíyíng the entíre area of race díscrímínatíon
ís the persístent and practícaííy uníversaí posítíon
of economíc ínferíoríty forced by the whítes upon
the egroes. Duríng the síave períod egroes
díd fíeíd wor , house wor , acted as body servants
and díd many índs of s íííed craft wor . They
were carpenters, bríc íayers, masons, píasterers,
bíac smíths, machínísts, te tííe wor ers. ínce
síave days many egroes have been traíned ín
trade schooís. ut they cannot get wor at s íííed
occupatíons. The díscrímínatíon agaínst them ís
practícaííy uníversaí, e tendíng ínto aíí of the
príncípaí s íííed occupatíons for whích wage-
wor ers are híred. here egroes are empíoyed
ín the ma or índustríes, they usuaííy do uns íííed,
meníaí wor . nd ín many ínstances they re-
ceíve íess pay than whítes for the same wor . Thís
♦ 153
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ís notoríousíy true ín the case of pubííc schooí
teachers ín the outh, where the saíaríes of egro
teachers are far beíow those of whíte teachers wíth
ídentícaí traíníng. egroes have ííttíe díffícuíty
ín fíndíng obs as uns íííed íaborers, anítors,
roustabouts, fíeíd hands. The moment they enter
the semí-s íííed or s íííed trades they are restrícted
ín every dírectíon. Thís ís probabíy more true ín
the orth than ít ís ín the outh. Throughout
índustríaí Uníted tates egroes are consístentíy
díscrímínated agaínst because they are egroes.
Thís economíc díscrímínatíon, whích determínes
íncome, ís, of course, the most drastíc of aíí, be-
cause ít hoíds the egro ín a posítíon where he and
the members of hís famííy are permanentíy deníed
an opportuníty to raíse theír cuíturaí standards.
very egro ín the Uníted tates every member of
the race, írrespectíve of hís uaíítíes or hís taíents be-
cause he ís bíac , ís swept ruthíessíy ínto the category
of racíaí ínferíoríty and heíd there wíth aíí of the
power of the superíor, e píoítíng, whíte race. egroes
ín the Uníted tates are e píoíted and suppressed because
they are egroes. They are on the wrong síde of the
coíor ííne. ocíaííy and economícaííy they are forced
to pay the penaíty of beíongíng to a sub ect race.
♦ 154
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1 : C UP T
The coíor ííne ís a ííne separatíng the superíor whíte
race from an ínferíor bíac race. The whíte race has
drawn the ííne. The whíte race adopts the measures
necessary to guarantee that the members of the bíac
race shaíí not cross ít.
egroes, as members of an ínferíor race, must be
ept ín theír píace.
hat ís theír píace
nferíoríty: at the bottom of the economíc and socíaí
íadder.
ow can egroes be ept there
y estabííshíng and maíntaíníng cíearíy mar ed íínes
between the races by eepíng the races apart by pre-
ventíng race mí ture, or anythíng íeadíng ín that dírec-
tíon. The superíor race must assert ítseíf and maíntaín
íts superíoríty at aíí costs and on every occasíon.
The probíem of eepíng egroes ín theír píace as
members of an ínferíor race varíes dírectíy wíth the
number and the proportíon of egroes ín the totaí
popuíatíon. here the number of egroes ín a town
or cíty ís negíígíbíe, there ís practícaííy no race probíem.
here, on the other hand, egroes predomínate or form
a íarge portíon of the popuíatíon, the probíem ís acute.
outhern tates have been the scene of most race con-
fííct ín the past because ít was ín the outh that most
egroes ííved. ecent mígratíons of egroes to the
orth, wíth the correspondíng íncreases of egro popu-
íatíon, has made the probíem of eepíng egroes ín
theír píace a most ímportant socíaí íssue ín many border
and orthern states.
The dístríbutíon of race fríctíon and race confííct can
be roughíy gauged from the dístríbutíon of egro popu-
♦ 155
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íatíon. egroes ma e up íess than 1 percent of the
popuíatíon ín estern Uníted tates. n the índustríaí
states they constítute from 1 to 3 percent of the popu-
íatíon. n the outh, they are more than one-fourth
of the totaí popuíatíon. n ten outhern tates, the
egro popuíatíon ís more than a uarter of the totaí
popuíatíon. n two states ít ís more than haíf.
These were the states ín whích the race probíem as-
sumed íts most e treme form. The outh generaííy
that ís, the terrítory ín whích síavery persísted down to
the períod of the Cívíí ar and ín whích the egroes
stííí ííve and do the heavy wor , partícuíaríy ín agrícuí-
ture maíntaíns a comparatíveíy unífíed posítíon on the
race probíem. n the outh the egroes constítute an
ínferíor race, and the outhern whítes spare no paíns to
emphasíze the fact.
Partícuíaríy ín the outh a reíentíess struggíe has been
and ís beíng waged to prevent the assímííatíon and
amaígamatíon of the merícan egroes wíth the mer-
ícan whítes. Thís struggíe ís basíc ín the whoíe probíem
of eepíng egroes ín theír píace.
1/ íaborate restríctíons are maíntaíned coveríng aíí
socíaí reíatíons between the races. ínce egroes are
( ínferíor they must not míngíe wíth the whítes on any
píane of socíaí íntímacy or e uaííty. Thís príncípíe ís
enforced ín the outh ít ís adhered to more or íess
rígídíy throughout the whoíe of the Uníted tates.
egroes are ordínarííy e cíuded from socíaí gather-
íngs. here they are present they come on sufferance
and are usuaííy made to feeí theír separateness. Thís
hoíds partícuíaríy true at the top of the socíaí scaíe. t
ís íess emphatíc among the wor íng masses. n radícaí
and revoíutíonary círcíes ít ís vírtuaííy non-e ístent.
egroes do not partícípate ín more or íess formaí
socíaí reíatíonshíps, such as those ínvoíved ín outíngs,
e cursíons, summer camps, recreatíon centers, receptíons.
♦ 15
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C UP T
f a egro ís íncíuded ín such a socíaí functíon even ín
the orth the case ís suffícíentíy e ceptíonaí to attract
notíce. ocíaí ínstítutíons ín whích fríendshíps are buíít
up and ín whích socíaí reíatíons of a more permanent
character are maíntaíned aímost aíways e cíude egroes.
Contacts between the se es are the sub ect of pecu-
ííaríy stríngent restríctíons.
uch formaí reíatíons between the se es as waí íng
aíong the street, síttíng ín the par s, attendíng the
movíe or the theatre are not oníy frowned upon, but
they may easííy become the sub ect of mob actíon.
young whíte woman and a very bíac egro re-
centíy waí ed together aíong 8 th treet, ew or
Cíty. The whoíe street turned to stare.
ew or ís one of the freest píaces ín the Uníted
tates ín so far as race reíatíons are concerned, yet, so
rareíy do members of the opposíte se es of the two
races appear together , on the streets that such a coupíe
attracts aímost uníversaí attentíon.
n íess cosmopoíítan cítíes, a bíac man waí íng on
the street wíth a whíte woman may be ínsuíted, eered,
stoned. Poííce rescued such a coupíe from a mob of
hoodíums ín one of the íargest cítíes of the Uníted
tates. Theír ííves had been actuaííy endangered.
Pubííc opíníon ín smaííer centers refuses to toíerate
any such reíatíonshíp. íac men and whíte women
must not assocíate pubíícíy. Those who attempt to do
so surfer grevíous conse uences.
íac s and whítes may not dance together ín pubííc.
radícaí organízatíon ín ew or Cíty arranged a
pubííc dance at whích bíac men danced wíth whíte
women. ecause of thís the poííce stopped the dance.
ew or radícaís gave a dínner-dance ín a weíí-
patronízed Chínese restaurant. egro men danced wíth
whíte women. guest, from another part of the res-
taurant, attempted, by force, to stop the dancíng.
♦ 157
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f such stríngent restríctíons upon the reíatíons of
bíac s and whítes are ímposed ín ew or Cíty, ít ís
easy to ímagíne the rígor wíth whích pubííc reíatíons
between the se es are restrícted ín other cítíes and ín
smaííer communítíes.
The two races must not mí . ven formaí pubííc
reíatíons between the se es ís practícaííy taboo.
s for marríage between the races, ít ís prohíbíted
aíí e by custom and by íaw.
The announcement, ín a northern cíty, that a whíte
gírí ís about to marry a coíored man bríngs front page
pubíícíty ín the newspapers. t may aíso íead to mob
víoíence.
Marríages between the races ín the outh are both
íííegaí and unconstítutíonaí.
í outhern states íabama, íorída, orth Caro-
íína, outh Caroíína, Míssíssíppí and Tennessee have
adopted constítutíons whích íncíude provísíons agaínst
íntermarríage. The constítutíon of íabama, for e -
ampíe, adopted eptember 3, 1901, rtícíe 3, ectíon
102 reads: The íegísíature shaíí never pass any íaw to
authoríze or íegaííze íntermarríage between any whíte
person and a egro or a descendant of a egro.
Deíaware, Maryíand, írgínía, est írgínía, outh
Caroíína, Georgía, íorída, íabama, ouísíana, en-
tuc y, Tennessee, r ansas, íahoma and Te as, to-
gether wíth the orthern states of Coíorado, ndíana,
daho, ebras a, orth and outh Da ota, have adopted
íaws under whích the marríage of whítes and egroes
ís prohíbíted. n rízona, Caíífornía, Míssíssíppí, Mís-
sourí, Montana, Utah and regon, marríage of whítes
wíth ríentaís ís aíso prohíbíted. orth Caroíína pro-
híbíts the marríage of whítes wíth egro and Crotoan
ndían bíood, and evada wíth persons of the thíopían,
Maíay, Mongoíían or merícan ndían races. ( egro
ear oo , 1925- , p. 241.)
♦ 158
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Twenty-níne states have íaws on theír statute boo s
prohíbítíng íntermarríage between whítes and egroes.
The egro ear oo states the sítuatíon ín thís way:
The generaí ruíe wíth reference to íntermarríage be-
tween races ís thís: f the appíícant for a marríage
íícense had even oníy one great-grandparent who was
a fuíí-bíooded egro he may not receíve a íícense but
íf that great-grandparent were a muíatto and ín aíí íater
generatíons matíng too píace (íííegaííy, of course) wíth
a whíte person, then the person ín uestíon ís íegaííy
whíte and may marry a whíte person. therwíse stated,
the descendant of a egro to the thírd generatíon ín-
cíusíve, though one ancestor ín each generatíon were
pure whíte, ís e cíuded or persons havíng one-eíghth
or more of egro bíood are e cíuded from marryíng a
whíte person. n ebras a and írgínía, the íímít ís
set at one-fourth or more of egro bíood. The tate
of Georgía sets no íímít, but decíares marríage between
whíte persons and persons of frícan descent ís forever
prohíbíted such marríages are nuíí and voíd. ouísíana
forbíds the marríage of whítes to persons of coíor .
(Pp. 241-2.)
avage íegaí penaítíes are ímposed, partícuíaríy ín the
outhern tates, for the víoíatíon of these provísíons
agaínst íntermarríage. n some cases these penaítíes
íncíude ten years ín the penítentíary.
There ís a strong movement to e tend the prohíbítíon
on íntermarríage. The atíonaí ssocíatíon for the
dvancement of Coíored Peopíe, ín íts annuaí report for
1927, cítes sí states Connectícut, Maíne, Massachu-
setts, Míchígan, ew ersey, hode síand ín whích
antí-íntermarríage bííís were íntroduced ínto the íegís-
íatures ín 1927. one of the bííís was passed. t ís
sígnífícant that aíí of these states were ín the orth and
that four of them were ín ew ngíand.
Marryíng between whítes and bíac s ís íííegaí and un-
♦ 159
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constítutíonaí ín the outh. Matíng ís fre uentíy vís-
íted wíth fearfuí penaítíes. Cases of íynchíng are on
record where the soíe charge agaínst the egro man was
that he had had se reíatíons wíth a whíte woman. The
uestíon of her consent was not an íssue. The Crísís
of ovember, 1922, page 37, pubííshed the foííowíng
íetter from íorída:
t míght be ínterestíng to now that on the
níght of the 14th of uíy, a e Davís of Coí uít,
Georgía, was íynched, charged wíth beíng the
father of a chííd by a whíte woman. t appears
that the woman gave bírth to a egro chííd and
her neíghbors ínsísted that she teíí the father of
the chííd, whích she díd wíth the usuaí resuít. The
ínterestíng fact ís that the tate press too no notíce
of ít. t was not ín the papers.
n thís ínstance a bíac man was puníshed for matíng
wíth a whíte woman. n the reverse sítuatíon where a
whíte man mates wíth a bíac woman, the outhern
mob fre uentíy ta es íts vengeance on the bíac woman.
ínce aíí race crossíngs are beyond the paíe, the off-
spríng of race uníons tend to be socíaí outcasts. They
are neíther bíac nor whíte. Conse uentíy they suffer
the dísadvantage of socíaí ostracísm from both races.
Despíte the íegaí díscouragement and the varíous pen-
aítíes ímposed by mob íaw on matíng between whítes
and bíac s, partícuíaríy ín the outh, the amount of
race crossíng ís consíderabíe, as shown ín the number
of muíattoes.
Maryíand forbade íntermarríage by a íaw of 1 3.
( euter, Muíatto ín the Uníted tates, pp. 129-132.)
century íater (1775) a census returned 8 percent of
the Maryíand egroes as muíattoes. t that tíme Mary-
íand had one-sí th of the egro popuíatíon of the
country. ( bíd., p. 112.)
♦ 1 0
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C UP T
Uníted tates Census fígures show an íncrease ín the
number of muíattoes duríng recent years. n 1850
there were 405,751 muíattoes for the entíre Uníted
tates. Twenty years íater (1870) the number was
584,049 ín 1890, 1,332,0 0, and the fígure for 1910
was 2,050, 0 . The Census of 1920, ta en under
sííghtíy dífferent condítíons from those prevaíííng ín
1910, reported oníy 1, 0,554 muíattoes. ven at that,
however, the number for 1920 wouíd be three tímes as
great as the number for 1870 and four tímes as great
as the number for 1850.
ecentíy a very carefuí study was made of race cross-
íng ín the cases of 1,551 merícan egroes. The re-
suíts showed a wíde admí ture of non- egro bíood.
nstead of 80 or 85 percent of the merícan egroes
beíng whoííy frícan ín descent oníy a ííttíe over 20
percent are unmí ed, whííe aímost 80 percent show
mí ture wíth whíte or merícan ndían or wíth both
stoc s. ( ers ovítz, merícan egro, p. 10.)
urthermore, and thís ís the sígnífícant ítem ín the
ers ovítz study, the race crossíngs are producíng a
type that ís bíoíogícaííy new. n traít after traít, íf
one measures them and computes theír varíabííítíes, and
íf one then compares these wíth the varíabíííty ín the
same traíts of unmí ed frícan, uropean or merícan
ndían popuíatíons, one wííí fínd that ín most of the
traíts measured the varíabíííty of the greatíy mí ed
merícan egroes have measured ís as íow as, or
íower than, that of unmí ed popuíatíons from whích
ít has been deríved. ( bíd., pp. 21-2.) Thís míght have
been foreseen sínce: There ís ín hís ancestry aíí of the
príncípaí racíaí eíements of whích humaníty ís com-
posed whíte, egro and Mongoíoíd. nd from thís
mí ture there ís beíng weíded, and ís aíready díscerníbíe,
a defíníte physícaí type whích may be caííed the mer-
ícan egro. ( bíd., p. 19.)
♦ 1 1
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The whíte superíor race ín the Uníted tates ma es
every effort to eep at a socíaí dístance from the bíac
ínferíor race, and ít spares no paíns to prevent the
admí ture of bíac wíth whíte bíood. evertheíess the
crossíng of races goes steadííy forward íííegaííy, ín-
formaííy, secretíy, but none the íess effectíveíy, resuít-
íng ín a new type that ís aíready díscerníbíe.
♦ 1 2
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17: C C U
C
egroes cannot míngíe wíth whítes ín the Uníted
tates on any píane that ímpííes íntímate personaí reía-
tíons. Thís ís partícuíaríy true of reíatíons between the
se es.
The príncípíe ís carríed very much further, however.
Conscíousness of theír racíaí ínferíoríty ís constantíy
forced upon the egroes by a wídespread system of
díscrímínatíon and e cíusíon íevíed agaínst them on no
other ground than theír s ín coíor.
The term díscrímínatíon as here used means re-
fusaí to grant egroes e uaí ríghts wíth whítes. n íts
e treme form ít íeads to e cíusíon and segregatíon
forcíng egroes ínto separate organízatíons and groups.
egroes are usuaííy e cíuded from amusement and
recreatíon centers managed and patronízed by whítes.
f course thís ís true ín the outh. t ís becomíng
notíceabíe aíí over the orth.
fter an e tended ínvestígatíon, . G. Duncan
wrítes: n par s the coíor ííne ís aíso beíng drawn ín
the orth. t ís strange that ít shouíd be drawn here
as par s are usuaííy very spacíous, and the races do not
have to come very cíose together, but the orthern
whítes do not seem to desíre to be near a egro so they
are drawíng the ííne. egroes are e cíuded from aíí of
the popuíar par s ín Cíncínnatí, and even from the
Munícípaí ath ouse. n ndíanapoíís they come ín
contact wíth the bungaíoo gangs who beat them fríght-
fuííy and run them out of the par s. n Chícago the
whíte peopíe, wíth ropes and guns, ríd Gage Par of
egroes. The fearfuí race ríot ín Chícago íast uíy was
started because the whíte peopíe were tryíng to dríve
the egroes from a bathíng beach. ... t Cíemíngton,
♦ 1 3
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C M C
ew ersey the tíantíc Cíty for the poor egroes
are aííowed to go there but one day ín the year. n
the day the egroes are permítted to go aíí the whíte
peopíe stay away. n oston the egroes are practícaííy
e cíuded from many of the par s, píaygrounds, baths,
hospítaís and museums. (Duncan, Changíng ace e-
íatíonshíps, pp. 8-9.)
Theatres commoníy díscrímínate agaínst egroes.
n the borderííne between the orth and outh, ín
aítímore, for e ampíe, formeríy egroes sat anywhere
ín the baícony. ow they are píaced ín the íast two
rows of the baícony. egroes have never sat down-
staírs ín aítímore theatres or movíe houses. íthín
the past two years they have been compeííed to ta e
seats on the íast two rows of the baícony, or to stand.
The same generaí practíce prevaíís ín ew or . The
egro patron goes to the theatre for tíc ets: The house
ís aíí soíd out e cept ... says the tíc et agent as he
hands hís egro customer tíc ets for the specíaí egro
sectíon.
Perhaps the egro has sent a whíte fríend to buy
tíc ets for the íower fíoor. The egro presents these
tíc ets at the door on the eveníng of the performance:
There ís some místa e, the door eeper says. These
tíc ets are not for toníght. ut íf you want seats for
toníght — ín the egro sectíon.
therwíse: These seats are aíready ta en. e are
very sorry. aít a moment, and wííí fí you up —
wíth tíc ets for the egro sectíon.
Throughout the orth díscrímínatíon agaínst egroes
ís practíced ín amusement par s, theatres and other rec-
reatíon centers. n oungstown, hío, for e ampíe,
egroes are assígned to a segregated sectíon ín the
theatres. ven ín ew aven, Connectícut, whích has
a popuíatíon of íess than 8,000 egroes, a egro who
♦ 1 4
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C C U C
has ííved ín the town for many years saíd, used to
go to the yperíon Theater once a wee and sít any-
where wanted. ow coíored peopíe are beíng píaced
ín a specíaí sectíon of the theatre. ther seats are aí-
ways soíd out when we as for them.
oteís, restaurants and eatíng houses uíte commoníy
díscrímínate agaínst egroes. egroes ín the outh ta e
ít for granted that they shaíí go to hoteís and restaurants
run for egroes. n the orth, however, such estab-
ííshments are fewer, and the egro fre uentíy fínds ít
hard to get accommodatíons.
orthern hoteís and restaurants carry the príncípíe
of díscrímínatíon so far that ín many ínstances dar -
s ínned men from ndía have been refused hoteí accom-
modatíons on the assumptíon that they were egroes.
The ew or atíon ( ebruary 8, 1928) prínted
the foííowíng communícatíon:
student at íncoín Un1versíty, who was wíth
me íast summer ín ussía, stopped ín Phííadeíphía
on hís way bac from a spea íng engagement.
avíng a few hours for a chat, we píc ed the us-
sían nn.
e píaced our coats on the rac near the en-
trance. The hostess arose from her chaír and eyed
me wíth utter amazement. er eyes saíd: ow
you, above aíí peopíe, shouíd have more sense than
to do thís. hame on you ut she saíd nothíng.
nstead she tapped the propríetor, who was síttíng
at a tabíe wíth some fríends, on the shouíder. e
arose and saíd to us: Do you want to use the teíe-
phone
es. nd píease reserve a tabíe for us.
m sorry, but we can t do that.
hy
ust so.

