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What is performance management? (2) What is the foundation of performance management? Why should performance (contribution be appraised?

What are some problems with performance appraisal? (5)

What are the 5 steps in performance management process?

What is step 1 of the performance management process? (4)

What is step 2 of the performance management process? (2) What is step 3 of the performance management process?

What are the components of step 3 of performance mgmt.?

What are all of the formal methods to evaluate performance? (9 first 4)

What are all of the formal methods to evaluate performance? (9 other 5)

1. Lack of performance standards, irrelevant, subjective, unrealistic standards setting maximizing profitability of the company as a goal isnt realistic, because not everyone can contribute to this goal 2. Poor measures of performance 3. Appraiser errors(i.e. the supervisor) 4. Poor feedback to employees, e.g. none, vague, inaccurate, argumentative etc. 5. Failure to use to evaluation to make decisions

- process encompassing all activities related to improving employee performance, productivity, contribution and effectiveness - includes goal setting, pay for performance, training and development, career management, and disciplinary action Performance appraisal process: purpose is to instill in employees the desire for continuous improvement Provides opportunity for reinforcement and/or corrective action regarding performance

Defining performance expectations and goals: to make sure job duties and job standards are clear to all Surveys show employees path from job duties to achievement strategic goals is blurred - job description often insufficient to clarify performance expectations (only includes tasks, duties) - measurable standards related to strategic objectives should be developed for each position

1. defining performance expectations 2. providing ongoing feedback and coaching 3. conducting performance appraisal and evaluation discussions 4. determining performance rewards/consequences such as promotions, salary, increases and bonuses 5. conducting development and career opportunities discussions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Formal methods Mixing methods Performance appraisal problems and solutions Avoiding appraisal problems Legal and Ethical Issues Who should do the appraising Appraisal interviews Types, preparation, conducting, ensuring improved performance 8. How to handle a formal written warning

Providing ongoing coaching and feedback: through open two-way communication - both the employee and the manager need to check in frequently (i.e. regularly scheduled coaching sessions)throughout the performance management process to talk about progression toward goals



3. 4.


Performance appraisal and evaluation discussion: at specific intervals by comparing employees actual performance to set standards (usually rating form) - employees performance and progress are discussed to reinforce things that employee is doing well and develop plan for correction or deficiency critical incident method: keep record of 1. graphic rating scale: scale list number of traits/duties uncommonly good/undesirable examples of an & range of each performance; employee rated by idemployees work-related behaviour; reviewing list w. ing the score that best describes performance level employee at predetermined times (tracking 2. alternation ranking method: ranking employees extremely positive and negative performers) from best to worst on a particular trait (maybe narrative forms: state problem, impact; equally good) improvement plan w. goals, direction, training; 3. Paired comparison method: ranking employees by outcomes & consequences (positive & negative) making a chart of all possible pairs of employee for behaviourally anchored rating scales each trait and indicate the better employee of the mgmt. by objectives: setting specific measureable pair goals w. each employee then periodically review 4. forced distribution method: predetermined % of progress rates are placed in various performance categories computerized and web based performance appraisal - similar to bell curving (percentiles)

What is a behaviourally anchored rating scale? (6)

What are the advantages and disadvantages of BARS? (5 + 1)

What are the 6 main steps of management by objectives method? What are some problems to avoid? (3)

What is computerized and web-based performance appraisal? (3) What is EPM?

What are the 2 main problems for performance appraisals? Describe the rating scale problems?

Who should do the appraising?

What is an appraisal interview? What are 3 types of appraisal interviews?

What are 3 things to do in preparation for the interview?

Advantages - more accurate measure - clearer standards - assists feedback - independent dimensions - consistency Disadvantage - time consuming

A)generate critical incidents: job experts specify effective and ineffective performance B)develop performance dimensions: cluster the incidents into a smaller set of performance dimensions C)reallocate incidents: different experts group incidents into same clusters and retain incidents similarly assigned twice D) scale the incidents: rate the behaviour described in the incident as to how effectively or ineffectively it represents performance E) develop the final instrument: a subset of incidents is used as behavioural anchors for each dimension 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. set the organizations goals set departmental goals discuss departmental goals define expected results (individual goals) performance reviews: measure the results/contribution 6. provide feedback, support & encouragement 1. Setting unclear, unmeasurable objectives 2. Time-consuming 3. Objectives becomes tug-of-war between manager and employee (high vs. lower goals) 1. validity and reliability (most of the performance systems measure soft skills) 2. rating scale problems 1. unclear performance standards: too open to interpret 2. halo effect(or the opposite) 3. central tendency: rate all employees in mid of scale 4. leniency or strictness: tendency to rate very high/low appraisal bias: allow individual differences (age, sex, race) which affects rating 5. recency effect: rating based on recent performance rather than on whole period 6. similar-to-me bias - an interview in which the supervisor and employee review the appraisal and make plans to remedy deficiencies and reinforce strengths 1. Satisfactory (promotable) - make development plans 2. Satisfactory (not promotable ) - maintain performance 3. Unsatisfactory (correctable) - plan correction

- enables managers to keep computerized notes on employees, combine these with ratings on several performance traits, and then generate written text to support each part of the appraisal - provide advanced reporting capabilities, which allow managers to track the status of performance management initiatives easily Electronic Performance Monitoring: having supervisors electronically monitor amount of computerized data an employee is processing per day & thereby performance

Supervisors Peers and colleagues Committees (need to be knowledgeable) Self-assessments Direct reports (upward feedback): subordinates and superiors 360 appraisal: uses multiple raters that includes above - Performance criteria developed by representative group familiar w. jobs - Clarify who can have access to reports - Train supervisors, raters, rates - assure anonymousity - plan to evaluate the feedback system for fine-tuning 1. Assemble data: study job desc., compare performance to standards, review previous appraisal 2. prepare employee: give employee a weeks notice to review work, read job desc., analyze problems, gather questions and comments for interview 3. Find mutually agreeable time and place to meet (2 3 hours)

How to conduct the interview? (4) How to handle criticism and defensive employees? (4)

What are the 7 steps to ensure that appraisal interview leads to improved performance?

