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Before Benigno Simeon Pnoy Aquino III sworn as the President of the Philippines in 2010, his predecessor is the first Presidential Child to be elected as the President of the Republic. It resembles to the Presidents or Prime Ministers of several countries like the Bush and Adams of the United States (Father and Son), the Lee`s of Singapore (Lee Kwan Yew and Lee Hsien Loon), the Sukarno`s of Indonesia (Father and Daughter), the Nerhu`s of India and Kirchner`s of Argentina (Father and Daughter). She was also the second female President of the country, after Corazon C. Aquino. She is like the Head of State/Governments of several countries like Megawati Sukarnoputri (Indonesia), Indira Gandhi (India), Sirimavo Bandaranaike (Sri Lanka), Isabel Peron (Argentina) and Baroness Margaret Thatcher (United Kingdom). Also a coincidence in history, that George Bush Jr. inauguration as President of U.S is same as the date of the succession of Gloria Arroyo as President of Philippines ousting Joseph Ejercito Erap Estrada. Born Maria Gloria on April 5 1947, in San Juan, Rizal (San Juan City today), she is the elder of the two children of Diosdado Macapagal and Dr. EvangelinaMacaraeg. In the Philippine History, the Macapagals were known since from the early period of Spanish Colonization in the archipelago. The Macapagals are descendants of Rajah Lakandula, a brave and well known hero who resist the hegemony of the Spaniards. From Lakandula, there in Pampanga, the Macapagals reside and one of the known ancestors of this family is Don Juan Macapagal, who gave his loyalty to serve in the Spanish king. But after that, as not expected, not all Macapagals are rich in nature, it is said that Diosdado and his family was also a victim of poverty in Lubao, that`s why he was called as the Poor Boy from Lubao. In a story, he was nearly abandoned by his father and mostly depending in her mother, her Lola and especially to himself. There he pursues to study law in UST and topnotch the 1936 Bar Examination, getting 89.3% correct. After that, as a lawyer, he decided to run as a Representative of Pampanga under the Liberal Party,defeating a Nacionalista candidate by presenting and reciting a poem to the Cabalen constituents of that time. Decided to run as a Senator but failed to take a seat because of the popularity of the NP of that period. He run for Vice Presidency and won but unfortunately, it is first time in the history of the Philippines, which the two major political

parties were sharing to the two highest positions in the government. Carlos Garcia elected as President under NP and Diosdado Macapagal as Vice President under the LP. In 1961, Macapagal beaten Garcia in the Presidential Election, again LP is in the top since Quirino. But the Congress was dominated by the Nacionalista Party, a time of congressional dictatorship in which ended in 1963 when LP got the Upper House. In 1964, deciding to run for 2nd term backed by the LP, he was defeated by the candidate of NP, his former party-mate, Senate President Ferdinand Marcos. Diosdado has two wives; the first is Purita de la Rosa, sister of the first Politician actor of the Philippines, Senator Rogelio de la Rosa. Purita and Diosdado have two kids, Cieloand Arturo. Purita died because of difficulty in delivering their first son. After Purita, she married a physician from UST, Dr. EvangelinaMacaraeg. They have two childrens, Maria Gloria and Diosdado Jr. All of them resided in their house in Florante St. in San Juan, Rizal (San Juan City, Metro Manila today) except Gloria who grew in Iligan. Iligan City : The Childhood Memories Unknown to most people, Gloria, though she was born in San Juan, Rizal, spent part of her childhood in that Macaraeg-Macapagal Ancestral House in Iligan. She was known to stay there from age four to eleven, with her maternal grandmother, Doa Irinea de la Cruz Macaraeg. It was a period of full of unforgettable moments in her life as a young girl, as she emphasized when she was already in Malacaang Palace. She said that she have many memories in Iligan, it was very idyllic. She was commuting from San Juan to Iligan but the longest stretch I was there was from age 4 to 11. It is said that Gloria, as a child, preferred to live with her maternal grandmother for a reason that she was jealous of her younger brother. It was known that after Gloria was born, four years later, Diosdado Jr. was born, the youngest of the four children of Diosdado Sr. to her two wives. She felt hurt when she thought that since Diosdado Jr. was born, their parents seemed to love her less and not more the center of attraction in the family. On that happening, Doa Irinea persuaded Diosdado Sr. and Eva to let her to take care of her granddaughter so she could dote on her. After that, Gloria was happy staying with her beloved Lola because she pampered her everything she needed. At the age of six, his father decided to go Iligan to get Gloria back in Manila; it was a time of coincidence when Diosdado is campaigning in Lanao, running for a seat in the Senate. During the Primary up to the Secondary school years of Gloria, she is travelling from San Juan to Manila every Summer. But when his father was elected as President of the Philippines, she together with her parents and siblings, will reside not any more in San Juan, but in Malacaang Palace.

Education and Professorial Career When his father was elected President of the Philippines, won against the Nacionalista candidate, Carlos Garcia, the family resided in the Malacaang Palace. But before that, when his father decided to persuade Gloria, he enrolled her daughter to a Catholic run school, the Assumption College in Manila. There she finished Primary and Secondary from 1953 1964, graduating Valedictorian in the same level. In 1964, at the age of seventeen, her parents decided to enroll Gloria in a prestigious university in United States, the Georgetown University, taking up AB Economics. Not known by many, Diosdado, a graduate of law, advise his daughters and sons, to take programs, either related to Economic or business. He want that his children may engage in finance or in business field.There she became a classmate of Bill Clinton, who by a stroke of destiny would become President of the United States just as Gloria would become President of the Philippines. In her college years, she maintained her high scholastic standing as a Dean List form 1964 to 1966. But after the two years of US Education, she goes back to the Philippines and continues her course under the program of Commerce in Assumption College and graduating magna cum laude in 1968. After that, she takes up Masters in Economics in Ateneo de Manila University and completed it in 1978. She finishes her Ph.D. degree major of Economics, in the University of the Philippines (1985). Before finishing her doctoral degree and entering the political arena, her first job is anAssistant Professor in Economicsin Ateneo de Manila University from 1977 to 1987. She is also a Professor of Economics in U.P in the same period. From 1984 to 1987, she chaired the Economics Department of the Assumption College. In ADMU, our 15 th President, Benigno Aquino III became her student in Economics. Married Life Gloria schooling in Georgetown University was cut short down after two years when she came home to marry Jose Miguel Mike Tuason Arroyo, a handsome 1972 graduate of the Ateneo de Manila School of Law. It is said that they met in Baguio City at the birthday party of Patty Araneta in the house of the late socialite and irrepressible television host, Elvira Manahan. They got married o August 2, 1968, when Gloria as 21 and Mike 22. She says that in those days marrying at a rather early age was normal, unlike today when, for example, her daughter Luli was already 29 years old and yet she`s nowhere getting married. It was learned that Mike started courting Gloria when she was still the teenaged daughter of the President. Evidently they were already sweethearts before she left for the U.S. to enroll in Georgetown.

Mike and Gloria Arroyo have three children; the eldest is Juan Miguel Mikey, who was born on April 26, 1969. He has a graduate diploma in Business Administration from the University of California st Berkeley. He was a part time actor in the movies during 90`s, mostly comedy-action genre films. He ran for Vice Governor of Pampanga, as the running mate of another Politician actor, the re-electionist Governor LitoLapid(a Philippine Senator today). In today politics, after running as a vice governor, he won a seat in the House of Representatives, representing 2nd District of Pampanga and also a Party List Representative in 14th and 15th Congress. Evangelina Lourdes Luli, named after Gloria`s mother, was born on June 5, 1971. She holds a Master Degree in Foreign Service and a graduate of Law like her father. Diosdado Ignacio Dado, a namesake of his grandfather, was born on September 4, 1974 and holds a BS in Legal Management in Ateneo de Naga. Now he is currently serving in his 2nd term as the Representative of Camarines Sur beating the Political Family of the province, the Villafuertes.