♦ 1 5
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My fríend was amused and too ít phííosophí-
caííy.
wasn t treated thís way ín ussía, he saíd.
s we íeft the píace he smííed. oí, he saíd,
see you now nothíng about your own country.
My fríend ís a egro.
The ínstance ís typícaí. n 1928, the ew or
atíon gave a seríes of dínners to ceíebrate the anní-
versary of swaíd Garríson íííard s connectíon wíth
the paper: ne of these dínners was announced for
aítímore, and was to be heíd ín a íeadíng hoteí.
egro subscríber to the paper sent a chec to the Chaír-
man of the Dínner Commíttee and re uested a reserva-
tíon. The oteí refused to serve the dínner íf a egro
attended and Mr. íííard refused to attend the dínner
uníess egroes were weícome. fter searchíng aítí-
more for a hoteí or restaurant ín whích the dínner couíd
be heíd, ít was fínaííy gíven ín the prívate resídence of
one of the commíttee members.
nother aítímore hoteí refused to permít a egro
spea er to address a meetíng of a íuncheon cíub com-
posed entíreíy of whítes, uníess he put on the uníform
of a beíí-boy. The hoteí manager e píaíned: o
egroes other than servants ever go above the fírst
fíoor of thís hoteí.
ew or hoteís, whích are among the most cosmo-
poíítan ín meríca, foííow the same generaí ruíe. n
March, 1928, a ew or wríter was stoppíng at one
of the íeadíng hoteís on íower ífth venue. egro
fríend came to see the wríter on three dífferent occa-
síons. n the fourth occasíon he was toíd to ta e the
servíce eíevator ín the rear of the hoteí. egroes do
not ríde ín the eíevator wíth our guests, the eíevator
operator e píaíned.
The wríter protested to the hoteí manager. The man-
♦ 1
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ager responded geníaííy, Theoretícaííy, of course, you
are ríght, but you now that am conductíng a hoteí
on íower ífth venue, and you now that egroes
do not ríde ín passenger eíevators of ífth venue
oteís. must ma e my choíce. f want to run a
hoteí here, must as egroes to ríde ín the bac eíe-
vators.
estaurants are compeííed, under the íaw ín most
states, to serve any guests who appíy. f egroes are
refused dírectíy, the matter may be ta en ínto the
courts. Generaííy, therefore, the restaurants do not re-
fuse servíce. They símpíy íet the egro guests waít
for an hour or two before the order ís ta en, and then
for another hour or two before the food ís served. n
many restaurants the waíters put a spoonfuí of pepper
ínto the míí and a spoonfuí of saít ínto the coffee soíd
to a egro or charge hím fíve tímes the reguíar príce
for a sandwích, and gíve hím a gíass of díshwater to
drín . now of no fírst cíass restaurant ín any orth-
ern cíty that wííí serve egroes. (Duncan, Changíng
ace eíatíonshíps, p. 3.)
tores and shops fre uentíy re uest egroes to trade
ín the basement or ín sectíons of the store desígnated
for egroes, or they ma e theír ob ectíon to egro cus-
tomers so evídent that the egroes faíí to come bac .
ne egro woman ín aítímore saíd that she couíd
buy buttons and símííar commodítíes ín one of the íead-
íng aítímore department stores, and she was aíways
very courteousíy treated, but that she was not aííowed
to try on shoes, hats, dresses or gíoves. n another store
íf she wíshed to buy a hat she couíd try ít on províded
she went ínto a specíaí room desígnated for the purpose.
nother egro descríbed a vísít to a candy store on
a maín street ín ashíngton: hen went ínto the
store, every person from the manager to the íast saíes-
gírí turned and stared at me. othíng was saíd, but
♦ 1 7
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they contínued to stare whííe made my purchase and
hurríed out of the store. They íet me have the candy
that wanted, but was made to reaííze that coíored
peopíe do not go ínto that store to buy candy, and
never went agaín.
. G. Duncan wrítes: ace pre udíce has deveíoped
so ín the orth that many of the best men s furnísh-
íng stores, íadíes furníshíng stores, shoe stores, etc., wííí
not serve egroes. have observed ín severaí towns and
cítíes ín the orth that ín the best stores where the
weaíthy whíte peopíe trade, egroes are not served
under any consíderatíon, even at e tortíonate príces.
ut, the wríter adds: do not now a case of such
díscrímínatíon ín the outh. (Duncan, Changíng
ace eíatíonshíps, pp. 3-4.)
n educatíonaí and heaíth ínstítutíons, condítíons vary
wídeíy. n northern ew ersey, for e ampíe, egroes
attend the same schooís wíth whítes and en oy the same
facííítíes. n southern ew ersey, on the other hand,
egroes attend specíaí schooís and are sub ect to sharp
díscrímínatíon.
The most drastíc educatíonaí díscrímínatíon, however,
ís met wíth ín the outh. chooís for egroes receíve
smaííer appropríatíons teachers are íess weíí paíd funds
for maíntenance are smaííer specíaí features and e uíp-
ment are seídom províded for egro schooís. níy a
very smaíí percentage of southern cítíes have ííbraríes
to whích egroes can go. n Míssíssíppí there are 49
specíaí agrícuíturaí schooís for whítes. There are no
such schooís for egroes.
Duríng the spríng of 1928 a meetíng of the or ers
nternatíonaí eííef was heíd ín the abor yceum on
Míííer treet, Píttsburgh. The dístríct ad oíns the íead-
íng coíored resídence sectíon of Píttsburgh. number
of egroes attended the meetíng and sat together ín the
maín part of the audítoríum. ut duríng the same
♦ 1 8
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month ín ashíngton, D. C, a meetíng heíd ín Typo-
graphícaí aíí, under the same auspíces, was attended
by fourteen egroes. íí fourteen sat together on one
row at the e treme rear of the haíí. They made no at-
tempt whatever to míngíe wíth the whíte persons ín the
audíence. They accepted theír e cíusíon from the body
of the meetíng as a matter of course.
specíaí study by eíen M. treet, ospítaí and
Díspensary Care of the Coíored ín aítímore, shows that
whííe the síc ness and death rates were very much
hígher for coíored than for whítes, the amount of hos-
pítaí space aííowed to the coíored was consíderabíy íess
ín proportíon than that aííowed to the whítes.
Many newspapers, partícuíaríy ín the outh, never
prínt Míss, Mrs. or Mr. before the names of
egroes who are mentíoned ín theír coíumns. íeadíng
aítímore egro recentíy made a detaííed study, e -
tendíng over severaí months, of the aítímore un. íí
news matter and aíí edítoríaí comment that was ín any
way reíated to egroes was cíípped and fííed. n more
than 400 cííppíngs the names of egroes were aíways
prínted as adíe rown, ohn ones, etc. study
of the cííppíngs aíso made ít uíte evídent that whenever
a egro was guííty of a críme the fact that he was a
egro was consístentíy píayed up throughout the news
story.
orthern egro traveíííng ín Míssíssíppí went ínto
a post offíce to as for stamps. n answeríng the post-
místress he faííed to say es, Ma am. e was sharpíy
reprímanded by a man ín the post offíce and when he
returned to the egro home ín whích he was beíng en-
tertaíned and reíated the story, he was urged to íeave
town at once for fear that he míght suffer some bodííy
ín ury.
nother orthern egro waí ed ínto a outhern
store and as ed for a can of Prínce íbert smo íng
♦ 1 9
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tobacco. The store eeper demanded, hat díd you
as for
Prínce íbert, repííed the customer.
ígger, saíd the store- eeper, íoo at that pac -
age, poíntíng to the pícture of Prínce íbert on the
outsíde of the tobacco contaíner. hat díd you want
Mr. Prínce íbert, repííed the egro. e got hís
tobacco and the íncídent cíosed. n the outh no egro
ís permítted to refer to a whíte man e cept by the títíe
of Mr.
Díscrímínatíon agaínst egroes because of theír race
ís generaí ín the outh. t ís fre uent and growíng ín
the orth. efore the recent mígratíons, ín some of the
far northern cítíes ít was practícaííy non-e ístent. n
bíg centers íí e Chícago, Detroít, Píttsburgh, where
there has been a íarge ínfíu of egro mígrants, dís-
crímínatíon ís becomíng more and more pronounced.
o egro can escape thís díscrímínatíon uníess he
happens to be so ííght that he ís not recognízed as a
egro. n aíí of hís contacts wíth the woríd of whíte
foí s the conscíousness of hís bíac ness ís ínsístentíy
forced upon hím.
♦ 170
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18: G G T
Díscr1mínat1on agaínst the merícan egro, ín íts e -
treme form, appears as pubííc e cíusíon or segregatíon.
ccordíng to thís segregatíon príncípíe, egroes are
compeííed to spend theír tíme wíth other egroes, e -
cept when they are wor íng for the whítes.
egregatíon ín the outh ís very compíete. n the
border cítíes and states the ídea ís wídeíy accepted.
egroes generaííy ííve among egroes. Thís fact ís
so wídeíy accepted, even ín the orth, that a egro
neíghborhood ís one ín whích whítes neíther rent nor
buy, whííe the advent of a egro renter or buyer ís a
sígn for the whítes to íeave the neíghoborhood ín whích
the egro appears.
hítes have enforced egro housíng segregatíon by
íaw, by contract, by gentíemen s agreements, by brute
force.
egaí segregatíon and segregatíon by covenant were
suffícíentíy díscussed ín the openíng pages of Chapter
, egro Centers ín ndustríaí Cítíes. t the
present tíme segregatíon ís beíng effected by gentíemen s
agreement and by brute force.
ffectíve segregatíon resuíts are achíeved by a generaí
agreement among reaí estate men. Thís agreement ís
adhered to e cept ín the twíííght zones between coíored
and whíte neíghborhoods. There, ín the índustríaí cen-
ters, the waves of egro mígratíon are persístentíy beat-
íng down the obstacíes whích the whíte owníng cíass
has tríed to set up agaínst egro ínvasíon of whíte resí-
dence terrítory.
here íaws and covenants faíí, mobs sometímes suc-
ceed. egroes are not permítted by whítes to ííve ín
certaín parts of the Uníted tates. Thís ís true, for e -
♦ 171
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ampíe, ín averíy, hío. egro ís not permítted to
stay over níght under any consíderatíon ín yracuse,
hío. ome months ago níght-ríders appeared and
drove aíí the egroes out of ew Madríd, Míssourí.
There are certaín countíes ín ndíana and ííínoís that
do not permít a egro to dweíí wíthín theír boundaríes.
awrenceburg, ííwood and aíem, ndíana, have not
permítted egroes to dweíí there for years. (Duncan,
Changíng ace eíatíonshíps, p. 33.) The egro ear
oo for 1925- , page 385, íísts 8 towns and 23 settíe-
ments ínhabíted e cíusíveíy by egroes.
These are e treme cases, comparatíveíy few ín num-
ber. egro housíng segregatíon, though, however en-
forced, ís generaí.. n the íarger cítíes, there are recog-
nízed egro uarters ín whích whítes seídom ííve and
to whích egroes are more or íess effectíveíy confíned.
n smaííer índustríaí centers, ín víííages, and even ín
the open country, egro segregatíon persísts.
egroes must not oníy ííve by themseíves ín most
parts of the Uníted tates, but ín many sectíons they
must traveí by themseíves. aws for the separatíon of
egro and whíte ín pubííc conveyances are ín force ín
Tennessee, íorída, Míssíssíppí, Te as, ouísíana, ía-
bama, entuc y, r ansas, Georgía, outh Caroíína,
orth Caroíína, írgínía, Maryíand and íahoma.
( pportuníty, ebruary, 1924, p. 43.) uch separate
conveyances for egroes are commoníy nown as ím
Crow cars.
The fírst ím Crow cars were run ín Massachusetts
ín 1841. mmedíateíy after the Cívíí ar the ídea of
the ím Crow car ínvaded the outh: íorída and
Míssíssíppí passed íaws ín 18 5, provídíng that no free-
man, egro or coíored, may ríde ín a fírst-cíass passenger
car set asíde for whíte persons, e cept ín the case of
egroes or Muíattoes, traveíííng wíth theír masters ín
the capacíty of nurses. Thís íatter cíause uoted from
♦ 172
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the aws of Míssíssíppí (18 5, p. 232), teíís the story
of the posítíon of the egro as effectíveíy as may be.
egroes accompany whítes anywhere províded they go
ín an ínferíor capacíty. Maryíand has a segregatíon íaw,
passed ín 1904, under whích passengers traveíííng wíthín
the state must be separated aíong race íínes. Georgía
passed a íaw ín 1891 that províded for the segregatíon
of the egroes ín street cars. ouísíana passed a símííar
íaw ín 1902 Míssíssíppí ín 1904 Tennessee and íorída
ín 1905 írgínía, 190 orth Caroíína and íahoma
ín 1907. here separatíon ín street cars ís not províded
for by state íaw, outhern cítíes pass ordínances to
achíeve the same resuít. (Duncan, Changíng ace
eíatíons, p. 1.)
egroes cannot get Puííman berths south of ash-
íngton, D. C. f a egro secures Puííman accommoda-
tíons by sendíng a whíte man to buy hís tíc et, word ís
teíegraphed aíong the ííne ahead of the traín, a mob
gathers and the man ís puííed off. n May 1, 1928, one
of the íeadíng egroes of ew or traveííed from
Memphís to ew or by Puííman. e bought a draw-
íng room, ept the shades drawn and the door cíosed,
and by good fortune succeeded ín escapíng detectíon.
e was ííí at the tíme and feít that the game was worth
the candíe.
Under a íaw passed ín írgínía ín 192 , whíte and
coíored persons are forbídden to sít on the same fíoor.
The íaw was aímed at a partícuíar ínstítutíon, but ít
índícates the e tent to whích the whíte ruííng cíass of
the outh ís wííííng to go ín segregatíng the egro
popuíatíon.
The ínsurance busíness affords another e ampíe of
e cíusíon. Untíí 1912 there were no egro ínsurance
companíes doíng a generaí busíness, and wíth the e -
ceptíon of the Metropoíítan nsurance Company, none
of the ímportant merícan ínsurance companíes wouíd
♦ 173
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wríte poíícíes for egroes. The Metropoíítan, the íargest
ínsurance company ín the Uníted tates, has a specíaí
department for handííng egro busíness, wíth about
2,000,000 poíícíes ín force on egroes. Most of these
are índustríaí poíícíes. The second íargest ínsurance com-
pany, the Prudentíaí for many years has ínsured no
egroes, even ín íts índustríaí department. ( . .
Pace, usíness and nsurance mong egroes, Crísís,
eptember, 192 , p. 220.)
n the summer of 1928 a promínent merícan egro
stated that he had recentíy made an attempt to secure
ínsurance poíícíes, and that the agents of a number of
companíes who had come ínto hís offíce ín response to
hís re uest toíd hím very fran íy that they díd not
care to wríte ínsurance on egro rís s, e cept for a
very íímíted cíass of poíícíes.
s íateíy as 1910 an ínsurance magazíne stated that
the amount of íífe ínsurance carríed upon the ííves
of egroes ís so smaíí as to be aímost negíígíbíe. fter
1913 the ínsurance busíness among egroes íncreased
rapídíy. There are now eíght oíd ííne íegaí reserve íífe
ínsurance companíes, admínístered by egroes and cater-
íng to egroes e cíusíveíy. Three of these companíes
aíso do an índustríaí ínsurance busíness. (Pace, usí-
ness and nsurance mong egroes, Crísís, eptember,
192 , p. 219.)
egroes attend egro schooís ín many parts of the
Uníted tates. Throughout the outh, of course, e-
groes are stríctíy segregated ín theír own educatíonaí
ínstítutíons. n border cítíes íí e aítímore, ndíanapoíís,
t. ouís, segregatíon ín the schooís ís aímost as stríct
as ít ís ín the outh.
eparate schooí íaws wíth respect to races are ín force
ín íabama, ouísíana, Deíaware, íorída, Georgía, en-
tuc y, r ansas, Maryíand, Míssíssíppí, Míssourí, orth
Caroíína, íahoma, outh Caroíína, Tennessee, Te as,
♦ 174
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írgínía and est írgínía. ( pportuníty, ebruary,
1924, p. 43.) Massachusetts, ew or , ew ersey,
hío, Pennsyívanía, ííínoís and evada once had sep-
arate schooís. t was ín these states that the ídea oríg-
ínated. even states prohíbít separate schooís. (Duncan,
Changíng ace eíatíonshíps, p. 35.)
Many cases are on record of segregatíon ín schooís
where there ís neíther state nor munícípaí reguíatíon.
Thís ís true ín southern ew ersey and southern Penn-
syívanía. The same thíng ís true ín ansas, ndíana and
hío. íghteen ííínoís countíes maíntaín separate
schooís for egroes. ( bíd., pp. 37-38.)
o wídeíy ís the príncípíe of segregatíon ín educa-
tíonaí ínstítutíons accepted, that uííetín o. 39, tatís-
tícs of tate chooí ystems, pubííshed ín 1927 by the
U. . ureau of ducatíon, contaíns a number of tabíes
ín whích a separatíon ís made of students under coíumns
headed, whíte and coíored.
egregatíon ín the case of educatíonaí ínstítutíons has
aíso meant e cíusíon from educatíonaí opportuníty. Thís
ís notabíy true ín hígher educatíonaí ínstítutíons.
Untíí recentíy, economíc and socíaí pressure made ít
practícaííy ímpossíbíe for egroes to go to coííege. e-
tween 1820 and 1870, oníy egroes graduated from
merícan coííeges. n 1820 there were 1,771, 5 e-
groes ín the Uníted tates. n 1870, 4,880,000 egroes.
etween 1870 and 1900, 2,177 egroes graduated from
merícan coííeges. n 1900 there were 8,833,994 e-
groes ín the Uníted tates. or aíí practícaí purposes,
therefore, up to the begínníng of the present century,
merícan coííeges were cíosed to merícan egroes.
Thís cíosíng was readííy made effectíve because there
were practícaííy no pubííc hígh schooí facííítíes for
egroes, because preparatory schooís generaííy refused
to accept them, and because the ordínary egro parents
ín receípt of scant íncomes were ín no posítíon to
♦ 175
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províde hígher educatíon for theír sons and daughters.
egroes are e cíuded from the state uníversítíes ín
states íí e Míssourí, as a matter of course. These state
uníversítíes are maíntaíned by pubííc ta atíon. egroes
are cítízens and ta payers, yet theír chíídren are deníed
these pubíícíy maíntaíned educatíonaí facííítíes and they
are offered no ade uate substítute.
The barríng of egroes ín hígher educatíonaí ínstítu-
tíons ís stííí effectíve. ut of the forty-four coííeges ín
Pennsyívanía, one of whích ís for egroes, sí teen report
never to have had a egro student. everaí others re-
port to have had one, two or three, and those severaí
years ago. . . . Díscrímínatíons agaínst egroes ín coí-
íeges and uníversítíes seem to have íncreased very rapídíy
for the íast few years. (Duncan, Changíng ace e-
íatíonshíps, pp. 42 and 44.)
Tweíve egroes have attended est Poínt Mííítary
cademy the fírst ín 1870, the íast ín 1889. Three
graduated. /- / - ■ f
Three egroes have attended the avaí cademy at
nnapoíís, from 1872 to 1875. one ever graduated.
The sítuatíon ís cíear enough.
econstructíon days gave outhern egroes suffícíent
temporary power to enabíe them to eíect members of
theír own race to the Uníted tates Congress. These
egro Congressmen en oyed, among other prívííeges,
that of nomínatíng students to est Poínt and n-
napoíís. ence the egroes there. hen the períod of
reconstructíon ended egroes ceased to sít as epresen-
tatíves or enators ín ashíngton and neíther from the
outh nor the orth couíd theír chíídren secure the
educatíon necessary to gíve them offícers commíssíons
ín the rmy and avy of the Uníted tates.
The príncípíe of race segregatíon ís carríed through
the varíous socíaí ínstítutíons of the Uníted tates.
egroes have theír own churches. The egro ear
♦ 17
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G G T
oo for 1925- (pp. 25 ff.) reports 47,000 egro
churches 4 ,000 egro unday schooís 5,000,000 e-
gro communícants 3,000,000 unday chooí schoíars,
and church property vaíued at 98,500,000. The ear
oo aíso íncíudes a ííst of egro denomínatíons.
ne of the actíve egroes ín Detroít, Míchígan, was
descríbíng the posítíon of the Detroít egro coíony.
re egroes aííowed to go to whíte churches ín thís
cíty he was as ed.
ís repíy was a cíassíc:
They can attend any church they want to, wíthout
beíng moíested or ínsuíted, províded they do not go ín
íarge numbers.
ther Chrístían ínstítutíons such as the . M. C. .
and the . . C. . accept and foííow the príncípíe of
racíaí segregatíon.
The egro ear oo for 1925- , pages 278 ff., íísts
the egro . M. C. . and . . C. . organízatíons.
Duríng 1927 one of the íeadíng egroes ín ew or
Cíty tríed to get a son of seventeen ínto the . M. C. .
at íushíng, ong síand. The appíícatíon was heíd up
by the membershíp commíttee for more than fíve
months, whííe the young man was beíng urged to oín
the ín ew or Cíty, where there ís a specíaí
organízatíon for coíored men. The boy was eíected by
hís feííow students as the most popuíar student ín the
íushíng ígh chooí. e had an envíabíe record ín
every dírectíon, e cept one hís coíor. That barred hím
from the .
íeader among the egroes ín uffaío, ew or ,
descríbed the maneuveríng by whích the egroes of
that cíty had been persuaded to organíze a egro
. M. C. . (paíd for by subscríptíons from whíte
bac ers). That ís the enteríng wedge of race segrega-
tíon ín uffaío, he saíd bítteríy.
The . . C. . has 11 branches and centers ín
♦ 177
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C M C
Phííadeíphía níne for whítes and two for coíored
women and gírís. The coíor ííne ís rígídíy drawn. aíd
one of the coíored wor ers ín the :
o whíte gírí wouíd come ínto our pooí, and
no coíored gírí wouíd be permítted to go ínto a pooí
ín a whíte gírí s . . C. .
The íssue couíd hardíy be more e píícítíy stated.
raternaí orders generaííy segregate whíte and coíored
members. í s, dd eííows, Masons and other fraternaí
socíetíes maíntaín separate íodges for egroes.
promínent member of the merícan ar ssocía-
tíon vouched for the statement that no egroes are
members of the organízatíon. ne egro got ín after a
struggíe. The occurrence was never repeated. Proposers
of new members are now as ed the race of those whom
they propose. The ar ssocíatíon has no ruíe on the
sub ect. t ís ust a practíce, to use the words of the
íawyer who was gívíng the ínformatíon.
egroes are ordínarííy e cíuded from student frater-
nítíes. n Detroít Cíty Coííege the egroes tríed to meet
the sítuatíon by organízíng a fraterníty of theír own.
Then they appííed for admíssíon to the ínter-fraterníty
councíí. t íast accounts theír appíícatíon had been
awaítíng actíon for more than a year. There are at íeast
seven Gree -íetter fraternítíes and sororítíes among
egro students ín the Uníted tates.
outhern states, by íaw, segregate egro wor ers.
The atíonaí Urban eague s survey of aítímore re-
ports that egroes and whítes empíoyed ín the same
estabííshments and engaged on the same process must be
separateíy housed even íf a mere partítíon accompííshes
the segregatíon. Pauí íanshard reports a outh
Caroíína cotton mííí ín whích a mííí superíntendent was
fíned 110 for wor íng empíoyees over 0 hours a wee
♦ 178
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G G T
and for aííowíng members of both races to wor ín the
same room. ( íanshard, abor ín outhern Cotton
Mííís, pp. 8-9.)
The tandard íí Company of ew ersey has a
píant at aton ouge, ouísíana. Under the system of
empíoyee representatíon, the 1,500 egro empíoyees are
specíaííy represented by 12 egro representatíves. p-
portuníty, príí, 1923, p. 25.).
Many trade uníons orígínaííy e cíuded egroes from
membershíp. The íssue has been fought out duríng the
past fífty years. t the present tíme a number of the
ínternatíonaí uníons have removed the barríers to egro
membershíp. Many of them stííí segregate egroes ín
specíaí íocaís. Thís ís partícuíaríy true ín the outh,
where, however, comparatíveíy ííttíe trade uníon organ-
ízatíon has ta en píace among egroes. uffaío, ew
or , has a separate egro ongshoremen s Uníon.
There are a number of segregated egro íocaís of the
Uníted Míne or ers of meríca.
The príncípíe of segregatíon perpetuates ítseíf con-
sístentíy. egregatíon ín the índergarten stímuíates
a desíre for segregatíon ín the grades when ít ís estab-
ííshed ín the grades, there ís usuaííy to be found a caíí for
segregatíon ín the hígh schooís. Then the atmosphere
wíthín the uníversítíes becomes íess toíerant toward any
group whích has aíready been cast out by the rest of the
schooí system. Then, of course, peopíe who are not fít
to sít wíth you ín coííege are certaíníy not good enough
to sít wíth you ín the movíng pícture shows, or on the
street cars, or on the par benches. egregatíon ín the
churches must íogícaííy antícípate segregatíon ín eaven.
n ew ríeans we have segregated grave yards for
segregatíon aííve caíís for segregatíon dead. ( ííííam
Píc ens, acíaí egregatíon, pportuníty, December,
1927, p. 3 4.)
erome Dowd ( egro ín merícan ífe, p. 39)
♦ 179
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C M C
reaches the concíusíon that: not oníy ín respect to
theír píace of resídence, but ín nearíy every other re-
spect, the egroes ín the orth tend to ííve apart from
the whítes. The degree of segregatíon generaííy varíes
wíth the mass of the egro popuíatíon.
n a border cíty íí e t. ouís, egroes are segregated
ín houses and apartments, ín schooís, píaygrounds, hos-
pítaís, factoríes, churches, . M. C. . s and . . C.
. s, fraternaí orders and practícaííy aíí other socíaí ín-
stítutíons and actívítíes.
egro segregatíon ís practícaííy uníversaí ín the
outh, wídespread ín the border states, fre uent ín the
orth. t ís the e treme form of díscrímínatíon whích
affects the egro ín aímost every contact that he has
wíth the whítes from one end of the Uníted tates to
the other.
egroes, as members of an ínferíor race, must be
ept by themseíves uníess they are occupíed ín addíng
to the píeasure or profít of the superíor whíte race. They
are outcast socíaííy as they are sub ugated and e -
píoíted economícaííy. The greatest vírtue that an mer-
ícan egro can possess ís to now hís píace and stay
ín ít.
♦ 180
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P G G T M
. The schooíyard at recess. pubííc schooí for egro
