You are on page 1of 4

International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS Vol:12 No:06

187

Feasibility Analysis of Geothermal Power Plant Wastewater Utilization: A Case Study on Lahendong Geothermal Power Plant, North Sulawesi
Hariyadi, Soemarno, Bobby Polii, Bagyo Yanuwiadi

Abstract

Utilization of geothermal energy is limited to power generation. Therefore, in view of the value of commercial utilization a study to find other feasible utilizations has been carried out. Our study aimed to identify and analysis the possible utilizations of geothermal fluid wastewater from Lahendong Power Plant in North S ulawesi Province, Indonesia. Our study revealed that the annual potential economic value is mounted to IDR 941.934.000. The feasible utilizations are hot bath, steam bath, drying process of agricultural products, wood drying, recreational purposes, palm sugar production, and alcohol distillation.

Index Term waswater utilization, geothermal, Lahendong


Power Plant, North S ulawesi

I. INT RODUCT ION INDONESIA is one country in the world that has been utilizing geothermal resources. In North Sulawesi province, the geothermal resource is located in the Mining Working Area (MWA) Tomohon, South Minahasa Tomapaso and MWA Kotamobagu and is estimated to produce 280 MW of electric power (PGE Lahendong, 2012). Apart from power generation, geothermal energy can also be used as for non-electrical needs, such as agriculture, animal husbandry, heating, industry, chemical production and waste water cleaning (Anonymous, 1995). Water obtained in geothermal concession contains many valuable minerals such as NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 and LiCl, that makes
Hariyadi is with the Postgraduate Program, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran 2, Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia; and the Dept. of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Indonesian Christian University at T omohon, Jl. Raya T alete II Kampus II Ukit Kuranga, T omohon 95115, North Sulawesi, Indonesia (corresponding author; phone: +62-81340088813; e-mail: hariyadi93@ymail.com). Soemarno is with the Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran 2, Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia. B. Polii is the Faculty of Agriculture, Sam Ratulangi University, Jl. Kampus Kleak, Manado 95115, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. B. Yanuwiadi is with the Dept. of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran 2, Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia.

it profitable to process (Kadir, 1995). In addition, geothermal energy is an environmentally friendly renewable resource with very small gas emissions compared to emissions from gasoline, diesel, coal or other fossil fuels (Gupta, 1980). The commercial value of geothermal energy should be associated with the utilization goals. Until now the commercial utilization of geothermal energy is limited for power generation. In terms of commercial use, the use of geothermal energy in power generation is an indirect use, while the direct use is the use for direct benefit of the local community. From the management side, the indirect utilization of geothermal energy for power generation to supply the national grid is managed by the Central Government, while the indirect utilization for local power plant is managed by Local Governments (Dwipa and Simanjuntak, 2002). Geothermal Power Plant (GTPP) Lahendong has been in operation since August 2001 with installed capacity of 20 MW (unit I), 20 MW (unit II), and 20 MW (unit IV) and has been supplying electrical power of 60 MW, which is equivalent to 50% of the electricity needs of 120 MW peak load for North Sulawesi province (PGE Lahendong, 2012). GTPP Lahendong wastewater has considerable valueable resources. Traditionally the economic value is assessed based on the interaction between humans as subjects (assessor) and the objects under consideration (Pearce and Morrand, 1994). Each individual has his/her own individual preferences. The natural and environmental resources have social and economic values. The total economic value (TEV) of the natural and environmental resources as an asset is the sum of the values of the use of (VU) and the value of not using (VNU), which mathematically can be written as follows (Munasinghe, 1993): TEV(asset) = VU + VNU The value of the use (VU) is the value arising from actual utilization of natural and environmental resources within an ecosystem. The value of the use is made up of the direct value of the use (DVU), the indirect value of the use (IVU), and the value of options (VO). The value of not used (VNU) consists of the inheritance value (IV) and existence value (EV). The inheritance value measures individual benefit from the knowledge that others will benefit from the resources in the
IJENS