Pre-Presidency : Senator of the Philippines The first time of Gloria`s experience of politics is not as the member of the cabinet during the Aquino Administration (1992) but in their house in San Juan, Rizal. Their house became one of the headquarters of the Liberal Party. There, she listens and sometimes seating with the politicos of Liberal in that time when his father is the Representative and Vice President of the Philippines. But if we are talking about the engagement of being as a politician, in terms of appointive positions, she was appointed in 1989 by President Cory Aquino as the Assistant Secretary of the Department of the Trade and Industry. She was also assigned as Executive Director of the Garments and Textile Board and later named as Undersecretary of the DTI. In addition, she was designated as Governor of the Board of Investments. Her first works were fitted to her academic background and skills as an Economist. In 1992, under the LDP, she decided to run as Senator. At that time, the first 12 declared winners (1st-12th) will serve for a 6 year term while the 13th -24th placers were for 3 year term. Unexpectedly, Gloria is in the 13th placer, serving only for 3 year term. When 1995 midterm elections came, she prepares to run again as Senator. She topped in the election, receiving the highest vote in that time (before Ramon Bong Revilla`s record of almost 30 million).

As a Senator, she distinguished herself as a hardworking and productive member of the Upper House with economics as her forte. She headed the Committee on Trade and Commerce, Committee on Economic Affairs, Committee on Central Luzon Rehabilitation and the Senate panel of the oversight committee on the Mount Pinatubo Commission. She was also a Vice Chairman of the Finance Committee. She sponsored laws concerning the economic progress and growth of the country. She filed over 400 Senate Bills and Resolutions, authored/coauthored 55 bills signed by President Ramos. Vice Presidency The post of Vice President, if we remember, was also occupied by his father in 1957. The history now speaks that his daughter, the topped Senator, is now entering the stepping stone for the highest position of the government. A first Presidential Daughter to become a Vice President, following the steps of her beloved father. One exciting here is the decision if Gloria Arroyo is running for Presidency or Vice Presidency. As a topped and aspiring Senator, she wishes to run in Presidency in the 1998 Elections, but during that time, the Vice President, Joseph Erap Estrada also wants to get the Presidency. Erap is popular not as a politician but as an actor, he became a Mayor of San Juan, a Senator and later V.P. of the Philippines. There are many aspirants of the Presidency, they are Speaker Jose De Venecia (the bet of Pres. Ramos), Mayor Alfredo Lim (ally of Liberal Party), Sen. Miriam Santiago (who lost in 1992 against Ramos) and Sec. Renato De Villa ( DND Secretary, a Ramos like politician). Senator Arroyo wishes to hear an advice from the most influential leaders of the past People Power Revolution, the President Fidel Ramos and His Eminence Cardinal Sin. The two have the same advice to the young legislator, Gloria is to young to aspire for Presidency. It is not the time may be for Gloria to run for Presidency and in the end, decided to run for Vice Presidency, with her running mate , the Speaker De Venecia as President. In the SWS Polls, Estrada had won in all regions except Bicol, the Ilocos and Central Visayas, with 38.7 of the 4,800 voters interviewed for the exit poll saying they voted him. De Venecia had 16.4 % . It was Gloria Arroyo who won in more phenomenally. She garnered a whopping 51 % of the vote compared to Angara`s 21 %. The major candidates for President Vice President in 1998 election were VP EstradaSen. Eduardo Angara, Speaker De Venecia-Sen. Arroyo, Mayor Alfredo Lim, Francisco Tatad and even Imelda Marcos run but later on withdrew. In the elections, Estrada is leading in the Presidential candidates while Arroyo is in V.P. After the elections and counting, the result is that:

For President Estrada 10,722,295 (39%, won) De Venecia 4, 268,483

For Vice President Macapagal-Arroyo 12,667, 252 (47%, won) Angara-5,652,068

On May 26 1998, the President elect Jospeh Estrada offered incoming Vice President Macapagal Arroyo the position of Secretary of Social Welfare and Administration in his Cabinet, to show the color of unity. He first announced it at a breakfast meeting in the Presidential Yacht, Ang Pangulo. Later, Gloria accepted the offer, telling waiting reporters that she is honored to accept the post. She took the oath of office before Chief Justice Andres Narvasa with her husband, Mikey, holding the Bible. As the Secretary of Social Welfare and Development, she focused on the AHON Programs - Ahon Bayan, Ahon Bata and the Ahon Pamilya - which are all aimed at improving the lives of the poor and the disadvantaged through strengthening linkages with various stakeholders. The Quick Reaction Team was also launched during her term.The project seeks to intensify and accelerate past and present attempts to address the plight of street children. Specifically, it provides street children and their families with necessary social services to protect their rights and enjoy a new lease on life. The project covers as priority areas the 17 cities and municipalities in the National Capital Region. More than 11,730 children were reached out through the project. Ahon Bayan is a resource generation project for social welfareservices. It addresses the inadequacy of funds for social welfare. The project aims to generate and mobilize resources by matching donors from local and international funding agencies with proponents from nongovernment organizations and people's organizations. The project is now institutionalized as a regular DSWD project. Since 1998, Ahon Bayan programme has funded a total of 80 projects throughout the country. The AhonPamilya, a project which is also commonly known as the "National Family Violence Prevention Program". It is a community based strategy of preparing family members to protect themselves against violence and manage resolution of conflicts within the context of family members. The program is being supported by the New Zealand government and is being pilot tested in regions III, IV, V, VIII and X.

Post Presidency: Representative of 2nd District of Pampanga After her term as the President of the Philippines, she reportedly announced that she will run for the position of the Representative of 2 nd District of Pampanga, a post which is also seated by his father and his son. Now, she is currently the incumbent, serving in her 2nd term but still detained and ill in Veterans Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City. She was arrested because of the complaint against her regarding the Electoral Sabotage Although detained, she writes an essay, pertaining to the policies made by the Aquino Administration today. It was entitled It is Economy, Student!

Before discussing the programs, there shall be a introductory paragraph how Gloria Macapagal Arroyo became President of the Republic of the Philippines. When President Estrada was scandalized by the rumors of corruption and granting political favors to political allies, there was a secretly move for Estrada`s Impeachment which is the basis is a betrayal of public trust, of alleged bank accounts . While is the Erap Government is in hot seat of allegations, made and accused by Ilocos Sur Governor Chavit Singson, Arroyo resigned as Secretary of Social Welfare and Development, she distance herself in order to protect her integrity as Vice President. When the House of Representatives, decided to lift the complaint to the Upper House, the Impeachment is moving on but suddenly, Estrada was rumored resigned as President by Angara`s Diary (recalling that Eduardo Angara, his running mate was appointed Executive Secretary). The Impeachment trial was discontinued while the People are rallying in EDSA, insisting Estrada to resign. After the rumors,this became widely accepted as a truth, the Vice President, succeeded Estrada as President, under the provisions of the 1987 Constitution.The said revolution was seen a well laid planned coup against Estrada by his oppositions and immediately installed Arroyo. In EDSA Shrine, there Gloria Arroyo take the oath of office before Chief Justice Hilario Davide. Personalities in politics were seen there including the former President Fidel Ramos. This revolution is like to be a sequel of the EDSA I, the EDSA II. As a President from 2001 to 2010, her programs were focused on Domestic and others were in Foreign Policies.