What is step 4 of the performance management process? (2) What is step 5 of the performance management process? (3)

What is effective performance management? (5)

What are total rewards? (2) What are the 5 components of total rewards? What is the impact of rewards?

What are 4 basic considerations in determining pay rates?

What are some legislations affecting compensation administration? (6) What are the 3 stages of establishing pay rates?

What is the 1st stage of establishing pay rates? What are some components of stage 1 of establishing pay rates? (4)

1. Let employee know performance is unacceptable & explain minimum expectations 2. Ensure expectations are reasonable 3. Let employees know that warnings play a significant role in the process of establishing just cause 4. Take prompt corrective measures when required 5. Avoid sending mixed messages, such as a warning letter together with a satisfactory performance review 6. Provide the employee with a reasonable amount of time to improve performance 7. Be prepared to provide employees with support to facilitate improvement 1. linking individual goals and business strategy 2. showing leadership and accountability at all levels of the organization 3. ensuring close ties among appraisal results, rewards, and recognition outcomes 4. investing in employee development planning 5. having an administratively efficient system with sufficient communication support

1. Both parties should prepare 2. be direct and specific 3. do not get personal, focus on the contribution/results 4. encourage the person to talk 5. develop an action plan recognize nervous or defensive behaviour is normal never attack a persons defenses(focus on the issue) postpone action recognize human limitations i.e. carrying 5 tons in a 1 ton truck two most important aspects used to determine the appropriate reward/consequence are: achievement of goals how the employee meets the defined standards 1) Performance then 2) Compensation then 3) Career - manager and employee discuss opportunities for development to strengthen or improve the employees knowledge, skills, and abilities - business needs must be balanced with the employees preferences - 3 choices: accept it, do positive changes, leave - an integrated package of all rewards (monetary and non-monetary, extrinsic and intrinsic) gained by employees arising from their employment - aligned with business strategy 1. compensation 2. benefits 3. work-life programs 4. performance and recognition 5. development and career opportunities purpose: attract, retain and motivate/engage (positive emotional connection to employer and clear understanding of strategic importance of job Employment/Labour Standards Act Pay equity acts Human Rights Acts Canada/Quebec Pension Plan Workers Compensation Laws Employment insurance act: maternity leave, parental leave, compassionate care leave benefits Stage 1: Job Evaluation Stage 2: Conduct a Wage/Salary Survey Stage 3: Combine Job Evaluation and Salary Survey Information to Determine Pay for Jobs

- Legal Considerations in Compensation - Union Influences on Compensation Decisions(e.g. NHL league and NHL player union): wage rates are main issue in collective bargaining; Canada Labour relations Board (CLRB) oversee employer practices and ensure employees treated in accordance with legal rights - Compensation Policies: factors include compensation cost, pay, business strategy; policies: salary increases, promotion. demotion, overtime, probationary pay, jury duty, holidays, and military service - Equity and Its Impact on Pay Rates: external and internal equity; employee perceptions of fairness Job Evaluation: systematic comparison to determine relative worth of jobs within a firm - Focuses on Benchmark Job: critical to firms operations/commonly found in other organizations Compensable factors: fundamental, compensable element of a job, such as skill, effort, responsibility, and working conditions Job evaluation committee: ensure representation of POV of employees by evaluating benchmark jobs using Job Evaluation methods: 1) Classification/grading methods; 2) point methods

What is the Classification method? (4) What is the point method? (2)

What are the 4 steps of the point method? What is a pay grade? What is a wage/salary survey? (3)

What are ways to execute the 2nd stage of establishing pay rates? (6) What are 2 types of surveys mainly?

What are some components of the 3rd stage of establishing pay rates? (4)

What is Pay for knowledge and what should it include? (1 + 3)

What are the 5 elements in compensating executives and managers? What is Pay Equity? (3)

What are the results of pay equity? (3) What is piecework?

What is variable pay? What are types of incentive plans? (5) What are 2 types of piecework plans? (3)

1. 2. 3. 4.

preliminary steps: KSAOs factors and subfactors determine factor weights and degrees assign points for each degree of each sub-factor evaluate the jobs

pay grade: comprises jobs of approximately equal value a survey aimed at determining prevailing wage rates a good salary survey provides specific wage rates for comparable jobs formal written questionnaire surveys are the most comprehensive Combine the Job Evaluation and Salary Survey Info to Determine Pay for Jobs: 1. Wage curve: a graphic description of the relationship btw job value and avg wage paid 2. Pay ranges: a series of steps or levels within a pay grade, usually based on years of service 3. Broadbanding: reducing # of salary grades & ranges into a few wide levels or bands, each contains a relatively wide range of jobs and salary levels 4. Correcting out-of-line-rates Red circle pay rate: a rate of pay that is above the pay range maximum 1) Compensation packages, 2) salary (market pricing, reduced emphasis), 3) benefits, 4) ST incentives, 5) LT Incentives Wage gap: avg pay for males is 30% higher than females - intended to eliminate systemic pay discrimination by providing equal pay to male-dominated job classes and female-dominated job classes of equal value to the employer - must ensure no gender bias in job evaluation

classification/grading method categorizes jobs into groups (classes or grades) classes contain similar jobs grades contain dissimilar jobs of equal difficulty grade/group description is a written description of the level of compensable factors required by jobs in each grade identify compensable factors determine the degree to which each factor is present in each job 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Informal communication with other employers Reviewing newspaper and internet job ads Surveying employment agencies Buying commercial or professional surveys Reviewing online compensation surveys Conducting formal questionnaire-type surveys with other employers

1. Formal & informal Surveys by Employer 2. Commercial, Professional, and Govt Salary Surveys

Competency-based pay (for mgmt & professional employees) and skill-based pay (for manufacturing employees): core, functional, behavioural competencies and skills - directly important to job performance - that can be defined in measurable and objective terms new and different competencies that replace obsolete competencies or competencies that are no longer important to job performance On-the-job training, not in the classroom.