1212806-6464- IJBAS-IJENS @ December 2012 IJENS

International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS Vol:12 No:06 future. The existence value describes the public's willingness to pay for the conservation of resources without regard to the value of the use. The basic concept of the economic assessment underlying all these techniques is willingness to pay of individual for environmental or resource services (Munasinghe, 1993). Benefit assessment techniques are based on willingness to pay or willingness to accept compensation to the deterioration of environmental quality in natural systems and the quality of the surrounding environment. The willingness to pay or willingness to accept reflects individual preferences, which is the raw material in the economic assessment (Pearce and Morrand, 1994). The Local Government, in addition to getting royalties from the direct use, gains retributions from the indirect use by local communities, which can be used as an additional source of local revenue or the community development program of GTPP Lahendong. It can even be developed for the empowerment of communities living in the vicinity of GTPP Lahendong. Community empowerment is needed so that people can actualize themselves in the administration of their surroundings and meet their needs independently without assistance from other parties and government (Djajadiningrat et al., 2003). II. RESEARCH M ET HODS The study was conducted in the District of Southern Tomohon, City of Tomohon, Districts of Remboken and Sonder, Regency of Minahasa in North Sulawesi province, covering five villages located in the vicinity of GTPP Lahendong. Laboratory and field studies were carried out in June-August 2009. Water samples were acquired at four sampling points. Point I was the wastewater inlet coming out of the process of separation. Sampling points II to IV were at cooling chambers where the wastewater undergoes 3-stage air cooling process. Water quality parameters analyzed were each physical quality of water including temperature, odor, conductivity, salinity, turbidity, TDS, and TSS, and chemical quality includes pH, BOD, COD, DO, nitrate, nitrite, arsenic, cobalt, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, zinc, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, barium, selenium, cyanide, fluoride, chlorine, and sulfur. Socio-economic data of geothermal wastewater use were collected through direct interviews with residents in five villages in the vicinity of GTPP Lahendong. 35 respondents were picked from each village. The secondary data were taken at the village offices or local district offices and are presented in Table I. Further identification of the utilization of wastewater was conducted based on the socio-economic and cultural approaches. From such identification the utilization of GTPP wastewater by communities was formulated as: TEV(wastewater utilization) = WTP1 + WTP2 +WTP3 + WTP4 + WTP5 + WTP6 + WTP7

188

where TEV(wastewater utilization) = total economic value of wastewater utilization, and WTP1 - WTP7 = willingness of the community to pay for wastewater utilization.
T ABLE I NUMBER OF P OP ULATION OF THE VILLAGES WHERE THE RESP ONDENTS LIVE . NO . OF RESP ONDENT WAS 35 P ERSONS P ER VILLAGE , TOTALING 175 RESP ONDENTS No . District/Village No. of Population (person) Occupation Handyma Farmer n

1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

District of South T omohon Lahendong T ondangow Pangolombian District of Sonder Leilem District of Remboken Kasuratan T otal

1671 1351 2052

142 45 100

456 270 300

3084

700

300

1225 8032

70 1057

380 1706

III. RESULT S AND DISCUSSION The GTPP Lahendongs geothermal wastewater quality was analyzed in situ and in the laboratory for as many as 32 parameters with reference to Indonesian Government Regulation No. 82 year 2001 on the Management of Water Quality and Water Pollution Control. The results revealed that the wastewater quality was poor with arsenic concentrations as much as 1.2 mg/L (at point 1) and 1.26 mg/L (at point 2) and chloride at 671.55 mg/L at point 1 which exceeded the value limit (0.05 mg/L for arsenic and 600 mg/L for chloride). The complete result is summarized in Table II. Further processing is required for its use by the local communities.
T ABLE II W ASTEWATER MEASUREMENTS OF P HYSICAL AND CHEMICAL QUALITIES Parameter Physical quality T emperature Odor Electrical conductivity Salinity T urbidity T otal Dissolved Solids (T DS) T otal Suspended Solids (T SS) Chemical quality pH BOD COD DO Nitrate (NO3 ) Nitrite (NO2 ) Arsenic (As) 6.27 - 6.67 2.5 - 3.6 mg/L 5 - 20 mg/L 3.7 - 5.9 mg/L 0.1 - 0.35 mg/L 0.01 - 0.04 mg/L 1.2 mg/L (point 1) Measurement Results 100-110 C (point 1) 36 C (point 2) Odorless 2.050 2.520 S/cm 630 - 1.030 mg/L Undetected Undetected Undetected