Domestic Policies
Education As an academician, she had a concern mainly on Education. Some 10 million copies of textbooks have already been distributed by the Department of Education (DepEd) in 19,000 public elementary and secondary schools nationwide.The President assured that all public school students would have textbooks for the priority subjects in grades I to IV, and in the first and second years of high school. In terms of school buildings, the government has constructed 1, 612 school buildings in barangays unserved by nearby schools. Some 555 schoolhouses will be completed within the next few weeks.The President has directed DepEd to design classrooms within the P250,000 budget so that the government can build more classrooms throughout the country, especially in remote barangays. She has allocated P40 million for the construction of new classrooms in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). Another priority area is the upgrading of the teaching of Mathematics and Science in basic education to prepare the youth to be the next generation of knowledge workers.The revised BEC has been implemented since June 2002 and now focuses on the five learning areas of English, Science, Math, Filipino and Makabayan from the previous eight per Grade/ Year level.The teaching of science has been given an extended time allotment from 300 minutes to 400 minutes each week to promote the culture of science among students. The number of hours of Mathematics laboratory has likewise been increased. About 600,000 teachers from both private and public schools have been trained on the new curriculum. A linear, sequential approach in teaching math is being adopted by secondary school teachers to facilitate mastery of basic math principles.

Initially available in 20 barangays in various parts of the country for the last two years, the Strong Republic Grade School or the governments distance learning program has expanded to include more depressed villages in the Visayas and Mindanao.The project, aimed at extending the benefits of education to remote barangays that do not have classrooms and teachers , has made schooling available through television facilities put up in areas where quality of education is very low.In areas where television cannot reach them, the students are taught through technovans, which house a television set and instructional materials in reading, writing and arithmetic.

Enrollees are required to take a qualifying exam to determine their entry point in the program which encompasses distance learning modules.In Maguindanao, distance-learning facilities have been set up in major evacuation camps in war-torn areas like Pagalungan and Pagagawan.Non-government groups particularly corporate foundations have supported the program, donating some of the available 1,500 long distance learning equipment for grade schools. Because of the technological revolution experience until today, in support of the national effort to empower and prepare the youth for the Information Age, the education venture program has already built 15 fully equipped, Internet-connected and fully airconditioned computer laboratories in public schools nationwide.

Electoral Reform Since the democratic elections in the Philippines, from 1946 up to 2007, the country was using the old ballot system of voting. It was caused sometimes of cheating in some remoted areas that was far from watchers organizations for free elections. For President Arroyo, although she was accussed of being a cheater in 2004 elections, defeating the King of Philippine Movies, Fernando Poe Jr., she proposed the automation system in order to have a more accessible, modern and rapid election. Automation was first used in 2010 Elections. Although it was proposed since 1997 under the Election Modernization Act. By automation, machines rather than human hands will be utilized in the counting and transmission of results. The system would reduce opportunities for cheating because of less human intervention and will safeguard the credibility of elections as a democratic exercise. In the automated system, the names of the candidates are pre-printed on a two-page ballot, one for the presidential and national candidates including party-list, and the other for local candidates.Voters need only to shade the space beside the name of the candidate instead of the previous practice of writing out the names of their choices. As it does away with manual counting at the precinct level, the ballot boxes will be transported directly from the precincts to the municipal or city counting centers. In the presence of election officers and representatives of political parties and citizens arm groups, a machine will count the ballot by precinct. It then prints a certificate of election returns showing the election results on the municipal level, as it saves the results on compact discs.

The city and municipal results are then transported to the provincial counting machine which consolidates all other municipal and city reports, after which they are transported to the national capital region for the national tally.With this process, the proclamation of winning candidates will be faster. Housing Reforms True to its commitment to make housing a priority program, the Macapagal Arroyo administration has achieved its goal to provide more decent homes to urban poor communities and the low and middle-income families. Since she assumed the presidency three years ago, the President has proclaimed more government lands as housing sites, approved the highest amount as home loans to informal settlers, allocated the biggest funding for housing, and implemented lowest interest rates and efficient process in the granting of housing loans. An off-base community housing project has been launched to provide quality and affordable housing units for ordinary military personnel and their families.As ordered by the President, the following housing agencies have achieved the twin goals of designing innovative financial schemes while cutting into half the processing period. Since 2001, the Home Development Mutual Fund (Pag-IBIG) has funded the construction or purchase of 131, 894 housing units, exceeding by a margin of 3.7 percent its target of 127,165 housing units for the period.The Pag-IBIG made housing loans more accessible to low-income earner families by bringing down interest rates to their lowest levels. Interest rates now range from 6 percent to 12 percent per annum, depending on the loan amount, are the lowest rates in the market to date. The Pag-IBIG also reduced the number of required documents and the processing time for housing loan applications to seven working days for certain types of loans.The institutional and end-user financing programs under the housing for formal sector shall receive P30 billion from Pag-IBIG fund.The housing fair/ exhibition mounted by Pag-IBIG in key cities abroad aims to encourage overseas Filipinos to join the Pag-IBIG Overseas Program, to promote home ownership among overseas Filipinos, to encourage developers to join the POP Home Matching Program, and to attract investments in the country through the acquisition of a housing unit. National Housing Authority Since January 2001, some 62,861 families have benefited from the various projects under the socialized housing component of the shelter program implemented by the National Housing Authority.These projects include slum upgrading, sites and services, land tenurial assistance,

community land acquisition support, grants-in-aid, cooperative housing, resettlement, emergency housing assistance, housing materials assistance and completed housing units. As of June 2003, President Macapagal Arroyo signed 46 issuances, proclaiming a total of 22,600 hectares of unused government lands as potential sites for socialized housing. These proclamations secured the tenure of an estimated 202,702 families nationwide.The National Government Center (NGC) Housing and Land Utilization Act of 2003 is the most recent measure from Congress signed into law by the President. The law finally resolved the status of residents in the NGC area. Relocation and Resettlement Programs

The program beneficiaries along the North Railway have been relocated to mediumrise resettlement areas in Camarin in Caloocan City. Those along the South Railway have been offered resettlement areas in Tanay, Batangas and Montalban, Rizal.A record-setting P1.12 billion funds were released by the National Home Mortgage Finance Corporation (NHMFC) in the previous years to some 28, 312 informal settlers. An additional 19,529 households are expected to benefit from the issuance of letters of guarantee to pay the amount of loans applied for, totaling P597 million, upon completion of requirements.The said amount, which is the highest under any administration for a similar period, represents loans granted under the Community Mortgage Program (CMP) to finance the development of 209 urban poor settlements nationwide.

Housing for Soldiers

The government has distributed 1,206 housing units to soldiers and their families under its socialized housing packages in just two years. About 17,000 soldiers and their families would be the direct beneficiaries of four off-base housing projects located at Camp Riego de Dios in Tanza, Cavite; Camp Aquino in San Miguel, Tarlac; Camp Evangelista in Cagayan de Oro; and the AFP Officers Village in Taguig, Metro Manila. Three government housing projects are currently on various stages of development. These are the NAMRIA property in Fort Bonifacio, Makati City which will have 5,000 units on a sevenhectare area; Camp Claudio in Paranaque City where 477 lots are currently being developed; and the 2,800 lots in Camp Riego de Dios in Tanza, Cavite.Ten other areas under the technical evaluation of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and the HUDCC

would be utilized as off-base housing for the AFP personnel. These areas are expected to generate more than 58,000 single detached housing units with a lot area of 50 square meters each. These areas are in Fort San Felipe in Cavite City; Naval Station in San Miguel, Zambales; Naval Station in Margosatubig, Zamboanga del Sur; Fort Sto. Domingo in Santa Rosa, Laguna; Fort Magsaysay in Palayan City; Camp Peralta in Jamindan, Capiz; Fort del Pilar in Baguio City; Fort Bonifacio in Makati City; Camp Downes in Ormoc City; and Camp Lukban in Samar.