- Any plan that ties pay to productivity or profitability - facilitates mgmt. of total compensation by keeping base pay inflation controlled 1) operations employees, 2) senior managers & executives, 3) salespeople, 4) other managers and professionals employees, 5) organization-wide Straight: set payment for each piece produced or processed in a factory or shop (no minimum guarantee) Guaranteed: the minimum hourly wage plus an incentive for each piece produced above a set number of pieces per hour

- pay equity has narrowed the wage gap, but not eliminated it - no explanation other than systemic discrimination for much of 30% remaining gap - LT solution is women and men equally represented in all jobs, i.e. no male or female- dominated jobs (occupational segregation) Piecework: # of items processed by each worker in a unit of time, such as items per hour or items per day

What are advantages and disadvantages of piecework incentive plans?

What is a standard hour plan? (2) What is a team or group incentive plan? What are the 3 formulas used to receive pay for the members of the team?

What are other approaches to team incentive plan? What are incentives for senior managers and executives? (2)

What are incentives for sales people? (4) What are incentives for other managers and professionals? (3)

What are some organization wide incentive plans? (4)

When do you use incentives? (5)

How to implement incentive plans? (7)

What are employee benefits? (2) What are 6 types of govt-sponsored benefits?

- A worker is paid a basic hrly rate + extra % of base rate of production exceeding std per hr or per day - Similar to piecework payment but is based on a % premium - a production std is set for a specific work group & its members are paid incentives if group exceeds production standard 1. earned by highest producer 2. earned by lowest producer 3. equal to the average pay earned by group Salary, commission, combination, and salary compensation Merit Pay (merit raise): salary increase awarded based on individual performance Optional if above the minimum wage - Effectiveness based on validity of performance appraisal system - Sometimes paid as a lump sum without changing base salary - Every time the base salary is increased, the benefits increases as well so itd be best to reduce the benefits costs by giving instead a lump sum 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. performance pay cannot replace good management firms get what they pay for pay is not a motivator rewards rupture relationships rewards may undermine responsiveness (if other activities are not rewarded)

1. Simple to calculate, easily understood 2. Appear equitable in principle 3. Incentive value is power since reward directly tied to performance 1. Employers habits of arbitrarily raising production standards when employees earns excessive wage 2. production standards tied to amount of money earned in workers POV, so resistance will be met when changing productions standards

1. set production std based on final output: based on piece rate or std hr plan 2. measurable definition of group performance or productivity that the group can control ST: annual bonus based on eligibility (key position, salary level, salary grade), fund-size determination (nondeductible vs. deductible), and individual awards LT: stock options, share units, relating strategy to executive compensation

Profit sharing plan: most/all employees share in profits Employee Share Purchase/Stock Ownership Plan (ESOPs): a trust is established to hold shares of company stock purchased for or issued to employees distributes stock to employees on retirement, separation from service, or as prescribed by the plan Scanlon plan: developed in 1937 by Joseph Scanlon; designed to encourage cooperation, involvement, and sharing of benefits Gainsharing plan: a common effort to achieve productivity (quality or quantity) objectives & share gain 7. pay for performance (good metrics are essential) 8. link incentives to other activities that engage employees in the business 9. link incentives to measurable competencies that are valued by the organization 10. match incentives to the culture of the organization 11. keep group incentives clear and simple 12. over communicate 13. remember that the greatest incentive is the work itself

- indirect financial payments given to employees - may include supplementary health and life insurance, vacation, pension, education plans, and discounts on company products 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Employment Insurance (EI) Canada/Quebec Pension Plan (C/QPP) Workers compensation Vacations and holidays Leave of absence Pay on termination of employment

What is EI? What is the CPP/QPP? (3 + 1)

What is workers compensation? (2) How are vacations and holidays regulated? (2)

What is included unpaid leave of absence? (4) What are 3 types of pay on termination of employment?

What are types of voluntary employer-sponsored benefits? (7)

What are 2 problems that are occurring for supplementary health care to managers? What are 2 types of pension plans under the retirement benefits?

What are the top 8 challenges on improving how mental health issues are addressed in the workplace? What is phased retirement?

What are 2 other types of defined contribution plan? What is SERPs?

What are 3 types of employee services? What are 4 types of personal services?

Run by the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB) in Ontario provides income and medical benefits to victims of work related accidents or illnesses and/or their dependants, regardless of fault labour/employment standards legislation sets out a minimum amount of paid vacation that must be provided to employees, usually two weeks per year, but the requirements vary by jurisdiction paid time for vacation and statutory holidays 1. life insurance 2. supplementary health care/medical insurance: require deductible on employees pay/yr 3. short-term disability and sick leave: non-work related (ST = partial pay, sick leave = full pay) 4. long term disability: including mental disability (fastest growing of all occupational disabilities) 5. additional leaves of absence 6. additional paid vacations and holidays 7. retirement benefits

a federal program that provides income benefits if a person is unable to work through no fault of own - programs that provide three types of benefits: 1. retirement income 2. survivor or death benefits payable to the employees dependants regardless of age at time of death 3. disability benefits payable to employees with disabilities and their dependants - benefits are payable only to those individuals who make contributions to the plans and/or available to their family members specified in employment standards legislation: 1. maternity/parental leave 2. parental/adoption leave 3. bereavement leave (death in the family) 4. compassionate care leave (elder care/disability care) specified in employment standards legislation: 1. pay in lieu of notice: give cheque to compensate for no notice time for termination 2. severance pay: Ontario 2.5M/yr or closing down business of over 50 employees within 6 mth-period 3. pay for mass layoffs - Reducing health benefit costs:1) increase amt of health-care cost paid by employees; 2) restricted list of drugs to be paid; 3) health promotion; 4) riskassessment; 5) health care spending accounts - Retiree health benefits: 1) increase retiree contributions and deductibles; 2) tightening eligibility requirements; 3) reduce maximum payouts Defined Benefit Pension Plan: a formula for determining the exact retirement benefits you will receive Defined contribution pension plan: Employers contribution to the employees retirement fund is specified but final benefit is not Group RRSP: portion of compensation put into RRSP by employer, not taxed on the dollars until after retirement Deferred profit-sharing plan: certain amt of company profits is credited to each employees account, payable at retirement, termination, or death Supplemental employee retirement plans: provide additional pension benefit required for employees to receive full pension benefits in cases where full pension benefit exceed max allowable benefit under income tax act