1212806-6464- IJBAS-IJENS @ December 2012 IJENS

IJENS

International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS Vol:12 No:06


21.26 mg/L (point 2) Undetected Undetected 0.02 mg/L 0.02 mg/L (point 2) 0.02 mg/L 0.03 mg/L - 0.05 mg/L Undetected 0.02- 0.03 mg/L 671.55 mg/L (point 1) 366.10 mg/L (point 2) 40.45 mg/L - 124.76 mg/L 0.20 mg/L (point 1) 0.15 mg/L (point 2) Undetected Undetected Undetected Undetected Undetected 0.02 mg/L (point 2) 0.015 mg/L (point 1) 0.002 mg/L (point 2)

189

Cadmium (Cd) Chromium (Cr) Copper (Cu) Iron (Fe) Lead (Pb) Manganese (Mn) Mercury (Hg) Zinc (Zn) Chloride (Cl) Sulfate (SO4 ) Phosphate (PO4 ) Barium (Ba) Boron (B) Selenium (Se) Cyanide (CN) Fluoride (F) Chlorine Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S)

3. Socioeconomic Value of Agricultural Product Drying Drying of agricultural produce in this study had a socio economic value of IDR 7,100,000/month (WTP3) reached 85.14%. The potential farmer in this study was 1706 people. 4. Socioeconomic Value of Wood Drying Socioeconomic value for wood drying in this study was IDR 910,057,500/month (WTP4) reached 71.43%. The economic value was obtained from the amount of the community willingness to pay for 1 m3 wood drying multiplied by the number of potential carpenters (1057 people) in the sample group. 5. Socioeconomic Value of Recreation Socioeconomic value of recreational was IDR 23,062,000/month (WTP5) reached 100%. The economic value was obtained from the amount the community is willing to pay a one time recreational entry fee multiplied by the number of potential population (8032 people) in the sample group. 6. Socioeconomic Value of Palm Sugar Production Socioeconomic value for palm sugar production was IDR15,375,000/month (WTP7). This value was derived from equating the firewood used in the sugar production with the money. The average daily firewood use was IDR12.500/person and the number of potential sugar makers was 41 people. Therefore, the total utilization of firewood was IDR 12,500 41 people 30 days = IDR 15,375,000/month. 7. Socioeconomic Value of Alcohol Production Socioeconomic value for alcohol production was IDR 13,500,000/month (WTP8). This value was derived from equating the firewood used in the sugar production with the money. The average daily firewood use was 2 processings IDR 7,500/person = IDR 15,000/ person-day and and the number of potential alcohol makers was 30 people. Therefore, the total utilization of firewood was IDR 15,000 30 people 30 days = IDR 13,500,000/ month. The total economic value of GTPP Lahendongs wastewater utilization in this study was calculated using the following formula: TEV = WTP1 + WTP2 +WTP3 + WTP4+WTP5 + WTP6 + WTP7 The total value of socio-economic utilization of GTPP waste water is IDR 941,934,000/year. It is a minimum utilization as yet to include all benefits provided by the wastewater.. IV. CONCLUSION The results of laboratory analysis showed that the wastewater from GTPP Lahendong cannot be directly utilized because it contains hazardous substances exceeding the maximum allowed threshold value, such as 1.20 - 1.26 mg/L arsenic and 671.55 mg/L chloride. Further processing is required for its utilization. Our survey revealed that the

Identification Results of GTPP Lahendo ngs Wastewater Utilization For direct utilization, the technology chosen depends on the nature of the fluid and the type of planned use (Chandrasekharam, 2000). From field identification of the feasible utilization of wastewater by the community respondents nominated various utilizations, namely: (1) utilization for hot water bath (2) utilization for steam bath (spa) (3) utilization for agricultural product drying (4) utilization for wood drying (5) utilization for recreation, (6) utilization for palm sugar production, and (7) utilization for alcohol distillery. Calculation of Economic Value Economic value assessment techniques are based on bargaining approach with questions that intentionally are created. Of the five benefits there were 10 payment optio ns. The economic value was obtained from the amount the community is willing to pay for one hot water shower multiplied by the number of potential population in the sample group. 1. Socioeconomic Value of Hot Water Bath The results of this study showed that the socio-economic value for the use of wastewater for hot water bath was IDR 9,162,500/month (WTP1) reached 77.71%. The potential population of this utilization was 8032 persons. 2. Socioeconomic Value of Steam Bath (Spa) Our investigations showed that the steam bath (sauna) cannot be done every day and the costs incurred for this purpose was relatively high. The socio-economic value was IDR 12,437,500/month (WTP2) reached 24.57%. The potential population of this utilization was 8032 persons.

1212806-6464- IJBAS-IJENS @ December 2012 IJENS

IJENS

International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS Vol:12 No:06 prospective utilizations of GTPP Lahendong wastewater are for hot showers, steam baths, agricultural products drying, wood drying, recreational, palm sugar processing, and alcohol distillery with potential economic value of IDR 941,934,000/year. REFERENCES [1] Anonym, 1995. Panas Bumi Mendukung Kebijakan Energi di Indonesia, Penerbit Perum Percetakan Negara RI. Jakarta. [2] Chandrasekharam, D. 2000. Geothermal Energy Resources of India- Facts.Proced. Geothermal Power Asia 2000 Conference, Manila, Feb. 2000, 12-19 [3] Djajadiningrat, S.T ., A. Budiman, A. Marzali, T . Sugiarso, D. Raharjo, P. Suparlan, B. Rudito, S. Kusumaatmaja, A. Sasono, B. Sutrisno, A. Prasetijo dan Saharuddin, 2003. Akses Peran serta Masyarakat lebih Jauh memahami Community Development, ICSD Sinar Harapan. Jakarta [4] Dwipa S. dan Simanjutak J.,2002. Regulasi Panas Bumi Dalam Erah Otonomi Daerah, Direktorat Inventarisasi Sumber Daya Mineral Hal 2-6 [5] Gupta H. K,. 1980. Geothermal Resources An Energy Alternative. Elsever Scientic Publishing Company. New York [6] Kadir A. 1995. Energi Sumber Daya, Inovasi, T enaga Listrik Dan Potensi Ekonomi, UI Press. Jakarta [7] Munangsihe, M., 1993, Enviromental Economics and Valuation in Development Decision Making World Bank. Wasington D.C. [8] Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia Nomor 82 Year 2001 T entang Pengelolaan Kualitas Air dan Pengendalian Pencemaran Air [9] Pertamina, 2012, Pemantauan Lingkungan kegiatan PGE Lahendong, Laporan Periode 1 April-Juni Year 2012, Pertamina, Badan Konsultan Amdal Unsrat, Manado [10] Pesoth, W.F. dan O.E.H. Laoh,. 2002. Nilai Ekonomi Kawasan Hutan. Jurnal Eugenia 8 (4) Oktober 2002. Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Sam Ratulangi Manado [11] Sekretariat Negara RI, 2001. Kelompok Kerja Ornop Untuk Reformasi Kebijakan Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Alam. PP RI Nomor 82 Year 2001 tentang Pengelolaan Kualitas Air dan Pengendalian Pencemaran Air, Jakarta [12] T aufan S., 2009. Geothermal Energy Utilization For Crop Procesing. BPPT

190

1212806-6464- IJBAS-IJENS @ December 2012 IJENS

IJENS