Land Reforms In 2002, DAR distributed 111,772 hectares to 75,560 agrarian reform beneficiaries (ARBs), over 11 percent of the target of 100,000 hectares set by President Arroyo during her state-of-the-nation address.From January to March 2003, DAR distributed 11,095 hectares, higher than the 10,307 hectares and 10,033 hectares distributed during the same period in 2001 and 2002, respectively.

In 2002, DAR resolved 34,182 legal cases, most of which (22,624) are about CARP implementation. It is 11 percent higher than the target of 30, 793.The DAR Adjudication Board (DARAB) handled 28,935 cases in 2002 and solved 15,919 cases, or 74 percent of the target 21,489 cases. To date, DARAB reported that it has resolved 10,959 cases related to exemption, conversion, and retention rights. Some 4,218 cases related to land valuation, ejection, collection and fixing of rentals, and cancellation of emancipation patents (EPs) or certificates of land ownership award (CLOAs) have been resolved.DAR has undertaken the hiring of more legal officers to strengthen the adjudication boards, the implementation of a quota system to speed up adjudication work, and the paralegal training of ARBs to hasten the resolution of cases and clear the backlog.

Farm Support Services. To ensure that the distributed lands would be truly productive, the delivery of support services consisting of rural infrastructure, post-harvest facilities, technical assistance, etc. to the ARBs has been a major focus. Financing for the support services was made possible with the help of foreign donors. Through foreign assistance, DAR had completed 9 irrigation facilities servicing 2,593 hectares, 55 farm-

to-market roads with a total length of 187 kilometers, 12 farm-to-market bridges with total length of 1,216 linear meters, and 2 post-harvest facilities with 7 units. These are aside from various technical assistance such as new technology, credit programs, and training of farmers. Ongoing projects include 14 irrigation facilities that would service 4,020 hectares, 32 farm-tomarket roads with a total length of 173 kilometers, 1 farm-to-market bridge 15 linear meters long, and 2 post-harvest facilities with two units each.

Special Programs. Under this program, the DAR has initiated the projects Gulayan ng MagsasakangAgraryo (GMA), which aims to improve the economic and social conditions of farmers through scientific, environment- friendly and highly productive vegetable farming; the Diosdado Macapagal Agrarian Scholarship Program, which extends educational assistance to deserving and qualified children of ARBs, in cooperation with the state universities and colleges; and the KALAHI Agrarian Reform Zones, which are contiguous agrarian reform communities (ARCs) where support services for ARBs will be given more focus and are envisioned to become hubs of agroindustrial development. Meeting Public Lands Distribution Target

As of the first semester this year, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) has distributed a total of 67,397 hectares of public land to 49,496 families. This accomplishment represents 53 percent of their total target of 127, 250 hectares for land distribution this year.The DENR has given 21, 686 households renewable tenurial rights to some 180,179 hectares of forests under the Community-Based Forest Management Agreement (CBFMA) that would ensure the security of tenure of upland dwellers.It has issued 6,343 hectares of coastal areas to 4,942 coastal dwellers under the CBFMA. Small and Medium Enterprises DTIs Sulong The SME Unified Lending Program for National Growth (Sulong) is anchored on the belief that supporting SMEs in many aspects will translate into a healthier economy noting that 99 percent of business entities in the country are made up of SMEs, which employ 70 percent of the workforce. It is a financing program under the National SME Development Plan with the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) as lead implementor.

Sulong aims to lower the effective cost of borrowing by SMEs and liberalize requirements, create a wider financing system that will give SMEs better access to short and long-term funds and standardize lending procedures.Under the program, SMEs get the necessary assistance not only in terms of financing but likewise through market exposure, human resource training and product development. The Center for International Trade and Exposition Missions (CITEM) has extended support to SMEs through international trade fairs here and overseas.Moreover, SME caravans and SME centers have also been organized and established to facilitate the delivery of services. Among the Government Financial Institutions (GFIs) involved in the Sulong project, the Land Bank of the Philippines topped in the amount of loans released with P2.2 billion to some 2,550 SMEs.After the Land Bank, the Development Bank of the Philippines came second with a total of P1.089 billion releases to some 192 SME borrowers. Next was the Small Business Corp. (SB Corp.), with P192.75 million released to 152 SME borrowers; Quedan Credit Corporation (Quedancor), with P90.41 million to 6,406 SME borrowers; and the National Livelihood Support Fund (NLSF), with P34.25 million to 754 borrowers. BSP and micro-finance

The BangkoSentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) has undertaken specific measures in promoting the program within the banking sector.Both created under Circular 273, two micro-finance oriented rural banks , namely Vision and Banco ng Masa, and two micro-finance oriented thrift banks, Opportunity Bank and Microenterprise Bank, have 100 percent micro-finance portfolios. There are now 27 cooperative rural banks and 85 rural banks throughout the country that have micro-finance operations.The BSP conducts the micro-finance regional advocacy program, a series of information seminars held in strategic regions of the country to promote the development of sustainable micro-finance. This was launched in Cebu City.

Mindanao Nation Project The Mindanao National Initiative to be unveiled during the First Muslim Summit shall be an important step towards the fulfillment of the promise of Mindanao. Mindanao Natin aims to mobilize the local governments, civil society and the business community in the blueprint for development for Muslim Mindanao.

It has been noted that Muslim Mindanao continued to be the poorest area in the country, beset by a very low literacy rate and whose economic exclusion has resulted in conflicts. The government is set to earmark P5.5-billion for the regional initiative Mindanao Natin would also receive some $1.3 billion in official development assistance to bankroll high-impact priority infrastructure project.The socio-economic package would be carried out in over 5,000 villages in Mindanao's four regions - Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) Southcentral Mindanao, Western Mindanao and Northern Mindanao. FOUR PRINCIPLES There are four principles that serve as guide in working for the rehabilitation and full&nbs p; development of Mindanao, a centerpiece program of the Macapagal Arroyo administration. These are: Peace and development must go together; The development of Mindanao must be anchored on constitutionality, national sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country; There must be social justice for all, regardless of ones belief or station in life; All acts of terrorism and lawlessness should be condemned. THE PROGRAM The Mindanao Natin shall be done through a 10-point program that also ensures the implementation of the Tripoli Agreement entered into by the government and the Moro National Liberation Front in Tripoli, Libya. The program includes the: Substantial implementation of the Tripoli Agreement; Strengthening of local monitoring teams looking into the rehabilitation of conflictaffected villages in the Pikit-Pagalungan- Pagagawan cluster in Cotabato and Maguindanao provinces and the Carmen-President Roxas-Damulog cluster in Cotabato; Formation of a new breed of soldiers called the Sala'am (zone of peace) soldiers, half of whom are Muslims, to protect Muslim communities and assist in the delivery of socioeconomic services to the latter; Financing and conduct of livelihood training programs for conflict-affected families; Implementation of a rebel returnees program; Creation of one-stop action centers for land documentation and titling;

Conduct of a distance-learning program that will provide basic education and specialty training courses; Conduct of youth and culture-sensitive programs on sports and the arts; Implementation of community-scale, quick-gestation infrastructure projects that include an P281 million worth of projects in the ARMM, P71 million for Western Mindanao, and P73 million in Southcentral Mindanao; Implementation of the $1.3-billion ODA to finance roads and bridges, irrigation and water resource facilities and maritime safety facilities.

Presyong Tama, GamotPampamilya

Angkalusugan ay karapatan ng bawat Pilipino. With this strong belief in the need to address the heavy burden of high medicine prices on the Filipino consumers, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo has directed the immediate implementation of a program that will improve public access to quality healthcare.The Presyong Tama, GamotPampamilya program is governments concrete response to this need. Through her active support, President Arroyo is the programs staunchest advocate. The program involved the importation of widely recognized, off-patent branded medicines which are usually prescribed for the most common ailments and diseases. These medicines shall be made available to Filipino consumers at very affordable prices. Studies show that prices of medicines in the Philippines are as much as 10 times higher than in other Asian countries, next only to Japan. The program is an effort of the Arroyo Administration to lower the cost of healthcare in the country. More specifically, the programs objective is to ensure consumers get value for money by providing them better access to branded medicines of high quality at considerably lower prices. The parallel drug importation program is among the various tools identified by the government to push high medicine prices in the local market down to more reasonable and affordable levels.