gírís, ashíngton, D. C.
2. segregated schooí for egroes oníy, ashíngton,
D. C.
181
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4. egregated hoteí, for egroes oníy, íorída.
♦ 182
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P G G T M
♦ 183
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#
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C M C
♦ 184
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#
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P G G T M
♦ 185
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#
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íí. egro wor ers enteríng the síde en-
trance, tíantíc Coast íne aííroad hops,
íorence, . C.
. egregatíon sectíon of a írgínía steam-
boat, ew s, a.
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#
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P G
T M
G
. níy egroes ííve on thís aítímore street.
14. ífth venue, ew or . ower ífth venue ís
e cíusíveíy whíte. n aríem ít ís bíac — and not
so e cíusíve.
♦ 187
G
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#
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C M C
1 . híte entrance to same restaurant, írmíngham.
♦ 188
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#
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C
♦ 189
G
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f
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m
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(
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#
p
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C M C
3. The burníng fíre and the mob waítíng for íts víctím
ín aco, Te as.
4. The víctím burned to a crísp
♦ 190
G
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#
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C
5. The mob en oys the gruesome spectacíe to the end,
aco, Te as.
. The fínísh.
♦ 191
G
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#
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C M C
♦ 192
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#
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C
10. urned at the sta e, Conroy, Te as.
♦ 193
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C M C
♦ 194
G
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#
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C
13. híte mob e uítíng over íts dead víctím. urned
to death ín Míssíssíppí.
14. egro stoned to death by whítes ín Chícago race
ríot.
♦ 195
G
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#
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C M C
15. egro resídence ín orth íde Chícago, after a
crowd of whítes had vísíted the sectíon. Chícago race
ríot.
1d. uíns of coíored schooí buíídíng, ed an , . .,
set fíre by whítes as a se ueí to race war at Carteret,
. .
♦ 19
G
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#
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19: C
ynch íaw ís the method by whích díscrímínatíon and
segregatíon are enforced agaínst recaícítrant members
of the bíac race. egroes who recogníze theír posítíon
of ínferíoríty wíthout uestíon, who foííow the whíte
man s íead, who accept hís udgments, and adhere to
hís decísíons, ta e the wages whích he offers and wor
the hours whích he prescríbes, have ííttíe troubíe.
ut woe to the egro who transgresses the code that
the whíte man procíaíms Usuaííy there are no íaws
under whích egroes can be ade uateíy puníshed for
beíng fresh egroes. The coíor ííne ís more often
drawn by vígííantes and íocaí íaw and order men than
by state statutes and constítutíons. n fact, íaw and
constítutíon accord the egro e uaí ríghts as an merí-
can cítízen. ynchíng bees eep hím ín hís píace as a
member of a sub ugated, e píoíted race.
Mob íaw píays a roíe on every frontíer. t ís the
agency by means of whích the domínant group ín a new
communíty protects íts ínterests and enforces íts wííí.
híte mob íaw ín íts deaííngs wíth egroes has con-
tínued past the poíítícaí and economíc frontíer to the
frontíer of race reíatíons. t ís the means by whích the
domínant whíte popuíatíon of the Uníted tates, and
partícuíaríy of the outh, forces íts wííí upon those
members of the ínferíor bíac popuíatíon who dare to
uestíon or to threaten whíte supremacy.
Mob ruíe ín the case of egroes ordínarííy ta es the
form of íynchíng.
n merícan íynchíng ís ín many cases a pubííc spec-
tacíe, whích ín íts dramatíc effects ran s wíth buíí fíghts
and oman gíadíatoríaí contests. ynchíngs are fre-
uentíy advertísed ín advance and staged ín pubííc
♦ 197
G
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#
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í
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C M C
píaces. mong the thousands who wítness them are
men, women and chíídren.
enry owry, a egro about forty years of age, was
íynched ín r ansas under condítíons whích typífy the
íynchíng practíce as ít has deveíoped ín the Uníted
tates.
owry, wíth hís wífe and a sí -year-oíd daughter were
íívíng on the farm of . T. Craíg, a íarge píanter ín
Míssíssíppí County, r ansas. owry was rated an
honest, hard-wor íng and ínoffensíve egro.
Craíg, the píanter, was an e tensíve íand owner. e
and hís sons controííed the poíítícaí as weíí as the eco-
nomíc íífe of the neíghborhood.
s Chrístmas approached, owry, the egro, as ed
Craíg for a settíement. e had been wor íng about
two years for the whíte píanter, and ít was saíd that
owry was íntendíng to move and wanted to now
where he stood fínancíaííy. n the course of the díscus-
síon, íchard Craíg, son of . T. Craíg, struc owry
and toíd hím that íf he wanted a settíement he must
come some other day.
n Chrístmas day owry went agaín to the Craíg
house. The Craígs were at dínner and as owry waí ed
up to the house, essíe, the coo , entered the díníng
room reportíng that owry had come bac . hen
owry reached the porch he stated that he had come
agaín to as for a settíement. . T. Craíg ordered hím
off the píace and threw a bíííet of wood, whích struc
owry. t the same tíme, Díc Craíg, one of the sons,
who had the reputatíon, among the egroes, of beíng a
bad man, came out on the porch and as owry was
bac íng off, shot hím. t was then that owry puííed
hís gun and shot, ííííng . T. Craíg and hís marríed
daughter, and woundíng both sons.
owry escaped from r ansas and was arrested ín
í Paso, Te as, where he was heíd by the poííce untíí
♦ 198
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two deputy sheríffs arríved to ta e hím to r ansas.
n hour before the traín bearíng owry and the two
deputy sheríffs reached ardís, Míssíssíppí, haíf a dozen
traveí-staíned automobííes entered the ííttíe town. The
Memphís Press of ednesday, anuary 2 , 1921, de-
scríbed theír doíngs as foííows:
everaí men aííghted from each auto, and went
to the ííínoís Centraí depot.
e are here to ta e that egro off the traín
and carry hím bac to ííson, r ., the íeader
of the mob saíd as he approached íght Marshaí
. . ohnson, and we hope we won t have to
cause any troubíe here.
The moment the traín stopped each man drew
a revoíver and the íeader boarded the egro coach,
foííowed cíoseíy by the others. ot a word was
spo en.
owry was handcuffed to Deputy Greer, who
was asíeep, whííe Deputy Dí on stood guard.
pproachíng them from behínd, the mob mem-
bers seízed the deputíes and dísarmed them. ne of
them too the handcuff eys from Deputy Dí on s
poc et and reíeased Deputy Greer s wríst.
íth the egro between them, they fííed out
of the coach, íeavíng the offícers behínd.
The Memphís ews címítar ín íts ínaí Cíty dítíon
on ednesday afternoon carríed the foííowíng head-
íínes: owry ynchers nnounce Program egro to
Pay Mob s Penaíty for Críme.
The Memphís Press on the same eveníng ín íts ome
dítíon carríed a headíng e tendíng across the entíre
front page: May ynch Three to í egroes Thís
veníng. The íeadíng story whích occupíed the center
of the front page of the paper was: owry ears Tree
♦ 199
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on hích t s Píanned to ang ím Ta en Thru
Memphís Today. The story began:
hííe fíve of theír number detoured around
Memphís ín a cíosed automobííe wíth enry owry,
negro murderer, who ís to be íynched at odena,
r ., toníght, other aííeged members of the mob
whích too hím from offícers at ardís, Míss., earíy
thís morníng, came to Memphís and díned at oteí
Peabody today.
The ome dítíon of the Memphís Press on Thursday
(the foííowíng day) carríed a headíng across the front
page: ííí egro y nches. The story wrítten from
the scene of the íynchíng by a Memphís Press reporter
descríbed the íncídent as foííows:
More than 500 persons stood by and íoo ed on
whííe the egro was síowíy burned to a crísp.
few women were scattered among the crowd of r-
ansas píanters, who dírected the gruesome wor
of avengíng the death of . T. Craíg and hís
daughter, Mrs. C. . ííííamson.
ot once díd the síayer beg for mercy despíte
the fact that he suffered one of the most horríbíe
deaths ímagínabíe. íth the egro chaíned to a
íog, members of the mob píaced a smaíí pííe of
íeaves around hís feet. Gasoííne was then poured
on the íeaves, and the carryíng out of the death
sentence was under way.
nch by ínch the egro was faíríy coo ed to
death. very few mínutes fresh íeaves were tossed
on the funeraí pyre untíí the bíaze had passed the
egro s waíst. s the fíames were eatíng away hís
abdomen, a member of the mob stepped forward
♦ 200
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and saturated the body wíth gasoííne. t was then
oníy a few mínutes untíí the egro had been re-
duced to ashes.
ven after the fíesh had dropped away from hís
íegs and the fíames were íeapíng toward hís face,
owry retaíned conscíousness. ot once díd he
whímper or beg for mercy. nce or twíce he at-
tempted to píc up the hot ashes ín hís hands and
thrust them ín hís mouth ín order to hasten
death. . . .
vídentíy, from the reports, the bad state of the
roads aíone prevented the íynchers from reachíng
Maríon and íythevíííe ín order to íay theír hands on
Morrís en íns and . T. ííííams, both of whom were
accused of assístíng owry ín ma íng hís escape ímme-
díateíy after he shot Craíg and hís daughter.
The íynchíng of owry ís one of the many ínstances
ín whích wídespread newspaper pubíícíty was gíven to
the event more than twenty-four hours before ít actuaííy
occurred. íthough the íeadíng newspapers of Mem-
phís were carryíng scare headíínes, no effectíve measures
were ta en to prevent the íynchíng.
íí of the evídence índícates that the píans for the
íynchíng were very carefuííy íaíd and that hundreds
of persons partícípated, dírectíy or índírectíy, ín carry-
íng the píans ínto effect.
The Crísís, for December, 192 (pp. 72 ff.) gíves the
compíete story of a outh Caroíína íynchíng. am ow-
man and hís famííy moved from aíuda County to a
farm near í en, outh Caroíína, ín 1924. few
months íater a mob of robed and hooded íansmen went
to the owman house, caííed Demon, a twenty-two-year-
oíd son, to the door, and gave hím a severe whíppíng.
Two wee s íater heríff oward of í en was advísed
♦ 201
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ín an anonymous íetter that am owman was seíííng
whís ey.
The heríff, accompaníed by three deputíes, aíí ín
cívííían cíothes, started ín the dírectíon of the owman
home.
s the sheríff and hís deputíes approached the house,
nníe owman, the fífty-fíve-year-oíd mother and her
daughter ertha were wor íng ín the yard. The daugh-
ter caííed her mother s attentíon to the approach of the
four whíte men. oth women then started for the house.
The whíte men saw them, drew theír revoívers and be-
gan runníng toward the house ín order to surround ít.
The heríff caught up wíth ertha owman at the bac
steps, struc her ín the mouth and ordered her to stand
bac . Mrs. owman, seeíng her daughter was beíng at-
tac ed, píc ed up an a e and started to her assístance.
he was shot dead by one of the deputy sheríffs.
The son Demon, and Cíarence, a fífteen-year-oíd
cousín, heard the shootíng and ran toward the house.
Demon got a revoíver and Cíarence a shot gun. oth
sídes then opened fíre. n the course of the struggíe,
the heríff was íííed. ertha was shot three tímes and
both boys were wounded.
There were rumors of íynchíng and the fíve owmans
who had been arrested were ta en to the penítentíary
at Coíumbía.
The shootíng occurred on príí 25, 1925. n May
4, the owmans were índícted and tríed on May 12.
The two boys were sentenced to death and ertha to íífe
ímprísonment. The case was appeaíed and the convíctíon
set asíde by a hígher court.
n ctober, 192 , the íocaí udge, after hearíng an
argument by the attorneys for the owmans, dírected
a verdíct of ot Guííty for Demon and ordered new
tríaís for Cíarence and ertha.
♦ 202
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n hour after udge anham deíívered hís
decísíon a whíte man ín Coíumbía was taí íng wíth
hís íawyer.
am sorry, the cííent saíd, rísíng, but wííí
have to fínísh taí íng thís over wíth you some other
tíme.
hat s your hurry the íawyer as ed.
Got to go over to í en ríght away.
hat s goíng to happen there, and why a-re
you ín such a hurry
They are goíng to íynch three níggers over
there to-níght. Don t you want to come aíong
( aíter híte, hambíes of outh Caroíína,
Crísís, December, 192 , p. 74.)
That níght members of an organízed mob secured
access to the í en aíí, opened the ceíís ín whích the
three owmans were confíned and too them ín
automobííes toward the spot whích had been determíned
upon for the íynchíng. Cíarence owman, fífteen,
umped from the car ín whích he was rídíng. e was
shot down, a rope was ta en from under the rear seat,
one end of ít was attached to Cíarence s body and the
other fastened to the rear a íe. The ourney was then
resumed wíth the boy s body draggíng aíong behínd
the car.
thousand peopíe had gathered at a touríst camp
about a mííe and a haíf from the town. The three
egroes were ííned up and toíd to run. They started
and as they díd so they were shot ín the bac . The
two boys were dead the woman was not. he thrashed
about on the ground, beggíng píteousíy for íífe. he s
bíeatíng íí e a goat, one of the mob members íaughed
derísíveíy as he saíd ít. The síght was too much for some
of the mob and they turned theír heads away. thers
íess tender-hearted fíred shot after shot at the s uírmíng
♦ 203
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fígure. t íast one buííet found a vítaí spot, a spas-
modíc uíver and the body was stííí.
nother form of torture was reported when ím Mc-
íherron, a egro who shot and íííed two whíte men,
was tortured wíth a red hot crow bar and then burned
to death before a crowd of appro ímateíy 2,000 per-
sons among whom were men, women and chíídren.
Mcííherron, who was badíy wounded and unabíe
to waí , was carríed to the scene of the murder,
where preparatíon for a funeraí pyre was begun.
The captors proceeded to a spot about a uarter
of a mííe from the raííroad statíon and prepared
the death fíre. The crowd foííowed and remaíned
throughout the horríbíe proceedíngs. The egro
was íed to a híc ory tree, to whích they chaíned
hím. fter securíng hím to the tree a fíre was íaíd.
short dístance away another fíre was índíed, and
ínto ít was put an íron bar to heat.
hen the bar became red hot a member of the
mob abbed ít toward the egro s body. Crazed
wíth fríght, the bíac grabbed hoíd of ít, and as
ít was puííed through hís hands the atmosphere
was fíííed wíth the odor of burníng fíesh. Thís
was the fírst tíme the murderer gave evídence of
hís wííí beíng bro en. cream after scream rent the
aír. s the hot íron was appííed to varíous parts
of hís body hís yeíís and críes for mercy couíd be
heard ín the town.
fter torturíng the egro severaí mínutes one
of the mas ed men poured coaí oíí on hís feet and
trousers and appííed a match to the pyre. s the
fíames rose, enveíopíng the bíac s body, he begged
that he be shot. eíís of derísíon greeted hís re-
uest. The angry fíames consumed hís cíothíng and
ííttíe bíue bíazes shot upward from hís burníng
♦ 204
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haír before he íost conscíousness. Chattanooga
Daííy Tímes. Crísís, príí, 1918, p. 270.)
correspondent of the Memphís ews címítar
wrote the foííowíng descríptíon of a íynchíng whích too
píace ín the autumn of 1925:
watched an angry mob chaín hím to an íron
sta e. watched them pííe wood around hís heíp-
íess body. watched them pour gasoííne on thís
wood. nd watched three men set thís wood on
fíre. stood ín a crowd of 00 peopíe as the fíames
graduaííy crept nearer and nearer to the heípíess
egro. watched the bíaze cíímb hígher and
hígher, encírcííng hím wíthout mercy. heard hís
cry of agony as the fíames reached hím and set hís
cíothíng on fíre.
h, God h, God he shouted. dídn t do
ít. ave Mercy The bíaze íeaped hígher. The
egro struggíed. e íc ed the chaín íoose from
hís an íes but ít heíd hís waíst and nec agaínst
the íron post that was becomíng red wíth the ín-
tense heat.
ave mercy, dídn t do ít. dídn t do ít
e shouted agaín and agaín. . . .
oon he became uíet. There was no doubt
that he was dead. The fíames umped and íeaped
above hís head. n odor of burníng fíesh reached
my nostríís. feít suddeníy síc ened. Through the
íeapíng bíaze couíd see the egro saggíng and
supported by the chaíns.
hen the fírst odor of the ba íng fíesh reached
the mob there was a sííght stír. everaí men moved
nervousíy.
et s fínísh ít up, someone saíd.
nstantíy about 12 men stepped from the crowd.
♦ 205
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They pííed wood on the fíre that was aíready bíaz-
íng hígh. . The egro was dead, but more wood
was pííed on the fíames. They umped hígher and
hígher. othíng couíd be seen now for the bíaze
encírcíed everythíng.
Then the crowd waí ed away. n the vanguard
of the mob notíced a woman. he seemed to be
rather young, yet ít ís hard to teíí about women of
her type, strong and heaíthy, apparentíy a woman
of the country. he waí ed wíth a fírm, even stríde.
he was beautífuí ín a way.
The crowd waí ed síowíy away.
m hungry, someone compíaíned. et s get
somethíng to eat. (Crísís, ovember, 1925,
pp. 41-2.)
rom 188 5 to 1927, accordíng to fígures pubííshed ín
the oríd ímanac, 5,22 egroes were íynched ín the
Uníted tates. Duríng the same períod 1,047 whíte per-
sons were íynched ín the Uníted tates. rom 1885 to
1889 egro íynchíngs ranged from 71 to 95 per year.
n 1891, 121 egroes were íynched. rom 1891 untíí
1895 egro íynchíngs ranged from 112 to 155 (1892).
ínce 1901 there has been no síngíe year ín whích as
many as 100 egroes were íynched. The íowest numbers
on record were 1 íynchíngs ín 1924 and 17 ín 1925.
Thírty ears of ynchíng ín the Uníted tates 1889
to 19/8 ís the títíe of a pamphíet pubííshed by the
atíonaí ssocíatíon for the dvancement of Coíored
Peopíe, ín príí, 1919. Duríng these 30 years the totaí
number of whíte and coíored persons íynched ín the
Uníted tates was 3,224. f thís number 702 were
whíte and 2,522 were egroes. mong the 2,522 e-
groes íynched, 2,472 were maíes and 50 were femaíes.
The atíonaí ssocíatíon for the dvancement of
Coíored Peopíe has pubííshed a record of íynchíng for
♦ 20
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each year sínce 1918. Duríng 1927, 21 men were
íynched 7 ín Míssíssíppí, 3 ín Tennessee, 3 ín r-
ansas, 2 ín íorída, 1 ín Caíífornía, 1 ín entuc y, 1
ín ouísíana, 1 ín Míssourí, 1 ín orth Caroíína and 1
ín Te as. Three of those íynched, aíí of them egroes,
were burned to death.
Most of the egro íynchíngs have ta en píace ín the
outh. Duríng the 30 years between 1889 and 1918 the
orth reported 219 íynchíngs, the outh, 2,834 and tne
est, 1 5 . Georgía íeads the ííst of states wíth 38
íynchíngs foííowed by Míssíssíppí wíth 373 Te as wíth
33 5 ouísíana wíth 313 íabama wíth 27 r ansas
wíth 214 Tennessee wíth 29 íorída wíth 178 and
entuc y wíth 1 9.
There ís a generaí beííef that most íynchíngs occur
because of attac s on women. The fígures show that thís
ís not the case. mong the 2,522 egroes íynched be-
tween 1889 and 1918, 900 were charged wíth murder
477 wíth rape, 237 wíth attac s upon women 253 wíth
other crímes agaínst the person 210 wíth crímes agaínst
property and 303 wíth mísceííaneous crímes. ne hun-
dred and forty-two cases of íynchíng are cíassífíed as
absence of críme wíth thís e píanatíon, Under thís
head are íísted such causes as testífyíng agaínst whítes
suíng whítes wrong man íynched etc.
ot the íeast remar abíe of the varíous aspects of
merícan íynchíng ís the number of women íynched.
etween 1889 and 1925 there are 90 ínstances of íynch-
íng of women. íne too píace ín íabama 9 ín r-
ansas 8 ín Georgía 1 ín Míssíssíppí ín outh Caro-
íína 7 ín Tennessee 11 ín Te as. The charges agaínst
these women were murder, ímpíícatíon ín murder, re-
sístíng arrest, reíatíonshíp to crímínaís, dísorderíy con-
duct, etc.
The atíonaí ssocíatíon for the dvancement of
Coíored Peopíe has recentíy íed a movement, whích has
♦ 207
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had wídespread support, to secure ederaí íegísíatíon
agaínst íynchíng. hííe a number of states have passed
antí-íynchíng íaws, íocaí sentíment generaííy protects
the íynchers. The Daííy ews of ac son, Míssíssíppí, ís
uoted by the Crísís of ovember, 1925, page 42, as
foííows:
or the fírst tíme ín the hístory of thís state,
so far as ís nown, a mob member has pubíícíy ad-
mítted hís guíít, and íssued a statement concerníng
the affaír.
ííííam . radshaw, of Uníon county, ad-
míts he was a member of the mob that searched for
the guííty egro, and decíares that Gov. hít-
fíeíd won t have a ííc of íuc wíth any ínvestíga-
tíon of the burníng of ím vy.
nd furthermore, he contínued, not an offí-
cer ín Uníon county or any of the neíghboríng
countíes wííí poínt out any members of the crowd.
hy, íf he díd, the best thíng for hím to do wouíd
be to ump ínto an aírpíane headed for Germany
uíc .
ure, the offícers now who were there. very-
body down there nows everybody eíse. . . .
ven one of the udges down there saíd he
dídn t beííeve ín mob íaw e cept ín a few cases
and thís was one of them and that he d have gone
to the burníng íf ít hadn t been bad poíícy. . . .
coroner s ury whích ínvestígated the íynch-
íng returned a verdíct that vy came to hís death
at the hands of a mob, the members of whích are
un nown.
ndíctments have been returned ín some recent cases
of íynchíng. Generaííy, however, no attempt ís made
to punísh the íynchers, even ín states whích have íaws
♦ 208
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specífícaííy prohíbítíng íynchíng. There ís no uestíon
of ídentífícatíon. Píctures of the íynchíngs and of the
mob are soíd on the streets. ocaí sentíment ís behínd
the practíce and the íocaí udícíaí machínery ís paraíyzed.
student of merícan íynchíngs sums the matter
up ín these words: There ís usuaííy more or íess pubííc
approvaí, or supposed favorabíe pubííc sentíment, behínd
a íynchíng. ... íynchíng may be defíned as an íííegaí
and summary e ecutíon at the hands of a mob, or a
number of persons, who have ín some degree the pubííc
opíníon of the communíty behínd them. (Cutíer,
ynch aw, p. 27 .)
ríctíon between whítes and egroes ín the Uníted
tates occasíonaííy íeads to race ríots or race wars. hííe
such outbrea s have occurred at íntervaís for many
years, a number of them were concentrated ín the períod
from 1917 to 1920, and ín those parts of the country
to whích there had been e tensíve and recent egro
mígratíons. ne of the most dísastrous of these race
wars too píace ín Chícago duríng the summer of 1919.
t was descríbed ín a very e tensíve report, The egro
ín Chícago. (The Chícago Commíssíon on ace eía-
tíons, Chícago, Uníversíty of Chícago Press, 1922.) n
the course of thís race war 38 persons, íncíudíng 15
whítes, were íííed 537 persons, íncíudíng 178 whítes
were ín ured, and about 1,000 índívíduaís were rendered
homeíess through the depredatíons of the mobs.
The Chícago race ríot started casuaííy enough. hítes
and egroes were bathíng ín a e Míchígan on two
beaches ín the neíghborhood of Twenty-nínth treet,
outh íde. The races ept apart, the whítes usíng the
northern beach and the egroes the southern. There
was no offícíaí segregatíon, but the separatíon too píace
by common consent.
unday afternoon, uíy 27, four egroes waí ed
through the whíte sectíon of the bathíng beach and
♦ 209
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started ínto the water. híte men ordered them to
íeave. There was a díscussíon and some stones were
thrown. The egroes went bac to theír own beach,
returned wíth reínforcements and the confííct contínued.
seventeen year oíd egro boy had íeft the egro
bathíng beach and was swímmíng opposíte the beach on
whích the whítes were bathíng. Duríng the stone throw-
íng he apparentíy became fríghtened and ínstead of
swímmíng bac to the egro beach, got hoíd of a píece
of wood and stayed out of stone range ín deep water.
whíte man started to swím toward the egro boy.
The íatter íet go hís hoíd of the píece of wood, too a
few stro es and went down. There was no evídence that
the egro boy was hít by a stone. everaí egroes, how-
ever, charged that he had been struc by a stone and
poínted out a whíte man who had been throwíng at hím.
The whíte poííceman refused to arrest the whíte man
charged wíth stoníng the egro boy.
hítes and egroes oíned ín dívíng for the boy s
body. There was e cíted taí and a crowd of egroes
gathered as news spread that a egro boy had been
stoned to death. group of poííce appeared and ín the
course of a confííct wíth the crowd of egroes a egro
poííceman was shot by a member of the crowd. The
egro poííceman drew hís own revoíver and íííed hís
assaííant.
That unday afternoon the egro crowd at Twenty-
nínth treet beat 4 whíte men, stabbed 5 others and
shot 1. urther west duríng the eveníng whíte crowds
beat 27 egroes, stabbed 7 and shot 4.
Monday morníng Chícago went to wor as usuaí, but
duríng the afternoon egroes on theír way home from
wor were dragged from the cars and mobbed by whítes.
Duríng these attac s 4 egroes and 1 whíte were íííed
and 30 egro men were severeíy beaten.
egro mobs were aíso actíve. n the course of the
♦ 210
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eveníng they stabbed whíte men, shot 5 others, severeíy
beat 9 and íííed 4. n the same eveníng there was a
cíash wíth the poííce who fíred ínto the mob. our
egroes were íííed and many ín ured. t thís poínt
Monday níght, both whítes and egroes showed sígns
of paníc. ach race grouped by ítseíf. maíí mobs
began systematícaííy, ín varíous neíghborhoods, to ter-
roríze and ííí. ( egro ín Chícago, p. .)
híte gangs raíded egro terrítory. utomobííes
were used for the purpose. They were dríven through
the egro uarters at hígh speed, the occupants fíríng
índíscrímínateíy as they passed. s the auto raíds grew
more fre uent, egroes repííed by fíríng on aíí cars
passíng through theír terrítory. íot condítíons contín-
ued on Tuesday, and on ednesday the Mayor of Chí-
cago reíuctantíy caííed the tate Mííítía to hís aíd.
Troops remaíned on duty untíí ugust 8.
Chícago ís the second most popuíous cíty ín the Uníted
tates. The egro sectíon of the south síde wíth íts
popuíatíon of appro ímateíy 125,000 ís one of the most
híghíy concentrated egro uarters ín any cíty of the
Uníted tates. egroes had been mígratíng ínto Chícago
duríng the earíy períod of the war. Toward the end of
the war, however, wíth hígh wages and íabor demand,
the number of egroes greatíy íncreased. egroes were
pressíng ínto whíte men s obs and ínto whíte neígh-
borhoods. The fríctíon was íntensífíed by the use of
egroes as strí ebrea ers. Thus the generaí dísíodge-
ment províded the stímuíus out of whích race confííct
arose.
ecent race confíícts ín the Uníted tates are thus
anaíyzed by euter: The war, ín a number of píaces,
brought the ínter-racíaí sítuatíon to a premature cííma .
The íncreased mobíííty, the ímproved economíc posítíon,
and the army e períence of the egroes stímuíated the
deveíopment of a race conscíous soíídaríty. n the part
♦ 211
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of the whítes an íncreased hatred of race was an íntegraí
part of the war-tíme íntoíerance. There were a number
of armed confíícts resuítíng ín bíoodshed and the de-
structíon of property. ven more fre uent were the
occasíons where ríots were narrowíy averted or were sup-
pressed before they assumed the proportíon or duratíon
of racíaí war. n the year 1919 seríous ríots occurred
ín seven cítíes: Chícago, ííínoís íaíne, r ansas
Charíeston, outh Caroíína no víííe, Tennessee ong-
víew, Te as maha, ebras a and ashíngton, D. C.
n the foííowíng year símííar ríots too píace at Duíuth,
Mínnesota ndependence, ansas and coce, íorída.
n 1921 there were ríots of seríous proportíons at príng-
fíeíd, hío, and Tuísa, íahoma. ther seríous race
confíícts occurred at Coatesvíííe, Pennsyívanía príng-
fíeíd, ííínoís Chester, Pennsyívanía osewood, íorída
ohnstown, Pennsyívanía, and ast t. ouís, ííínoís.
( euter, The merícan ace Probíem, p. 418.)
eíatíons between merícan egroes and merícan
whítes occupy a frontíer of confííct whích ís beyond the
paíe of organízed socíety. ome of these reíatíons are
reguíated by íaw, but for the most part the sub ect
egro race ís heíd ín íts sub ect posítíon by the domínant
whíte race through organízed víoíence. n the case of
índívíduaís, íynchíngs are conducted by organízed mobs.
arger socíaí íssues íead to race wars ín whích whíte
mobs índíscrímínateíy wrec and burn egro dweíííngs
and beat and ííí egroes.
These organízed íawíess mob attac s by whítes on
egroes usuaííy go unpuníshed. aw enforcement ín
the Uníted tates ís an e cíusíve functíon of the domí-
nant whíte race, and thus far the domínant race has
not hesítated to brea the íaw when any need arose for
eepíng egroes ín theír píace.
♦ 212
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20: U CT C
egroes ín the ímportant centers of merícan economíc
íífe are a sub ect race. They are racíaííy segregated and
treated as racíaí ínferíors.
conomíc power ííes ín the hands of the whítes. They
are the ob owners. hen ít comes to a choíce between
varíous obs the egroes are díscrímínated agaínst the
whítes are favored. The whítes through theír domínatíon
of busíness machínery controí the economíc surpíus.
Thus the whoíe economíc fíeíd from ob ownershíp to
the controí of surpíus rests wíth the whítes.
rom thís fíeíd, and partícuíaríy from the hígher
posítíons ín ít, egroes are rígídíy, aímost automatícaííy
e cíuded they remaín the underdogs. Mííííons of e-
gro men and women contínue through theír whoíe ííves
to do the humbíest and íowest paíd wor wíthout any
hope or possíbíííty of advancement, or even of wages
or saíaríes commensurate wíth those paíd to whítes ín
símííar círcumstances. The egro of our tímes carríes
even more heavííy the burden of hís racíaí descent than
díd the ew of an earííer períod and the ínteííectuaí and
moraí uaíítíes re uíred to ínsure success to the egro
are ínfíníteíy greater than those demanded of the whíte,
and wííí be greater, the strícter the segregatíon of the
egro communíty. ( víngton, aíf a Man, p. vííí.)
Duncan wrítes that the egro masses are beíng heíd to
the íowest, most meníaí occupatíons. The egro has
room at the bottom but no fí ed índustríaí status.
(Changíng ace eíatíonshíps, p. 82.)
ome effort has been made to prove that egroes are
mentaííy, physícaííy and racíaííy ínferíor to whítes:
therefore íess effícíent: therefore íess entítíed to íncome
or to occupatíonaí promotíon. Thís propaganda has been
♦ 213
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vígorousíy promuígated through the orth duríng the
períod of actíve egro mígratíon. Much of ít has íts
orígín ín coííege cíassrooms and íaboratoríes.
uch arguments avoíd the maín íssue.
egroes are not e píoíted and díscrímínated agaínst
economícaííy because of theír ínferíor capacíty. f ín-
feríor capacíty were the test, the whítes wouíd dístín-
guísh between egroes ín proportíon to theír capacíty to
perform the partícuíar tas ín hand. Those egroes who
were competent to perform the tas wouíd be seíected
for ít those egroes who were unabíe to perform the
tas wouíd be re ected because of theír íac of com-
petence.
conomíc díscrímínatíon agaínst the egro rests on no
such basís.
rom síave days certaín egroes have díspíayed un-
usuaí capacítíes ín aíí of the ímportant íínes of human
endeavor. There have been híghíy gífted egro síngers,
poets, actors, íogícíans, scíentísts, organízers but these
outstandíng íeaders of the egro race have been treated
by the whítes not as poets, scíentísts and organízers, but
as egroes that ís, as members of an ínferíor race.
egroes ín the Uníted tates are díscrímínated agaínst
economícaííy because they are egroes, írrespectíve of
theír personaí capacítíes. Thís ís so uníversaííy true both
orth and outh that ít ís vírtuaííy a íomatíc.
hííe the whítes contínue, as a race, to own the
sources of economíc power wíth whích the bíac s must
wor ín order to ííve, a defíníte conscíousness of whíte-
ness wííí remaín among members of the e píoítíng race
and an e uaííy defíníte conscíousness of bíac ness wííí be
forced upon members of the e píoíted race. The present
straíned race reíatíons must contínue no matter what
the uaíítíes or the fate of índívíduaí egroes may be.
egroes ma e up the íargest síngíe segregated group
of merícan mass íabor. hííe they remaín segregated
♦ 214
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U CT C
and whííe the ownershíp and controí of economíc op-
portuníty remaíns ín the hands of the whítes, the e-
groes must ínevítabíy contínue to be the ob ect of whíte
e píoítatíon.
merícan egroes are a sub ect race economícaííy.
conomíc sub ectíon and e píoítatíon are refíected ín
poíítícaí subordínatíon.
Poíítícaííy, merícan egroes hoíd no posítíon of ím-
portance anywhere ín the Uníted tates. egroes are not
eíected to ímportant pubííc offíces even where egroes
are ín the overwheímíng ma oríty. owhere do strategíc
pubííc appoíntments go to egroes. verywhere ín
the outh the whítes are ín poíítícaí controí. ven ín
the íac eít where the egro popuíatíon outnumbers
many tímes that of the whíte race, aíí the offíces, wíth
a few unímportant e ceptíons, are fíííed by whíte men.
íth aíí the mííííons of egroes ín the outh there ís not
one who hoíds state or county offíce or occupíes a seat
ín the íegísíature and, e cept ín a few smaíí towns and
víííages ínhabíted aímost whoííy by egroes, there ís not
to be found a coíored mayor, member of the munícípaí
councíí, ustíce of the peace or even a poíícemen. e-
groes rareíy sít on uríes, they are not aííowed to serve
ín the mííítía and of course they are never found on
regístratíon or eíectíon boards. (Garner, outhern
Poíítícs sínce the Cívíí ar, p. 377.)
Despíte íegaí and constítutíonaí guarantees the egro
masses do not vote. ven where the egroes are abíe
to estabíísh a compíete racíaí soíídaríty and see to for-
muíate demands at the poíís, they have no means of en-
forcíng theír decísíons upon the members of the whíte
e píoítíng cíass.
híte men ín the Uníted tates own economícaííy
and domínate poíítícaííy. The egro voter ís perhaps
more of an ínferíor than the egro wor er. t íeast
íarge numbers of egroes are abíe to earn theír íívíng,
♦ 215
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even íf ít be a meager one, by theír íabor. íth a few
mínor e ceptíons ín the great centers of merícan e-
gro popuíatíon, the egro masses do not and cannot
vote.
conomíc and poíítícaí sub ugatíon are refíected ín
the egro s posítíon of socíaí ínferíoríty. o matter
what hís personaí attaínments may be, the egro cannot
ma e a píace for hímseíf socíaííy ín any part of the
Uníted tates. e cannot míngíe wíth whítes on a basís
of e uaííty ín prívate homes. e ís díscrímínated agaínst
and segregated ín pubííc ínstítutíons. e ís a socíaí out-
cast agaínst whom the whíte ruííng cíass dírects an ín-
cessant vígorous propaganda, the ob ect of whích ís to
estabíísh and maíntaín a sense of racíaí ínferíoríty.
outh of the Mason and Dí on ííne where the great
masses of merícan egroes ííve, they have been treated
as a sub ect race from the earíy days of síavery. Dur-
íng recent years wíth the mígratíon of egro íabor
ínto índustríaí centers of both orth and outh, the
same racíaí díscrímínatíon and segregatíon are appearíng
ín the orth.
acíaí pressure on the egro has rísen as he has be-
come more artícuíate and actíve. Thís was partícuíaríy
notíceabíe duríng and ímmedíateíy after the woríd war
ín whích mííííons of egroes partícípated wíth the fírm
beííef that the wínníng of the war wouíd mean greater
racíaí opportunítíes.
egro-whíte reíatíons ín the Uníted tates were
recentíy summarízed for the oríd Tomorrow by
Charíes . ohnson under the rather uestíonabíe generaí
títíe: ecent Gaíns ín merícan Cívííízatíon. Mr.
ohnson s artícíe shows very cíearíy that the pressure on
the egroes ís íncreasíng.
e begíns by caíííng attentíon to the absence of stríct
segregatíon ín síave days, when egroes habítuaííy ííved
wíth and wor ed wíth and for theír whíte masters
21
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Then, wíth the econstructíon Períod passed, the
whítes put the screws on the egroes:
1. etween 1881 and 1907 aíí the outhern tates
enacted íaws separatíng the races on raííroad cars,
street cars and schooís, and e cíudíng egroes
from ury servíce and the prímaríes. (p. 14.)
2. The practíce of íynchíng too on a new ímpetus
ít became a hybríd sport-vengeance. (p. 14.)
3. More than a mííííon egroes moved from the
outh, from agrícuíture to índustry. The ín-
creased proportíons of egroes brought íímítatíons
of theír prívííeges ín the orth. There were race
ríots. conomíc rívaíry was fíercest at precíseíy
the moment egroes were movíng deepest ínto
the web of índustríaíísm. (p. 14.)
4. eventeen cítíes ín the orth wíthín the past
four years have been conspícuous for cíashes ín
housíng, resístance to the ínvasíon of whíte neígh-
borhoods, and vehement charges of property de-
precíatíon have grown as the egro popuíatíon
spread. egregatíon ínstead of íesseníng, has tended
to íncrease. (p. 5.)
5. tíanta, Georgía, and Charíeston, outh Caroíína,
have put forth bííís to prevent egro barbers from
handííng whíte trade. The growíng íabor con-
scíousness of the outh ís barríng egroes from
trades. orthern Uníversítíes have íntroduced
íímítatíons on egro students and some have
uíetíy barred them entíreíy. gítatíon for sep-
arate egro schooís ín the orth has met wíth
some success.
. Personaí prívííeges have been íímíted for egroes
ín every cíty where the popuíatíon has become
íarge, ma íng ít appear to many, that no measur-
abíe gaíns have been made at aíí ín race reíatíons:
♦ 217
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rather that these reíatíons mereíy have been
íeveííed over a wíder area. (P. 15.) ( oríd
Tomorrow, anuary, 1928.)
íac meríca ís the source from whích the whíte
ruííng cíass of the Uníted tates proposes to draw an
ímportant part of íts mass íabor power. Upon thís
mass íabor the whíte ruíers ma e two demands: (1) ít
must wor cheap (2) ít must do what ít ís toíd. These
demands mean íow standards of íívíng and the accept-
ance, by the bíac s, of the socíaí code prescríbed by the
whítes.
The whíte ruííng cíass ís ín a posítíon to enforce
these demands. They hoíd the economíc power. They
have a monopoíy of poíítícs. They domínate the educa-
tíonaí and propaganda machínery. They are favored by
a tradítíon of ínferíoríty ínheríted from síave days. íth
comparatíve ease, therefore, tweíve mííííon merícan
egroes are beíng heíd ín a posítíon of racíaí sub uga-
tíon where theír mass íabor power can be secured at the
íowest wages and wíth the greatest net profít to the
whítes.
♦ 218
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íí: T G T UGG
D M
♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦
21: T C M
U D
1 e every other oppressed race, merícan egroes have
struggíed for freedom and seíf-e pressíon. Thís struggíe
has contínued sínce earííest síave days. ndívíduaí e-
groes have tríed to escape the ímpíícatíons of race sub-
ugatíon. egroes ín the mass have sought to free them-
seíves from e píoítatíon and to wín for theír race the
opportunítíes en oyed by the whítes.
íave revoíts occurred fre uentíy. níy ín the est
ndíes were they successfuí. Throughout the síave ter-
rítory of the Uníted tates they were suppressed, and
fearfuí puníshments were meted out to the ríngíeaders
ín these mass efforts toward egro emancípatíon.
Duríng the earíy days of síavery, before the whíte
síave-owníng cíass had thoroughíy organízed ítseíf, síave
revoíts actuaííy menaced whíte domínatíon. íth the
more compíete organízatíon of the whíte síave owners,
however, the íater síave revoíts were never more than
sporadíc íocaí efforts, dírected agaínst partícuíar síave
owners rather than agaínst the whoíe system of síavery.
The egro ear oo for 1925-192 (pp. 213-215)
bríefíy descríbes the more ímportant síave ínsurrectíons.
The edítor notes that some 25 ínsurrectíons of síaves
too píace ín the Uníted tates príor to the merícan
evoíutíon. (p. 213.) fter the revoíutíon, and wíth
the growíng weaíth and ímportance of the outhern
píanters, síave revoíts became íess and íess vítaí as a
factor ín outhern pubííc íífe.
t the outbrea of the Cívíí ar, wíth the greatíy
íncreased weaíth and organízatíon of the outhern síave-
♦ 219
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hoídíng cíass, the merícan egroes seemed further
than ever from emancípatíon through theír own efforts.
our mííííon of them were síaves the physícaí property
of whíte men. The haíf mííííon free egroes owned ííttíe
property, had vírtuaííy no poíítícaí ríghts, and were
treated as a sub ect race socíaííy.
The Cívíí ar of 18 1-18 5 díd for the egroes what
the egroes couíd not at that períod have done for
themseíves. n 18 3, as a war measure, Presídent ín-
coín by a stro e of the pen decíared aíí of the síaves
free.
íthough the Cívíí ar was not fought prímarííy to
ííberate egro síaves, the Procíamatíon of mancípatíon
and the Thírteenth mendment of the Uníted tates
Constítutíon prohíbítíng síavery were two of íts most
ímportant resuíts. oth of these measures were en-
forced, by an índustríaí free-íabor orth upon an
agrícuíturaí síave-íabor outh. mancípatíon, the
amended constítutíon and the econstructíon ra, dur-
íng whích the outhern tates remaíned under a orth-
ern mííítary díctatorshíp, were aíí a part of the socíaí
process by whích the busíness-controííed orth forced
índustríaíízatíon upon the píanter-controííed outh. n
the course of thís socíaí transformatíon the egro síaves
were ííberated and granted fuíí cítízenshíp ríghts.
avíng won the war, the busíness cíass of the orth
too up the tas of reconstructíon. conomícaííy, re-
constructíon meant the índustríaíízatíon of the outh.
Poíítícaííy ít meant the readmíssíon of the outhern
tates ínto the Uníon on condítíons acceptabíe to the
víctoríous orth. Two of these condítíons were the
ourteenth and ífteenth mendments to the Uníted
tates Constítutíon.
The ourteenth and ífteenth mendments were
ostensíbíy desígned to guarantee cívíí ríghts, íncíudíng
the ríght to vote, to egroes. Practícaííy, they have
♦ 220
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T C M U D
been utííízed to protect corporate ínterests and to
soíídífy and advance the economíc posítíon of the whíte
ruííng cíass of the Uníted tates. Duríng reconstruc-
tíon days, however, the fíght whích centered around
these amendments was based on the assumptíon that
theír enforcement wouíd not oníy gíve egroes the
ríght to vote, but wouíd íí ewíse guarantee them the
other cívíí ríghts enumerated ín the fírst ten amend-
ments to the Uníted tates Constítutíon and ín the bííís
of ríghts íncorporated ín the constítutíons of the ín-
dívíduaí states.
Thís was paper ííberatíon. t the end of the Cívíí
ar there were about fíve mííííon egroes ín the Uníted
tates. Most of them were ííííterate. ew of them had
property. níy here and there was there a egro
busíness or professíonaí man. The great mass of eman-
cípated egroes were fíeíd hands and servants who
had had no traíníng or e períence asíde from that whích
síavery on outhern píantatíons had offered.
ínce the egroes were propertyíess and obíess a
reedmen s ureau was organízed to assíst them ín secur-
íng íand and ín estabííshíng an economíc basís for theír
newíy gaíned freedom. The reedmen s ureau aíso
díd some píoneer wor ín the dírectíon of egro edu-
catíon. t best, however, ít was a tooí of orthern
economíc and poíítícaí ínterests that was empíoyed
agaínst the wíshes of the whíte outh. n the íac eít
íts wor was never effectíve.
The orthern whítes, ín theír effort to estabíísh a
free íabor system, aboííshed síavery, gave the egroes
constítutíonaí and íegaí guarantees of cívíí ríghts, and
províded a federaí government department, the ostensíbíe
purpose of whích was the advancement of egro ín-
terests.
The egroes, on theír síde, mígrated from the more
denseíy popuíated and oíder portíons of the outh ínto
♦ 221
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the newíy deveíopíng cotton terrítory of the outhwest.
There was aíso an ínconsíderabíe mígratíon from the
píantatíons to the índustríaí cítíes both outh and orth.
The egro masses twenty years after the end of the
Cívíí ar were stííí wor íng the íand for the most part
they were stííí bound to the íand through some form of
peonage or debt controí most of them were property-
íess they were ííííterate. egaííy, they had ceased to be
síaves. Practícaííy, they stííí made up a wor íng cíass
bound to the soíí and e píoíted by whíte íand owners.
The víctory of the orth, ín 18 5, resuíted, accordíng
to the hístory boo s, ín the freeíng of the íaves.
reeíng from what or what
Theoretícaííy, and íegaííy, the egroes were freed
from síavery.
Practícaííy, and economícaííy, the egroes were stííí
under the necessíty of ma íng a íívíng on íand owned by
outhern whíte men.
egroes obtaíned no new economíc status as a resuít
of the mancípatíon Procíamatíon. ífty years passed
before they made any effectíve gesture ín the dírectíon
of índustry. econstructíon íeft them íand wor ers and
house servants serfs ín fact, íf not ín íaw.
conomícaííy, poíítícaííy, socíaííy, íac meríca stííí
carríed the burdens of sub ugatíon and e píoítatíon after
the Procíamatíon of mancípatíon and the defeat of the
outh ín the Cívíí ar. Theoretícaííy the síaves became
freemen. ctuaííy they contínued to wor on the same
íand, often for the same master, and under condítíons
rendered doubíy onerous through war íosses and war
chaos.
♦ 222
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P T C D M C C
orthern índustríaíísts, as part of theír program for
convertíng the síave egro ínto a free egro, amended
the Constítutíon of the Uníted tates ín such a way
that the egro was enfranchísed. dvocates of democ-
racy haííed thís achíevement as a measure of egro
emancípatíon. Many of the egro íeaders themseíves
regarded poíítícs as the avenue aíong whích freedom
must be won.
eííevers ín the possíbíííty of egro emancípatíon
through poíítícaí actíon were soon dísíííusíoned, par-
tícuíaríy ín tate and íocaí eíectíons. n aíí of the
outhern tate íegísíatures there were egro representa-
tíves and senators. n outh Caroíína, the íegísíature
ín 18 8-18 9 contaíned 24 whíte and 9 egro senators
and 48 whíte and 7 egro representatíves. n the
íower house of the íegísíature the egroes were there-
fore ín a íarge ma oríty.
Tabíes were rapídíy turned, however. n 1873-4 tne
outh Caroíína íower house contaíned 3 whítes and 1
egroes. n 187 , 70 whítes and 54 egroes. n other
outhern states, símííar reductíons were made ín egro
representatíon.
The fírst egro Congressman was eíected ín 18 9 the
íast ín 1899. n 1873, fíve were eíected ín 1875, sí .
Thís was the pea of egro representatíon. fter 1879
there was never more than one egro representatíve ín
Congress.
s orthern mííítary controí was wíthdrawn from
the outh the process of dísfranchísíng the egro was
begun. or a tíme outhern whítes contented them-
seíves wíth terrorísm as a means of dísfranchísíng
♦ 223
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egroes. n 1890, Míssíssíppí began a movement to
íegaííy e cíude egroes from the franchíse.
ther outhern tates ímmedíateíy foííowed the íead
of Míssíssíppí. outh Caroíína ín 1895, ouísíana ín
1898, orth Caroíína ín 1900, íabama and írgínía ín
1901 and Georgía ín 1908, íaíd down íegaí restríctíons
under whích the mass of egroes were no íonger eíígíbíe
to vote. aws or constítutíonaí provísíons whích re-
stríct egro votíng are now ín force ín Míssíssíppí,
outh Caroíína, ouísíana, orth Caroíína, íabama,
írgínía, Georgía and íahoma.
ow do these íaws operate The process ís so com-
píícated few egroes themseíves now defíníteíy.
(Crísís, une, 1925, p. 2.)
egínníng wíth 1890, íaws have been passed ín
varíous outhern tates whích today dísfranchíse ap-
pro ímateíy four mííííon egroes twenty-one years of
age and over, over haíf of whom can read and wríte, and
who own property whích runs ínto the hundreds of
mííííons. (Crísís, une, 1925, p. 2.) The edítor of
The Crísís then íísts eíght methods by whích egro dís-
franchísement ís accompííshed:
1. íteracy. oters must be abíe to read and wríte.
2. Property. oters must own a certaín amount of
property.
3. Poíí Ta . The voter must have paíd hís poíí ta
wíthín the year or for a number of years.
4. mpíoyment. The voter must have reguíar em-
píoyment.
5. rmy servíce. oídíers who fought ín the Cívíí
ar or ín certaín other wars, or the descendants
of such soídíers may vote.
. eputatíon. Persons of good reputatíon, who
understand the dutíes of a cítízen may vote.
♦ 224
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7. Grandfather cíauses. Persons who couíd vote be-
fore the egroes were enfranchísed or descendants
of such persons may vote.
8. Understandíng cíause. Persons may vote who
understand some seíected cíauses of the constítu-
tíon and who can e píaín these cíauses to the satís-
factíon of the regístratíon offícíaís.
Under these provísíons any egro voter who ís ob-
ectíonabíe to the whíte eíectíon offícíaís may be dís-
franchísed.
These eíght methods of egro dísfranchísement are,
however, reíatíveíy unímportant when compared wíth
the whíte prímary. The whíte prímary ís íegaííy the
prímary eíectíon of the Democratíc Party. ny whíte
eíector who agrees to stand by the decísíons of the
prímary ís eíígíbíe to vote ín the prímary. egroes, on
the other hand, are seídom aííowed to vote. ínce the
decísíons of the prímary are ín effect the íegaí eíectíon,
the e cíusíon of egroes from the prímary ís reaííy an
e cíusíon from the eíectíon. The reaí poíítícaí struggíes
ín the outh are the poíítícaí struggíes íeadíng to the
prímary eíectíon. The eíectíon ítseíf ís usuaííy a for-
maííty.
here outhern egroes, despíte the obvíous wííí of
the ruííng whíte cíass, persíst n theír efforts to vote, they
are met wíth víoíence. The wCra , (May, 1925, p. 41)
reproduced a íondf eíectíon poster:

egro Cítízens, as íong as you eep your píace,
we wííí protect you,
UT
, the íu- íu - ían ís gaín ííve
nd very G who approaches a poíííng
píace ne t Tuesday wííí be
♦ 225
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#
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C M C
M D M .
Thís ís a híte man s country, boys, so save your
own íífe ne t Tuesday.
U U
Míamí Chapter
P. . Don t thín for a mínute that we don t
now you. whíte man wííí be at every poíííng
píace wíth hís boo . Don t Get n That oo
outhern whíte man from the Guíf Coast dístríct
of Míssíssíppí descríbed the sítuatíon ín hís country by
sayíng, e don t have epubíícan voters, and egroes
don t vote the Democratíc tíc et. s ed what wouíd
happen to egroes who went to the poíííng píace and
made an effort to vote on eíectíon day, he repííed, They
now better than to try.
egroes ín orthern índustríaí centers vote wíth
about the same freedom as other cítízens. n the outh,
however, where the great mass of egroes ííve and wor ,
egroes do not vote.
The year 1920 was both a census year and a presí-
dentíaí eíectíon year. . . . Du oís, edítor of the
Crísís, who too the occasíon to compare the census
fígures wíth the eíectíon fígures, showed that:
1. The percentage of the totaí popuíatíon who voted
ín the orth and est ranged from 25.3 percent
ín the Míddíe tíantíc tates to 34.5 percent ín
the outhwestern tates. n the outh, 9.7 percent
of the popuíatíon voted.
2. The percentage of voters who voted ín the orth
and est ranged from 50.3 percent ín ew
ngíand to 70 percent ín the outhwest. n the
outh 17. percent of the voters voted.
3. The percentage of popuíatíon votíng, by índívíduaí
tates was: outh Caroíína, 3.9 percent Míssís-
♦ 22
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T C P T C D M C C
síppí, 4. percent Georgía, 5.1 percent ouísíana,
.3 percent Te as, 9.2 percent íabama, r an-
sas, írgínía, 10 percent ew or , 27 percent
ííínoís, 30 percent Mínnesota, 30 percent: Caíí-
fornía, 27 percent. (The Crísís, ebruary, 1921,
p. 158.)
The dísfranchísement of egroes ís not new. outh
Caroíína ínserted the word whíte ín the franchíse íaw
of 171 írgínía dísfranchísed egroes ín 17 2
Georgía, ín 17 1. etween the evoíutíon of 177
and the Cívíí ar of 18 1, outhern egroes generaííy
díd not vote. n írgínía, outh Caroíína, íorída and
íabama, the baííot was specífícaííy íímíted to whítes.
etween 1835 and the Cívíí ar egroes were effec-
tíveíy dísfranchísed throughout the outh. ( euter,
The merícan ace Probíem, pp. 15o-2.)
Duríng econstructíon Days the egroes en oyed a
bríef períod of votíng opportuníty. fter 187 the
egro vote ceased to be an ítem of ímportance to the
state governments. ( bíd., p. 152.)
outhern egroes do not vote. eíther do they hoíd
ímportant poíítícaí offíces. egro íawyer from ír-
gínía summed up the sítuatíon ín hís state by sayíng:
There ís no egro udge on the bench of írgínía.
o far as now there ís not a síngíe egro poííce
magístrate ín írgínía. do not beííeve that there ís
even a egro attendant ín any írgínía court. e
added that thís generaíízatíon was e uaííy true for the
entíre outh.
Partícípatíon ín poíítícaí actívíty ís ordínarííy a
functíon of the ruííng cíass. temporary confííct wíth-
ín the ruííng cíass, such as that whích occurred at the
tíme of the merícan Cívíí ar, dísrupts ruííng cíass
controí. t was duríng thís era of dísruptíon or e-
constructíon when a new economíc system was beíng
♦ 227
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C M C
estabííshed ín the outh that the sub ect egro race
en oyed a bríef períod of eíectoraí opportuníty. o
sooner was the merícan whíte ruííng cíass agaín sub-
stantíaííy unífíed than ít proceeded wíth the busíness of
egro dísfranchísement.
Poíítícaí power spoíís an e píoíted cíass. ence the
whíte ruííng cíass of the Uníted tates ís e cíudíng the
egroes from the en oyment of poíítícaí democracy.
nteííígent merícan egroes no íonger e pect eman-
cípatíon through the franchíse. The facts of hístory
and contemporary merícan e períence are aíí e agaínst
them. t wouíd be of no advantage to the egro race
today to send to Congress forty egro epresentatíves
on the pro rata basís of numbers, especíaííy íf they hap-
pened not to be especíaííy weíí uaíífíed. They wouíd
remaín ín Congress oníy so íong as the merícan whíte
peopíe couíd devíse some pían for eíímínatíng them as
they díd duríng the econstructíon períod. ( ood-
son, Century of egro Mígratíon, pp. 181-2.)
The ídea of egro emancípatíon through the franchíse
and through poíítícaí actíon has proved a deíusíon.
egro íeadershíp whích turned to poíítícs has been íost
to the egro race and egro mass energy whích has
supported egro poíítícaí actíon has wasted ítseíf. The
franchíse and poíítícaí actíon are not means of emancí-
patíon for an e píoíted cíass but are tooís empíoyed by
ruííng cíasses ín the e ercíse of cíass power. egroes
who devote themseíves to poíítícs as a means of race
emancípatíon are mereíy díssípatíng energy and heípíng
to rívet the shac íes more fírmíy.
♦ 228
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T T UGG D M
♦ 229
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#
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C M C
♦ 230
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T T UGG D M
5
♦ 231
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C M C
232
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#
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T T UGG D M
9. egroes engage ín busíness. garage owned and run
by egroes ín Cíeveíand.
10. The presídent of a egro fínance corporatíon ín hís
Chícago offíce.
♦ 233
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#
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C M C
G
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f
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(
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#
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T T UGG D M
♦ 235
G
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f
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(
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C M C
15. Tm egee Uníversíty sends demonstratíon agents
ínto the farmíng communítíes to teach modern agrícuí-
turaí methods. íesson ín cuíííng pouítry. íabama.
1 . Demonstratíon agent of Morgan County, íaouma,
teachíng cíub boy how to seíect hís seed corn.
♦ 23
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T T UGG D M
17. ounders Day at peíman Coííege, tíanta, Ga.
18. graduatíng cíass from ampton Uníversíty, une,
1928.
♦ 237
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C M C
19. Processíonaí, ennett Coííege for omen, Greens-
boro, . C.
20. egro ínventor: obert íaír, ínventor of antí-
aírcraft gun.
♦ 238
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T
D M
T UGG

♦ 239
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C M C
♦ 240
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T T UGG D M
♦ 241
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C M C
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♦ 243
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C M C
r. íac wor ers and whíte wor ers together for a
free meríca
♦ 244
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23: U
hííe some of the merícan egro síaves were en-
gaged ín mass struggíes, conspíracíes and revoíts aímed
to ííberate the egro race, índívíduaí síaves ran away.
They ran to the swamps of the outh, where they were
hunted íí e anímaís wíth bíoodhounds and guns. They
ran to the orth aíong the underground raííway,
escaped across the border ínto Canada, and were free.
The runaway síaves ín the swamps and evergíades
ííved ín constant terror of recapture and of the fear-
fuí puníshments whích were meted out to runaways.
The egroes who reached Canada were stííí egroes.
egaííy they were free racíaííy theír probíem remaíned
unsoíved.
íth the endíng of síavery, the píace of the run-
away síave was ta en by the índívíduaí egro who
sought through personaí achíevement to escape the ím-
píícatíons of hís membershíp ín an e píoíted race.
Gífted egroes íeft behínd the masses of theír bíac
feííows and became successfuí busíness men and women,
successfuí professíonaí men and women, successfuí cre-
atíve artísts.
egro e píoíters íand owners and busíness men
oíned the ruííng cíass of the Uníted tates economícaííy.
They píaced themseíves ín a posítíon where they couíd
híre other human beíngs for profít where they couíd
ííve on the íabor of theír feííows. The Census of 1920
íísted about 70,000 egroes engaged ín busíness enter-
príses. ome of the most ímportant numerícaííy were:
estaurant and unch oom eepers.. 7,511
Grocers ,339
Truc Gardeners ,242
♦ 245
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C M C
uc sters and Peddíers 3 194
utchers and Meat Deaíers 3, 9
Mísceííaneous etaíí Deaíers 1 754
Pooí oom eepers 1,582
Underta ers 1,558
Contractors and uííders 1 454
eaí state Deaíers 1.3 9
un Deaíers 1,132
oteí eepers and Managers 1,020
merícan egroes are operatíng 70,000 busíness
enterpríses. n íts face thís ís a íarge number.
ctuaííy, however, the fígure ís far íess ímpressíve than
ít appears.
1. The totaí number of busíness concerns ín the
Uníted tates ís gíven by radstreets as 2,258,423.
íthough egroes ma e up one-tenth of the
Uníted tates popuíatíon, they controí oníy 3 per-
cent of íts busíness concerns.
2. Most of these 70,000 egro busíness concerns are
engaged ín retaíí trade and ín personaí servíce.
Many of them serve egroes íargeíy or e cíusíveíy.
3. They do not íncíude the basíc índustríes or servíces
— coaí, íron and steeí, chemícaís, machínery, auto-
mobííes, food, pac íng, te tííes, raííroads.
4. ímost aíí egro busíness ín the Uníted tates ís
smaíí busíness. íg busíness remaíns a mo-
nopoíy of the whítes.
egroes have aíso entered the professíons. They have
become íawyers, doctors, teachers, thus demonstratíng
theír abíííty to match wíts wíth members of the whíte
ruííng cíass of the Uníted tates.
The ccupatíonaí Census of 1920 reports 41,05
maíe egroes and 39,127 femaíe egroes ín professíonaí
♦ 24
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U
groups, a totaí of 80,183 of the 2,143,889 íísted occupa-
tíonaííy by the Census as ín the professíonaí group.
hííe the egroes ma e up 10 percent of the Uníted
tates popuíatíon they suppíy oníy 3. percent of íts
professíonaí peopíe.
mong the maíe egro professíonaís are 19,343
cíergymen ,319 teachers 3,752 musícíans and teachers
of musíc 3,430 physícíans and surgeons 1,378 actors
and showmen 49 coííege presídents and professors.
oth maíe and femaíe egro professíonaí peopíe are
narrowíy concentrated ín a comparatíveíy few occupa-
tíons.
egroes have entered the fíeíds of creatíve art as
wríters, poets, síngers, paínters, scuíptors. They have
competed dírectíy and ín many cases successfuííy wíth
whíte artísts. íthín the past twenty years merícan
egro poetry, musíc and ííterature have made a píace
for themseíves not oníy ín the Uníted tates but ín
varíous foreígn countríes. ( eatherford, The egro
from fríca to meríca, Chapter , The egro and
eíf pressíon euter, merícan ace Probíem,
Chapter , egro ín íterature, rt and Musíc )
ndívíduaí egro men and women have succeeded ín
busíness, ín professíons, ín the arts. n these fíeíds they
have won posítíons of ímportance and dístínctíon ín
competítíon wíth the whítes and agaínst comparatíveíy
great odds. They were handícapped ín theír efforts to
gaín an educatíon when they entered the woríd of
competítíve endeavor they found the hand of aímost
every man turned agaínst them. s members of an
ínferíor race they were reachíng for rewards, ordí-
narííy reserved for the successfuí members of the
superíor race. They were racíaí ínteríopers, and were
treated accordíngíy.
Despíte great obstacíes, ín the face of generaí opposí-
tíon, after overcomíng bítter pre udíce, egro busíness
♦ 247
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C M C
men, professíonaís and artísts won dístínctíon. Theír
taíents and achíevements cannot be successfuííy ues-
tíoned.
ut after these egroes had struggíed to posítíons of
busíness, professíonaí and artístíc emínence, they were
stííí bíac — e cíuded from socíaí contact wíth the
whítes barred from restaurants, theaters, hoteís, síeepíng
cars confronted on every síde wíth reíteratíons of the
ínferíoríty ímpííed ín theír bíac ness. Personaí achíeve-
ment does not reííeve an merícan egro of hís chíef
handícap: hís membershíp ín an e píoíted race.
ven the successfuí egroes have been unabíe to
escape the racíaí dísabííítíes whích theír egro bíood
ímpííes among the whíte ruííng cíass of the Uníted
tates. s for the egro masses, despíte the taíent and
achíevement of a favored few, they remaín the hewers
of wood and drawers of water, doíng the heavy, un-
s íííed, dírty wor of the Uníted tates.
ne of the re uísíte means to the contínuance of
egro e píoítatíon ís the refusaí of socíaí recognítíon to
índívíduaí egroes of weaíth or unusuaí abíííty. nd
thís ís why successfuí egroes, no matter how rích and
taíented, have been unabíe to wín a posítíon of socíaí
e uaííty wíth the merícan whítes. ven where they
have succeeded to a sííght degree, theír bíac feííows
by the mííííons contínue to carry the woríd on theír bent
bac s.
♦ 248
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24: C G P
race struggííng for freedom, and seíf-e pressíon does
not stop struggííng mereíy because ít ís deserted by
some of íts abíest íeaders or because ít ís thwarted or
hampered by the vígííance and actívíty of the whíte,
e píoítíng, ruííng cíass. The merícan egroes per-
sísted ín theír efforts toward emancípatíon. The ar
of 1914-1918 gave them a crucíaí opportuníty.
The war was fought ostensíbíy for democracy, free-
dom and seíf-determínatíon. egroes aíí over the woríd
wanted these thíngs. n fríca for fífty years they had
feít the crushíng weíght of ímperíaí e píoítatíon. n
the merícas sínce the days of síavery, they had per-
formed the mass íabor. hen the war for democracy
and peace was heraíded by the whíte man s agencíes of
pubíícíty, egroes entered the armíes and fought.
rom fríca they entered the armíes of rance. rom
the Uníted tates they entered the merícan armíes ín
theír segregated companíes and segregated regíments.
etween une 5, 1917, and eptember 12, 1918,
2,290,527 egroes regístered for servíce ín the Uníted
tates rmy. egroes índucted ínto servíce numbered
3 7,710. íth the reguíar army uníts and natíonaí
guard uníts, the number of egroes mobííízed for the
ar was about 380,000. f these egro soídíers
200,000 went to rance. ( egro ear oo , 1925- ,
p. 250.)
ncídentaííy, whííe the merícan army was ín rance,
efforts were made to prevent the rench from spoíí-
íng the merícan egro soídíers and offícers. ne
wídeíy spread círcuíar caííed attentíon of the rench
to the subordínate posítíon of the egro ín meríca and
249
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C M C
to the foííy of gívíng them any encouragement ín the
dírectíon of racíaí e uaííty.
Duríng the war crísís the merícan egroes díd
somethíng very much more ímportant than enteríng
the army. They mígrated by hundreds of thousands
from theír fíeíd-hand obs ínto centers of commerce and
índustry.
ar demand for goods and the restríctíons upon
ímmígratíon created a íabor mar et that opened a new
fíeíd to egro íabor. or the fírst tíme ín merícan
hístory opportunítíes, íarge ín number, ín s íííed as
weíí as uns íííed íabor, were offered to egro wor men.
They had served as the íabor suppíy for the outh, but
the orthern fíeíd of íabor had not been íargeíy opened
to them untíí the begínníng of the oríd ar. ... n
the períod príor to the war, egro íabor had made íts
appearance for the fírst tíme ín s íííed índustry.
( esíey, egro abor ín the Uníted tates, p. 282.)
íth the war-stímuíated demand for íabor went a
correspondíng íncrease ín earníng power. ages rose.
egroes were not oníy abíe to secure posítíons as s íííed
wor ers, but they were abíe to command wages two,
three, four or even fíve tímes those that they had earned
as fíeíd hands or as artísans ín the pre-war outh. To
be sure, príces aíso rose, but there was a reaí advance ín
purchasíng power.
ígher íncome meant hígher standards of íívíng.
Thus the war gave the merícan egroes a chance to
become somebody economícaííy. They were no
íonger the dregs of the íabor mar et, but an íntegraí
part of the merícan índustríaí íabor suppíy. egroes
secured posítíons ín some of the most ímportant among
the basíc índustríes. y 1918 there were 4,000 egroes
empíoyed by the Carnegíe teeí Company ín Píttsburgh.
The estínghouse íectríc and Manufacturíng Com-
pany had 1, 5 00 egroes ín íts empíoy. n 191 the
♦ 250
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Carnegíe teeí Company had empíoyed 1,5oo egroes
and the estínghouse Company 25. Under the urísdíc-
tíon of the Uníted tates híppíng oard 24, 48 egroes
were empíoyed. mong these one-fífth were engaged ín
s íííed occupatíons. The Uníted tates Coaí Commís-
síon reported 42,489 egroes ín the bítumínous and
anthracíte mínes. ( esíey, egro abor ín the Uníted
tates, pp. 295- .) efore the war egroes were a
negíígíbíe factor ín Detroít s índustríes. n 1922 there
were over 500 Detroít píants empíoyíng egroes.
bíd., p. 297.)
oííowíng the war came the great íabor struggíes of
1919 to 1922. n the steeí mííís, ín the mínes, ín the
pac íng píants, on the raííroads, among the doc
wor ers, strí es too píace ín rapíd successíon. gaín
the egroes came to the fore. Generaííy they had been
e cíuded from trade uníons or eíse they had been over-
íoo ed by trade uníon organízers. ow they became
the chíef strí ebrea íng force ín the hands of the
merícan ruííng cíass.
egro índustríaí e períence ín Chícago ís summarízed
thus:
íííed posítíons were íost to coíored men ín the
steeí mííís ín the períod of depressíon foííowíng
the armístíce, but were recovered duríng the steeí
strí e of a year íater. n the toc ards coíored
men aíso íost posítíons of s ííí, oníy to recover them
duríng the strí e of 1920-21 and gaín others they
never had. The great strí e of 1919 and 1920
headed by ohn íí us í was íost by Poíísh wor ers,
but resuíted ín promotíons from uns íííed to
s íííed posítíons ín the píants of the nternatíonaí
arvester Company, Corn Products and efíníng
Company, and many other índustríes whích are stííí
heíd by coíored men.
♦ 251
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Today the grey íron índustry, ínsofar as moíd-
íng ís concerned, ís practícaííy aíí ín the hands of
coíored men. oundry after foundry has íntro-
duced the coíored moíder and when the whíte
moíder ob ects and íeaves, the coíored man gets
controí and eeps ít. Coíored foremen over men
of theír own race are not uncommon.
The strí e of the toc ards Uníon offered a
chance for occupatíonaí advancement to coíored
men whích was accepted. Carpenters , eíectrícíans
and steam-fítters posítíons were gíven coíored men,
but were soon íost, ín most ínstances, to returníng
strí ers. . . .
The recent strí e of the raííroad shop empíoyees
has, íí e aíí the others, brought advantages to the
coíored wor man. íííed posítíons formeríy cíosed
to hím are now hís. hííe no fígures are avaíí-
abíe, ít ís nown that many are wor íng as boííer-
ma ers, steam-fítters, carpenters and paínters, ín
shops of Chícago.
ímííar advantages to the coíored wor man may
be shown from every índustríaí díspute where
coíored persons are not members of the strí -
íng uníons. There ís no reason to concíude
that the egro ís by choíce a strí ebrea er any
more than other men, but the fact ís that ín most
ínstances where he has rísen above the ran s of a
common íaborer, the strí e has furníshed the
medíum through whích hís advancement ís accom-
pííshed. ( 1n. . vans, The egro ín Chícago
ndustríes, pportuníty, ebruary, 1923, p. 15.)
Thus from 191 5 to 1922 egroes proved theír worth
ín the índustríaí fíeíd. They proved to be good enough
to ta e whíte men s obs obs from whích they had
aíways been consístentíy e cíuded. f the egro had
♦ 252
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been deníed these obs ín competítíon wíth the whíte
man before the war, duríng the war íabor scarcíty, and
after the war ín the íabor confíícts when there were no
whíte men íeft on the obs, the egro couíd ta e them,
and he díd.
Many egroes were dísmíssed when the whítes came
bac to wor , but they have persísted ín aíí the ím-
portant índustríaí centers of the orth. The war
estabííshed the merícan egro fírmíy as a factor ín
northern índustry. t aíso proved, to the satísfactíon of
the whíte ruííng cíass of the Uníted tates, that the
egro was an effícíent strí e brea er.
ar and post-war e períence showed three thíngs
cíearíy:
1. That the whíte ruííng cíass of the Uníted tates,
confronted by a íabor shortage or a íabor struggíe
wíth the whíte wor er, wouíd use the bíac
wor er.
2. That when the whíte ruííng cíass was through wíth
the bíac wor er, ít wouíd repíace hím wíth a
a whíte man íf a whíte man proved more profítabíe
or more desírabíe.
3. That the whíte ruííng cíass was usíng the prín-
cípíe: Dívíde and uíe ín íts e píoítatíon of
merícan wor ers. t was spííttíng the wor ers
aíong race íínes and empíoyíng the bíac s to crush
the aspíratíons of the whítes, then usíng the whítes
to dríve the bíac s ínto posítíons of ínferíoríty.
The resuíts of thís war e per1ence upon the merícan
egroes were far reachíng and very sígnífícant:
1. The weaíth of merícan egroes íncreased rapídíy.
t the end of the Cívíí ar the property ín the
hands of merícan egroes was estímated at
♦ 253
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20,000,000. n 1923 egro property was estí-
mated at 1,500,000,000. Through purchase
and íncrease ín vaíue theír property hoídíngs are
íncreasíng at the rate of about 50,000,000 a year.
The íands whích they now own amount to more
than 22,000,000 acres or over 34,000 s uare mííes,
an area greater than that of the fíve ew ngíand
states, ew ampshíre, ermont, Massachusetts,
Connectícut, hode síand. ome ownershíp ís
an ímportant phase of property accumuíatíon. t
ít estímated that egroes now own over 00,000
homes that ís, one home out of every four whích
they have estabííshed. ( pportuníty, ebruary,
1924, p. 42.)
The egro ear oo , 1925- (page 1) prínts the
foííowíng comparíson of merícan egro weaíth:
eaíth ccumuíated .... 20,000,000 2,000,000,000
2. Correspondíng wíth thís íncrease ín egro weaíth
was a rísíng standard of egro íífe. egro
chíídren were better cared for díet was ímproved
housíng was more ade uate.
owhere were the resuíts of thís advancíng
standard more cíearíy índícated than ín dísease
rates and death rates. (Dubíín, eaíth and
eaíth, pp. 2 1-2 4.) The death rate from
tubercuíosís among egro poíícy hoíders ín the
Metropoíítan ífe nsurance Company decííned 44
percent between 1911 and 192 . n 1911 the totaí
mortaííty rate for ínsured egro chíídren from 1
to 15 years of age was 10.1 per 1,000. n 1925 thís
1
192
omes wned
arms perated
usínesses Conducted ....
12,000
20,000
2,100
700,000
1,000,000
70,000
♦ 254
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C G P f 9
fígure was reduced to .3 per 1,000 whích ís an
ímprovement of 38 percent. (Pp. 2 3-4.) Dr.
Dubíín contínues by poíntíng out that the ím-
provement ín the sanítary condítíons whích sur-
round the coíored peopíe ís best evídenced by the
decííne ín typhoíd fever and pneumonía. e
then cítes evídence of the great advances they
have been abíe to ma e ín these dírectíons.
3. íder educatíonaí opportunítíes were íncíuded ín
the e pandíng economíc standards of the merí-
can egroes. íííteracy decreased from 70 per-
cent ín 1880 to 22.9 percent ín 1920. egro
educatíon ín 1923 shows great progress when com-
pared wíth that of former years. Thís ís true wíth
respect to e uípment and facííítíes, both ín pubííc
schooís, secondary schooís and ín coííeges. ( p-
portuníty, ebruary, 1924, pp. 42-3.)
4. Growíng egro communítíes ín outhern as weíí
as ín orthern cítíes utííízed the servíces of egro
íawyers, egro doctors, egro dentísts and egro
reaí estate and ínsurance bro ers. egro mer-
chants began to suppíy the needs of egro cus-
tomers. The egro bourgeoís cíass íncreased
uíc íy ín number, ín weaíth and ín cíass con-
scíousness and soíídaríty.
5. egroes greatíy íncreased the number and effec-
tíveness of theír racíaí organízatíons. nd as
egro busíness and professíonaí men were not
admítted to the busíness and professíonaí assocía-
tíons maíntaíned by the whítes, they estabííshed
theír own busíness and professíonaí assocíatíons as
a matter of course.
The bourgeoís egro buíít up an e tensíve egro
press (Detweííer, The egro Press. ee aíso enumera-
tíon of egro newspapers, pportuníty, ebruary,
♦ 255
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1925, p. 51 December, 1925, p. 358 anuary, 1927, p.
7) and estabííshed egro defense and reííef socíetíes.
The atíonaí ssocíatíon for the dvancement of
Coíored Peopíe specíaíízes ín íegaí defense wor . The
Urban eague aíms to advance the egro economícaííy. 1
t the same tíme egro wor ers e tended the organí-
zatíon of trade uníons, and founded a egro abor
Congress. specíaí survey (unpubííshed) of egroes
ín trade uníons, made by Charíes . ohnson for the
Urban eague duríng 1927-8 shows 5,492 egro
members (mostíy ín the orth) ín 48 natíonaí and
ínternatíonaí uníons. n ew or Cíty Mr. ohnson
found 14,500 egroes ín Uníons ín Chícago, 13,000 ín
Detroít, 2,000. Mr. ohnson estímates egro Uníon
membershíp for the Uníted tates at 100,000.
Two generatíons of e períence foííowíng the Cívíí
ar forced the egroes ínto a posítíon where they were
compeííed to organíze for seíf defense and for seíf ad-
vancement and to act from a basís of race uníty and race
soíídaríty. The egroes díd not choose thís posítíon.
They were forced as síaves to wor for the ruííng cíass
ín whíte meríca. fter the Cívíí ar and the íegaí
termínatíon of síavery, the contínued race díscrímína-
tíon and race persecutíon made ínevítabíe the deveíop-
ment of a egro race soíídaríty.
The war períod wíth íts e pandíng occupatíonaí op-
portuníty, íts advancíng economíc standards, and íts
muítípíícatíon of egro organízatíons, was an era of
eníarged egro race conscíousness. egroes were mem-
bers of an oppressed, e píoíted race. They were see íng
for emancípatíon. Democracy, freedom, seíf-
determínatíon were ídeas that grew uíc íy ín the seed-
ground of racíaí sub ectíon. merícan egroes decíded
to free themseíves economícaííy and socíaííy to eman-
cípate themseíves through theír own efforts. They
had become a race-conscíous group, reachíng for power.
♦ 25
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25: G T
C M C C
1th the end of the war crísís and of the more íntense
forms of the íabor confííct, the need for the egro ín
índustry grew íess acute and the whíte ruííng cíass
began the process of returníng hím to hís prevíous íow
economíc íeveí. Thís shíft ín standards was made more
paíatabíe by wídespread taí of race cooperatíon.
ourgeoís egro íeaders who had beííeved that free-
dom and democracy wouíd be won through the war, or
wouíd be gíven to the egroes as a resuít of servíííty and
obedíence, protested agaínst the pressure that was beíng
put on the egroes. They poínted to the war wor
done by egroes. They emphasízed egro íoyaíty to
the whíte man s government of the Uníted tates. They
were met wíth the demand for racíaí cooperatíon.
egroes were to be emancípated but ín accordance
wíth a pacífíc formuía. There was to be no more
emphasís on race soíídaríty, no more taí of race con-
fííct. egroes were to gaín theír freedom wíthout dís-
turbíng whíte domínatíon.
T. . oofter, r., ín hís boo on egro Mígratíons,
suggests that the egro e tend the number of píants
where he can wor e tend the number of obs wíthín
the píant whích he can fííí íncrease hís effícíency
and deveíop hís own organízatíon and íeadershíp whích
wííí cooperate wíth the constructíve eíements ín the
uníon. egroes are to enter índustry but as ín-
feríors.
The most ambítíous movement for better under-
standíng between the races ín the opíníon of . D.
eatherford (The egro from fríca to meríca, p.
450) ís the nter- acíaí Commíssíon. The Commís-
síon ís composed of whíte and coíored men and women
♦ 257
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íncíudíng busíness men and professíonaí men, coííege
presídents and professors and representatíves of the íead-
íng denomínatíons. ( dem.) The egro masses are
to be emancípated through a commíssíon appoínted and
domínated by whítes, and on whích íabor ís unrepre-
sented.
bvíousíy these proposaís have as theír ob ect the
restoratíon of the egro to hís former posítíon as a
member of a sub ect, e píoíted race. ead ustments
and racíaí cooperatíon ín a country controííed e -
cíusíveíy by the whítes means for the bíac s the accep-
tance of whatever standards of race reíatíonshíps the
whítes care to set up.
íth the economíc depressíon of 1927-1928 and the
growíng hard tímes came unempíoyment and wage cuts.
The egroes, generaííy unorganízed and íargeíy un-
s íííed, were among the fírst to feeí the economíc pres-
sure. The whíte ruííng cíass was usíng the occasíon to
force the egro masses bac toward theír former oc-
cupatíonaí íeveís and theír former íívíng standards.
Depressíon ín índustry offered an occasíon for returníng
the egroes to theír farm-hand obs and eepíng them
economícaííy ín theír píaces.
The egroes have tasted the sweets of hígher íncome,
greater prívííeges, íarger opportunítíes, broader íífe
standards. They wííí not be so easííy ca oíed or coerced
ínto acceptíng the íower standards whích the ruííng
whíte cíass has decreed for them.
evertheíess the whítes contínue the downward pres-
sure. The bíac s have but one aíternatíve: to resíst.
vents sínce the war have been numerous enough,
and shouíd have been píaín enough to arouse or to ín-
tensífy a wídespread sense of race conscíousness and a
feeííng of race soíídaríty among the merícan egroes.
hen was a ííttíe gírí, saíd a egro woman ín her
earíy thírtíes, most coíored peopíe stííí ííved ín smaíí
♦ 258
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G T C M C C
streets. They ust díd not matter. Then came the war
wíth hígh wages and new economíc opportunítíes.
egroes couíd buy better thíngs own houses move ínto
better neíghborhoods. Then they became díssatísfíed.
he cíted the segregatíon íaw and the attempts through
bíoc agreements to restríct egro íívíng uarters.
n díscussíng the íncrease of race conscíousness, . .
euter (The merícan ace Probíem, Chapter ,
Growth of ace Conscíousness ) caíís attentíon to the
effect of segregatíon ín provídíng an opportuníty and
a vocatíon for egro race íeaders. The separatíon of
the egroes from the whítes created a need for egro
professíonaí and busíness men, and the growíng sense
of race soíídaríty made ít possíbíe for these busíness and
professíonaí men to prosper. egro busíness men who
couíd not have survíved ín free competítíon wíth the
whítes were patronízed by the bíac s because they were
egroes. The same thíng ís true of many egro pro-
fessíonaí men and women. egro síaves were not a
separate group they were nít ínto the fíbre of socíety.
ut sínce the aboíítíon of síavery the egroes at every
poínt ín theír socíaí evoíutíon have met opposítíon and
been remínded by persístent díscrímínatíon that they
are a group apart. They have been deníed fuíí partící-
patíon ín the cuíturaí íífe as weíí as ín the economíc
íífe of the Uníted tates. mbítíous índívíduaís strív-
íng to escape the ínferíor status have been forced bac
upon theír own group. t every turn the egroes have
been made to reaííze that they wííí be toíerated oníy ín
the capacíty of meníaís. ( bíd., p. 398.)
Commentíng on The oíce of the egro, a coííectíon
of e cerpts from egro pubíícatíons deaííng wíth the
post war posítíon of the merícan egro by Prof. . T.
eríín, . D. eatherford wrítes, the totaí ímpressíon
of the boo ís most aíarmíng. t shows the horríbíe
ín ustíces whích the egro must suffer, and hís attítude
♦ 259
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/
toward them. t shows a race no íonger críngíng and
fawníng, but a race at bay, íong sufferíng, more than
patíent, but growíng suííen and víndíctíve. t shows a
peopíe becomíng conscíous of íts own power, proud of
íts own achíevement and ustíy demandíng faír treat-
ment and respect. The egro from fríca to mer-
íca, p. 473.)
pportuníty, for ebruary, 1924 (p. 43), caíís atten-
tíon to the growíng race conscíousness of the egro.
Thís growth ís manífestíng ítseíf ín varíous ways, ím-
portant among-whích are an íncreasíng ínterest ín race
ííterature, more faíth ín race íeadershíp, a demand for
patronage of egro busíness, a tendency to boycott
whíte fírms whích do not treat the egro wíth cour-
tesy, and a tendency to move away from communítíes
ín whích íynchíngs have occurred.
The Crísís, partícuíaríy ín íts earííer years, was far
more bítter. hen the merícan peopíe ín theír care-
íessness and ímpudence have fínaííy succeeded ín weíd-
íng ten mííííon egroes ínto one great seíf-guídíng
mass, they wííí reaííze theír místa e. ... n another
generatíon, at the present rate, we wííí have ín thís coun-
try a mass of peopíe of coíored bíood, actíng together
íí e one great físt for theír own needs, wíth secret un-
derstandíng, wíth pítííess effícíency, wíth resources for
defense whích wííí ma e theír freedom íncapabíe of at-
tac from wíthout. The actuaí organízatíon of thís
group ís progressíng by íeaps and bounds. (Crísís,
December, 1913, p. 84.)
ess bítteríy, . . euter wrítes, n the present tíme
a race-conscíous egro group ís a íargeíy accompííshed
fact. ts e pressíon ís, or ís rapídíy comíng to be, as
generaí as the actívítíes and contracts of the race. There
ís, to be sure, a bítter ínternaí strífe among the factíons
strívíng for ascendancy, and the group ís torn by end-
íess cíass pre udíces and personaí eaíousíes, but bac of
♦ 2 0
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the petty maneuveríng of petty índívíduaís, factíons
and cíasses ís a fundamentaí trend of sentíment whích
may be díscerned ín wídeíy separated fíeíds and ín
otherwíse unreíated actívítíes. The merícan ace
Probíem, p. 40 .)
períence ís teachíng the merícan egro that an
ímperíaí ruííng cíass such as that whích now domínates
pubííc poíícy ín the Uníted tates needs sub ect races
to wor and sometímes to fíght. The ímperíaííst ruíers
wííí ta e any necessary steps to hoíd the sub ect race
ín íts subordínate posítíon. f, ín a crísís, they are com-
peííed to grant the sub ect race prívííeges, they wííí ta e
the fírst opportuníty to wíthdraw them and to dríve the
members of the sub ect race bac ínto theír posítíon as
ínferíors and meníaís.
The whíte ruííng cíass of the Uníted tates ís engaged
ín buíídíng a system of e píoítatíon for profít and power.
ven íf ít wíshed to do so, ít couíd not free egroes
from thís system. mancípatíon must come from the
e píoíted, not from the e píoíters.
ecent egro mígratíons ínto orthern cítíes
Chícago, Detroít, Cíeveíand, uffaío, Píttsburgh, Phíía-
deíphía, ew or — have brought masses of egro
wor ers ínto dírect competítíon wíth whíte wor ers.
The egroes are at the bottom of the economíc íadder
generaííy uns íííed, aímost whoííy unorganízed, mem-
bers of a sub ect race, ídeaí víctíms for e píoítatíon.
híte empíoyers are ta íng advantage of the egroes
— usíng them to force down wages, to brea strí es.
híte wor ers have not yet wa ed up to the sítuatíon.
They stííí beííeve the ruííng cíass propaganda about
racíaí ínferíoríty. They stííí e cíude egroes from
many of theír wor íng-cíass organízatíons.
Cheap egro íabor has been a source of profít to
merícan e píoíters for three hundred years. Today
egroes are organízed to demand hígher economíc stand-
♦ 2 1
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C M C
ards. híte wor ers must bac these demands to the
íímít.
egro wor ers must oín wor íng-cíass organízatíons.
They must heíp to buííd trade uníons, cooperatíves, a
poíítícaí party that represents wor íng-cíass ínterests.
íong no other path can the egro masses hope for
emancípatíon.
híte wor ers must ma e every effort to bríng the
egro wor ers ínto trade uníons, ínto cooperatíves, ínto
a wor íng-cíass poíítícaí organízatíon. There ís no more
vítaí tas before the merícan wor ers today than that
of estabííshíng wor íng-cíass soíídaríty across race íínes.
There can be no víctory for the wor íng-cíass whííe
wor ers are dívíded aíong race íínes. íac and whíte
wor ers must stand together for wor íng-cíass eman-
cípatíon.
mancípatíon for the merícan egro, as for any
other sub ect race under the capítaííst ímperíaííst sys-
tem, can come oníy when the egro wor íng masses
have oíned the whíte wor íng masses ín smashíng the
economíc and socíaí structure buíít upon índívíduaí and
race e píoítatíon, and by repíacíng ít wíth a cooperatíve
economíc system under wor íng-cíass controí.
♦ 2 2
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MP T T CT
egro Popuíat1on by tates
Census of 1920
egro
tate Popuíatíon tate
íabama 900, 52 ebras a
rízona 8,005 evada
r ansas 472,220 ew ampshíre
Caíífornía 38,7 3
Coíorado 11,318
Connectícut 21,04
Deíaware 3o,33 5
Dístríct of Coíumbía 109,9
íorída 329,487
Georgía 1,20 ,3 5
daho 920
ííínoís 182,274
ndíana 80,810
owa 19,005
ansas 57,92 5
entuc y 235,938
ouísíana 700,257
Maíne 1,310
Maryíand 244,479
Massachusetts 45,4
Míchígan 0,082 ashíngton
Mínnesota 8,809 est írgínía
Míssíssíppí 935,184 ísconsín
Míssourí 178,241 yomíng
egro
Popuíatíon
13,242
34
21
ew ersey 117,132
ew Me íco 5,733
ew or 198,483
orth Caroíína 7 3,407
orth Da ota 4 7
hío 18 ,187
íahoma 149,408
regon 2,144
Pennsyívanía 284,5 8
hode síand 10,03
outh Caroíína 8 4,719
outh Da ota 832
Tennessee 451,758
Te as 741, 94
Utah M4
ermont 572
írgínía 90,017
,883
8 .345
5 2 1
1.375
Montana
1, 58
egro Popuíat1on of the Un1ted tates
1790-1920
Totaí
egro
Percent
ear
Popuíatíon
Popuíatíon
egro
1920
105,710, 20
10,4 3,131
99
1910
91,972,7 3
9,827,7 3
10.7
1900
75.994.575
8,833.994
11.
1890
2,947,714
7,488, 7
11.9
1880
50.155,783
,580,793
13.1
1870
38,558,371
4,880,009
12.7
18 0
31.443.321
4,441,830
14.1
1850
23,191,87
3, 38,808
15-7
1840
17,0 9,453
2,873, 48
1 .8
1830
12,8 ,020
2,328, 42
18.1
1820
9. 38,453
1,771, 5
18.4
1810
7,239,881
1,377,808
19.0
1800
5,308,483
1,002,037
18.9
1790
3.929.214
757,208
19-3
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C M C
íave Popuíat1on or the Un1ted tates
1790-18 0
ear
Uníted tates
outh
orth
18 0
3.953.7
3,838,7 5
114,9
1850
3.204.313
3,11 , 29
87, 58
1840
2.487.3 5 5
2,427,98
59.3 9
1830
2,009,043
1,980,384
28, 59
1820
1,538,022
1,508, 92
29.330
1810
1,191,3 2
1,1 0,841
30,521
1800
893, 02
857,097
3 ,505
1790
97, 24
57.538
40,08
íaves and íave oíd1ng am1í1es
1790 and 1850
umber of íave- oídíng
Dívísíon and tate amíííes umber of íaves
mo o
1850 í / í 1850 í8/tr
Uníted tates 347.7 5 9 ,1 8 3,204,313 97, 24
ew ngíand 2,147 3.7 3
Míddíe tíantíc .. 200 M.414 23 3 ,323
outh tíantíc 1 9,2 4 77.242 1, 3,397 41, 91
ast o. Centraí. 124, 0 2,3 5 1,103,1 2 5.847
est o. Centraí.. 34.41 350,070
est o. Centraí 19,185 87,422
ppro 1mate Pr1ces of íaves 1795-18 0
(Pr1me 1eíd ands Men)
ear
írgínía
Georgía
ew ríeans
1795
200
- 300
1800
300
- 400
400 - 500
500
- 00
1805
40a
500
500 - 00
00
1810
500
00
800
1815
400
500
500 - 00
00
- 700
1820
700
800
900
- 1,000
1825
400
700
800
1830
400
- 500
700 - 800
900
- 1,000
1835
00
- 700
1,000
1,100
- 1,200
1840
700
- 800
900 - 1,000
1,000
- 1,100
1845
5 00
00
00 - 700
700
1850
00
700
900 - 1,000
1,100
1855
1,000
1,300
1,300
- 1,400
18 0
1,200
- 1,300
1,800
1,800
(Phíííps, merícan egro íavery, p. 370.)
♦ 2 4
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MP T T CT
egro Popuíat1on 1n mer1can C1t1es
Census of 1920
a. c1t1es w1th more than 100,000 negroes
Percent of Totaí
Cíty umber of egroes Popuíatíon
aítímore 108,322 14.8
Chícago 109,457 4.1
ew ríeans 100,930 2 .1
ew or Cíty 152,4 7 2.7
Phííadeíphía 134,229 7.4
ashíngton, D. C 109,9 25.1
. C T T 2 5,000 T 100,000 G
Percent of Totaí
Cíty umber of egroes Popuíatíon
2,79
31-3
70,320
39-3
32,32
47.
Cíncínnatí
30,079
7-5
34,451
4-3
Detroít
40,838
4-
ouston
33,9 0
24.
34, 78
11.0
ac sonvíííe
41,520
45-3
30,719
9
40,087
17.1
avannah
39,179
47-1
1,181
37-
ashvíííe
35, 33
30.1
43,392
37-5
Píttsburgh
37,725
.4
íchmond
54,041
3 -
t. ouís
9,854
9.0
C. C T T 10,000 T 25,000 G
Percent of Totaí
dty umber of egroes Popuíatíon
tíantíc Cíty 1 .94 zí-
oston 35 2.2
Charíotte, . C M, 4í M-
Chattanooga 18.889 í--
eaumont, Te 13.210 32-7
Coíumbus, hío 22.181 9-4
Daíías, Te as 24,023 15-
t. orth, Te as 5.89 4-9
ansas Cíty, ansas 14.4 4-2
no víííe .302 M-
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C M C
egro Popuíat1on 1n mer1can C1t1es
Census of 1920
c. c1t1es v1th 10,000 to 2 5,000 negroes
Percent of Totaí
Cíty umber of egroes Popuíatíon
os ngeíes 15.579 2.7
íttíe oc 17.477 2 .8
Macon, Ga 23,093 43-
Mobííe, ía 23,90 39-3
Montgomery 19.827 45
ewar , . ,977 4-
maha, eb 1o.3 5 5-4
an ntonío M.34 8.9
íímíngton, Deí o,74 9.
íímíngton, . C 13,4 1 4 -3
ínston- aíem 20,735 42-8
Urban Popuíat1on 1920
Percent of Popuíat1on 1n Urban Commun1t1es
híte
egro
Uníted tates
53-4
34.0
79-
90.3
74.
8 .2
ast orth Centraí tates
0.1
87.2
est orth Centraí tates
3 .9
7 -3
Mountaín tates
37-1
54-1
2.
8 .9
outh tíantíc tates
33-1
2 .5
ast outh Centraí tates
22.3
22.
est outh Centraí tates
29.9
25-9
ncrease of egro Popuíat1on 1n Certa1n arge C1t1es
1900-1
92a
1900-19:

1910-
.1920
Cíty
umber
Percent
umber
Percent
ew or
3 . 43
51.2
0,758
.3
Phííadeíphía
21,84
34-9
49.77o
58.9
• 3.953
4 .3
5.355
148.2
8.444
23.8
25.894
58.9
orfoí
4.809
23.8
18,353
73-3
3.057
80.4
12,227
41.7
Detroít
1, 30
39.
3 5,097
11.3
Píttsburgh
5.2 8
25-9
12,102
47-2
ndíanapoíís
5,885
3 .9
1 2,8 2
590
2,4 0
41.1
2 ,003
307.8
Cíncínnatí
5.M7
35.
10,440
53-2
♦ 2

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MP T T CT
ncrease 1n the umber of egroes 1n C1t1es av1ng egro
Popuíat1on of 25,000 or More 1920
Popuíatíon Percent ncrease
Cíty 1920 1910 to 1920
outhern
írmíngham 70,1)0 34.3
ac sonvíííe 41. 20 4 -7
tíanta 2,79 21.0
avannah 39 79 7 8
ouísvíííe 40,087 .
ew ríeans 100,930 13.1
aítímore 108,322 27.8
Charíeston 32,32 4.1
Memphís 1,181 1 .7
ashvíííe 3 5. 3 3 2.4
ouston 33 9 o 41-9
orfoí 43.392 73-3
íchmond 54.041 5-
orthern
Chícago 109,458 148.2
Detroít 40,838 11.3
ansas Cíty 45.124 37-4
t. ouís 9,854 58.9
ew or 152.4 7 .3
Cíncínnatí 3 . 79 53-1
Cíeveíand 34.451 3 7-8
ndíanapoíís 34. 78 9-
Phííadeíphía 134.2 9 58.9
Píttsburgh 37.7 5 47-
egro Popuíat1on of Georg1a
n Cítíes ín whích the Totaí Popuíatíon, ín 1920, was at íeast 10,000
persons and ín whích the egro Popuíatíon ín that year was at íeast
5,000, or was at íeast 10 percent of the Totaí Popuíatíon
Cíty Totaí Popuíatíon egro Percent egro
íbany .55 5 ,144 53-2
thens 1 ,748 ,595 39.4
tíanta 200, 1 2,79 31.3
ugusta 5 548 22,582 43.0
runswíc M.41 7.120 49.4
Coíumbus 31.125 9.093 29.2
aGrange 17.038 4,57 2 .9
Macon 52,995 23,093 43.
ome 13,252 3,328 25.1
♦ 2 7
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s
s
_
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e
#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
C M C
umber of índergartens for h1tes and egroes 1n
outhern C1t1es
Cíty
híte
egro
tíanta
40
0
e íngton
8
1
ouísvíííe
42
7
ynchburg
5
0
0
0
ew ríeans
4
0
21
0
0
0
( oofter, egro Probíems
ín Cítíes, p. 215.)
Per Cap1ta chooís pend1tures for h1tes and egroes
by Count1es 1n M1ss1ss1pp1
pendíture
Per Capíta
Totaí
Percent
tten
dance
County
Popuíatíon
egroes
híte
egro
Cíaíborne .
13,019
78.2
4-12
1.00
De oto . .
24.3 59
7 .0
14.34
2.00
índs
57,110
71-3
M-37
4-77
ssa uena ...
7, 18
94.2
39.00
3.00
azoo
37.M9
7 .1
22.00
3-77
efferson
15.94
78.4
5-95
.84
owndes ...
27, 32
71.0
3.90
. 1
29,292
81.5
41.3
-79
2 ,105
72.2
12.00
3-M
23,710
84.0
0.32
4.80
tíbbeha
1 ,872
4.4
25.50
3.82
Panoía
27,845
7.9
22.93
3.24
uítman
19,8 1
7 .5
50.00
.12
har ey
14,190
89.0
38.04
4-31
unfíower
4 .374
80.9
18.1
.74
Taííahatchíe
35.953
9.4
30-55
3.50
20,38
90.7
72.19
4.5
ashíngton
51,092
85.0
4.42
4-79
íí ínson .
15.319
7 .9
25.08
4- 7
ynch1ngs
(Crísís, December,
1n the Un1ted tates 1nce
192 , p. 91)
1885
ear
híte
egro
ear
híte
egro
1885
10
78
1892
100
5
188
7
7
1893
4
54
1887
42
80
894
5
134
1888
47
95
1895
59
112
81
95
189
51
80
1890
37
90
1897
44
122
1891
71
21
1898
5
102
a t —
♦ 2 8
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í
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e
#
p
d
-
g
o
o
g
í
e
MP T T CT
ear
1899..
1900..
1901..
1902..
1903..
1904..
1905..
190 ..
1907..
1908..
1909..
1910..
1911
1912..
1913..
ynch1ncs 1n the Un1ted tates 1nce 1885
hííe egro ear
23 84 9 4
8 107 1915
28 107 191
10 8 1917
18 8 1918
4 83 919
5 1 1920
8 4 1921
3 0 1922
7 93 1923
14 73 924
9 1925
8 3 192
4 0 otaí
1 51
Totaí of aíí íynchíngs 4.250
( oríd ímanac, 1928, p. 327)
hííe
egro
í
49

54
4
o
2

4
0
7
7
8
53
5
59

51
4
9
0
1
0
• 7
7
23
1,045
3 2 5
ynch1ngs by tates 1889-1924
tate
híte
egro
tate
híte
egro
35
1
4
rízona
11
1
evada
11
r ansas
41
205
ew ampshíre ..
30
5
ew ersey
24
5
ew Me íco
18
3
ew or
1
1

orth Caroíína .
8
5
Díst. of Coí.
orth Da ota
10
1
íorída
14
218
hío
3

Georgía
m
433
88
40
1
regon
9
3
ííínoís
... 12
13
3
ndíana
10
14
hode síand
7
1
outh Caroíína .,
4
119
ansas
.... 13
12
outh Da ota
18
entuc y
4
3
.. 3
íít
.... 50
287
Te as
.. 54
283
Maryíand
.... 3
19
Utah

Massachusetts
8

4
19
.... 4
3
est írgínía ....
7
7
Míssíssíppí
2
409
ísconsín
4
....
Míssourí
.... 33
55
. 33
7
Montana
.... 30
1
( oríd ímanac, 1928, p. 327)
♦ 2 9
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#
p
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-
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o
o
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í
e
C M C
umber of Persons ynched, by ffenses Charged and
by Coíor 1889-1918
Percent
Percent
of Totaí
of Totaí
hítes
egroes
Totaí
híte
ynched
egro
ynched
1,219
319
4 -4
900
3 -7
5 3
4
.
477
19.0
ttac s upon omen
250
• 3
.9
37
9-4
ther Crímes gaínst the
Person
3 5
2
8.8
53
10.0
Crímes gaínst Property....
33
121
17.2
210
8.3
Mísceííaneous Crímes
438
■ 35
19.2
303
2.0
bsence of Críme
148

.9
142
5
3. 4
702
100.0
2.522
100.0
Thírty ears of ynchíng, p. 3 )
♦ 270
G
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T D
PU C T C T D
merícan abor ear oo , ew or , anguard Press, 1927.
íanshard, Pauí, abor ín outhern Cotton Mííís, ew or ,
ew epubííc, 1927.
ogart, . ., conomíc ístory of the Uníted tates, ew
or , ongmans, Green Co., 1910.
rown, . ., ducatíonaí and conomíc Deveíopment of
the egro ín írgínía, Uníversíty of írgínía Pubííca-
tíons, o. .
Chícago Commíssíon on ace eíatíons, The egro ín Chí-
cago, Chícago, Uníversíty of Chícago Press, 1922.
Chíídren s ureau, Chííd abor and the or of Mothers on
Guíf Truc arms, ashíngton, 1924.
Chíídren s ureau, Chííd abor on Maryíand Truc arms,
ashíngton, 1923.
Chíídren s ureau, eífare of Chíídren ín Cotton Growíng
reas of Te as, ashíngton, 1924.
Cíarídge, . ., ístory of the Goíd Coast, ondon, Mur-
ray, 1915. oí. .
Commíssíon on nter- acíaí Cooperatíon, ace eíatíons ín
1927, tíanta, 1927.
The Crísís, rgan of the atíonaí ssocíatíon for the d-
vancement of Coíored Peopíe. Pubííshed monthíy, ew
or .
Cutíer, . ., ynch aw, ew or , ongmans, Green
Co., 1905.
Detweííer, rederíc G., The egro Press ín the Uníted
tates, Chícago, Uníversíty of Chícago Press, 1922.
Dorsey, ugh M., s to the egro ín Georgía, tíanta, 1921.
eprínted by atíonaí ssocíatíon for the dvancement
of Coíored Peopíe, ew or , 1921.
Dowd, erome, The egro ín merícan ífe, ew or ,
Century, 1927.
Dubíín, ouís ., eaíth and eaíth, ew or , arper
ros., nc., 1928.
Du oís, . ., uppressíon of the merícan íave Trade,
ew or , ongmans, Green Co., 189 .
Duncan, . G., Changíng ace eíatíonshíps ín order and
orthern tates, Phííadeíphía, 1922.
Garner, ames ., outhern Poíítícs ínce the Cívíí ar:
tudíes ín outhern ístory and Poíítícs, ew or , Co-
íumbía Uníversíty Press, 1914.
♦ 271
G
e
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r
a
t
e
d

f
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r

m
e
m
b
e
r

(
C
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a

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s
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)

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0
1
3
-
0
7
-
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4

2
3
:
3
2

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G P
ers ovíts, Meívíííe ., The merícan egro, ew or ,
nopf, 1928.
oughteííng, eíía, ncome and tandards of ívíng of Un-
s íííed aborers ín Chícago, Uníversíty of Chícago Press,
1927.
eríín, . T., oíce of the egro, ew or , Dutton, 1920.
oc e, íaín, The ew egro, ew or , íbert and
Charíes oní, 1925.
Maryíand nter- acíaí Commíssíon eport, 1927.
egro ear oo , egro ear oo Pubííshíng Co., Tus e-
gee nstítute, íabama, 1925- .
pportuníty, a ournaí of egro ífe, Pubííshed Monthíy by
the atíonaí Urban eague, ew or .
víngton, M. ., aíf a Man, ew or , ongmans, Green
Co., 1911.
Paradíse, íoía ., yster and hrímp Canníng Communítíes
on the Guíf Coast, Chíídren s ureau, ashíngton, 1922.
Phííadeíphía ousíng ssocíatíon, egro ousíng ín Phíía-
deíphía, Phííadeíphía, 1927.
euter, . ., The Muíatto ín the Uníted tates, oston,
adger, 1918.
„ euter, . ., The merícan ace Probíem, ew or ,
Croweíí, 1927.
pears, . ., merícan íave Trade, ew or , críbner s,
1901.
treet, eíen M., ospítaí and Díspensary Care of the Coí-
ored ín aítímore, ohns op íns M. . Thesís, une, 1927.
Thírty ears of ynchíng ín the Uníted tates, ew or ,
atíonaí ssocíatíon for the dvancement of Coíored
Peopíe, 1918.
( eatherford, . D., The egro from fríca to meríca,
ew or , Doran, 1924.
esíey, C. , egro abor ín the Uníted tates, ew or ,
anguard Press, 1927.
oodson, C. G., Century of egro Mígratíon, ashíng-
ton, The ssocíatíon for tudy of egro ífe and ís-
tory, 1918.
oofter, T. ., r., egro Probíems ín Cítíes, ew or ,
Doubíeday-Doran, 1928.
oofter, T. ., r., egro Mígratíon, ew or , Gray, 1920.
or , Monroe ., íbííography of the egro ín fríca and
meríca, ew or , . . ííson Co., 1928.
♦ 272
G
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f
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a

U
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s
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2
0
1
3
-
0
7
-
1
4

2
3
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2

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2
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8
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#
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D
grícuíture, outhern, 29 ff., 8,
9, 128 orthern, 128 specíaíí-
zatíon of, ín outh, 20
ron, egro housíng ín, 120
ííen peopíes ín U. -, 151
merícan egro, a new racíaí type,
1 1,
merícan egro abor Congress, 25
ntí-íynch íaws, 208
rtísts, egro, 214, 247
an íng ínterests ín outh, 7, 8
ethíehem teeí Corporatíon, 11 2
íac eít, Chap. 5 economíc
ownershíp ín, ff. educatíon of
egroes ín, 0 ff. educatíonaí e -
pendítures ín, 1 ff. farm ten-
ancy ín, 29, 9 farm wages ín,
54 íncrease of farm tenancy ín,
31 índustry and ban íng ín,
íand ownershíp ín, 29, 8 íívíng
condítíons of egroes ín, 59 ff.
egro chííd íabor ín, 5 egro
farmers ín, 29 ff. egro hous-
íng ín, 59 ff. peonage ín, 32 ff.
socíaí posítíon of egroes ín, 4
of prosperous egro farmers, 34
ff. standards of íívíng for e-
groes ín, 5 wages and íncome
ín, 53 ff.
ourgeoísíe, egro, 245-4 , 255 ín-
crease of, 255
usíness management by egroes,
7, 129, 245- , 254
Chícago, Commíssíon of ace eía-
tíons, 121 egro housíng ín, 120,
121 race ríots, 1 3, 209, 210,
211 egroes ín índustry ín, 251
Chííd íabor, egro, 5 , 230
Churches, segregatíon of egroes ín,
17 -77
Church property, egro, vaíue of,
17 -77
Cívíí ríghts guaranteed to egroes,
220, 221
Coííege graduates, egro, 175
Coíor ííne, Chap. 15 149 ff., 155,
1 3 ff.
Coíored, defínítíon of, 149, 150
Coíored races, ínferíoríty of, 150,
151, 152
Competítíon wíth whíte wor ers, 77-
78
Congress, egro representatíves ín,
223
Cuíturaí achíevements, 247
Cuíturaí opportuníty for egro, ín
outh, 4, ín orth, 7
Death rates, egro, 124 ff.
Defense and reííef socíetíes, egro,
25
Democratíc party ín outh, 22
Díscrímínatíon agaínst egroes, eco-
nomíc, Chap. 12 78 ff.. 101, 102,
214, 21 o íníatínn )) fíí fí p M
1 9, 175, 17 socíaí, 152. 15 ff
1 T To7 1 8, 17 , 177
agaínst successfuí egro, 248
conomíc díscrímínatíon. Chap. 12,
153, 154, 213, 217 basís of, 213
after Cívíí ar, 78 ín dístríbu-
tíon of wor , 101-102 ín fac-
toríes, 79 ín saíaríes of schooí
teachers, 102 ín s íííed trades,
80-81 ín stores and offíces, 78 ín
wages, 101 ff.
conomíc opportuníty for egroes,
ín outh, ff. ín orth, 75-7
decrease of, 257 post-war, 82,
250 ff.
conomíc ownershíp, ín orth, 128
ín outh, ff.
conomíc penaítíes of bíac ness,
Chap. 14 214
ducatíon nf outhern fígroC fí
ff. e pendítures tor, 1, 2 8 ín
íorída, 2 ín Georgía, 3
ducatíonaí díscrímínatíon, ín orth,
17 ín outh, 2, 1 8 _
ducatíonaí opportuníty, ín orth,
7 , 175- ín Georgía, 2 ín
Te as, 2 sínce oríd ar, 255
mancípatíon, of síaves, 220 re-
suíts of, 222 of egroes, pro-
grams for, 257 ff. through poíítícaí
actíon, 228
píoítatíon of egro, 131 ff., 154,
213 ff., 218, 222, 258 cause of,
214 by egroes, 245-4
actoríes, e cíus1on of egroes
from, 79-81
arm tenancy, 29 egro, 29 ff., 9,
128 íncrease of, 30 system of,
32
arm ownershíp, 34 ff., 128 danger
to egroes resuítíng from, 3
ranchíse, egro, 223 ff.
reedman s ureau, 221
Georgía, educatíonaí opportuníty ín,
2 egro popuíatíon ín, 24, 2 ,
2 7 peonage ín, 32 ff.
aríem, 118, 122
eaíth of egroes, ín índustríaí
centers, 124 ín aítímore, 1 9
standards raísed by oríd ar,
254-55
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D
ome ownershíp by egroes, 114,
12 íncrease of sínce oríd
ar, 254
oteís, e cíusíon of egroes from,
1 5 ff.
ousíng of egroes, ín ron, 120
ín Chícago, 120, 121 ín índustríaí
centers, 108 ff. ín ew or , 122
as renters, 113, 114 as roomers,
111-12 ín outh, 59, 0 ín
parrows Poínt, Md., 112 ín
ashíngton, D. C, 122
mperíaíísm, merícan, 5-8
mperíaí poíícy of U. ., 2 1
ndustríaí cítíes, egro centers ín,
Chap. 13 egro housíng ín, 108
ff. egro standards of íívíng ín,
123, 12 egro mígratíon to, 72
ndustríaí posítíon of egro, 77 ff.,
84
ndustríaíízatíon of outh, 77
ndustry and ban íng ín outh,
nferíoríty of egro, 151, 152, 1 3,
213, 214, 21 , 248, 2 1
nsurance for egroes, 173, 174
egro companíes, 174
ntermarríage, 158 íííegaííty of,
158, 159 íynchíng because of, 1 0
nter-racíaí Commíssíon, 257
ím-Crow cars, 172, 173
ob fíndíng for egroes, Chap. 11,
77 ff.
ob ownershíp, 127 ff.
índergartens ín outh, 2 8
abor, coíoníaí shortage of, 13 de-
mand duríng oríd ar, 250
abor struggíes, post war, 251
and ownershíp ín outh, 29, 8
egísíatíon, defíníng egro, 150
agaínst íntermarríage, 158 ff. en-
forcíng segregatíon, 172 ff.
agaínst íynchíng, 208
ynch íaw, Chap. 19
ynchíng, advertísíng of, 199-200
causes of, 1 0, 207 defínítíon of,
209 e ampíes of, 1 0, 198 ff.,
201 ff., 205 geographíc dístríbu-
tíon, 207 íegísíatíon agaínst, 207
of egro women, 20 number of,
20 pubííc approvaí of, 208 by
states, 2 9 by years, 2 8-9
Marríage íaws respectíng races, 158-
1 0
Mígratíon of egroes, 71 ff., 107,
217 causes of, 75- effects of,
on outhern economíc íífe, 74
on housíng ín orth, 107
Mob íaw, 197 ff.
Muíattoes, 149 íncrease of, 1 0, 1 1
atíonaí ssocíatíon for dvance-
ment of Coíored Peopíe, 25
atíonaí Urban eague, 25
ew or , aríem, 118, 122, 123
housíng ín, 122
ccupatíonaí cíassífícatíon of e-
groes, 81, 83, 84, 24
ccupatíonaí opportuníty for e-
groes, 77, 78, 104, 105, 127, 129,
152, 153 afforded by ar, 250
through post-war strí es, 252
rganízatíon of egroes, fraternaí,
255 need of, 2 1 ín trade
uníons, 25 of whíte and bíac
wor ers, 2 2
Par s, e cíusíon of egro from,
1 4
Peonage, of outhern egroes, 32
ff.
Poíítícaí democracy, faííacy of, 223
Poíítícaí domínatíon by whíte race,
215, 218, 22 -7
Poíítícaí representatíon of egroes,
223
Poíítícs, e cíusíon of egro from,
223 ff.
Popuíatíon, egro, 19-23 concen-
tratíon of, 23 cause of concentra-
tíon, 27 geographíc dístríbutíon of,
24 ff., 15 of Georgía, 2 7 ín-
crease of, 19 ín orth, 73-74
ruraí, 71-72 ín outh, 2 by
states, 2 3 urban, 72-73, 2 5-
of Uníted tates by decades,
2 3
Popuíatíon, síave, by decades, 2 4
Press, egro, 2 0 treatment of e-
gro ín, 1 9
Professíonaí cíassífícatíon of egro,
247
Professíonaí opportuníty, 247 ín-
creased by segregatíon, 259 sínce
oríd ar, 255
Programs for egro emancípatíon,
227, 257, 2 2
ace conscíousness of egro, 259,
2 0
ace cooperatíon, 257 ff.
ace crossíngs, 158, 1 0, 1 1, 1 2
ace dístínctíons, 149 ff.
ace wars, 153, 1 3, 209 ff., 217
anaíysís of, 211, 212
acíaí ínferíoríty of egro, 151, 152,
1 3, 213, 214, 215, 248
econstructíon era, 17 , 220, 221
epresentatíon of egro ín Con-
gress, 223
estaurants, e cíusíon of egro
from, 1 5 ff.
unaway síaves, 245
chooís, segregatíon ín, 174, 175
chooí teachers, egro, saíaríes of,
102, 103
egregatíon, Chap. 18 ín churches,
177 effect on egroes, 259 ín
hoteís and restaurants, 1 5 ff.
ín índustry, 178 íaws reíatíng to,
110, 172, 173, 174, 178, 217 e-
gro opposítíon to, 258 ín par s,
1 3 príncípíe of, 179 ín pubííc
conveyances, 172 resídentíaí, 109,
ff., 117, 153, 171, 172 ín schooís,
175 socíaí, 153, 172 ín stores,
1 7, 1 8 ín theatres, 1 4 ín
. M. C. ., . . C. ., 177
♦ 274
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hare croppíng, 32
íííed trades, e cíusíon of egro
from, 78, 154
íave coast, 13
íave trade, begínníngs of, 14
profíts of, 18
íave popuíatíon of U. ., 2 4
íave revoíts, 219
íave-hoídíng famíííes, 2 4
íaves, as artísans, 77 emancípatíon
of, 220 geographíc dístríbutíon of,
20, 21 runaways, 24 vaíue of,
2 4
íavery, condítíons of, 1 out-
íawry of, 17 voíume of, 17
ocíaí posítíon of egro, 171 ff.,
215 ín orth, 15 / 157, 1 3 ft.
ín outh, 4, 1 9-70 ín radícaí
movement, 15 , 157 of success-
fuí egro, 247-48
outh, see íac eít
parrows Poínt, Md., egro hous-
íng ín, 112
tandards of íívíng, egro, ín ín-
dustríaí centers, 120 ff., 12 , 254
for outhern egroes, 5 ff.
raísed by ar opportuníty, 250 ff.
trí es, post war, effect on e-
groes, 251, 252
trí ebrea ers, egroes as, 252
ub ect races, 5 egro as, Chap. 20
uccessfuí egroes, 245-4
weet Case, 111
Theatres, e cíusíon of egro from,
1 4
Trade schooís for egroes, 82
Trade uníon, e cíusíon of egroes
from, 84, 179 egro, 25
Unempíoyment, 105, 10
Uns íííed wor ers, 124, 154
ages and íncome, of farm hands,
53, 54 of egro chíídren ín
outh, 5 of egro women ín
outh, 5 of egroes ín índus-
tríaí centers, 101, 102 of outh-
ern egroes, Chap, 7
age cuts for egroes, 104
ashíngton, egro housíng ín, 122
eaíth of egroes, 254
híte coííar obs for egroes, 78-79
híte domínatíon, of economíc fe,
214, 258 ín orth, 127 ff. of
poíítícaí íífe, 215, 217, 223 ff.
ín outh, , 8
híte prímary, 225
híte race, superíoríty of, 155
omen wor ers, egro, 124, 130
or íng cíass organízatíon, need of,
2 1
oríd ar, effect on egroes, 82,
249, 250, 252, 253, 254 number
of egroes ín, 249
. M. C. ., . . C. ., posítíon of
egroes ín, 177-78
♦ 275
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