1. Employee perceptions and stigma related to mental health issues 2. Lack of front line manager awareness 3. Inability to ID suitable modified work 4. Inability to introduce significant flexibility options 5. Lack of tools and supports 6. Lack of funds/budget for program enhancements 7. Lack of senior management buy-in 8. Dont know where to start Arrangement whereby employees gradually ease into retirement by using reduced workdays and/or shortened workweeks 1. personal services 2. job related services 3. executive perquisites (perks) Credit unions: deposit savings that accrue interest at rate determined by BoD of CU (bank-like organization) Counselling: financial, career, family, retirement, legal Employee assistance plan (EAP): company-sponsored program to help cope w. personal problems that interferes with job performance/well-being Social and recreational services

What are 6 types of job related services? What is a flexible benefit program? (2)

What are some executive perquisites (perks)?

What are advantages to the flex program? (5)

What are disadvantages to the flexible benefit program? (3) What are 3 ways to make benefits administration more efficient? What is the circle of control to maintain positive stress?

What is the strategic importance of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS)? (4)

What is the OHS legislation? What is its purpose? What is due diligence?

What are the responsibilities and rights of employers under the OHS legislation? (5) What are the responsibilities of employees under the OHS legislation? (2)

What are the rights of employees?

1. management loans 2. salary guarantees (golden parachutes) 3. financial counseling 4. relocation benefits 5. outplacement assistance 6. company cars, chauffeured limousines 7. concierge service Others include: planes, yachts, cars, limos, security systems, outplacement assistance, legal, tax, expense services, club memberships, season tickets, subsidized education, wellness and others 1. employees make bad choices and find themselves not covered for predictable emergencies 2. administrative burdens and expenses increase 3. adverse selectionemployees pick only benefits they will use, increasing cost 1. use of software 2. outsourcing 3. benefits communication: keeping employees informed Control influence awareness ignorance laws intended to protect the health and safety of workers by minimizing work-related accidents and illnesses These laws fall into three categories: 1. general health and safety rules 2. rules for specific industries (e.g. mining) 3. rules related to specific hazards (e.g. asbestos) taking every reasonable precaution to ensure the health and safety of their workers

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

subsidized childcare eldercare subsidized employee transportation food services (onsite cafeteria, fresh snacks etc.) educational subsidies family-friendly benefits

individualized benefit plans to accommodate employee needs and preferences employees can be given a wide range of choices or even flex plan dollars (Private Health Services Account) to buy their benefit coverage 4. employees choose packages that best satisfy their unique needs 5. help firms meet the changing needs of a changing workforce (stay current and competitive) 6. increased involvement of employees and families improves understanding of benefits 7. flexible plans make introduction of new benefits less costly 8. cost containmentorganization sets dollar max

- investment in disability management and proactive wellness programs create measurable bottom-line returns - According to the Association of Workers Compensation Boards of Canada, in 2007 there were 1,055 deaths and 317,524 injuries resulting from accidents at work - on April 28 each year, a day of mourning is observed for Canadian workers killed or injured on the job - workplace accidents can be prevented (overall majority are human errors)

right to know about workplace safety hazards right to participate in OHS process right to refuse unsafe work

Due diligence Filing govt accident reports Maintain records Ensuring that safety rules are enforced Posting safety notices and legislative info - taking reasonable care to protect own health and safety and, In most cases, that of their co-workers - specific requirements include wearing protective clothing and equipment and reporting any contravention of the law or regulations

What is the function of the Joint Health and Safety Committees (JHSC)? How many members are required to be in the committees? How are OHS laws enforced? (2)

What is JHSC responsible for? (7)

What is corporate killing? What is WHMIS? (3)

What is main issue with OHS legislation and other legislations?

What is the supervisors role in safety? How to prevent accidents? (1 + 4)

What are 3 basic causes of accidents? What are 4 personal factors that may influence employee accident behaviour?

What are 3 work-related accident factors? (3) What is the WSIB? How to control workers compensation costs? (2)

What are the employee wellness programs?

1. inspecting the workplace in order to identify potential health and safety hazards 2. evaluating the hazards 3. implementing solutions 4. investigating employee complaints 5. investigating accidents 6. promoting measures to protect health and safety 7. disseminating information about health and safety laws and regulations

- a nonadversarial atmosphere where management and labour can work together to ensure a safe and healthy workplace usually required to consist of btw 2 and 12 members, at least half must represent workers in small workplaces, 1 health and safety rep required - in all jurisdiction, govt inspectors periodically (unannounced) carry out safety inspections of mostly accident-prone workplace - penalties: fines and/or jail terms Criminal Code includes this criminal offence: imposes criminal liability on all persons who direct work of other employees & fail to ensure an appropriate level of safety in the workplace Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System legislation has three components: 1. labelling of hazardous material containers 2. material safety data sheets (MSDS) 3. employee training Slide 11 for signs

- Health and safety, human rights, labour relations, and employment standards laws are in force in every jurisdiction in Canada in an interlaced web of legislation - Situations arise where it is difficult to know which law is applicable, or which one takes precedence over another - Are the human rights of one employee to wear a ceremonial knife related to a religion more important than the safety of other employees? - Is sexual harassment a safety hazard?

Chance Occurrences (beyond control), unsafe conditions: improperly guarded or defective, hazardous procedures, unsafe storage, improper lighting/ventilation, etc unsafe acts (by employees): improper handling, unsafe speeds, overriding safe measures, unsafe position under suspended loads, lifting improperly; distracting, teasing, abusing, startling, horseplay, quarrelling Slide 20: vision, literacy, age (17 28 most frequent, 15 24 over 5 times more likely to be injured 1st 4 weeks), perceptual vs. motor skills - job (some inherently dangerous), work schedule (fatigue), psychological climate (stress) workers safety insurance board every organization pays into this fund that is kind of like an insurance premium - proactive approach to employee health and well being - management strategy to achieve measurable outcomes related to productivity, cost reduction, recruitment/retention, and profit

- Ensure workers comply with OHS regulations - Instruct workers about safety to ensure all reasonable precautions have been taken to provide for safety of all employees, and to minimize risk of injuries or illness - progressive (safety-minded) managers must aim to instill in their workers the desire to work safely Reduce unsafe conditions Reduce unsafe acts: Selection testing (risk of potential employees), top-mgmt. commitment, training & education (Canadian Centre for OHS, Industrial Accident Prevention Association) and positive reinforcement Before accident: accident prevention measure mentioned After accident: - provide first aid and ensure medical attention - commitment to keeping in touch with the worker and ensuring his/her return to work - collaboration among parties involved including medical, family and workers compensation - creativity in focusing on how to use the workers remaining abilities on the job (quickest and safest way possible, ease them back no pressure, no rush)

What does the employee wellness program include? What are the benefits for employers from action on the determinants of health? (4 + 3 + 2 + 3)

What are some OHS issues and challenges? (7) How is substance abuse dealt?

What 3 ways are substance abuse testing legal? (4) What can employers do wrt substance abuse? (5)

What is the exception in the substance abuse law? (2) What are 4 traditional techniques for dealing with substance abuse? What is stress?

What is an alarmed reaction? What are 3 different types of stress? What are 4 consequences of job stress?

What are 2 sources of job sources? (2 + 7)

What are ways employees can reduce job stress? (7) What are ways employer/supervisors can reduce job stress? (4) What are HR executives responsibility in reducing job stress?

What is the cause of burnout? What are 5 ways to avoid burnout?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

substance abuse job stress repetitive strain injuries workplace toxins workplace smoking influenza pandemic (SARS) violence at work

stress mgmt., nutrition and weight mgmt., smoking cessation programs, tai chi, heart health, physical fitness programs, ergonomics Productivity: reduced absenteeism & distractions; improved performance & skills Cost Reduction: reduced workplace accidents and injuries, compensation claims, and benefits costs Recruitment and retention: improved retention rates and employee engagement Profit: reduced turnover costs, improved customer service & retention, and recruitment competitiveness 1. test is rationally connected to performance of the job 2. test is adopted in honest and good-faith belief that it is necessary for fulfillment of work-related purpose 3. test is reasonably necessary to the accomplishment of the work-related purpose random substance abuse testing is illegal - forbid drugs/alcohol in workplace - random drug testing only for safety-sensitive jobs - mandatory drug testing for cause or post-incident - positive test results must result in accommodation of the employees disability - immediate termination is not generally justifiable A response to stress that involves an elevated heart rate, increased respiration, elevated levels of adrenaline in the blood and increased blood pressure Eustress: positive stress that accompanies achievement and exhilaration. Distress: Harmful stress characterized by a loss of feelings of security and adequacy. Burnout: most severe stage of distress, manifesting itself in depression, frustration and loss of productivity Anxiety, depression, anger, various physical consequences, mental health illness get more sleep, eat better, take vacation, meditate, find a more suitable job, get counselling, organize each days activities - offer a EAP (employee assistance program) - monitor each employees performance to identify symptoms of stress, then inform the person of organizational remedies - ensure fair treatment (fair, firm and friendly) - permit employee to have more control over job HR executives must become advocates for employee mental health within the senior management team

alcohol/drug abuse considered a disability (human rights law) vs. employers due diligence requirement (OHS law) Except in Alberta: 2007 Arbitrators ruling (Case Law) 1. Case involving Imperial Oil refinery, construction contractor via project contract terms 2. Pre-employment testing deemed necessary to the environment and safety of the other employees Discipline, discharge, inhouse conseling, referral to outside agency Any demand cased by physical, mental, or emotional factors that requires coping behavior

Environmental Factors: high demand job; high levels of mental & physical effort Personal Factors - Type A personalities - patience - tolerance for ambiguity - self-esteem - health and exercise - work and sleep patterns - non-job-related problems like divorce, depression, work/family time conflict

total depletion of physical and mental resources caused by excessive striving to reach an unrealistic work-related goal 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. break patterns get away from it all periodically reassess goals think about work reduce stress

What are benefits and compensation related to stress disabilities? (3) What are repetitive strain injuries? What is ergonomics?

What are employers responsibilities about RSIs? (4) What is the leading cause of work-related deaths around the world? What are substances that are considered workplace toxins? (3+) What are enforcements with regards to workplace smoking?

What do smoking cessation programs for employees achieve? (5) How does HR respond to influenza pandemics?

What are enforcements on violence at work? (4)

What are job characteristics that increase the risk of workplace violence? (10)

What are 6 ways to prevent and control workplace violence? What is a famous quote about responsibility from Admiral Hyman Rickover?

What is strategic importance of effective employee relations? What are the 3 components of organizational justice? What is employee engagement?

What are the top 5 drivers of attraction, retention and engagement in Canada? What are 5 outcomes of engagement?

- advise and train workers about the risk of RSIs - identify and assess job-related RSI risk factors - encourage workers to report RSI symptoms early - use ergonomic interventions Cancer - known carcinogens: asbestos and benzene - new chemicals and substances are constantly being introduced into the workplace without adequate testing Banned in most jurisdictions - Ontario: Bill 168 cover physical violence, some include psychological/emotional violence - Human rights laws across the country prohibit various forms of harassment and bullying - employers may be found liable for violent acts of their - employees on the basis that the employer negligently hired or negligently retained someone whom the employer should reasonably have known could cause the violent act - employers may also be found liable when they are aware of violent incidents and fail to respond

- all jurisdictions provide benefits for post-traumatic stress caused by a specific & sudden workplace incident - Chronic stress has very limited or no coverage, depending on the jurisdiction - Stress has multiple causes, including family situations & personal disposition activity-related soft-tissue injuries of the neck, shoulders, arms, wrists, hands, back and legs art of fitting workstation & work tools to the individual 1. 2. 3. 4. better health for employees better business results legislative compliance increased employee satisfaction (especially for the 80 percent of Canadians who do not smoke) 5. avoidance of litigation - First impact is absenteeism at 35% in the plan for govt - as most employers are planning to continue their business operations using the existing workforcein other words, with substantially fewer employees

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

identify jobs with high risk of violence institute workplace violence policy create a healthy work environment heighten security measures provide workplace violence training improve employee screening

Responsibility is a unique concept. It can only reside and inhere in a single individual You may share it with others, but your portion is not diminished You may delegate it, but it is still with you You may disclaim it, but you cannot divest yourself of it Slide 5 employees highest productivity; best ideas genuine commitment to the success of the organization improvements in service quality, customer satisfaction, and long-term financial results serves the individual, fulfilling a basic human need to be connected to worthwhile endeavours and make a significant contribution engagement is good for the company and good for the employee a win/win outcome

1. Being responsible for physical/emotional care 2. Making decisions that influence other ppls lives/denying a service or request 3. Working alone during day/night/evening 4. Handling valuables, guns, weapons, or drugs 5. Exercising security functions of physical control of others 6. Supervising/disciplining others 7. Interactive with frustrated individuals 8. Working evening or nights 9. Working in clients homes 10. Having contact with individuals under influence of alcohol, illegal drugs, or medication for competitive advantage, employees must be motivated and engaged in pursuing organizational goals ensure employees are treated ethically, fairly, and legally Distributive Justice: fairness of a decision outcome Procedural Justice: fairness of the process used to make a decision Interactional Justice: fairness in interpersonal interactions by treating others with dignity and respect a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind characterized by vigour, dedication, and absorption

What is the most important driver of employee engagement? How to build an effective employee communication? (3) What is PIPEDA?

What are 2 ways to protect employees privacy? What type of personal info is protected under PIPEDA? (6)

What are some major changes about to happen in the retirement perspective of HR in the future? (3) What is pre-retirement counselling? What are some types of pre-retirement counselling?

How to manage retirement for these Baby Boomers? (4) What is layoff?

What is downsizing? What are group termination laws? What are alternatives to layoffs? (5)

What is discipline? What is the purpose of discipline? What is dismissal? What is a wrongful dismissal? What is in insubordination?

What is the due process for employees when they are presented with disciplinary action? (4) What is progressive discipline approach?

How to be fair in disciplinary dismissals? (6) What are grounds for dismissal? (4)

- employers must obtain consent from employees whenever personal info is collected, used or disclosed - some workplace have resorted to video surveillance: prevent theft and vandalism, monitor productivity - employees must be made aware of surveillance Name, weight, age, medical records Income purchasing and sending habits Marital status Education Contact info Race, blood type, fingerprints - longstanding trend to early retirement will change for the remaining workforce - late retirement will be promoted to help ease labour shortage - joint retirement issues for dual-career couples will increase - flexibility in retirement arrangements will increase dramatically Temporary withdrawal of employment to workers for economic or business reasons

Communication - Suggestion programs reflects a very closed culture - employee opinion surveys if results are not shown, ppl become cynical - top-down mgmt. communication programs i.e. supervisors & senior leadership Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act: governs collection, use & disclosure of personal info in Canada include employers collection & dissemination of personal info of employees - 2025: more than 20% of Canadian pop will be 65+, labour force will shrink dramatically - Trend has been toward earlier retirement: 65 in 1979 to 61 in 2005 to 58 in 2012 - major changes expected in mgmt. of the retirement process Counselling provided to employees some months (or even years) before retirement, which covers such matters as benefits advice, second careers, and so on - lifestyle goals, financial planning, relationship issues, health issues Downsizing: reducing, usually dramatically, # of ppl employed by the firm - laws that require an employer to notify employees in the event that an employer decides to terminate a group of employees - Voluntary early retirement package - Voluntary reduction in pay plan - Voluntary time off i.e. sabbatical - Contingent employees (hired in peak periods & laid off first) - Work Sharing Program (HRSDC) - Employees must know the job expectations and consequences of not fulfilling those expectations - having consistent and predictable mgmt. action for the violation of rules - fair discipline based on facts + opportunity to question those facts + right to present defense - opportunity to appeal disciplinary action - consequences for bad behaviour get progressively harsher

- procedure intended to correct an employees performance or behavior because a rule or procedure has been violated - encourage employees to adhere to rules and regulations - Involuntary termination of an employees employment - employee dismissal that does not comply with law or doesnt comply with a written or implied contractual arrangement - Disrespecting or willful disregard or disobedience of the authority or legitimate orders - Taking a counselling approach - Exhibit positive non-verbal demeanour - Provide a clear explanation of the problem - Provide the employee some process/outcome control - ensure discussion is held in private - ensure discipline is non-arbitrary/consistent - Unsatisfactory performance: persistent failure to perform job duties - misconduct: insubordination, stealing, fighting - lack of qualification: after attempts to train - changed requirements/elimination of job: employee cant be transferred or redeployed

What is the progressive discipline process? (6)

What is considered insubordination? (8) What are Just Causes for dismissals? (7)

What is the requirement of termination based employment contract? (4) How can employee allege wrongful dismissal? (2)

What are ways to avoid wrongful dismissal suits? (8)

What is the termination interview? What are the 6 steps to the termination interview? What is the relationship between labour union and mgmt.?

What is constructive dismissal? What does constructive dismissal include? (6) What is the labour union?

What is outplacement counselling? What does outplacement counselling/career transition support/job search coaching include? (5)

What is a collective agreement (union contract)? What is collective bargaining? What is a bargaining unit?

- Direct disregard for authority - refusal to obey orders - deliberate defiance of company rules - public criticism of leaders - blatant disregard for reasonable instructions - contemptuous display of disrespect - disregard for chain of command - action to undermine leaders Theft, breach of trust, gross negligence/ insubordination/incompetence, criminal/inappropriate behaviour, 1. Avoid inducements to lure prospective employees 2. Use written employment contracts with a termination clause and state permission to dismiss w/o cause during probationary period 3. Document all disciplinary action (writing a memo which documents a progressive disciplinary action) 4. Do not allege just cause unless it can be proven 5. Do not dismiss on employees birthday, holiday 6. Use employment termination letters in all cases 7. Schedule termination meeting in a private area 8. Have two people at the termination meeting

1. Mention the issue & expected standard 2. Use direct verbal reminder 3. issue formal written reminder (memo or email) 4. Provide one-day paid decision leave (LOA) 5. If the above doesnt work, move to probationary/review period (performance improvement plan) 6. Purge suspension from file if no further incidents for 1 year (depends): dismissal if behavior is repeated

- in writing or implied - employment is for indefinite period unless otherwise stated - termination requires reasonable notice (covered via ESA legislation) - Employment termination for just cause does not require notice - Notice is not provided - Notice is not considered reasonable

Employer makes unilateral changes in employment contract that are unacceptable to employee, even though the employee has not been formally terminated Can be sued for: demotion, forced early retirement/ transfer, reduction in pay/benefits/other arrangements, changes in job duties/responsibilities, physical change of location or office Officially recognized association of employees in similar trade/employed in same firm/industry joined together to present a united front & collective voice in dealing with mgmt. - formal agreement btw employer and union representing a group of its employees regarding terms and conditions of employment - negotiations btw a union and an employer arrive at mutually acceptable collective agreement - group of employees in a firm, a plant, or industry that has been recognized by an employer or certified by a labour relations board (LRB) as appropriate for collective bargaining purposes

- interview in which an employee is informed of the fact that he/she has been dismissed 1. Plan the interview 2. Get to the point 3. Describe the situation 4. Listen 5. Review all elements of severance package 6. Identify next step Ongoing

Systematic process by which a terminated person is trained and counselled in skills of self-appraisal and securing a new position Self-assessment (skill + interests) Resume & cover letter creation Market research and job targeting skills Networking and approach skill building Interviewing skills & follow up protocols Your employment can be terminated by your employer for any reason at any time. In the end, it simply comes down to how much money it will take!

What are 2 general purposes for Canadas labour laws? What is business unionism? What is social (reform) unionism?

What are commonalities in labour legislation across all the jurisdictions? (7) What 3 basic characteristics are labour unions in Canada classified?

What are craft unions? What are industrial unions? What is the CLC? CSN? AFL-CIO? How are labour laws responsibilities divided among the jurisdiction? What are current challenges facing the Canadian labour mvmt? (3)

What are 2 types of managements labour relations strategy? What is the 5-step of labour relation process?

What are some reasons unions decide to seek collective representation? (8) What is the 5-step process in union organization?

What are employers rights when unions are formed? How to terminate bargaining rights?

What do management and unions need to prepare for the negotiation? (9)

What are 3 ways a union can be recognized? What is the 3-step process in collective bargaining?

- certification procedures - minimum one year collective agreements - procedures preceding legal strike/lockout - no strikes/lockouts during life of contract - interpretation disputes settled by final and binding arbitration - prohibition of unfair labour practices - labour relations boards to enforce legislation Type of worker eligible: craft or industrial Geographic Scope: international, national, local Labour Congress Affiliation: CLC, CSN, AFL-CIO Acceptance or avoidance (substitution, suppression) 1. Employees decide to seek collective representation 2. Union organizing campaign begins 3. Union receives official recognition 4. Union and mgmt. negotiate collective agreement 5. Day-today contract admin begins Slide 12 Lakeside packers, strike

1. Provide common set of rules for fair negotiations 2. Protect public interest by preventing impact of labour disputes from inconveniencing the public (police cannot go on strike) - focus on economic and welfare issues: pay, benefits, job security and working conditions - focus at furthering interests of their members by influencing he social and economic policies of got at all levels: speaking out on proposed legislative reforms - practise same craft or trade: carpentry, plumbing - in particular company or industry CLC: Canadian Labour Congress CSN: Confdration des syndicats nationaux or Confederation of National Trade Unions (CNTU) AFL-CIO: American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organization 90% Provincial, 10% federal 1. global competition 2. demographics (older population age) 3. unionization of white-collar employees Job dissatisfaction, lack of job security, unfair admin of policies, perceived pay inequities, lack of advancement opportunity, lack of influence on work-related decisions, belief that unions can improve pay and working conditions 1. Union/employee contact: by employee employer or union organizer 2. Initial organizational meeting 3. Formation of in-house committee 4. Organizing campaign: contacts employees, present case, encourage employees to sign authorization card 5. Vote & outcome: rejection or certified by LRB Both mgmt. and union - gather data on general economic trends - analyze other collective agreements - conduct analysis of grievances - review existing contract or unions promises - conduct wage and salry surveys at competitor organizations - prepare cost estimates of monetary proposals - make plans for possible strike/lockout Mgmt.: negotiators obtain input from supervisors Union: negotiators obtain input from union stewards and members, company financial info, demographic info on members

- express views on unions - state position on remaining non-union - prohibit union activity on company property/time - increase wages, make promotions and take other HR actions in normal course of business - gather employees to state companys position if: 1) Purpose stated in advance, 2) attendance optional, 3) no threats/promises Decertification: process whereby a union is legally deprived of its official recognition as exclusive bargaining agent for a group of employees 1. Voluntary recognition by employer: except Quebec 2. Regular Certification: certificate from relevant LRB declaring union is exclusive agent for a group 3. Pre-hearing votes: evidence of violation of fair labour practices early in the organizing campaign 1. preparation for bargaining 2. face-to-face negotiations 3. obtaining approval for proposed contract

What needs to be considered for face-to-face negotiations? (3)

What are the 3 bargaining approaches to face-to-face negotiations?

What are 7 types of bargaining impasses? (3)

What is involved in the contract approval process? (2) What are ways to settle bargaining impasses through 3rd party assistance? (4)

What is a grievance? What is the effect of unionization on HRM? (7)

What are typical provisions of the collective agreement? (5) What are the 2 issues that tend to be major sources of disagreement btw union & management during contract administration?

What are some challenges in global staffing & relocation? (6) What is the no. 1 reason why expat assignments fail? What can employers due to reduce failure?

What are 2 things you can do about the future? What is an expatriate? What are 5 intercountry differences that affect HRM? What are values in terms of HRM?

Distributive: a win-lose negotiating strategy such that 1 party gains at the expense of the other Integrative: win-win, lost-win, win-lose, and lose-lose outcomes are recognized; acknowledgement that achieving a win-win outcome will depend on mutual trust and problem solving Mutual Gains (interest-based): win-win based on training fundamentals of effective problem solving; interests of all stakeholders taken into account

Location, Frequency and Duration of Meetings: neutral, off-site no psychological adv. of either team Caucus sessions: separate intra-team meeting rooms - length and frequency flexible based on parties Initial bargaining session: establish climate and rules and procedures, exchange demand Subsequent bargaining session: bargaining zone (area defined by bargaining limits or resistance points of each side, in which compromise is possible, as is the attainment of a settlement satisfactory to both parties) based on different bargaining approaches Interest Dispute: dispute btw org and union over terms Strike: temp. refusal by members to continue working Strike vote: legally required in some jurisdiction, vote seeking authorization to strike (> != inevitable strike) Picket: stationing of strike (signs at entrances and exits of operation to publicize issues in dispute and discourage ppl from entering/leaving premise Boycott: organized refusal to buy products or use service of org whose employees are on strike in an effort to exert economic pressure on employer Lockout: temp. refusal to continue providing work by employer Wildcat Strike: spontaneous walkout (legal/illegal) a written allegation of a contract violation, filed by an individual bargaining unit member, the union, or management building effective labour-management relations instituting an open-door policy extending the courtesy of prior consultation demonstrate genuine concern for employee well-being forming joint committees, holding joint training programs meeting regularly using third party assistance Candidate identification, assessment, selection Global assignment cost projections Specific assignment letters (contracts) Compensation, benefits, and tax programs Relocation assistance Family support What is a fail: Early return of expat Family issues are the no. 1 cause: employers should understand just how unhappy and cut off expats feel Provide realistic job previews of expectation, careful screening, orientation and improved benefit packages

Memorandum of Settlement: summary of terms & conditions agreed to by parties submitted to constituents for final approval Ratification formal approval by secret-ballot vote of bargaining unit members of the agreement negotiated btw union & mgmt. Conciliation: neutral 3rd party to reach mutual collective agreement btw organization and union Mediation: voluntary use of neutral 3rd party (same use) Arbitration: outside 3rd party to investigate dispute btw employer and union & impose a settlement Interest Arbitration: imposition of final terms of agr. union recognition union security/checkoff no strikes or lockout (while agreement alive) management rights arbitration Senior: length of service in bargaining unit Discipline: most collective agreement restrict employers right to discipline employees by requiring proof of just cause for disciplinary action imposed: must be handled in accordance with terms of collective agreement and backed by carefully documented evidence Plan for the future and move towards it or Fear the future, procrastinate and wrap yourself up in worry and victim thinking. Expat: employees who are citizens of the country where the parent company is based, who are sent to work in another country Cultural, economic, legal, labour cost, industrial relations A broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others

What are the 6 different categories of values? What is the importance of values?

What are the five value dimensions of Hofstedes Framework for assessing culture? What is Stuart Halls view of culture? (2) What are low context cultures? What are high context cultures?

What are 3 ways to employ international staffs? How to select global managers? What is adaptability screening?

Why is the success rate of Canadian expats relatively higher than other countries? What are 2 types of orientation and training for expats? What are 3 types of international compensations?

What are modifications made to performance appraisals of global managers? (5) What are some differences in labour relations in foreign countries? (5)

What are some safety precautions to be taken working in foreign countries? (6) What is repatriation?

How can repatriation be more difficult than going abroad? (3) How to ease the process of repatriation? (6)

What is a global HR system? How to make global HR system more acceptable? (3) What is HRM all about from What the Lens Sees?

Power Distance Individualism vs. collectivism Masculinity vs. femininity Uncertainty avoidance LT vs. ST. Orientation Culture is communication and communication is culture Low/high context addresses how info is handled and how people interact and react Low: rely on direct communication to convey meaning (USA, Canada); High: rely on contextual info, indirect communication (Japan, China) Better than particularly US (failure rate of 40 50%) Diverse ethnic makeup of the country produced a generation of business leaders who mix easily with different cultures Cross-cultural training Leadership development opportunities Balance sheet approach Variable pay International EAPs

Intellectual, economic, aesthetic, social, political, religious Provide understanding of attitudes, motivation and behaviours Influence our perception of the world around us Represent interpretations of right and wrong Imply that some behaviours of outcomes are preferred over others

Ethnocentric: home country management style superior to host country (we know best) Polycentric: host country management style most appropriate for host country (they know best) Geocentric: best managers may be found anywhere (just get the best) - Screening for traits that predict success in adapting to what may be dramatically new environments Realistic job preview, pre-assignment visit, paper-andpencil tests Stipulate assignments difficulty level Heavier weight on on-site managers than home-site Advice to home-country manager from former expat if appraisal is done at home-site to provide bg info Modify normal performance criteria used for expat Give expat manager credit for relevant insights into interdependencies of domestic and foreign operations Industry/regionally oriented Locals less autonomous Employer association Union recognition and security less formal Some collective agreements outside of law Legal reasons Dont want to come back due to better lifestyle Tough to return, have to be integrated back (acclimate) Write repatriation agreements Provide career counseling Keep communication open Offer financial support Build in return trips Developed orientation programs Assign a sponsor/mentor

Kidnapping way of life: in many areas (kidnap and ransom insurance is available) provide general training about travelling and living abroad; specific info about the place they are going to Arrive close to airport departure time Home and car security systems Vary departure and arrivals times for work Keep up to date on crime Project confident body language process of moving back home from foreign assignment

a standardized HR system in all company locations around the world Realize global system more accepted in conglomerates Investigate pressures to differentiate and determine legitimacy (politics, procedures, etc.) Work within context of strong corporate culture adapt and change where necessary From peoples perspective, HRM is all about Getting the right people Doing the right things In the right way At the right time For the right reasons.