National Health Insurance Program Philhealth is the government's priority health program that aims to benefit the country's poor communities. Citing the need for universal health care to help the poor cope with the prohibitive costs of getting sick, the President directed the Philhealth to expand its network coverage to the poor, particularly those living in the urban areas. A health insurance card holder and any member of his family who gets sick can go to a government hospital and present the said card to avail of free medical services.

KALAHI The Kapit-Bisig Laban saKahirapan (KALAHI) program is an anti- poverty initiative of the administration of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. The project will assist the government in strengthening the capability of local government units (LGUs) to design, implement, and manage development activities. Such activities may include basic infrastructure like new or rehabilitated roads and bridges, barangay schools and clinics, and water supply and sanitation facilities. Communities will prioritize their development needs, design activities, seek technical expertise and make informed choices on how resources are used for sustainable poverty reduction.More than 5,300 poor barangays in 193 municipalities in 40 of the poorest provinces in the Philippines are expected to benefit from this project. These will be mostly in rural areas, where most poor Filipinos live. The KALAHI project will promote good governance, transparency, participation with local level decision-making, and increased accountability, as villagers gain hands-on experience in managing projects. Promoting growth and enabling people, especially the poor, to participate fully in development are the twin pillars of the national strategy for the Philippines. This project will support the second pillar by giving influence over decisions and resources to local communities. Poverty reduction efforts are more likely to be effective and sustained when communities are responsible for activities that affect them. The core project principles are as follows: Localized decision-making. Decisions on community sub-projects will be made by barangay residents and their representatives. Transparency. Every aspect of project decision-making will be known to local communities and each peso spent will be accounted for on public information boards and independently monitored by non- government organizations (NGOs) and media groups.

Social inclusiveness. The entire community, not just a few families, will have the opportunity to be involved in planning and decisionmaking processes. Competition. Participating barangays will submit project proposals to an inter-barangay forum for selection based on criteria like number of poor beneficiaries and technical soundness of the proposal. Demand-driven poverty reduction. Options for community-driven projects are based on an open menu, but projects with negative environmental or social impacts will not be funded.

Strong Republic Nautical Highway The 919-kilometer Strong Republic Nautical Highway (SRNH) covering 17 cities, towns and islands that will reduce by 17 hours the travel time using the usual land and sea routes will provide the backbone for the development of tourism and agricultural industries, by enhancing the accessibility of unique tourist destinations west of the Philippines. The nautical highway aims to accelerate the development of the country's southern islands by opening an alternative and low-cost trade, travel, and tourism route in the country's looming western growth corridor by making Oriental Mindoro as its gateway. The SRNH covers the 17 provinces and cities of Oriental Mindoro, Tagaytay (Cavite), Marinduque, Romblon, and Batangas in Luzon; Aklan, Antique, Iloilo, Capiz, Negros Oriental, Negros Occidental, Bohol, Cebu, Guimaras, and Siquijor, in the Visayas; and Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Lanao del Norte, and Dapitan City in Mindanao. Roxas town, some 124 kilometers south at the tip of this city, will serve as the gateway to other destinations, such as San Jose, in Occidental Mindoro, Boracay, Romblon, and Palawan. Pinamalayan town in central Oriental Mindoro was assigned as the jump-off point to Marinduque. Puerto Galera, a world-famous resort in Oriental Mindoro, could be easily reached through Batangas and Calapan cities.These islands will be interconnected by land and sea routes using roll on-roll off (RO-RO) passenger and cargo vessels, ferryboats, and fastcrafts and other modes of land transportation. The project will enhance investment opportunities for agro-industrial, commerce, trade and tourism, and also provide efficient and convenient travel movement of local and international tourists and investors through shorter travel time and cheaper transportation costs.


Legitimacy of Presidency Gloria Macapagal Arroyo's assumption of the highest post in the land spur debates regarding its legality and continue to baffle legal experts and key personalities in the Philippine political arena. Joseph Estrada, the ousted president, questioned the assumption by Vice President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo of the presidency, saying there are serious doubts about its legitimacy. In a statement made after his ouster, Estrada said that, "while along with many other legal minds of our country, I have strong and serious doubts about the legality and constitutionality of her proclamation as President, I do not wish to be a factor that will prevent the restoration of unity and order in our civil society." "It is for this reason that I now leave Malacaang Palace, the seat of the presidency of this country, for the sake of peace and in order to begin the healing process of our nation," he remarked. Former Executive Secretary Edgardo Angara says Mr. Estrada's decision not to sign a resignation letter places the validity of Arroyo's oath of office in doubt. Angara conceded however that the President would have willingly signed a prepared resignation letter had not the Supreme Court preempted him. The Supreme Court, headed by Chief Justice Hilrio Davide, allowed then Vice President Arroyo to take her oath of office as the country's 14th president based on the principle "salus populi est suprema lex." (The welfare of the people is the Supreme Law.) It also cited a letter from Arroyo which informed the High Court of Mr. Estrada's inability to perform his functions, having lost the mandate of the people and the support of the country's Armed Forces. Atty. Rene Saguisag contended there were flaws in the Supreme Court's decision to declare the presidential post vacant and allowing Arroyo to take her oath without even consulting the incumbent president. However, he doubts if anybody can rebuke the action of the Supreme Court. The Destablization of Arroyo Administration Fertilizer Fund Scam The controversy started when President Arroyo was accused of using fertilizer funds for the 2004 election. The fund, worth P728 million, fell under the GinintuangMasaganaAni Program. Jocelyn Bolante, agriculture undersecretary and regarded as the architect of the fund,

left the country and sought asylum in America. He came back to the country in 2008 and faced the Senate Blue Ribbon Committee. Bolante told the Senate that (1) he does not know who nominated or recommended him to be an agriculture undersecretary, (2) it was former Agriculture Secretary Luis Lorenzo who requested the release of the funds, (3) the fertilizer fund was valid and legal and was approved by the DA, and that (4) when he left the department in August 2004, 91% of the fertilizer funds had been liquidated already. The committee recommended the filing of plunder and other criminal case against him and nine other persons but no case was filed. In January 2009, the panel who investigated the fertilizer fund scam submitted the proposed resolution to Ombudsman Merceditas Gutierrez. No reports on the investigation have been released from both the Ombudsman and the justice department. In March 2009, Bolante disclosed a plan to run either as governor or congressman in Capiz, Roxas.

2004 Oakwood Mutiny Defense Secretary Angelo Reyes alleged involvement in selling arms and ammunitions to guerilla and bandit groups moved 300 young officers and enlisted men of the AFP to rebel against the government in July. Reyes was forced to resign a few weeks later. The rebel soldiers were detained. The 321 armed soldiers apologized for the failed rebellion. In 2004, 133 of the soldiers were freed. Capt. NicanorFaeldon, one of the alleged leaders, escaped in December 2005. Four other leaders escaped after Faeldon did. Faeldon was captured in 2007 but escaped again a few months after.Reyes, since then, has held other Cabinet posts: environment secretary and energy secretary.

2004 Elections and Hello Garci Scandal This controversy is the one of the reason why some or several Filipino people doesnt ;ike Gloria to become their President. It is evident that in 2004 Election, her rival was the King of the Philippine Movies, Fernando Poe Jr. According to the sources, it was said that the true winner is FPJ and not GMA. The Hello Garci has something to do in this electoral cheating. The Hello Garci Controversy is about wiretapped recordings of Gloria Macapagal Arroyos conversations with COMELEC Commissioner Virgilio Garcilliano. The conversations was

about rigging or cheating the 2004 national elections. Former NBI Deputy Director Samuel Ong released the wiretapped tapes; he also claimed that he had the mother of all tapes which was released a few days later. The National Telecommunications Commission initially banned the playing of the tapes in the media, and threatened that any media group who plays the tapes will be forced to close. The tape was then allowed by the Supreme Court to be aired by the media with a vote of 9 6, this was against the NTCs decision. In the tape a woman who sounds like Gloria Macapagal Arroyo was talking to Virgilio Garci Garcilliano about by how many votes she would win in her run for the presidency. In the conversation she asked if she would win by a million votes and Garci replied that she will; coincidentally or suspiciously she did win by over a million votes in the 2004 presidential elections. GMA admitted that she was the woman in the wiretapped conversations but said that she only talked to Garci after the counting has been done. She also aired on national television her apology to the public for her lapse in judgement, this act was supposed to reduce the tensions the issue has created however this backfired and it created more tensions and more calls for her to step down. Virgilio Garcillianos whereabouts were unknown right after the Hello Garci tapes came out. There were even some rumors that he was able to escape the country. 5 Months later he resurfaced and admitted that he was the one talking to GMA in the tapes but the conversation took place after the counting of votes had been done. He also denied that GMA instructed him to cheat in the 2004 national elections. The issue created a lot of tension and anger in the public. Thousands went to the street to call for GMA to step down. There was even an attempt to create another People Power, this failed however due to the lack of protestors that attended the peaceful gathering. GMA survived the storm; this issue was the biggest issue that threatened her presidency. Until now the issue has not yet been solved, and no one has been punished.

2007 Manila Peninsula Mutiny The Manila Peninsula rebellion occurred on November 29, 2007 at The Peninsula Manila hotel in Makati, Philippines. Senator Antonio Trillanes IV, Brigadier General Danilo Lim, and 25 other Magdalo (mutineers) officers walked out of their trial and marched through the streets of Makati. The mutineers called for the ousting of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, and seized the Rizal function room on the second floor of the Manila Peninsula Hotel along Ayala Avenue. Former Vice-President Teofisto Guingona, Jr. as well as some of the soldiers from the Armed Forces of the Philippines joined the march to the hotel.

National Broadband Network- ZTE Scandal The NBN-ZTE controversy is about a deal between the Philippines and XTE Corporation, a company in china. The deal was worth $329.59 Million and was aimed at improving the communication capabilities of the Philippines. On August 29, 2007, Nueva Vizcaya Rep. Carlos Padilla, disclosed on his privilege speech that COMELEC chairman Benjamin Abalos has been going to China not just for leisure but to broker a deal with the XTE Corporation. He also said that there were two other corporations willing to do the job for the Philippines at lower prices but was turned down. These two other private companies offered cheaper prices than ZTE Corporation. Abalos denied these accusations but also admitted that he knew some of the officials in ZTE Corporation. A few days later on September 10, 2007, Jose de Venecia III issued an affidavit stating that he was with Abalos in china and heard Ablaos demanding money from the officials of the ZTE Corporation. The Supreme Court issued a temporary restraining order preventing the contract from pushing through. On September 18, 2007, while testifying to in the senate, Jose de Venecia III revealed that the First Gentleman Mike Arroyo told him to back off from pursuing the deal. A few days later President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo suspended the deal because of political criticisms. She also claimed that the alleged corruption was investigated and that the reports after the investigation were uncorroborated. During the hearings the Senate ordered Rodolfo Jun Lozada, who was the President of Philippine Forest Corporation and was said to have knowledge that the deal was overpriced, to attend the senate hearing. Lozada did not attend the hearing and was able to fly out of the country 2 hours before the start of the hearing. The Senate then ordered the arrest of Jun Lozada. On February 5, 2008, Jun Lozada arrived at the NAIA international airport and was taken away by unidentified men. Lozada claims that the men blindfolded him and was talking about where he was supposed to be killed. This was prevented however since text messages from his family to media revealed that there was going to be something bad that was to happen to Jun Lozada. The next day the PNP admits that Jun Lozada was in their custody. On February 7, 2008, Jun Lozada appeared in a pre-dawn conference in La Salle Greenhills and narrated his experience on how he was taken away against his will. In the following weeks Jun Lozada testified in the senate, fearing for his life. He said that Abalos threatened to have him killed and that when he left the NBN project the project was priced at $262 million but it ballooned to $329.5 Million when it was approved. The hearings were conducted; with Lozada as the whistleblower and a lot of government officials were implicated and involved in the issue. This included First Gentleman Mike Arroyo, Former Mayor Lito Atienza and Former COMELEC chairman Benjamin Abalos. Until now the controversy never reached a conclusion and truth and justice has yet to be achieved.

The Charter Change In the presidents SONA, she said that the system of government needs fundamental change and the debate on Charter Change should start immediately. She initiated a movement to overthrow the present form of government and make it into a federal parliamentaryunicameral form of government. It still remains as a proposed policy because it is obviously not yet implemented. In the last 2006, her House of Representatives planned to revise the constitution through the constituent assembly. Executive Order No. 464 and Calibrated Preemptive Response Arroyo issued Executive Order No. 464 which states that demonstrations or otherwise known as rallies should have permits or they would be preemptively stopped. Gloria wanted the Philippine to have change of system of government from the Unitary Presidential, to a Federal Parliamentary, which resembles to Germany and other Federal countries. The Killing of Impeachment
Three impeachment complaints against President Arroyo were filed at the House of Representatives in the 13th Congress during the second regular session: 1) Atty. Oliver Lozano's original complaint (with seven supplemental affidavits of complaint); 2) Atty. Jose Lopez's complaint 3) Amended complaint with Lozano as the lead complainant. June 27, 2005: Complaint for Impeachment by Atty. Oliver Lozano charged President Arroyo with betrayal of public trust accused President Arroyo of cheating in the presidential elections

referred to President Arroyo as an "impostor", "bogus president", and "fake commander-in-chief" stated that "Hello Garci" tape is evidence of massive electoral fraud endorsed by Alagad Party-list Rep. Rodante Marcoleta in a "resolution of endorsement" filed on June 28, 2005. President Arroyo's counsel, Atty. Pedro Ferrer, filed an answer ex abundante ad cautelam at the House of Representatives on July 19, 2005, where Lozano's allegations in the complaint for impeachment (and the subsequent "supplemental complaint for impeachment") were countered point by point. June 28, 2005: Supplemental Complaint for Impeachment by Atty. Oliver Lozano filed the day after President Arroyo admitted that she called a Comelec official during the canvassing of votes in the 2004 elections and apologized for her lapse in judgment charged that President Arroyo's admission alone is basis enough to find her guilty of betrayal of public trust President Arroyo's counsel, Atty. Pedro Ferrer, filed an answer ex abundante ad cautelam at the House of Representatives on July 19, 2005, where Lozano's allegations in the supplemental

complaint for impeachment (as well as the preceding "complaint for impeachment") were countered point by point. June 29, 2005: Second Supplemental Affidavit of Complaint for Impeachment by Atty. Oliver Lozano said that President Arroyo betrayed public trust when she called a Comelec official to protect her vote said President Arroyo's "lapse in judgment" is a "breach of official duty by misfeasances" that President Arroyo lied when she said "lapse in judgment" because she called several times-"breaches of official duty by misfeasances" that President Arroyo's delay in speaking up on the issue is an "inexcusable negligence of duty" said he might be able to produce Garcillano as a witness. June 30, 2005: Third Supplemental Affidavit of Complaint for Impeachmentby Atty. Oliver Lozano filed the day after President Arroyo announced that First Gentleman Mike Arroyo has voluntarily offered to leave the country said that allowing FG Arroyo to leave when he has been implicated in the jueteng scandal amounts to obstruction of justice that by allowing FG Arroyo to leave, President Arroyo has committed a "breach of official duty by misfeasance or malfeasance which is an act of betrayal of public trust." July 4, 2005: Fourth Supplemental Affidavit of Complaint for Impeachment by Atty. Oliver Lozano signed by Lozano on July 1, 2005; received by the House of Representatives on July 4, 2005

cited a news article saying the Free Legal Assistance Group believes President Arroyo violated the law when she talked to a Comelec Commissioner during the canvassing said that President Arroyo's admission has established betrayal of public trust citing newspaper articles on anti-Arroyo rallies, Lozano said people have already shown loss of trust in President Arroyo as a result of Arroyo's admitted acts. July 4, 2005: Fifth Supplemental Affidavit of Complaint for Impeachment by Atty. Oliver Lozano said Arroyo's refusal to confirm or deny the taped conversation and the "prohibited and unethical call" constitutes betrayal of public trust pointed out that although President Arroyo called up the Comelec official before she was proclaimed the winner in the 2004 elections, her "act of betrayal" is still punishable after her proclamation asserted that "acts of betrayal of public trust before proclamation are evidence of habit to commit similar acts of betrayal after proclamation." that President Arroyo's approval of the "oppressive", "anti-poor" E-VAT Law is an act of betrayal of public trust--the public is strongly against it and the Supreme Court stopped its implementation that President Arroyo betrayed public trust with the approval of the E-VAT Law, especially since she refused to entertain an alternative solution to the economic crisis: renegotiating with (former First Lady) Imelda Marcos a 75-25 compromise agreement on the Marcos wealth

that President Arroyo's "managed public confession" and "feigned apology" merely heightened public distrust--"betrayal of public trust for lack of full disclosure" July 5, 2005: Sixth Supplemental Affidavit of Complaint for Impeachment by Atty. Oliver Lozano said President Arroyo breached her official duty when she "deliberately and miserably" failed to order the Armed Forces of the Philippines, Philippine National Police and the National Bureau of Investigation to produce Garcillano said President Arroyo breached her official duty with her "no permit, no rally" regulation called on President Arroyo to go on indefinite leave, pending investigation on the "Hello, Garci" controversy and the impeachment proceedings said President Arroyo should go on indefinite leave "before the AFP asserts its constitutional duty to protect the people" July 21, 2005: Seventh Supplemental Affidavit of Complaint for Impeachment by Atty. Oliver Lozano stated that former Gov. Antonio Villanueva gave him (Lozano) a "CD video tape" showing a falsified certificate of candidacy and election of President Arroyo. July 4, 2005: Complaint for Impeachment by Atty. Jose Rizaldo Lopez amplified and supplemented Lozano's complaint for impeachment cited the following events after Arroyo's apology as effects of President Arroyo's "breaches of public trust", which can only be addressed through impeachment proceedings: o stock market, peso exchange rate, and President Arroyo's ratings plunged o rallies and calls for President Arroyo's impeachment or resignation mounted
o o o o o

prices of fuel products and other prime commodities skyrocketed upon the implementation of E-VAT Rep. Mikey Arroyo took a leave of absence from the House of Representatives rumored Cabinet resignations attention from international media playing of the alleged wiretapped conversations at the House or Representatives

said President Arroyo is guilty of betrayal of public trust for having cheated in the 2004 elections, notwithstanding her proclamation, foreign governments' recognition of her proclamation, and survey results and predictions of her victory that President Arroyo's admission and apology cannot "erase the stigma that she committed a betrayal of trust" pushed for impeachment proceedings in Congress rather than street protests and coups said impeachment proceedings should be allowed to prosper and reach its conclusion "to prevent or avoid the uncertainty caused by the departure of Joseph Estrada (from Malacanang in 2001)" endorsed by Rep. Antonio Alvarez in a "resolution of endorsement" filed on July 4, 2005, but Alvarez later withdrew his endorsement

July 25, 2005: Amended Complaint by Atty. Oliver Lozano, et al. accussed President Arroyo of Culpable Violations of the Constitution, Bribery and Graft and Corruption, and Betrayal of Public Trust filed by Atty. Oliver Lozano (lead complainant), with 29 congressmen, 19 organizations and 10 individuals as co-complainants amended complaint dated July 22, 2005; filed at the House of Representatives on July 25, 2005 endorsed by 41 representatives when the time the amended complaint was filed (additional signatures followed.) General allegations: o that President Arroyo committed culpable violations of the Constitution by

undermining the independence of the Comelec when she appointed Garcillano and Manuel Barcelona Jr.--persons identified with partisan politics or with electoral anomalies-- as Comelec commissioners; the complaint also narrated the circumstances surrounding the "Hello Garci" conversations between President Arroyo and Garcillano, which were caught on tape directing/allowing Comelec, police, and military officials to ensure her victory in the 2004 presidential elections o that President Arroyo betrayed public trust by obstructing justice--attempting to affect the outcome of Congressional investigations of various charges against her and other persons by fabricating and disseminating misleading information such as false or tampered audio recording deliberately concealing the First Couple's ownership of various properties in the Philippines and abroad, and their business interests, thereby failing to pay due taxes allowed the killing of political dissenters and infringed on their freedoms of expression and assembly. o that President Arroyo is liable for bribery and graft and corrupt practices: she approved contracts that were manifestly and grossly disadvantageous to the government, such as the Northrail and Piatco-NAIA Terminal 3 projects she directly and/or indirectly accepted jueteng payola in exchange for political protection, to bankroll her presidential campaign, and to bribe officials to rig the results of the 2004 presidential elections in her favor

In this matter, Oliver Lozano filled an impeachment complaint against President Arroyo during the height of the Hello, Garci scandal. Congress declared the complaint to be technically deficient. Oliver Lozano filed another impeachment complaint against President Arroyo on 2006. Like the first one, his second complaint was defeated due to insufficiency in substance.

For the third time, Lozano filed his impeachment complaint against the President on 2007. Like the second version, this impeachment rap was dismissed for insufficiency in substance. Critics say Lozanos impeachment complaints were moves to hinder the submission of a solid complaint against the President. Weeks after former Arroyo ally Jose De Venecia filed his impeachment complaint in 2008, Lozano took his fourth try with a four-page impeachment complaint penned with his daughter, Atty Evangeline Lozano, and another lawyer, Elly Pamatong. There were a rumors that Oliver Lozano was contracted by Arroyo to file an impeachment case against her every year, which started from 2005 up to 2009. It was a tactical method to block and kill the other complaints, which is more substantial and sufficient in evidence rather to Lozano`s one. Another version is this one, a lawyer Roel Pulido filed an impeachment complaint against President Arroyo. Endorsed by an administration ally, Laguna Rep. Edgar San Luis, it was seen as a move to foil another complaint against the President. But this one is slightly successful but was junked by the Committee of Justice of House of Representatives, when Joey de Venecia, son of former House Speaker Jose De Venecia, filed an impeachment complaint against President Arroyo, particularly because of the overpriced NBN-ZTE broadband deal. The complaint was found sufficient in form but was dismissed after House representatives voted 42-8, ruling the complaint as insufficient in substance.

According a news, the GMA Network reportedly that there were enormously , an achievements made by Arroyo administration, although, accussed of being a cheater, corrupt and other terms to call against her. For the past nine years, base of the assessment is this:
The President, whose term is ending in the middle of the year, took pride in stable consumer prices, which she claimed had been the lowest among all administrations. The average inflation rate for 2009 was 3.2 percent compared with 9.3 percent in 2008, and is projected at 4.7 percent this year. Arroyo also commended the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) for surpassing collection targets. "The BIR has come back to meeting or even surpassing its targets," Mrs. Arroyo said. She also cited the Agriculture department for generating one million jobs. "A critical component was the ability to establish security including allocation of sources [and] economic development targets for areas such as Mindanao," she added. The countrys poverty incidence slid by three points to 30 percent in 2003 from 2000, but escalated

to 32.9 percent in 2006 despite economic growth, according to the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB). Arroyo also took credit for the pesos strength against the dollar. The local currency jumped from a yearly average of P50.99 per dollar in 2001 to P47.64 in 2009, central bank and NSCB data showed. "My friends tell me that ours is the only administration with the strongest peso at the end [rather] than at the beginning," she said. The President also said her administration had build post-harvest facilities, including farm-to-market roads double the number of those built by previous administrations combined. "That is why we redeemed the promise of land reform by distributing millions of hectares [to Filipinos]," she said. Mrs. Arroyo also boasted of allotting P100 million this year for education and building 100,000 classrooms, increasing the national achievement rate to 55 percent from 44 percent. "We built more schools, brought water to remote towns and provided cash [to] the poorest one million families," she said. Government housing projects, she claimed, had benefited 300,000 families, including 90,000 dwellers along railroads. "We have also ensured that more and more families are able to own a home, thus giving 300,000 families a chance to meet their goal of homeownership. Part of this are the 90,000 families that we relocated from the riles (railroads)," the President said. "These are the differences that have been made in the last nine years. But what is important is not so much what we have done than where the nation is going," she said. "The nation is in a better shape than when we have founded it. I want the poor to prosper and for the middle class to lead this nation to the verge of success in 20 years," she added. The number of poor Filipinos has been increasing despite relatively steady economic growth in recent years, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) earlier said. In a study titled "Poverty in the Philippines: Causes, Constraints, and Opportunities," the Manila-based lender said the countrys yearly poverty reduction rate of 0.47 percent between 1990 and 2005 was slower than in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam Infrastructures During the earlier part of former President Arroyos term, the RoRo (roll-on, roll-off) network of ships and barges that link the highly fragmented islands of the Philippines was a prominent talking point in the presidents speeches. The ships have always been there and the geographic challenges but the supposed efforts of the president have helped in stream lining the network.

Many of the most populous cities and provinces outside of Luzon are located in the Visayas which is essentially a set of nearby islands unlike the relatively large land masses of Luzon and Mindanao. The project has allowed the nation to be more connected and has allowed for the greater connectivity in terms of trade and commerce; and to certain extend tourism. Thanks to the nautical highway, it is now possible to take a bus from Cubao that goes all the way to Panay Island or even Davao City one of the most southernmost urban centers in the country. Despite the reach and scale of the nautical highway, it is still not something that is being used by a vast chunk of the population. It has been useful to certain demographics but relative to the growing population of the Philippines, its not something that touches the lives of many struggling Filipinos. The improvement in the regional businesses could help bolster the local commerce that could in turn have an indirect effect in job generation and increased chances of gainful employment. The Arroyo regime has also ushered in greater gains in terms of infrastructure in the country. In her administration, we have seen the emergence of many domestic and international airports like the ones in Bacolod and Clark which the former president ended up naming after her late and former President Diosdado Macapagal. Gloria may not have been the visionaries that Ferdinand and Imelda were during the 70s with their goals of making world-class establishments and buildings but GMA has certainly tried her best to connect and interlink the various major towns in the country. The road conditions in between the farms and the actual market places were farmers could peddle their goods have always been a key talking point in various stump speeches of political candidates and government officials and Gloria seems to have taken this to heart. It may not have been perfect, but she certainly tried. No road in the country better encapsulates this dedication to interconnection than the Halsema Highway that traverses the heart of the Cordillera region. This is an important passageway that connects the western gate to the mountainous Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) Baguio City with the other towns to the east in the provinces of Mountain Province and Ifugao; and to the north to the provinces of Abra, Apayao and Kalinga. The Halsema Highway has always been a road that has heavily traveled by trucks and buses that shuttle goods and people across the Cordilleras. Despite the considerable traffic that it gets, it has always been at a relatively poor condition. The road has always been in a state of disrepair and back in the 1990s there were even parts of the highway that werent even wide enough to handle two vehicles at the same time. The sides of the highway didnt even have barriers to protect motorists from falling off a ravine thats around a hundred feet off the ravine. The geographic location of the road makes it very hard to be repaired by the DPWH. With narrow roads, it is very challenging to bring heavy machinery and other land movers to the area. The road itself was also carved precariously along jagged mountainsides that make rockslides and landslides an everyday occurrence. Typhoon Pepeng (International name: Parma) cause devastation last year when the typhoon lingered for over a week on Northern Luzon. The heavy rains caused a lot of landslides that isolated various towns along the Halsema to traffic. Buses that used to have seven to eight trips a

day were limited to just two after the travel time lengthened to almost twice as long immediately after the disaster. Surprisingly, the repairs on Halsema happened faster than the repairs on Kennon Road. The highway took less time to clear compared to the number of days that it required to reconnect the city of Baguio to the rest of the country. This allowed for the speedy arrival of relief to the towns along the Halsema the Benguet towns of La Trinidad, Natubleng, Atok and Buguias as well as the Mt. Province municipalities of Bauko, Sabangan and Sagada. The Arroyo administration also saw the construction of various strategically placed expressways in Southern and Central Luzon. The Star Tollway that cuts through the provinces of Laguna and Batangas connected the existing South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) that served as the lifeline of Southern Luzon to Manila. The Star Tollway allowed for the creation of a direct link from Manila to the busy sea port of Batangas city. The port of Batangas has traditionally served as an important jump off point for human traffic and goods to Mindoro, Western Visayas and even the island of Palawan. These developments bring about a very interesting question however should the President take credit for the constructed infrastructure during his or her administration considering that the factors that affect construction like the conceptualization, execution and maintenance of the infrastructure are things that are largely out of the Presidents hands at least indirectly. While it would be fair to say that the Philippines has never been more interconnected geographically in its history thanks to new nautical routes, expressways and new airports, it is also important to note that that development is to be expected unless there is some sort of fortuitous event that destroys the already existing infrastructure in the country like a natural disaster for instance. Yes, Gloria Arroyo did make the country develop to a level that made it easier to travel from one place to another in support of her Super Regions idea that was revealed in a past State of the Nation (SONA) address but that was exactly what was expected of her.

In the assessment of De La Salle University, although contradicting to the latter, the President Arroyos failure to improve the economy and her government is considered as one things that pulled her down. According to statistics, the Philippines rating on voice and accountability was 54.3% during 2000 and now dropped to 41.3% because of the killings, human rights violations, etc. With regards to political stability, there was also a drop in the rating; the Philippines is only better than one out of the 10 countries among the 212 countries surveyed. The control of corruption was the deadliest one which had a sever deterioration of ratings. Government effectiveness and the rule of law on the other hand, had a slight increase of rating. In my self assessment, the current years today is now experiencing the benefits of the Arroyo`s program. Alhtough accussed as correput, Arroyo is doing her best to improve the stagnating economy after the Asian Financial Crisis, that was not given a solution by the past administration. Economy and social services, including housing are one of her focus in her ten year tenure as President. Although, she also wants the Philippines to transform as a Federal country to continue her programs for the development.

Bibliography: Books Crisostomo, Isabelo. The Power and the Glory: Gloria Macapagal Arroyo and her Presidency, Michigan, J Kriz Publishing. c.2002 Joaquin, Nick. Madame Excelsis: Historying Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. Incorporated and Strategic Advantage, Incorporated, 2002
Aya Fabros, Focus on the Global South (Program).


Project 2010: Confronting the Legacy of the GMA Regime, Focus on the Global South, Philippines Program, 2010 Websites: