Fisheye/Panoramic Cameras: When you want to see everything ......... 76 Fisheye/Panoramic Cameras: CatVision does panoramic views ............ 77 Intelligent Storage: IP surveillance and storage ....................... 78 Technology: Compression: Understanding compression technologies .................................................. 80 Hybrid Technologies: Does hybrid deliver analogue value and IP benefits? ...................................................... 86 Hybrid Technologies: Best of both worlds? ............................................................. 88 Management Platforms: PSIM: Why should I be interested? ..................... 89 Management Platforms: The platform must fit the business................. 91 Analytics: Video synopsis versus video analysis ............................................................. 94 Analytics: Product Overview: Intelligence management framework .. 95 Analytics: Intelligent systems in high motion surveillance ..................................... 96 Connectivity: Don’t ignore wireless ....... 99 Thermal: The expanding role of thermals ....................................................102 Analogue: Still going strong...................105

Editor’s comment .................................... 2 Technology trends Video surveillance trends for 2013.... 4 CCTV Round-table 2013........................ 6 Local CCTV guidelines revised..........14 The future of video: Use your eyes ..16 Syndicate foiled by cooperation ......18 Open platform video set to grow .....20 Surveillance trends for 2013 .............22 System Integrator Profile: Integrated central monitoring .........24 Line of sight and angle of view .......26 Understand the solution.....................28 Integrated proactive security solutions ...................................................30 Low-light cameras: Coming out of the dark .......................32 Wide dynamic range: Challenges and solutions ...................34 HD CCTV – hype or reality? ................38 High-definition/Megapixel: High-definition vs megapixel ...........40 High-definition/Megapixel: Define your definition..........................42 Remote Monitoring: Keeping tabs from a distance ...........66 Remote Monitoring: Remotely reactive .................................68 Remote Monitoring: Process and technology combined ................74

Storage technologies for video surveillance...................................................106 Camera Selection Guide An option for every requirement.....44–65 Case Studies......................................109–112 CCTV Handbook 2013


And I guess it wouldn’t hurt to do your own research beforehand to ensure you can separate marketing fact and fiction. or any loss incurred as a result. things didn’t work out all that . All he really wants is a low-light system that will allow him to perform LPR and visually identify visitors in any light Reg No. No part of this publication may be reproduced. Be sure to include your name. It’s a How-To put together by a group of people leading the field in the South African CCTV industry. is running perfectly. In the pages that Published by Technews Publishing (Pty) Ltd 1st Floor In one he hired an installer who knows his analogue systems backwards and the installation is going smoothly. Randburg Box 385. A case in point comes from someone busy with two smallish The crucial part is retaining people who know what they’re doing and have a track record to verify their skills. so he decided IP was the route to take. If you have any comments or Advertising sales Tracy Wolter: tracy@technews. For the other project. stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means. 9 Grix Road. 2005/034598/07 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Letters to the Editor should be addressed to Andrew Seldon at andrew@technews. mechanical. their ability to offer good advice and to deliver.securitysa. The editor reserves the right to alter or cut copy. the publisher and its agents cannot be held responsible for any errors contained. Advertisements. the success of your project depends on the skills and integrity of the people doing the installation work. the individual wanted a few bells and whistles. Make sure you get yours if you want your surveillance system to deliver results. orders. Editor All rights reserved. Pietermaritzburg Good news for locals The Consumer Goods Council has just released its updated CCTV Guidelines. Willowton. without the prior written permission of Technews Publishing (Pty) Ltd. recording or otherwise. and none at night. a document that will be invaluable to installers as well as those people responsible for their organisation’s surveillance Contributors Allyson Koekhoven Craig Donald Business Manager Vivienne Dorrington: vivienne@technews. Get the right people on board and you can get an analogue system to shine. I hope you enjoy the handbook and get value from it in whatever field you operate in. Get the wrong people and the most impressive IP systems will fail. 2 CCTV Handbook 2013 Subscription Services For address changes. city and postal code. on the other hand. The IP installation has been going on for months with dismal results and poor visibility throughout the Laura Dorrington: laura@technews. We’ve put together an interesting collection of articles from some of the leading minds in the surveillance world for your enjoyment. Design and layout: Technique Design Printed by: Intrepid Printers (Pty) Ltd. e-mail: renewal status or missing issues.EDITOR’S COMMENT All about skills and experience Welcome to the 2013 CCTV Handbook. adapted. Subscribe online: www. Articles published do not necessarily reflect the views of the publishers. and cost a fortune. please let me know at andrew@technews. inserts and company contact details are printed as provided by the Disclaimer While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained herein. while there is an almost endless selection of technology to choose from (don’t miss the Selection Guide on page 46 onwards). Andrew Seldon. The analogue system. electronic. Your choice of installer or integrator can be the make or break factor of your entire We reserve the right to edit all letters. Sending material to this publication will be considered automatic permission to use in full or in part in our Letters column. One of the interesting things I heard repeatedly while talking to people and putting this handbook together was Pinegowrie 2123 Tel: 011 543 5800 Fax: 011 787 8052 ISSN 1562-952X Editor Andrew Seldon: andrew@technews. How many people get a client like that? Of course. you will find information on a variety of issues pertinent to your surveillance installations. e-mail address. Articles submitted are deemed to have been cleared for publication. Technews Publishing (Pty) Ltd cannot be held responsible for the accuracy or veracity of supplied material. The great thing about the IP installation is that the client was prepared to pay whatever it cost to get what he wanted. 265 Kent Angie Beaumont: angie@technews. The lesson here is that technology is only one part of a surveillance project.

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despite this background. These predictions for 2013 and beyond serve to provide insight into key trends and opportunities in the video surveillance industry. For the police. it expects to see new technology developments and camera features that improve image quality become the key battleground as manufacturers try to establish their own USPs. The unique characteristics of the Indian market make it an exciting place to do business. New battle ground in image quality The increased popularity of HD and megapixel resolution security cameras has been a hot topic in the video surveillance industry over recent years. particularly for those responsible for smaller installations. 5. Instead. world shipments of megapixel resolution network security cameras are predicted to out-sell standard resolution network security cameras in 2012 for the first time. will 2013 be the year of intelligent video? 4 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. in the mobile video surveillance market. However. Network video surveillance can be an overly complex topic. recorded video on an on-board device is downloaded wirelessly when the vehicle returns to the station or depot.TRENDS Video surveillance trends for 2013 What can we expect to see in the coming year in the surveillance market? IMS Research has released its fourth annual video surveillance trends for the year ahead. 2013 will be all about manufacturers making it more straightforward. 1. 2. India to remain a high growth market Economic growth in India has slowed. and easy to maintain. this brings a number of advantages. Intelligent video surveillance Forums discussing this concept are not new. IMS Conferences ran an intelligent video conference in Los Angeles and the Embedded Vision Alliance has regularly been bringing together engineers from leading companies to discuss the industry. spending on video surveillance equipment has remained resilient with the Indian market forecast to enjoy healthy double-digit growth in 2012. easy to operate. barriers to entry for foreign-owned suppliers are much . there has been increased buzz around the capability to wirelessly stream video from a mobile video surveillance camera back to a control centre. Ten trends to look out for are listed below. However. Keeping it simple in 2013 Many suppliers of network video surveillance are now targeting smaller installations to grow their businesses. the ability for a control room to view an incident live allows for an instantaneous assessment of the situation and more effective guidance for officers on the ground. IMS expects that GDP in Asia’s third-largest economy will grow by just 5. For a control room operative.9 percent in 2011 and 9. What is more. down from 6. However. 3. compared to other high growth markets. And quite rightly so. It could also provide assistance for lone workers on buses and trains. Mobile video streaming – the next gear of mobile video surveillance Traditionally. with the explosion of interest in intelligent video and the success of products such as Microsoft’s Kinect.1 percent in 2012. In the coming year.6 percent in 2010. IMS Research does not expect higher megapixel resolutions to be a mass-market trend. IMS Research therefore predicts 2013 to be the year where suppliers focus on developing products that are easy to install. 4. IMS Research predicts that there will be renewed emphasis on this type of solution. Recently. In 2011.

and its ability to provide remote access. 9. 8.6. Additionally.securitysa. 7. However. this is beginning to change with the emergence of key Chinese vendors on the world stage. Video surveillance as a service (VSaaS).imsresearch. While Big Data is not going to be a mainstream concept for video surveillance in 2013. Private cloud offers the same advantages as public cloud. and that businesses looking to utilise Big Data will increasingly look at the potential to incorporate video feed meta-data streams into their data CCTV Handbook 2013 5 . To date. the prevalence of enterprise video surveillance systems using private cloud is starting to gain some traction as IT managers increasingly take responsibility for the management of video surveillance systems. remote video monitoring has become an increasingly important recurring monthly revenue (RMR) generator for many alarm receiving centres. IMS Research predicts that the use and aggregation of analytics and video feed metadata as Big Data will continue to grow. www. Private cloud – the future for enterprise video surveillance systems? IMS Research forecasts that private cloud being used for the infrastructure of enterprise video surveillance systems will become a trend over the coming years. which includes: remote access to data. Video surveillance goes vertical System integrators and installers have been specialising in specific end-user industries for decades. Remote video applications ‘Remote’ has been a bit of a buzz word for video surveillance in 2012. Chinese companies looking west It has been well documented that China is one of the largest and fastest growing markets for video surveillance equipment. has been keenly debated with opinion divided on whether it will be successful. However. identifying the leading local vendors and discussing how western companies can take advantage of this high growth www. niall. design. For more information contact IMS Research. Video content analysis and video meta-data as ‘Big Data’ ‘Big Data’ has been a hot topic for businesses in 2012. providing there is an Internet connection. there are a number of applications that can leverage remote video surveillance in non-security applications. and shared use of data processing and storage resources. IMS Research predicts that 2013 will be the year that video surveillance vendors and PSIM platform providers follow suit. with installation. +44 1933 402 255. Video surveillance service providers have used aspects of cloud computing in their solutions for more than ten years. IMS Research predicts a number of exciting new applications will enter the market in however.jenkins@imsresearch. There has been little debate on the potential for Chinese video surveillance vendors to take advantage of the growth opportunities in other regional markets. Both of these examples relate to physical security. service and maintenance offerings targeted to the unique requirements of customers in that industry. 10. much of the narrative on this topic has centered on estimating the market opportunity.

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which appeals to many people. We asked our attendees what they thought would be the key issues in surveillance in the coming year or two. “For the Cheap and nasty turns to cheap and quality Malan says Camsecure has also seen the impact of the entry-level ‘bakkie brigade’ getting into the market and punting the cheaper products from the East. This is a very exciting time for camera technology.CCTV ROUND-TABLE 2013 Challenges in store for surveillance By Andrew Seldon. They are also looking at the whole solution and not simply the latest camera technology. I think image quality is definitely going to be the focus. which will make a significance impact – and there’s already talk of two terabytes being available within the next twelve to eighteen months. which is a good move. Our attendees were Francois Malan from Camsecure. as will people-counting. More often than not. such as usability in LPR (licence plate recognition) and movement detection. but he is also seeing clients demanding more from their surveillance solutions. “I also think vendors are coming under pricing pressure as manufacturers in the East increase the pressure in terms of quality and price. This will put more pressure on manufacturers and distributors to step in and provide on-site assistance – something they already do as a free value-added service.securitysa. Roy Alves from Axis Communications and Ernst le Roux from CCTV in Focus. the race for the highest resolution is going to slow down and we’re going to focus more on the image quality and storage. noting that SDXC cards already hold 256 gigabytes (GB). Moore thinks we’re going to see a lot of Asian products starting to make an impact in higher levels of the CCTV market instead of mainly at the lower levels. If they lay out the money. however. no matter how fast technology moves. On a positive note. Due to the economic conditions.” Anderson agrees with the above. He also thinks this year is going to be tougher for business than before. Now they are starting to become a more aware of what they’re really getting and what they really need. he sees edge storage as something that is going to be important over the coming year. Trends to watch Malan notes that there are many trends in the surveillance market at the moment. Gordon Moore from ADI Global. I don’t think many other solutions will really make an impact this year. Le Roux has even seen some larger users cutting costs by buying equipment for themselves and then making use of the ‘bakkie brigade’ for installation. this leads to problems as these installers don’t know enough about large-scale integration projects to deliver the quality desired. widedynamic range and so forth. “We’ll also be seeing cameras in the near future that are able to ‘see’ better than the human eye. Analytics solutions will also mature and Malan expects to see different aspects taking centre stage. even to the point of counteracting the move to cloud-based storage to an extent.” Le Roux expects to see edge storage have an impact.” While there are still quality issues. not to mention what challenges are in store for the surveillance industry in CCTV Handbook 2013 7 . Malan sees this as a way that many people are finding their way into the world of IP surveillance.”We’re already seeing that happening in the low-light field. However. “In www. Alves agrees that edge storage will be important in the coming year. such as high definition (HD). but notes that even with great prices and improved quality. He has also seen a leap in the quality of products from the East. it is only when these solutions get to the maturity level that adds value to the end user that they really show their worth. but we could see more of them changing their focus and charging for this in future. Rob Anderson from Rob Anderson Consulting. To get an update on which technologies are at the value-adding stage and what users are demanding from their surveillance solutions. Unfortunately. the cameras still fail to deliver when it comes to reliability and support. but clients still have problems as far as warranties and support are concerned. “Facial recognition is going to be tried and tested in the upcoming year. “but we’ve seen the more mature markets staying away from that. these devices are cheaper. Alves agrees. “On the higher end. He also expects to see more VMS systems using edge storage to protect corporate networks. past few years they’ve being inundated by salesmen selling the latest trick. We started the debate by asking each attendee to tell us what they thought the key trend or technology would be in the surveillance market over the next year. megapixel. they want to see returns. What’s up in the world of surveillance in 2013? Hi-Tech Security Solutions asked the experts.” From a distributor’s perspective. One of the most exciting things about the surveillance industry is the technology changes we see on a regular basis that create the potential for awesome advances in image quality and analysis. What follows is a brief insight into the interesting discussion that followed. but has also seen that the client base is starting to become a lot better educated than they ever have been. Hi-Tech Security Solutions invited a few people to join us in a surveillance round-table.

As mentioned above. “We also to only do business with companies that produce an annual due diligence or need to move out of the traditional practice of appointing physical security sustainability report to certify they follow the appropriate procedures. “We’re finding Continued on Page 10 Francois Malan 8 CCTV Handbook 2013 www.” “As a consulting practice. “Where we’re seeing the challenge for the system integrator is in the menus. Le Roux adds that implementing standards such as those that are common in the IT world will also help the security managers to do a better The question on skills While all the participants agree on the need for more education of the security managers and others involved in the market on the customer’s . Anderson says that the question of unqualified installers and cheap products is as much an issue there as it is Gordon Moore on our surveillance market. reliability and support they can count on. or there are bandwidth issues. Moore notes that many distributors are moving to the provision of added value services. “They will accept a price premium for the certainty that they’re getting quality. The way companies deal with this is job and produce a solution that meets the company’s expectations. These courses are part of the manufacturers’ branding attempts as the brand with the most and best-trained technicians have an advantage in a market where skills are in short supply.CCTV ROUND-TABLE 2013 many instances you’re pushing HD video out of the unit and you want to stream it across the network. as not only do installers rely on them for advice and technical assistance. the software and the viability of the software side of the products. Not only are top-notch skills in short supply. These experts into security manager roles without ensuring they are up to speed reports show that the company is sustainable financially. slave labour.” A significant change he expects to see is more customers adopting a standard brand as they do in IT. specifying that all cameras (or even all surveillance kit) on site will come from a specific vendor. or it needs to be rebooted every day. such as the device losing its IP address.securitysa. Many of the manufacturers are actively pushing their training and certification courses in an effort to ensure that their installers have the knowledge of the product as well as other skills necessary to ensure the end customer gets a good deal. they’re putting out products that have proper guarantees and but they need to understand what goes into selecting and installing an IP so on. they don’t employ on the relevant technology as well. As Alves notes. Customers are going to find they’ve got a far larger bill to pay when their installations are handled in an amateur manner and parts of it have to be redone. but problems still crop up far too often. they also note the training opportunities offered to installers and integrators are crucial in ensuring a good implementation.” Common sense standards The issue of standards is one that the UK light fitting industry has dealt with. the cost of the hardware is only a portion of the cost of a camera. Malan and Le Roux note that the industry is going to have to look at some form of skills development programme in the next couple of years if it wants to avoid paying exorbitant salaries for good technical skills or be branded as a bad service industry. for example. He says that image quality is easy to copy since they’re all using the same chips and processors. camera. the leading companies are in a constant battle to attract and retain personnel.” Anderson also adds that to ensure projects are handled correctly and installations are done to the appropriate standards. we’re going to go the route and say no product will be supplied on our sites unless the manufacture has produced a regular sustainability report. but the end customer often comes to the distributor for help when frustrated with its implementation partner. Distributors are also finding themselves in the middle of the skills shortage.” Moore adds that there is definitely a significant increase in Asian products. They don’t need to be technical experts. he also insists that the IT decision maker joins the initial planning meetings to ensure the technical side of things is covered. The other issue is that we don’t have anything in place in South Africa to police standards and specifications. CCTV Handbook 2013 9 .www.

you pay the price in terms of frame rate and low light capabilities. giving more opportunity for ‘bakkie brigade’ services. in fact. with most people expecting good growth in this market. H. H. There are also standards in HD so you know there’s colour fidelity. The details will still be there in sufficient quality for analysis should it be needed. as you start going to bigger sensors to do 5 and 8 and 10 . Intelligent platforms And while intelligence in the camera is definitely going to increase. And on the other side of the coin. Already many management companies are including dewarping software in their platforms to cater for these systems (such as local platform developer.” And the challenge is that as companies start skilling up their technicians and develop them. management. low-light capabilities are diminished. the fact that HD-SDR (or HDcctv) transmits images uncompressed with distances that are touted to reach 300 metres soon. there may yet be room for more HD analogue systems.securitysa. So you could. but the company will save on the hard drive capacity it needs. lower light than your human eye. Malan says the HD sweet spot at the moment seems to be in the 720p or 1080 sensor. Additionally. For example. Moore adds that VMSes provide the ability integrate an installation made up of cameras from diverse brands and with different capabilities. megapixels is not where the competition really is. the video can be stored at a lower frame rate to save space. someone else poaches them and offers them a little more money. some companies are implementing strategies that sees high quality video recorded for seven days – since you will know if there was an incident you need footage from within seven days. for instance. taking some of the processing strain off the servers and management platforms. wide dynamic managing. “The trick is really to get a good VMS that can down-sample the video to those different devices on request or per user requirement. maybe a lower frame rate. “The sensor manufacturers are doing some amazing things. While you can obtain high megapixel cameras that provide excellent images. instead of buying more hard drive space for footage that isn’t needed in court or for specific reasons. where the cameras raise the alarm when something happens. Roy Alves and Ernst le Roux Continued on Page 12 10 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Moreover. Of course.CCTV ROUND-TABLE 2013 Continued from Page 8 While there are other compression options available. Anderson expects to see more intelligence in the storage arena. We’ve seen sensors now that are very low light.” Interestingly enough. the importance of Web interfaces and mobile access will become more important as extensions to high quality streams in control rooms.264 seems to be the standard of choice for most systems. Alves says that since most of the top manufacturers use the sensors from a limited number of companies. many of the larger. “What’s going to count is the processing power on the chipsets behind those sensors that enable the camera to do the necessary things. like noise reduction. and only transmit when there’s something happening at the camera in order to utilise your existing bandwidth as efficiently as possible. The pixels are a lot smaller and there’s less ability to get light onto that sensor It seems that defining the role for the camera is more important than ever. Something the standards like ONVIF have not been able to accomplish.265 promises even better performance and should start appearing in the coming year. Effective VMSes are also going to provide users with added intelligence to assist in implementing event-based surveillance. adds Alves. which examines the research company’s top trends for the coming year. We should also expect to see more panorama cameras hitting the market in the coming year. Cathexis). We need to support installers by providing them with the necessary training and knowledge to help them with their customers and on-site installations. broadcast quality and there’s going to be full frame rate when you adopt this technology. take a high quality stream and make it a lower quality stream. Another critical area for Malan is the VMS (video management system) with many devices linking onto them and being able to rebroadcast at different requested streams. while HD (and megapixel in the 2 MP range) seems to be accepted. Anderson notes that we need to see more control rooms using HD monitors to make better use of the images available. wellstaffed integrators are downsizing and reducing their training and marketing budgets. Yet. These technologies are getting very interesting. If the high quality footage is not needed within that timeframe. changing such a broadly used standard will take time. the cameras are seeing things in pitch blackness that you can’t see with the human eye. low light cameras offering colour images in near total darkness and so forth. Looking at technology One of the articles running in the CCTV Handbook 2013 is from IMS. and manage it from a single console.” Rob Anderson that as a distributor we’re having to provide more and more on site support. One of the trends they mention is an increase in image quality rather than simply adding megapixels.

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If the camera manufacturers get it right. He says that in the Western Cape. as well as a bigger push on skills development in the security industry as a whole.” A tough. Given the continued economic uncertainty. The market is satisfied with the 1 to 2 megapixel range which gives up to 1080p resolution. although guards are not going to disappear any time soon. Manufacturers across the board are working on making things as simple as possible to use their products.” says . In the mid tier of the market. numerous manufacturers. This will not only expand the intelligence capabilities tremendously. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What do clients want from their surveillance systems? Mel Labuschagne: Clients want what they have wanted. but create a new market for applications. The largest manufacturer of video surveillance equipment is a Chinese company. Perhaps the integration project of the year will be integrating technology and human security services effectively. and even less was usable in court. the same as high definition TV. Hopefully we will see both the simplification of the technology to make it easier to install. One has to look at the different market tiers to identify what is taking place. In fact.securitysa. an increase in edge analytics is to be expected to relieve processing stress on central servers. Regal comments While the company was not able to attend the round-table. distributors and vendors handling the lack of high-level skills when it comes to IP surveillance installations? Mel Labuschagne: The IP surveillance market is in the early adopter phase so qualified manpower is still a scarce resource. The edge (on camera) is where we should see some action during the year. but it will also speed the time and reduce the cost of installation. This is also the case locally where price / performance and the aggressive sales strategy of the Chinese suppliers is increasing their market share. meaning that they can work on any brand or product. Although analytics is still quite difficult to implement and is very reliant on accurate set up which can be very time consuming. and other Chinese suppliers. surveillance solutions but are put off by the price differential. I would say the market split is around 50/50 where customers are aware of IP surveillance solutions but are loathe to spend the extra money. As technology advances. There will be a continued trend to plug-andplay IP (or easy to use) solutions in not only the low end of the market. One has to simply do a search on the Internet to find marketing releases from these Chinese surveillance equipment providers on large sites implemented with their products where this would have traditionally been done by Western suppliers. They. more companies are likely to opt for more technology with a lower onsite guarding presence. exciting year As always happens in round-tables. Mel Labuschagne from Regal Distributors added his comments to some of the issues raised at the round-table via e-mail. his teams found that. However. I don’t see that manufacturers looking at increasing the megapixel rating of cameras.CCTV ROUND-TABLE 2013 Continued from Page 10 As a sidebar. Not only will this enable companies to set up their surveillance systems with people who are somewhat less technically skilled. but the high end as well. the printed report only scratches the surface of what was actually discussed. are now offering plug and play IP solutions (in the up-to 16 camera system range) where the system offers near analogue ease of use. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What do you think are the trends/technologies to look out for in 2013? Mel Labuschagne: The price of IP cameras and VMs platforms will continue to drop in 2013. in the main. both in terms of storage and intelligent analytics. In the high-end tier of the market. Astute integrators. only about 15% of recorded footage was of any use after an event. There will naturally be some resistance from VMS vendors as this concept would take away some of their core functionality. Advanced analytics has become more prevalent and at much better prices which has seen more clients implementing this technology. “One of the initiatives that we’ve got going at the moment is to ask the question “Who’s installing it?” and based on that we will show the appropriate Web page. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Do you see a significant impact on the local market from quality Asian products? Mel Labuschagne: The Chinese products are having an impact on the traditional suppliers. KISS your camera One final trend worth noting is the move to simplicity. This benefits both the installer and client in ensuring the proposed system is successfully implemented. this coming year should see some incredible improvements in image quality as well as some stiff competition in price in the lower and mid-level markets. given the overall conversation. expectations are that the PSIM market will eventually find more traction. However. they could encourage software developers to produce specific apps that are camera manufacturer independent. including cost-effective producers from the East. Alves notes that we could also see a situation similar to the mobile phone market at the moment where users pay a small amount to download the analytical or performance apps they want to use. The same can be said of surveillance cameras and the complexity in setting them up and getting them to perform as one wants. Le Roux notes it’s important to note that quality is still the key issue when wanting to use surveillance footage for prosecution or even internal investigations. installers. but you pay per use. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: How are customers. many clients may be aware of IP 12 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. have the majority of the market in the East and are now targeting other regions. However. However. we won’t see any decline in the need for management platforms. distributors and vendors will be looking at the IT sector to attain these skills. The low tier of the market is probably still in a 90% analogue to 10% IP scenario. it tends to become complex and unwieldy to use. the best price / performance (most bang for their buck). “Basically we’ll be making the products more user friendly for the specific type of person on the other end. In the low end of the market. as more systems are integrated with other components of a complete security installation. Apps for your surveillance camera? When considering the increased processing power within cameras. integrators. The ability to accurately identify people and objects requires decent quality. clients are aware of IP surveillance solutions and most are implementing the superior technology. CCTV Handbook 2013 13 .

• How to identify target activities to be observed. • Software and other system related requirements. CCTV industry participants. • System Provider. SAPS. recommended basic formats for basic affidavits and a recommended general checklist for the CCTV system. During the investigation of offences committed and incidents in chain stores. detection. • Required result of a successful response to activities. The first version of this document was compiled in 2004. Chapter 3 explores the operational requirements (OR) that are fundamental to the design. This document also includes recommended checklists for operational requirements of the camera. placement and picture . For further information or to order a copy of the Recommended CCTV Industry Guidelines contact Selma Visser on (T) 0861 101 726 or email sv@cgcsa. CCTV Staffing and Development in Chapter 6 elaborates on: • Recruitment selection techniques • Training aspects of system operators • Requirements for training courses and training manuals. • General risk considerations. The reviewed and updated third edition will be published in March 2013. Installation and Management Aspects are addressed in Chapter 5 and consists of: • Restrictions of installed 14 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. The purpose of including the Legal and Evidentiary Aspects in Chapter 7 of this document is to guide the standardisation of protocols in the handling of video/DVD or other material that has evidential value that is in the possession of private persons employed by the industries. • How to determine the standard of picture quality. The guidelines in this section include: • The selection of a suitable service • Camera selection. the visual footage. • How to handle incidents are observed. • The Justice System. captured on CCTV equipment is of crucial importance during the investigation and procedures that could follow. • Site layout. recognition and identification with the specific purpose of generating video footage that will support investigations and successful prosecution. Although Technical Aspects are addressed in Chapter 4. the latter can only be accomplished if CCTV systems are accepted as a reliable source of evidence. A classic example of this is the use of CCTV as deterrence to all potential perpetrators. retailers and other business owners. This empowered business owners with knowledge to make informed business decisions before investing large amounts of money in a business solution. the use of compression techniques may result in low-resolution images. This includes: • Generic Operational Requirements. Through the Consumer Goods Council of South Africa in partnership with Business Against Crime Western Cape (BACWC) working groups were formed to determine: A Recommended Industry Guideline for CCTV surveillance systems in South Africa.securitysa. NPA (National Prosecuting Authority). the aim was to limit specifications that might lead to the Recommended Guidelines being outdated in the near future due to technology developments. Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) plays a valuable role in combating crime through a combination of both proactive and reactive crime prevention measures. • Training programmes. As the importance of competent operators and system users cannot be underestimated. BACWC. • Existing infrastructure and layout of premises. The Role Players and Responsibilities are guided by Chapter 2 and expand on the following roles: • The End User. This document provides guidelines for optimisation of CCTV that will ensure appropriate/sufficient quality images under different physical and environmental circumstances in and around businesses for monitoring. that will enable users to spec their needs at the right pitch. thus implying that they will be aware of the fact that their actions are recorded. • Quality and routing of cabling. • Power management. • Industry Bodies and NGOs. as this may include the detection of movement rather than identification. However. CCTV can assist the police in identifying the perpetrators and can also be utilised in various criminal justice procedures as evidence in a court to ensure fair and legal prosecution to all parties involved.CCTV GUIDELINES Local CCTV guidelines revised Recommended Industry Guideline for CCTV surveillance systems in South Africa. On the reactive side. black and white systems are insufficient for identification of clothing and vehicle colour. including staff. testing and operation of an effective CCTV system. • Why these activities should be observed. The experts who shared their expertise in compiling this document included representatives from the CGCSA. training and system manuals and • Guidelines on the maintenance and management of the system. CCTV Handbook 2013 15 .www.

Since the invention of the first analogue video camera. Axis Communications. Today we can compare an IP video system to the human eye and the brain. the comparisons stopped at seeing. and are no longer just for military usage. But unlike our eyes. Thermal cameras can detect humans and objects in complete darkness as well as poor visibility conditions. Then of course. Both of these cornerstones were passed during the last year with the introduction of colour-at-night Lightfinder technology.securitysa. Still. Moore’s Law is really kicking in with sensor development and we can expect a lot of progress in low light video. IP camera developers are using the evergrowing processing power in the cameras to look beyond pure resolution and improve overall image clarity with better light sensitivity. the next comparison is with field of view and mechanical speed. light sensitivity. However. and much more light sensitive than the eye in HTDV and VGA resolutions. and where will we fall behind in the future? Many of us suffer with poor night vision. cameras are computers that can see. and therefore the human eye: Moore’s Law. the human eye is faster than the majority and still beats the autofocus algorithms of most cameras. it’s a dead heat tie. Focus. Cameras in surveillance were created to see what we. we talk of artificial intelligence. given that lens Martin Gren technology is not on par with the higher resolutions in security cameras – maxing out around 5 megapixels for professional surveillance – and that most 10-20 MP cameras lack frame rate and image quality around the edges of the scene. Here. as humans couldn’t. For this we now have professional-grade. it is a clear win for the human eye. the eyes will get very tired and a headache is likely on the . all-digital thermal network cameras that can be integrated into an IP-based surveillance system. as CMOS sensor technologies evolve we now have the ability to be almost as light sensitive in 5 MP cameras as the human eye. Unlike the IT components inside a camera. and aperture are all terms used to describe both. In the world of IP video. lens. If we compare this with current PTZ cameras. optical components like the lens do not follow Moore’s Law. While there’s no perfect calculation. So while lenses are taking longer to evolve. improving focus will be the manufacturer focus for the coming years. However. when humans try to see during constant contrast change. Yet in the analog CCTV world. There are some areas today where the IP camera beats even our own human abilities.OPINION The future of video: use your eyes By Martin Gren. The human eye is said to have a contrast range to 120 dB. While the eye wins outright for overall resolution. the eye. There’s one main reason that lenses are not keeping pace with IP camera and sensor development. So in the long run. Humans and technology make a good combination. Analogue held one final advantage over IP regarding light sensitivity. If compared to the best wide dynamic range network cameras on the market. but also qualities where a surveillance system will never replace human intelligence or intuition. the camera is better than the human eye without even the need to wear sunglasses. but this is hardly usable for surveillance and it’s not the actual resolution that our brain (the VMS) computes. Wide dynamic range is another hot issue related to the sensor and image processing. Thus. cameras have the ability to leverage IR wavelengths and produce a black and white image at night. one can argue that the usable resolution of the cornea or what the brain computes at a given time can vary greatly. it was natural to compare these devices to the human eye. Also. Now that we’ve covered resolution and light sensitivity of the camera vs. IP security Seeing is believing Let’s start with the obvious comparison: the IP camera and the human eye. 16 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. The eye has a field of view of approximately 75-95° and a pan-tilt speed of roughly 900°/second. the whole eye is said to have a total resolution of more than 100 megapixels. We talk of memory. iris. focal length. When we talk of computers. there is the ability to see with absolutely no light at all – which no human can do. yet neither analogue nor IP could produce colour images in the dark. How do we stack up today with our IP video devices. but be roughly estimated between 5-10 megapixels depending on the person’s eyesight. since the human eye lacks optical zoom. and especially when fighting direct sunlight.

it’s clear that Mr. but face detection in a controlled environment can be deployed successfully. anywhere video access and offsite storage has led to the emergence of hosted video. there is the rising issue of potential patent lawsuits attempting to block the use of a specific algorithm. Humans have higher pixel vision. Our brains can analyse a scene and predict behaviour thanks to human intuition. Local. in the same way the human eye can contract infections and obstructions. including the mobile phone market. movie streaming. advanced analytics are working really well. The answer is simple: These cameras still need to be managed. Moore’s Law keeps on working to give us more processing power and usable resolution.securitysa. www. Humans are said to have short-term and long-term memories. hosted video has seen success where the end-user has multiple dispersed sites to monitor. while the latest human evolution seems to be that we are growing larger. A third layer is when we combine edge recording with hosted video. wider – just like our old analogue TVs. The retail market will be the biggest winner in the How’s your long and short-term memory? We all have personal memories that we can look back on in an instant. One solution could be to pool patent fees amongst the patent holders in order to share these innovations with the world while keeping overall costs down for the end-user. I’m not a neurology specialist.cameras have a major leg up. Unlike our eyes. Guards and officers in the field can scan quickly for signs of trouble. When in controlled environments. online banking. Edge-based storage in a small camera system environment has many benefits and it will continue to get . the user will never miss a single frame. when talking about analytics and software. taller CCTV Handbook 2013 17 . the human brain and intuition wins over a security camera in most aspects. Analytics will continue to improve – especially as software developers from all walks of life are attracted to the surveillance industry with the goal to develop applications to run inside the camera itself – but a human will nearly always be required for this aspect of the industry to thrive. machine in the surveillance world. That’s good news for police officers interviewing folks about a crime – even if eyewitness testimony is sometimes proven shaky. Man vs. Using analytics with increased edge storage capacities will be attractive because this solution does not require continuous Internet bandwidth. Dirt. which are now available in 64 and 128 GB with more storage to come. Today’s standard for a modern surveillance system is HDTV and. While edge recording is perfect for single site deployments. roy. And as edge-based storage grows. Yet a question I often get when speaking about the growth of edge-based and hosted video storage is if these technology trends mean the end of the VMS. Think about the patience you would have to have to sit on the side of a highway and make a note of all the licence plates that drive by. file sharing and other cloud-based services. even the most advanced computers completely lag humans. This trend may be even more disruptive when we combine good camera-edge-recording and analytics. IP video will continue to improve. and what does this the best is a good VMS. However.axis. So while humans can remember even our earliest memories. But remember. yes. When it comes to detecting strange behaviour and forensics. the one certainty is that we need to work together for maximum efficiency today and into the future. we can easily store weeks of high quality video inside the camera or encoder in the coming years. we as people will have an advantage over surveillance systems for many years because it’s not possible to patent humans (fortunately!). machine When we compare man vs. Moore is much faster than Mr. Darwin. cross-line detection and licence plate recognition (LPR). there is nothing like a guard or operator. so it’s astonishing how our brains can analyse the pictures/videos from our past and have the ability to record for many years. but in more unique applications like retail customer reward programmes. however. The key to the future is mining all the high-quality video data that IP cameras capture and consider new and novel uses for this information. We continue to see improvements in the evolution of optics and motors in PTZ cameras that Darwin can’t keep up with. but the camera never lies or misremembers. fog. the biggest leg up for the camera is that it never needs to sleep! From detection to analysis The no-need-for-rest feature of cameras means that video analytics is superior in the ability to perform around-the-clock. Our long-term memories are unrivalled in the animal world. an IP surveillance system has the most reliable long-term memory and its short-term memory growth is far outpacing our own. www. while their colleagues in the command post use cameras to zoom in for a closer – and safer – look. if configured properly. With the evolution of SD-cards. This intelligent feature will not only play a big future role in access control. The real game changer will be in the smaller camera count market where we will see edge storage replace the DVR rather soon. But when it comes to more advanced analytics. so too does Internet bandwidth and availability. so do security cameras. Until then. but the IP camera helps us see in difficult light and pure darkness. dust and even spider webs affect the camera as much as they do our own eyes. Without the ability to brush debris away from their lenses. For more information contact Axis Communications. personal storage. but the IP camera is there to help with repetitive tasks without getting bored or falling asleep at the wheel.alves@axis. but through Moore’s Law. Face detection by a video surveillance camera in a crowd is something we all can dream of. and humans must adapt to get the most out of the technology. So too do surveillance systems. This will leave us free to innovate and drive business. monotonous tasks like people counting. installation environment and housings are increasingly important and will see further development. This is happening in our industry as well as many others. After all. in a footrace. a similar need for anytime. edge-based recording is then short-term memory – which is improving in the camera not through memory exercises. Consider long-term memories as the server-based and NVR systems with the ability to download and store video for long periods. the human element will be important for many years to come – even if CSI and other TV shows would like you to believe otherwise. Just as our own human behaviour has dictated the rising use of Gmail. While advanced behavioural analytics are improving. +27 (0)11 548 6780. Here.

SAPS and Spar. It also highlighted the the human shields involved in the operation. This brazen approach Excellence from Spar to various to their crime shows how well attendees in appreciation of their trained and confident these continued service to the retail criminals were of getting away industry. although other Spar Appreciation. owner of high-level informant was also of the Super Spar. Gwarega Mangozhe made the awards involved in thwarting the long-term operations of a crime syndicate to two police officers who have been key to the success of the investigation. and a little help from tills next to the targeted one were oblivious to the crime – it was that fast technology seals the prosecution. it did hit multiple stores in cooperation and the sterling efforts of Mashiane and Nkathingi. Gauteng detective head an easy task for this syndicate then received a Certificate of – and stealing money while Appreciation from the CGC. General Norman drawers in retailers – apparently Taioe. crime can be beaten. Vorna Valley was particular assistance in sealing on hand to pay tribute to one of the fate of this syndicate. Awards presented The Consumer Goods Council (CGC) of South Africa hosted an awards The CGC’s manager of the crime prevention programme. for the gangs to remove all the Brett Botten. There were no guns. targeting retailers. fighting arena. MD of Spar high-value notes from a till. the criminals. these people returned to their tills to some of the people who have made the effort to fight crime and do the right find thousands missing with no explanation of how it happened. At the ceremony. the operations of the syndiOfficer Mashiane and Sergeant Nkathingi from the Midrand SAPS. before CEO. James Oosthuizen ceremony in February to pay tribute to a few people who had been opened the proceedings. cate were streamlined and professional.CO-OPERATION GETS RESULTS Syndicate foiled by cooperation By Andrew Seldon. He presented Their modus operandi was certificates to James Oosthuizen to use numerous members of as well as Juan Kotze. Tsomele then also received an This footage showed how it Exceptional Service award from would take less than 10 seconds Mangozhe. The help of a Peet van der Walt. community. per month. It did. cashiers were on a . The two officers to receive Exceptional Service Awards were Warrant As explained by Spar’s Keith Alexander. his staff members. no deaths Chief prosecutor. to continue to be alert and sometimes find the supervisor praised the cooperation between the various departments and the business on duty and other staff and distract them with questions. while others would L to R: Warrant Officer Mashiane. Moses Tsomele. which led directly to the arrest the process underway to identify of certain syndicate members. noting that the success of this case was a direct result of this While this operation did not involve guns. however. the gang as shields to prevent In her acceptance speech people from seeing what was Masiye encouraged all concerned happening. Due to thing in a tough and normally thankless environment. Advocate the manager of the Super Spar Juan Kotze played some of the for his quick and decisive action video shots taken and explained All the award recipients. Rassie Erasmus was next up to receive an Exceptional and no trauma. lead to some cashiers losing their jobs since The awards were a way for the CGC and Spar to thank and pay tribute to in stores without CCTV coverage. which was received stores were also involved in on his behalf by Maj. even cashiers at work in the fact that when people cooperate. with one informant claiming the prosecutor’s office. Sergeant Nkathingi and Moses Tsomele.securitysa. simply a slick operation that netted millions in stolen Service Award. 18 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. General supplying footage to identify Masiye and Maj. in front of present additional Certificates of everyone. Commander. the key perpetrators involved. Retail syndicate foiled through cooperation between NPA. The efforts of Tsomele were also key to the success of the leader of the syndicate’s cut was between R400 000 and R800 000 the case and Masiye encouraged him to continue his efforts. Gauteng Provincial Commissioner Central to the case was the Lt Gen Mzwandile Petros CCTV footage taken at the Vorna also received a Certificate of Valley Spar. The criminals’ operation involved obtaining a skeleton key to the cash Maj. in North Rand was on hand to the middle of the day. along with various towns and cities on a regular basis. General Motsikile. specifically in the crime with their theft. Gauteng Cluster money every month. followed by Brigadier Gina Palko. and slick. CCTV Handbook 2013 19 .

we see three trends today affecting Milestone and our marketplace in general: 1. We work hard to provide a more flexible. Our XProtect Corporate product continues to be future-ready. Offering video via the cloud is really like offering a traditional IT managed service.securitysa. hurricanes. Technology: Technical advances are influencing new degrees of necessity for surveillance and monitoring: biometrics. flooding and drought. and we are working hard to continually improve on these products (installation. talking about it is getting too much hype.TRENDS Open platform video set to grow By Andrew Seldon. Milestone’s low and mid-market products are designed to address this trend from XProtect Go through XProtect Professional. setup and use) with ease. we want to make the software tools to enable others to address this type of business model whenever it does become viable. customers are under pressure. 2. 20 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. We hear a lot about cloud technology and VaaS these days. including the fast growing area of video management systems.of-use in mind. 3. Even the smallest upgrade in technology or thinking can become a catalyst for change. These will come in the future but until then. from monitoring and tracking severe storms. Changing requirements can also be driven by large public events like the . This can be addressed by the open platform approach from Milestone Systems to allow endless upgrades and integrated solutions that can be added over time. In the low to mid-market. cloud computing and video analytics require the most upto-date hardware and software. and if war or terrorism threatens. Budgets are scrutinised as demands for a safer environment and affordable security constantly battle for priority. Milestone continually evolves our XProtect Smart Client to be the umbrella client interface for operational visibility in a security environment. Ease of use. The economy: With budget cuts across the board. The environment: Another perspective deals with the increased emphasis on climate change. too. from the perspective of Milestone and the industry in general. receiving feature updates that make it well suited as the technology foundation of a hosted video solution. Basically. Traffic control and management has become part of this trend. our Web client and remote clients. affecting the balance of power and the focus on physical. or impromptu ones like demonstrations or natural disasters. powerful and relevant client for the operators by XProtect Smart Client. Features like Axis one-click connectivity. But the bandwidth services have to be in place first and at reasonable prices. but using new technology. data and other security improvements as countries reach election days. These product offerings are built for ease of use. Instead. high-resolution cameras. to improving protection of energy supplies and natural resources. Milestone does not want to be a hosting company ourselves – that is not our core competency. Politics: Political changes can influence degrees of regulatory requirements. integrators and end-users alike are demanding ‘easy’ – easy to procure. and Milestone Federated Architecture make XProtect Corporate an ideal hosted video solution platform. easy to deploy and easy to use. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What do you think will be the biggest trend or influencer in the coming year in the surveillance market sector? Peter Biltsted: Countless circumstances around the globe contribute to growth and innovation – even the smallest upgrade in technology or thinking can become a catalyst for change. Video as a service (VaaS). When considering the trends in the surveillance market. Consolidated operational user interface (UI). Hi-Tech Security Solutions asked Milestone’s Peter Biltsted to answer four questions on what to look out for in 2013.

These solutions are becoming more commonplace today. production and logistics.milestonesys. IP video is still driving the convergence of digital systems across multiple areas. improved algorithms (both at the edge and server levels) and data libraries are reducing false alarms and improving reliability across the board. Such opportunities underline the fact that an IP VMS with an open platform is more than security. benefiting customers’ bottom line as they are able to lift their implementations to new levels of professionalism and sophistication. effectively growing solutions parallel to the necessities of our world as they happen. There is also increased use of video content analytics.securitysa. Today the ease of use. It has improved the speed of innovation for diverse applications. cdp@milestonesys. finance. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What technologies/technical implementations do you think will stand out in the coming year? Biltsted: In South Africa. with interoperability to the video interface show people or vehicles on the move.+45 88 300 300. Single-brand solutions lock customers out of future options to build on their initial investments. such as access control. Milestone XProtect Smart Client continues to progress in this direction providing the operators additional visibility and interaction with multiple disparate data that when correlated with video provides the best levels of operational overview. The result of all of this is that the value of video is increased both in real-time and when viewing recorded video. for example. HR.incorporating single client visibility to the video for live viewing. It can deliver ongoing flexibility to respond to changing needs. a strong toolset for investigations. handling more than just security matters – adding measurable long-term returns on investments (ROI) and lowering total costs of ownership (TCO).com CCTV Handbook 2013 21 . challenges and innovations. and larger installations and larger corporate entities are setting a surveillance policy for deployment of unified systems with increasing integration of multiple systems into one platform. www. Access control or licence plate recognition. adding real value to the industry rather than just hope. and prove that open architecture is absolutely the best way to go for sustainable value in customer installations. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Do you expect to see your products integrated into third-party solutions or will customers opt for singlebrand solutions in 2013? Biltsted: Value-adding integrations continue to be a huge growth factor to offer efficiency advantages for customers. Open platform IP video is enabling business optimisations on a larger scale. Video analytics have come of age. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: If there is one piece of advice you could give customers and potential customers as the year The technology adds more value than customers initially expect before installation because no one is locked into one set solution for the www. what would it be? Biltsted: Adapting to change through openness – both today and with the future in mind – will have more positive results. Milestone sees a growing acceptance for open platform video. These solutions are now affordable and on the cutting edge of the industry. and coupling this with integration of third-party alarm or other data (access control for example). For more information contact Milestone Systems.

Added to that is the fact that costs are too high. with easier integration and intelligent video analytics. due to price being high and limited recorder support compared to megapixel IP . The growth in IP surveillance will come from small to medium market size deployments. the future for the surveillance market looks strong with the fast-paced evolution of technology and the market adapting to it. government installations and high-level security companies. cashier performance predicting customer flow patterns.frankstreet. POS (point of sale) integration solutions are now being used by retail giants like Woolworths to aid security with till transaction mostly deployed by the military. operational management. With growing concerns in retail security on asset 22 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. ROM is an effective business management tool. sales@frankstreet. Frank Street. For more information contact Frank Street. queue management and retail security monitoring. buddy transactions and preventing suspicious transactions like dubious credits. Frank Street has been developing its own video analytics called ROM (Retail Operations Management). Panoramic cameras have gained attention of the CCTV market and will grow over the years. Abie Ali discusses changes he noticed in the CCTV industry in 2012 and looks at what’s coming? How did the CCTV industry change in 2012? A very strong growth in IP video surveillance was the trend. Security managers that have recently installed analogue cameras and want to expand are demanding hybrid solutions. at the moment. we will see development in the HD camera segment. In this The ROM software uses CCTV cameras for POS interfacing and video analytics for shrinkage control. Video analytics will certainly be a game changer in the surveillance market. The strong demand for megapixel IP cameras has set the increase to almost 35%. Hybrid systems have made a great impact in the CCTV market offering both analogue and IP connectivity. and is sure to prove itself successful in the years to come. Thermal cameras have been around for many years. resulting in clear crisp video pictures. for effective management of sales. Trends in the next five years I expect to see include 10 or more megapixel IP super-resolution cameras entering the market. Yet another trend will see video being recorded in the cloud. A single panoramic camera offers a 360-degree view providing a greater situational awareness than a single camera normally provides. This trend of super megapixel cameras will evolve as VMS servers will have faster processing power. In the camera market. however. but still giving the flexibility to expand into IP technology. +27 (0)11 496 2300. These super resolution cameras will cover a larger viewing area.SURVEILLANCE TRENDS FOR 2013 Surveillance trends By Abie Ali. The industry is taking to megapixel IP cameras because of many VMS (video management systems) available. Thermal cameras will never replace IR or low light cameras in the foreseeable future due to price. VMS will have a significant growth due to the migration from analogue to IP cameras. low light and WDR (wide-dynamic range) optimisations. This year will see the demand increase as prices get lower. I’m not too sure if security managers will be in favour of vital video data sitting in the cloud. Edge recording on SD cards will become common for users that need basic functionality and act as redundancy for larger VMS systems. helping to lower costs. also reducing licensing costs by requiring only one licence instead of multiple cameras and licences to cover the same area. by integrating software and high megapixel IP cameras into a business management system. www. Many VMS software packages have the functionality for dewarping and dividing the 360-degree panoramic camera into quad and dual 180-degree video HD-SDI made very little progress. The other trend in the next five years will see video analytics take on a new dimension in surveillance. In conclusion. Edge recording onto SD cards is a great technology handling recordings directly onto the IP camera. CCTV Handbook 2013 23 .

Systems can be administrated remotely and can provide predefined automatic reports. thus reducing the need to separately view multiple systems. The integration component centralises all events and transactions with relevant video feeds. the system adds superior business intelligence not only by providing pertinent information about the hardware health status of the systems that are linked. a software development company. but also about user activity. the name of an employee who is listed in the access control system database can be used as a search item to view the relevant video footage pertaining to his movement throughout the facilities. a third component – custom integration – has recently been added. The SmartProtect system is currently a generic plug-in system for the Milestone video management platform. For instance. Other examples include weighbridge information or licence In addition.smartprotect. An added benefit of the integration is the ability to prompt the decision-making process with standard operating procedures (SOP). The integration module allows for post-event investigations. SmartProtect. After a request from clients to be better able to manage multiple systems on a common platform. The system allows centralisation of data from multiple security systems into a database and is then displayed in the video management 24 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. All this data adds value to the video . The report module was initially developed as a data mining tool to present data in a more refined manner. allowing him to make the best decision in a fast expeditious manner. This is facilitated through SmartProtect.SYSTEM INTEGRATOR PROFILE Integrated central monitoring SmartProtect enables monitoring of multiple system events with video. last year publicly launched its product offering. Once the operator has acknowledged these procedures a full audit trail is also in By thinking out of the box there is great value in combining data and linking video to data transactions. Initially there were two components – Integration and Reports.securitysa. info@smartprotect. Because there is a great need for customised or client-specific solutions. For more information contact SmartProtect. This gives the operator optimised situational awareness. Many end-users have preferred historical systems that they would like to link with video and this facility will effectively cater for this requirement. There is a growing need to add business intelligence to systems. Video can be searched for any event or transaction.

Tel: 0861 867 8867 (TVMS) sales@tvms. engineering and maintenance services. From design. Global experience across diverse markets positions Honeywell as a technology leader renowned for delivering value. We provide holistic security technology solutions that enable you to concentrate on your core business.tvms. as well as parking control systems. Tel: +27 (0)12 667 2338 CCTV. time and attendance. install and maintain integrated security financial institutions and the private sector. experienced system integrators are the link between technology and solutions that work. priority alarms and embedding standard operating procedures to quickly prompt the operator to make the correct response. national key points. Tel: +27 (0)11 894 7127 kleroux@multivid. a global provider of intelligent IP video EOH Intelligent Infrastructure EOH Intelligent Infrastructure is a wholly owned subsidiary of EOH. and a strong presence throughout www. As a service to our Card Control Systems We provide total project solutions based on specialist design.eohii. As client requirements are CCTV Handbook 2013 25 . We develop. comfortable and cost-efficient. transportation. Instead. and is responsible for sales. including government. EOH Intelligent Infrastructure supplies and installs security. design the required system and then install it based on clearly defined project guidelines as well as a detailed scope-of-work document. along with a true understanding of the security challenges faced by organisations of all www. It specialises in fully integrated fire and security systems both nationally and internationally. Specialise in surveillance: access control and T&A. serves government and private sector customers in the www. access control. Designing event-driven systems and centralising information through Basix Group The Basix Group. commercial-industrial and infrastructure markets. advise on optimum UTM Group UTM Group is a provider of end-to-end total security management services with integrated building management. We pride ourselves on quality expertise and experience in building asset protection. Tel: +27 (0)11 555 4949 Basix is the agent for March Networks. Tel: +27 (0)11 781 1341 security system integrators and solution providers with over 20 years’ experience. Tel: +27 (0)11 907 3192 cardcon@mweb. install and maintain critical building systems that help keep customer workplaces safe. shopping we provide turnkey solutions.SYSTEM INTEGRATORS’ PROFILES System integrators It takes appropriate knowledge and experience to create solutions that protect people.bidvestmagnum. installation and support of products on the African continent.firetech. upgrade. expertise and experience. fire detection and offer a range of leasing solutions. data mining and meaningful business Camsecure A network surveillance and electronic security company that has completed many large and prestigious projects throughout the continent. profits and assets and deliver business www. installation and maintenance to monitoring. Bidvest Magnum Technology does not have off-the-shelf security solutions. we analyse the client’s TVMS offers peace of mind with value for money solutions and exceptional service CCS can design and install systems to suit your needs and budget. Skilled.securitysa. Together with the Jasco Group’s expertise in the ICT and Energy sectors. fire detection: audio evacuation and public address. Tel: 0861 500 500 Fax: +27 (0)11 844 3500 www. www. These include managed surveillance. For details on how to include your company in this listing contact installs and maintains security technology Firetech Projects Firetech Projects provides project solutions to many sectors of the market. Tel: +27 (0)11 210 3500 Head Office info@basixgroup. And we can www. Hi-Tech Security Solutions provides a list of system integrators end users can contact to discuss theirintegrated security solution requirements. Tel: +27 (0)11 695 8000 Honeywell Building Solutions Honeywell Building Solutions is a leading provider of integrated technology solutions that support innovative ways of working. The business possesses great depth of skill and Bidvest Magnum We design. repair and maintain your existing system. Tel: 086 022 2266 TVMS Our solutions protect and enhance your investments and profits as well as reduce risk. access control. communications and time management www. UTM delivers security management services by taking your entire risk value chain into Jasco Security Solutions Jasco Security Solutions (incorporating Scafell and Multivid) designs. We pride ourselves on quality. video analytics.

leads to people dozing or ‘tuning out’. One of the most common issues is placing monitors too high so operators either have to tilt their heads uncomfortably upwards. Leaning back creates the conditions for people to become too relaxed and together with tiredness. or lean back in their chairs to avoid muscle strain. Operators are looking around or even The screens themselves LCD/LED and plasma screens have their own limitations built in with their possible angles of view. 26 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. but the colour range displayed can change as the viewing angle becomes more extreme. One of the most critical design issues in any control room design featuring CCTV should be the line of sight and angle of view of monitors to operators. One can even find that monitors on desks would benefit from slight tilting or height adjustments up or down to make for more ergonomic viewing. A further part of the physical environment that is a common issue is the chairs upon which the operators sit. In one control room I visited recently. The other alternative for operators is just to disregard the monitors positioned too high and they cease to be a source of information. the increasing use of big 40-inch and large TV type screens has suddenly brought things in too close. While one may think of monitors being too far away. Good control room chairs are difficult to come by and the standard issues often have hydraulic functions that fail fairly quickly. In situations where CCTV is viewing.securitysa. or monitors fixed to allow a tilting downwards allow an operator to have a more direct view of the scene displayed on screen and facilitate natural viewing. When mounting such displays. There are a number of issues relating to how the angle of view affects the quality of surveillance. a simple aspect of ensuring that you can see past the desktop monitor clearly is often neglected.OPINION Line of sight and angle of view By Dr Craig Donald. As camera viewing light conditions . Consoles that are inclined slightly forward. and one almost has to physically lean back in order to view some areas of the screen. it also presents potential problems for monitors. Not only this. operators are sitting in the lowest position relative to the ground compared to what is expected. One can often find monitors placed high up and facing directly away from the wall – this creates a double problem as will be discussed in the section on LCD screens. Besides the actual positioning. Ensuring line of sight and angle of view – basic essentials of control room viewing. I find that darker images create more difficulty in viewing as soon as one changes the viewing angle from directly in front of the screen. and viewing angles of the wall and desk monitors often change as a result. Side views and those from the top and bottom reach points where the quality and contrasts of image deteriorate so much that it becomes difficult to see what is on the screen properly. they are often neglected in the technical installation of the control room. The monitors and their angle of view effectively determines the usability of the interface for the operator in order to accomplish surveillance objectives. leaning to the side of their control screens in order to see what kind of effect changes or adjustments may have on the monitor wall. The quality of lighting can change as it gets darker. and this can affect the colour intensity and the display contrast on screen. Distance is also a complicating factor. this needs to be checked from typical seating and standing positions. Where desktop monitors are used in conjunction with wall mounted monitors. I’ve divided these up into a few different areas to facilitate looking at the related issues more easily. consoles or walls within the control room. At this point with no hydraulic pressure. a number of monitors mounted high on a console became unviewable Yet operators hadn’t commented on it and a number of screen views were being disregarded on a constant basis over a period of a couple of years because of the viewing angle. Physical issues Physical issues relate to where and how monitor screens are placed on desks. the angle at which monitors are attached is also an issue. as soon as one sat down in the seat. light intensity changes are a common issue beside the daily shift from light into darkness. Even on my notebook. Yet despite the importance of these. with visual discomfort and eye strain an additional possible outcome. The problem with tilting monitors appropriately is further complicated by the fact that the mounting fittings are not standardised and just the process of attaching them to the console or wall is a complicated process that allows little flexibility or ongoing adjustment.

Line of sight and angle of view issues are one of the most common problems in control rooms. He is a director of Leaderware which provides instruments for the selection of CCTV operators. that it was the first time that the client who was a major national installation company had even done such a thing. This is especially the case with some monitors which have a more reflective surface. and consults on CCTV management.donald@ leaderware.securitysa. Organisation One ideally wants the best line of sight to the most important monitor displays. he or she runs the risk of missing important surveillance information. How the available workstation space is occupied by monitors should be based on a usability analysis and what the critical viewing needs are to do surveillance properly.Lighting Lighting reflections have one of the most potential disruptive influences on screen displays. It amazed me at one stage where I sat down with a client and did a mock up on the proposed CCTV workstations to test line of sight and viewing angles. Where supervisors are also involved in monitoring what is going on. Ironically. Dr Craig Donald is a human factors specialist in security and www. Ensuring the design works well in the beginning will solve a lot of problems later. X-ray screeners and other security personnel in major operations around the world. He can be contacted on +27 (0)11 787 7811 or craig. line of sight from the supervisor workstation is also an important element to bear in mind. Where the operator has to look away repeatedly every time something is CCTV Handbook 2013 27 . He also runs CCTV Surveillance Skills and Body Language. never mind sunlight in the control room. this is most likely to happen when an incident occurs and the operator has to look away in order to make selections or adjustments to screen or to obtain information. and Advanced Surveillance Body Language courses for CCTV operators. The line of sight and the angle of view issues also relates to use of communications equipment. which should be positioned so operators can maintain a clear view of the CCTV monitors while handling an incident. resulting in key aspects of incidents being missed. Direct lighting and fluorescent lighting are also the primary problems in that respect and wherever possible. Another important part of this is that the control screens that are often used to manage camera selection and things like alarm screens should be in line of sight as much as possible. supervisors and managers internationally. this needs to be channelled or provision needs to be made to adjust the effect of direct light. Yet all too often the monitors are mounted more in line with the fact that technicians want to place as many views as possible in one area. While I am a fan of natural lighting. indirect lighting should be used. yet they are the simplest to prevent and the most common sense one to get right. There is no need for expert advice for the most part – simply sit in a control room chair at the workstation and see if the setup works for you.

INSTALLATIONS Understand the solution By Joel Physical installation Cameras that incorporate multiple installation options into the design of the core product save time and money by enabling faster and easier installation and by reducing or often eliminating the need to purchase mounting accessories or adaptors. A well thought-out and designed camera can reduce the man-hours necessary for installation. Configuration software will scan and find the connected cameras on the network. look beyond the high-level specs to understand the whole camera solution. In certain cases. batch assign IP addresses.3at). A more efficient way is to use the smart configuration software provided by the manufacturer to manage configuration of multiple cameras automatically. the best camera manufacturers look beyond simply delivering high quality video capture functionalities. A well-designed indoor mini-dome will allow for surface mounting by simply screwing the back plate onto the surface. Imagine you are installing 50 cameras. With its back plate removed. When manufactured. The growing deployment of IP video systems has added new layers of complexity that the installer must master to be successful. For more information contact Tyco Security Products. software. each camera is assigned a unique IP address. a camera can include the adaptor necessary to connect into the wiring conduit to meet the code requirements. PoE power has two standards – PoE (802. Time is money so consider using cameras that incorporate features and technology that allow for easier installation and configuration. In order for the network to distinguish one camera’s video stream data from another. Managing network connectivity Configuring each IP camera on the network is much different to configuring analogue cameras.securitysa. Installers not only have to physically mount. Camera installation. setup and configuration must be completed for each deployed device in order for the system to recognise and connect to the camera’s video stream. A smarter design has the hole pattern in the back plate positioned to match common electrical gang boxes so the camera can be screwed directly onto the wiring box. outdoor cameras that are warmed by heaters as well as most newer indoor HD PTZ cameras that require additional power to run the pan and tilt motors.tycosecurityproducts. For IP cameras both these needs can be fulfilled using a PoE (Power over Ethernet) network where only a single RJ-45 cable connection to the camera is necessary. It is important to note that the power supply used will directly affect the low temperature ratings of heated outdoor cameras. 50 cameras connected to a single network means the video streams from all the cameras are moving on the same wires simultaneously. and accessories to make the entire installation and commissioning process faster and more efficient. When comparing camera features. Understand the whole camera solution. Camera installability. all cameras are given the same default IP address and a unique MAC address. For example. emallett@tycoint. power considerations. These vendors are also devoted to employing significant resources on product Cameras that focus on “installability” will pay dividends in the long run. Welldesigned camera configuration software is an indispensable installation and configuration tool. To aid integrators in these new challenges. PoE+ delivers higher power and is often used with 28 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Joel White Integrators who use these manufacturers’ cameras realise the benefit through higher profitability and a competitive edge in time saved and fewer accessories to purchase. potentially making your operation more cost competitive and profitable. each of which must be named and assigned a unique IP address. Tyco Security Products. PoE+ is inadequate and an AC power supply must be used to achieve the lowest operating temperature rating of the camera. allow for individual camera naming and. The best camera manufacturers listen to the voice of customer and the integrators’ perspective to improve on physical installation. wiring. Ideally each camera should be named with a common identifier so that it is easy to understand the camera type and location of the camera within the system. senior product manager. In cases where building codes require plenum-rated flush mount installations. so the installation environment and camera power/temperature ratings should be carefully considered before deciding on the power supply. batch update camera firmware. The task can be accomplished by opening each camera’s Web user interface and assigning a new IP address. but must also understand the configuration and load balancing of IP . setup and connect the cameras to the recorder. Power supply All cameras need electrical power and connectivity to the recording system.3af) and PoE+ (802. www. Integrators and installers of video surveillance systems face tasks that are common across both analogue and IP video camera systems. the same camera can be flush mounted to a surface using integrated swing out clamps to secure it on locations such as a drop ceiling. if necessary. as multiple IP cameras are capable of running on the same physical network wire. +27 (0)82 566 5274. and configuration of the cameras on the IP network. CCTV Handbook 2013 29 .www.

but also in terms of operations and even health and safety. but they may not be correctly integrated. these solutions should be integrated with other security systems including fire. If each of these systems is run independently. by integrating this solution into other areas of security. that all solutions follow a single set of rules. as they have the ability to deliver all-important visuals across all areas of operations to ensure health and safety regulations are adhered to. While CCTV is often a grudge purchase. it also records this footage. Upgrades may be necessary in order to ensure interoperability and a seamless solution. or building management solution. kleroux@multivid. This master platform will ensure that a single. enabling remedial action to be taken and processes to be improved to prevent similar problems from occurring in future. Integrated CCTV also ensures that loopholes and vulnerabilities can be eliminated. In order to effectively manage these integrated solutions. CCTV solutions have become an important part of any corporate or enterprise security solution. or visual access to all areas at all times. alarms and access control. they should also all be incorporated into a master management platform. newer solutions built using a standards-based approach incorporate greater levels of integration 30 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. fire detection and suppression.jasco. all solutions may be installed correctly and may seem to be functioning in tandem. Recording these feeds enables personnel to discover exactly what occurred in case of any type of incident. recorded CCTV footage can be used to augment evidence in a court of and acts as a deterrent against unlawful or unethical behaviour within the workplace. By integrating these solutions and incorporating proactive monitoring of the entire security system. something which in the case of security can be detrimental as issues are typically only discovered when something goes wrong. In the case of criminal activity. CCTV delivers the benefit of having eyes on the ground. in order to derive maximum value and return on investment (ROI) from CCTV. fire and access control. greater value can be derived for improved ROI. which can be corrected. CCTV. however. However. consistent set of rules can be applied across the board. with multiple reference sites across various industries to illustrate a track record of success.securitysa. to ensure swift action to be taken. which those with malicious intent can exploit. CCTV solutions offer a number of benefits by providing a visual reference and evidence of incidents. to the right people. For more information contact Jasco Security Solutions. Crime is an unfortunate reality in South Africa using a central platform or building management system. CCTV solutions are part and parcel of modern security systems. This allows for both proactive and reactive action to be taken. assuming that the CCTV feed is monitored by a control room. Control rooms can monitor that employees are doing their jobs. This not only helps to ensure that all systems work together in harmony. to all technologies. it can assist with closing loopholes in security and can help organisations to derive operational as well as security benefits from their solutions. offering greater value in an area which is often a grudge purchase. Jasco Security Solutions. often forms the bulk of modern security solutions. and that optimal security can be maintained at all times. helping to identify perpetrators and backup other findings for swifter prosecution of offenders. both in terms of security and operational benefits. and alarms. the process can become more complex as a result of legacy software and firmware issues. in order to leverage maximum value from CCTV solutions. including access control. appropriate action can be taken in the event of fire or theft and disasters can be prevented in many cases.INTEGRATION Integrated proactive security solutions By Kobus le Roux. along with access control solutions. alarms and access control. as a result. Regardless of the mix of technology however it is advisable to obtain the services of a security and integration specialist. CCTV is important. Solutions operating independently of each other can fail to deliver on the expected benefits. www. When it comes to integration. The knowledge that they are being watched also helps to incentivise workers to be more productive and efficient. +27 (0)11 894 7127. Without the right partner with the necessary integration skills. it should be integrated with other security systems including fire. using a central platform or building management system. In order to derive maximum value and return on investment (ROI) from CCTV. such as alarms. This then alerts security to potential problems. An integration partner and security specialist should have proven skills. to ensure that alerts are sent out according to the correct parameters. productivity is maintained and crimes can be prevented or more effectively prosecuted. that they are using dangerous equipment in a Kobus le Roux safe . that they are not accessing hazardous areas and more. not only from a security perspective. This not only enables security personnel to see what is happening. there may be an overlap in their functionality or the independent running and variety of different rules may in fact leave vulnerabilities and loopholes in the security system. When dealing with a mixture of old technologies and a newer management platform. it is important to integrate CCTV into other security solutions. CCTV Handbook 2013 31 .securitysa.

” said Edward Nyingeni. according to Bantjes.” Volschenk continued. where built-in illuminators are preferred. Alves concurred with this view adding Charles Volschenk. Cameras with Lightfinder technology have all the advantages of other network cameras such as progressive scan. This is especially important when the colour of a suspect’s clothing or accessories could lead to apprehension and arrest. especially in low light or at night. There is no doubt that the need for low light cameras is important. Independent lighting (white or infrared) is essential to supplement the cameras in the provision of a clear and bright image under low light conditions” said Charles Volschenk.” said Alex Bantjes.” he added. Sony’s View-DR delivers a much clearer picture. Thermal cameras function well in low light but are unfortunately not of much use as an identification tool. Thermal cameras have definite advantages because they do not rely on visible light for imaging. but they still share some basic limitations. In contrast to conventional day and night cameras that switch to black and white in darkness. “This new technology compensates for strong backlight and performs in an identical manner to the human eye in terms of being able to simultaneously see dark and bright scenes.” added Nyingeni.securitysa. but their customisation to the application needs to be considered for optimum results. “There is a broad range of low light cameras available on the market. product manager. Unfortunately cameras with specialised sensors used to enhance their low light abilities (EMCCD for example). and Visibility Enhancer (VE). He needs to ensure that the selected cameras can reduce false alarms and be integrated into existing systems. Video Security (IP and Analogue).” said Roy Alves. the high-speed Exmor CMOS sensor. It is therefore critical to ensure a scene in which camera images can be recorded.” Volschenk said that most low light cameras are reliable. viewed and be subjected to later analysis. most people prefer a low lux rating. Alex Bantjes Question of reliability Reliability depends on the implementation of the camera.LOW LIGHT CAMERAS Coming out of the dark By Allyson Koekhoven. cameras incorporating the Lightfinder technology can maintain colour in very dark conditions. “Users need to remember that the low light capabilities typically decrease with megapixel cameras. Some cameras have their own built-in LEDs but this has a limited range and images are rarely usable for identification past 15 metres. This is especially useful where users require colour information in the video to enhance recognition and identification of objects. External light sources work very well in conjunction with a low light camera and infrared can be used when the lighting needs to be unobtrusive. For indoor use. but do they actually produce the goods at the end of the day? There is no doubt that the need for low light cameras is important. which include day/night with infrared and thermal imaging. and can easily be integrated with numerous application software solutions. The Exmor CMOS sensor captures images at four times the speed of previous DynaView and some other Wide-D technologies in the industry. “Sony’s View-DR utilises wide dynamic range technology to compensate for strong backlight. Lightfinder technology offers the perfect solution for indoor and outdoor surveillance. but do they actually produce the goods at the end of the day? “In addition to the common camera offering low light technologies. are still quite costly. business development manager – MEA at Axis Communications. View-DR is a combination of Sony’s full capture Wide-D technology. IP surveillance at Miro Distribution. Geutebrück Southern Africa Roy Alves 32 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. cannot be recorded and therefore it cannot be used for later analysis or evidence. “What the camera cannot see. while the opposite is true of outdoor applications. “Low light cameras need to provide a high level of detail. MD of Geutebrück South Africa. “There are some good low light cameras on the market. Broadcast & Professional Division at Sony. product manager. in fact more than what the human eye is capable of capturing. “The system integrator determines the quality and end .

Prices will also start to reduce so that it becomes built-in IR LEDs. “The wide dynamic range (WDR) function of a However. I believe that thermal cameras will not only become more affordable. namely making any final decisions. WDR is advantagoes offline for any reason. geous in terms of its ability to one will be able to revert view a scene clearly.that not only can the footage be used as forensic evidence. so users need to and the bandwidth required under back light circumstances where intensity request an on-site test before will reduce for high-quality of illumination can vary excessively.” becomes more mainstream. but that their image quality will improve” said Volschenk. Alves said that imaging in low light cameras will improve to a What about WDR? stage where it is superior to “Wide dynamic range is the human eye and there will now almost standard issue. we will likely see more accurate representation of colour and shading. also improve so the need to stream data will be reduced. with greater compensation and gain control.” added Alves. CCTV Handbook 2013 33 .” “WDR technology will continue to improve as the goalposts “There will be a move away from pure low lux ratings to constantly move. pixel cameras to be competitive. although at an increased price. CMOS chips will get bigger to compensate for more of a commodity.” said Volschenk. be very little image noise. On-site analytics will within the scene.”– Wikipedia. not all WDR cameras camera is intended to provide clear images even “The storage requirements are equal. Do images. “Thermal cameras are useful in situations where smoke or fog is a problem as they allow the operator to see the outlines of people in visibility conditions that would not be suitable for other low light technologies.” Bantjes acknowledged this and added that as the technology Bantjes concluded. One will be able to when there are both very bright and very dark not simply accept technical store images on the camera areas simultaneously in the field of view of the datasheet stipulated lux levels so that if a DVR is used and or WDR claims. with the playing field between suppliers being lower light and ¾ or ½ inch sensors will allow the higher megalevelled.securitysa. irrespecto the stored image in the tive of variances in brightness camera. but that low light cameras are playing a bigger role in proactive surveillance Bantjes said that low light cameras are typically used for intrusion detection and perimeter security. “In-camera lighting capabilities are advancing but these will probably never be sufficient in extreme low light situations. www.

indoor. Expressed differently. Challenges Light. called the exposure time. Thus a camera image is just an estimation of a scene. security cameras will have a bit depth of 10 bits. but it cannot detect all the available photons. but we can clearly see the limitations of the modest dynamic range image of a standard camera when compared with details provided by using the brighter image or a camera with WDR capability (Figure 6). It is obviously a user requirement to be able to reliably identify persons. indoor. The noise floor is a combination of many noise sources within the sensor. where parts of the scene are in direct sunlight and other parts are in deep shadows. the image is underexposed. perimeter surveillance and other outdoor applications. A higher bit depth. as shown to the left. Each of them is captured in a way that either makes the dark part visible. Bit depth The bit depth depicts the number of bits used to ‘capture’ the information in one pixel. and the dark shadows inside the parking garage. If the sensor data is noisy. pixels and dynamic range Light is made up of discrete bundles of energy called photons. Typical situations include: • Surveillance of entrance doors with daylight outside and a darker indoor . objects. The image to the left shows details that were A good WDR surveillance lost in the dark zone. WDR techniques facilitate the ability to assimilate information from all light levels in the scene at the same time. The more intense the light. • Environments with lots of reflected light. for example. This maximum exposure time might be both too long and too short simultaneously for the same image. The maximum length of the exposure time is limited by the frame rate – if the camera is a video camera. would theoretically increase the number of levels that can be detected. the image is overexposed the dark areas. for example 12 bits instead of 10 bits. Hence. it is shorter for pixels located in brighter parts of the image than for pixels in darker regions. A camera can detect reflected photons from a scene. Below we can see an example of such a scene taken with two different exposures using a standard camera. Wide dynamic range imaging is a method used to produce images that try to recreate the full scene content in scenes that have a dynamic range that cannot be captured by standard cameras in one image. To the thereby losing details in right. it is possible to extract some information from the dark areas (Figure 5). for example. Figures 1 and 2. One limitation is that a camera can only cope with a limited number of photons per exposure interval. Figures 3 and 4 have insets showing data from the short exposure image in the long exposure image and vice versa. or makes the bright part visible. Cameras usually accumulate photons for a limited time. vehicles and activities in situations where there is a wide range of lighting conditions. • In city surveillance. Dynamic range is defined at pixel level to be the maximum signal divided by the noise floor. very common in retail and office applications. The analogue-to-digital converter is another component that may limit the dynamic range. driving directly towards the camera. This is. • Vehicles entering a parking garage or tunnel. thereby burning out the bright areas. Parking garage. One particularly challenging situation is when there is a lot of variation in light levels simultaneously within a scene.securitysa. This white paper explains why standard cameras struggle with WDR scenes and how good WDR performance can be achieved in a video surveillance camera. the higher the number of photons per second are illuminating a scene. there is not Background Standard surveillance cameras (without WDR) encounter difficulties in scenes with great variation in light levels. The image to the right shows the details that were lost in the camera can – in one bright zone 34 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. in office buildings with many windows or in shopping malls. Figures 3 and 4. The correct exposure time for a pixel is one that maximises the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Clearly both images lack information from the full scene. but in reality it will increase the image quality only if the sensor data is good enough. as shown to the right. In principle. There are many surveillance situations that offer difficult lighting conditions. • Vehicles with strong headlights. The pixel size in a digital camera affects the dynamic range of the camera. and therefore. transportation. Axis takes us on a journey into the intricacies of wide dynamic range. To the left.WIDE DYNAMIC RANGE Wide dynamic range: Challenges and solutions Axis Communications white paper. since both bright and dark areas might be present in the image. clearly show details both in the well-lit entrance. Typically. ie. also with daylight outside and low light levels indoors. Parking garage. there is a need for security cameras that are capable of detecting items in both dark and extremely bright areas. image – capture both these two extremes. referred to as wide dynamic range (WDR) scenes.

One way to achieve WDR is to use different exposure times for different pixels. So this means sacrificing something else. This means combining signal in shadows from one image with signal from highlights in another. resulting in increased noise www. but doing so can result in different types of artifacts (see below). Subject taken from a standard camera with unchanged settings. One way is simply to combine two or more full frame images obtained with different exposure times. The same detail taken from the brighter image. any camera – noise is a major challenge. or from a WDR camera much to win by increasing the number of bits. introducing more electrical and advanced components and functions. Increasing meaningful bit depth above 12 bits is generally a very costly exercise both from a component cost perspective and from a complexity perspective. This is because photon shot noise is due to the nature of light itself. will however affect imaging of moving Figure 7.securitysa. A camera can compensate for the noise in the image. Subject is moved into darker and darker shade. depending on how the image is created. there will be noise. This means that the algorithm to translate from 10 bits in the sensor to the 8 bits in the display is critical in achieving good WDR performance. Digital images are subject to a wide variety of noise types. Detail from the parking garage scene. extracted from the darker image Figure 6.Figure CCTV Handbook 2013 35 . It is also important to keep in mind that the display in front of the security manager normally only has a bit depth of 8 bits/colour channel to show the video images. There are several different kinds of noise that might be present in an image. which is an expensive task as described above. Multiple exposure times. Extending the dynamic range to achieve WDR There are a number of ways to improve the dynamic range of a camera without improving the bit depth of the pixels. This can be implemented in various ways. i. Even with a perfect camera. as they are often implemented.e. Noise When designing WDR cameras – or for that matter. and the noise results in pixel values that do not reflect the true intensities of the real scene.

and you answered image 6 or higher to the question. but is generally a small which was used in Table price to pay for a much 1. namely the ratio of smooth area like a wall the radiance of the brightwith only slight illuminaest and the dimmest tion differences might object that can be caphave areas with visible tured by the camera. some more common than others. See the next section for more information about artifacts. indoor. for example. In WDR cameras. Image from camera with low dB also look different due to the fact that the image is now so rich in reproduced tones that it is difficult to display it on a standard screen. Artificial illumination A related artifact comes from certain modulated light sources like fluorescent lighting. Applications and needs Not all applications require WDR. This gives you an indication of when WDR technology must be used. the following image examples show what happens when a person is moved into darker and darker shade. Using a low dynamic range camera that is configured to avoid clipping the highlights. as the illumination ratio. Ghosting Multiple exposure times will affect imaging of moving targets since the motion blur will be different for objects with different brightness. Such light is a challenge for all cameras since the camera is normally assuming a constant . Which image is still acceptable? If your scene is closest to the type A in Table 1. be more smeared in its darker parts than in its brighter parts and will appear to be at two different locations. Figure 8(b). Regardless of how the dynamic range is extended. for example. value is calculated as the Image capture logarithm of the ratio (in Figure 9. If the ratio is 1000:1. If your scene is closest to the very difficult type C.WIDE DYNAMIC RANGE Figure 8(a). A moving black and white football will. A number of different artifacts may exist in a WDR image. Depending on the camera type. It is only an indication since standard cameras may. It is a way to describe how well the camera can cope with Another visible artifact that might occur is that noise may appear in unexdifficult scenes containing both very bright and very dark objects. artifacts like stripes and visible pulsing might be present. there will be a price to pay. then a standard camera is still OK to use. you must be able to accept image 12 or higher to be able to use a standard camera. If your scene is closest to type B and you answered image 9 or higher. of course. One dB unit is a measure of a typical example is that a ratio. the slightest change in the scene can generate artifacts. whether in terms of money since sensors or processors become prohibitively expensive. The pected places. The goal is to show as much detail in all shadows and highlights as possible and thus mimic what the human visual system is doing when the focus is moved from one object to another object. then a standard camera should be able to cover your needs. This is one example of artifacts in the image. either due to rapid movement or if the exposure time is too long versus the movement in the scene. A moving object will. extended dynamic the dB value is 60 dB. This is sometimes also referred to as ‘cartooning’. vary in quality. Motion Motion blur can occur when the image being recorded changes during the recording of a single frame. as various image artifacts are introduced. Artifacts When using information from WDR images. Image from camera with high dB targets since the motion blur and object location will be different for objects with different brightness. the dynamic range capability of a camera is presented Visualisation in dB units. incorporates the WDR-dynamic capture technology 36 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. The image is taken from an Axis camera that A WDR image might this case. which dramatically limit the potential of the solution. 3) times 20. Parking garage. or in terms of image quality. The range.securitysa. Note noise. these artifacts might look somewhat different due to the utilised capturing techniques. This might be that this is not the same aesthetically unpleasing. be more smeared in its darker parts than in its brighter areas and thereby generate ghosting. Measuring dynamic range In many cases.

com/files/whitepaper/ wp_lighting_for_netvid_41222_en_1012_lo. www.securitysa. how do you want to present the captured image? Conclusion There are many surveillance situations where there is great variation in light levels within the scene. and which is available in AXIS Q1604 Network Cameras.pdf • Axis Communications – ‘Lighting for network video – Lighting design guide’.com/files/whitepaper/ wp_light_sensitivity_41137_en_1011_lo. and the second picture was taken with a camera with a low dB value. Useful links For more information. since they can increase the upper detection limit using techniques such as multi-frame exposures. Type of scene and matching illumination ratio Type of scene A: Sunlight/shadow. Typical warehouse scene with door or opening to the sunlight outside. the camera has further adapted the image to the modest dynamic range of a standard display CCTV Handbook 2013 37 . but that will not necessarily always be the best solution to achieve WDR.axis. Image results from a WDR camera will differ depending on such aspects as the complexity of the scene and amount of movement. www. www. This presents a technical challenge for security cameras. The first picture was taken with a camera with a high dB value. Some modern surveillance cameras use sensors with extended dynamic range. As with any video surveillance situation. This will extend the dynamic range of the sensor. see the following links: • Axis Communications – ‘In the best of light – The challenges of minimum illumination’.com. www. fully describe the WDR capacity. Axis introduced its improved WDR technology.axis.Table 1. however.pdf For more information contact Axis Communications.pdf • Axis Communications – ‘CCD and CMOS sensor technology’. The camera has captured the very high dynamic range of the scene. The dB number cannot. Figure 9 is an image of a parking garage scene taken with an Axis camera that incorporates WDR-dynamic capture technology. WDR-dynamic capture uses the latest developments in sensor technology. To fully appreciate the new capabilities of the cameras.axis. 1:2000 The dimmest detectable level can be defined as the noise floor of the sensor pixel. Figure 8 shows two other examples of pictures taken from a scene with wide dynamic range. With this definition. As always. which is a technology optimised for surveillance applications. C: Dark indoor scene with opening. Axis recommends testing the cameras in the real environment before making a decision. and using advanced image processing. Axis is normally modest in the given ratios since a high quality WDR image also depends on the level of artifacts and the quality of the processing. and the units typically used on product datasheets (such as dB) are not a reliable indication of actual WDR performance. and it is difficult to achieve good WDR performance without introducing image artifacts. do not be surprised if an Axis camera outperforms a competing camera even if the given ratio is slightly lower. which allow them to better handle difficult scenes. image processing and Axis’ unique competence to build network cameras with WDR performance optimised for security and surveillance requirements. When comparing product datasheets from different camera manufacturers. Lobby with large windows. it is best to test them. Therefore. Some special sensors can extend this to readings above 100 dB. called Wide Dynamic Range-dynamic Axis’ solution for wide dynamic range In 2011. Axis’ latest solution is Wide Dynamic Range-dynamic capture. Illumination ratio 1:20 1:200 B: Window illumination indoor. roy. a good image sensor can reach a dynamic range of about 70 dB. Example A typical example is a sunlit train station with a part of the platform shielded from the sun. +27 (0)11 548 6780. since any signal below this level is drowned in noise. it is important to know that the decibel unit is just an approximation of the dynamical capabilities of the camera. Which one is the best from a video surveillance perspective? is difficult. the most important question is: what do you want to see? And.axis. Measuring how well a camera handles dynamic ranges in a scene www.

The problem is that HD over coax is not a cost-effective solution. there is huge potential for HD CCTV. you get a realtime. where users are 38 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. This is because HD SDI (serial digital interface) is uncompressed video data that requires expanded amounts of storage. HD CCTV system installations require no training and no IT knowledge since anyone who can install an analogue system can readily install an HD CCTV system. believes that HD CCTV does offer definite advantages for the end-user. I do. “HD CCTV is highdefinition over a coax cable. In addition.” Borgmann said that an increasing number of installers are becoming aware of the advantages of HD CCTV. Is the positive buzz around HD CCTV cameras justified? Are they really the next best thing or just a passing craze? Is the positive buzz around high-definition CCTV (HDcctv or HD CCTV) cameras justified? Are they really the next best thing or just a passing craze? Tristram Borgmann.securitysa. that HD CCTV systems will become more intelligent and cost effective as the technology matures. overriding issues with HD CCTV: storage and lack of intelligence. 80% of installations. with less than 12 cameras and within a range of 200 m. This makes the system more expensive than analogue or even IP solutions where modular migration is possible. “Until recently. There are two main.” According to MJ Oosthuizen. He continued: “An HD CCTV system does not have onboard analytics or storage and uncompressed video is sent in HD format to recorder to be captured and compressed. uncompressed high definition picture. as both camera and recording device need to be . believe however.” said Oosthuizen. In this arena. combined with the lack of the majority of features of analogue or IP solutions. account manager for Grundig. it’s a good idea to look at the client’s total solution rather than costing HD-SDI products individually. were analogue. and the technology on both ends of the solution needs to be compatible. you will need to change the recording platform. but that there is still a long road for these systems to travel. Bearing these factors in mind.HIGH-DEFINITION/MEGAPIXEL HD CCTV – hype or reality? By Allyson Koekhoven. sales manager at Reditron. “When you replace the existing camera with an HD solution. “Analogue is not yet dead.

external. Andreas Kronwald.” Grundig’s full HD-SDI range includes a box CCTV Handbook 2013 39 .” Borgmann concluded. This is especially true where it is critical to receive live pictures in areas like petrol stations.” said Oosthuizen.securitysa. cashier zones and banks. Full HD. “Many installers do not understand the new technology. streams four analogue D1 video channels into one. The four analogue video channels can be displayed in quad format.implementing HD CCTV into their existing analogue system.” “At least 65% of all analogue sales are for cameras that can record on a standard higher resolution DVR. www. with IR LED options and true day/night functionality. 8 and 16 channel DVRs. then IP is the route to go. Users should be cautioned that they need to establish whether. HD-SDI channel. PTZ dome. if they replace an existing camera. explains. “Each analogue channel is recorded as one quarter of the Full HD. an 18x. if you need analytics or the installation is large. analogue to HD-SDI converter makes upgrading existing analogue systems to HD-SDI quick. “HD CCTV is ideal where you need HD with awesome picture quality. thus placing it in a firm position to overtake the HD-SDI CCTV offering to the traditional market. reducing costs. The demand for HD-SDI solutions are minor. perhaps in less critical positions on-site. “The new 960H technology is fractionally more expensive than current standard 4CIF/D1 solutions but is higher-end analogue with built-in prediction capabilities. analogue to single channel HD-SDI converter to its HD-SDI product range. on the other hand. outdoor bullet. product manager at Grundig. We have found that even in instances where there are requests for HD-SDI. fixed dome and vandal-resistant fixed dome. Simple analogue upgrades Grundig has added a four channel. The CVBS composite video converter. over long distances. within a single camera view of the HD-SDI DVR. 1920 x 1080p HD-SDI video channel. Our larger system integrators. it forms part of a hybrid solution. and 4. GTH-C0041C. is currently still popular and drives sales strongly. the highest available for analogue video. rather than a best-fit solution. It allows installers to consider re-using existing analogue cameras and coaxial cabling within a new CCTV system.grundig-security. Oosthuizen added that installer education plays a large role in the system selection.” Oosthuizen the analogue cameras can be upgraded. if budgets permit. simple and cost effective. they are more focused on finding the most cost-effective solution. it will communicate with an HD-SDI system and assess the clients’ true requirement and budget. but the offering on 960H platform or even D1. retail shops. or each analogue channel can be displayed individually. The resulting video is of similar resolution to D1. Later. require a flexible solution that can be integrated into a feature-rich IP platform. “The four channel. For more information on Grundig Security products contact +49 2191 374 9883 or visit www. However.

there are three main fluctuating This is the biggest advantage to HD cameras factors that contribute to bandwidth hogging over megapixel cameras.HIGH-DEFINITION/MEGAPIXEL High-definition vs megapixel Is there really a difference between high-definition (HD) cameras and megapixel devices? Is there really a difference between high-definition (HD) cameras and megapixel devices? We asked two technically-oriented people active in the CCTV camera industry to give us their opinion of the HD vs megapixel debate – if indeed there really is a debate. while the highest resolution for reviewcameras offer a variety of formats such as 4:3. of an IP camera – frame rate. Conventional megapixel available today with selectable resolution and cameras often have a number of megapixel frame rates that are ideal for general surveillance resolutions to choose from. 3. ture lines 1. sometimes offering as low as four width. 720p (1280×720. high-end megapixel cameras can be up to around 8 megapixel. With HD televisions also conforming to the standard. 4. also weighed in on the 40 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. This essentially uses two frames to tion equipment. it The HD standard requires footage to be is important to determine what requirements are created at 25 or 30 frames per second dependneeded to sustain certain defined performance ing on location. Any one of these factors can be frame rates compared to low-resolution throttled back to reduce the network bandcameras. This is more expensive MJ Oosthuizen – Reditron better systems are a direct result of the superior but provides a much clearer and crisper image. ing can be utilised through a distributed storage . megapixel cameras. just less present will be lost. type of Megapixel camera manufacturers have often camera. and whether power will be create the image. than 1 megapixel) and 1080p (1920×1080. In the first frame. provides a powerful palette of imaging tools The HD standard requires that frames are for industry professionals. applications. used interlaced images to create megapixel distance to the server rooms. Frame rates For video. etc. the format will need Image sizes to be updated to include higher and higher There are two main resolutions for the HD resolutions otherwise the extra detail possible at specification. There’s a wide range of megapixel cameras 2. This can be manuits subset HD based on your specific needs. This has largely been due to Frames per second (FPS) describes the number processing power available on IP cameras as of full video frames displayed or recorded within well as network restraints. 5. If IP camera manufacturers begin to adopt the HD format for their cameras. Why does the HD format exist? HD format was created to try and standardise the video transmissions of Miro comments Alex Bantjes. 6. 7. imaging possible with these high-resolution camera technologies.1 megapixel). Reditron’s MJ Oosthuizen commented that HD cameras are just a different form of megapixel cameras. The HD format has worked well in forcing camera manufacturers to increase processing power and the potential of their IP cameras but conversely it may also begin to limit the development of megapixel cameras. if you reduce the frame rate. type of terminafootage. such as frame rate. video output can be made to any HDTV without cropping or resizing. Miro’s brand manager for Vivotek. For example. Below. resolution and Alex Bantjes – Miro megapixel cameras have offered very low compression. frames per second compared to 30 frames you can increase the resolution. Until recently. Sub streams for Similar to the image size. for example the US runs at 30 parameters. frames per second while the UK runs at 25. per second. the factured cheaply but often causes blurred wide range of high resolution cameras today images when fast-moving objects are in view. Since each type of business varies. his response on some of the differences between traditional HD and megapixel cameras. At present. It’s crystal clear that progressively scanned. Cable selection and bandwidth go handin-hand. etc with the second frame Whether you prefer megapixel cameras or capture lines 2. These options provide system designers with a high degree of flexibility and Picture aspect ratios confidence in their designs. location of the cameras (environment). Considerations when selecting the Progressive scan cable media include number of cameras. and vice versa. they caprunning through the cable (UTP). one second.securitysa. the aspect ratio of viewing across multiple stations allows flexible HD cameras is 16:9 whereas other megapixel designs.

9 megapixels. • Progressive scanning: all lines in each frame are drawn in sequence. or HD. “High definition and megapixel are often mistakenly thought to be the same and the terms are used interchangeably. HD on the other hand is often too restrictive to meet the requirements of today’s surveillance systems. • Flexible resolutions: 1 to 10 megapixels (or more). aspect ratio. Bantjes says.” High definition.3 megapixel) or higher.securitysa. HD simply refers to a set of standards that are used to describe the image quality of a camera as displayed on a monitor. will by definition not be available in an HD stream but only in megapixel. • Frame rate: 3-15 frames per second – can run up to 30fps on lower MP rated cameras.HD/megapixel debate. These standards include image size. is actually a result of the analogue broadcasting/CCTV camera industry. frame rates etc. • Frame rate: 25/30. the description 720P refers to the horizontal resolution of the image (16:9) and the letter P indicates progressive scan. Modern surveillance systems are not exclusively used to display images on monitors or television screens. image resolutions. Although both terms are closely related. Megapixel technology is much more flexible than HD in that each output stream can be defined to optimise video for slow transmission (such as the Internet) or smaller screens (table to cellphone). Reditron www. • Maximum resolution: 20 megapixels. The term refers to any camera with a resolution of 1280x1024 (1. there is in fact a distinct difference. For example. In short. output streams are required in any number of aspect ratios. • Two resolutions: HD (720p) and full HD (1080p). megapixel based system design allows for more flexible surveillance systems that can be viewed on many different types of devices at varying frame rates and resolutions. since 720P (1280x720) actually has an image of nine hundred thousand pixels or 0. 5:4. The latest advanced technologies such as adaptive streaming. etc. measured by pixels of vertical resolution. • Flexible image formats: 4:3. where the frame rate is lowered when there is no motion in the image and then sped up to capture details of moving objects. It should also be noted that the term 720P is not in fact the same as one megapixel. but resolution and image format choices are more limited. frame rate and scan type. An image stream is defined as megapixel once the image exceeds a million pixels. Definitions High-definition • Conforms better to multimedia systems. Megapixel • One million or more pixels of resolution. • Maximum resolution: 2. • 16:9 image format.1 megapixel. MJ CCTV Handbook 2013 41 .

This location. Resolution on its own is not every“But pixels are still just pixels: thing. in order to cover all areas of interest. with multifocal sensor technology. In this and the question arose: Which are more suitable for professional video case. but they quickly reach their limits precisely when it is important megapixel technology are in the to be able to recognise details field of static photography. pixels and the recording and storage capacity they take up are all surveillance. even that discussion is already outdated: A new ing a scene for surveillance into a given format.HIGH-DEFINITION/MEGAPIXEL Define your definition Which surveillance option is best suited to today’s surveillance needs? The technological advances that have been made in the field of But real scenes seldom correspond to either of these two formats. On the other hand. for modern surveillance tasks. such as tance of 50 m with a collection effective image breakdown. locked into specific aspect ratios such as 16:9 or 4:3. the resolution drops off as distance increases. Panomera Multifocal one point must be considered: Sensor Systems at Dallmeier. will be captured as well. and individuals can be recognised. But length. However. mulcompletely impossible to even tifocal sensor technology. High However. In order to be able to use the if there is no additional image With multifocal sensor systems the aspect ratio can be adapted to the images from surveillance cameras information present. person. such as the sky. and makes it posfewer details. HD cameras or megapixel cameras? wasted needlessly. a new technology. so you are able to make out corresponds more closely to the human field of vision. recordof coarse blocks. explains Roland Meier. without being locked to given formats as 16:9 or 4:3. this information ing of the overall image or analysis also cannot be conjured out of in the past. the multifocal sensor the desired information. efficiently and analyse them sucbecause an HD or MP camera cessfully. so details are still clearly visible. known as multifocal sensor technology is paving the way systems there are no rigid. Thanks to this new sensor this in turn involves higher costs: concept. They adapt the pixel for a whole range of hitherto inconceivable surveillance and analysis ratio to the situation at hand. much less identify a impressively.” So in order to obtain a single lens. network-based surveillance in the last few years are astounding. But there is a more elegant solution: instead of forcBut since then. it is often accepted that definition and megapixel cameras were introduced onto the market unimportant expanses. market a few years ago. 10:1 or 3:4 can be used without any difficulty. “Movies though they can reach higher or television series like CSI often pixel values than are possible with suggest to viewers that even HD cameras. past multiple cameras had to be With multifocal sensor systems all PTZ functions like panning and zooming are even available subsequently in the recording. they were clearly superior to the predecessor SD cameras. the only way it stands apart from conventional cameras. “With conventional One of the main arguments advanced by the defenders of high definicameras. each of which has a different focal installed at different locations. team leader. other dimensions besides only represents a person at a disresolution are important. since the resolution it offers is currently equivalent to about 32 times greater than a conventional HD camera. in the systems work with several lenses. 42 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. but it is these areas. And that is precisely the Unlike HD and megapixel objective of a professional video cameras. It can be used from just a single instalEfficient image breakdown lation point to provide surveillance of a huge area. not only close up but also at very at every individual installation site.securitysa. Or to put it tion cameras is that HD uses the widescreen format with an aspect ratio another way: The farther a person or object is away from the camera of 16:9 compared with the 4:3 format of the megapixel cameras. HD cameras are impressive Constant resolution over the entire object space because of a technology that is derived from the field of video – that It is true that HD and megapixel cameras use progressive resolution is to say relating to moving images. blurry pictures can be transBut before any discussions formed into high-quality police begin as to whether HD or megawanted posters with just a few pixel cameras are more suitable clicks”. Whereas both HD and thin air after the fact. preset aspect ratios. performs recognise. the camera can be adapted optimally to the area for surveilThe appropriate cabling for power supply and data transmission is needed lance. The image is split efficiently without being capabilities. the roots of options. for example situation at hand. Thus for example When the first HD and megapixel cameras were launched onto the aspect ratios like 5:1. This is where the new multifocal sensor technology can help. which are equipped with system. the poorer the resolution is there. even even at long distances. that is not quent maintenance costs for multiple camera sites are . so the infrastructure costs and subselong distances. with much higher resolutions. megapixel cameras very soon reach “So you are aware that somethe limits of their capabilities in thing is happening here. sible to record yet more information laterally as well.

a multifocal sensor system uses different lenses. This makes it possible to recognise people for example even from 160 m. the solution is available with multifocal sensor systems. But PTZ cameras do have one critical disadvantage: They only ever record what the operator is currently seeing live.” says Meier. with the multifocal sensor system any number of users can connect to the camera and select their entirely individual views. “So video surveillance becomes a game of chance in the truest sense of the word. Any additional incidents in the viewing range of the PTZ camera are lost and cannot be analysed or proven subsequently. so no areas are lost. With conventional HD or MP equipment. So in theory it would be possible to use these cameras to watch over a relatively large area and to pan or zoom to a location of interest if the need arises. And finally: the recording takes place in the highest resolution. in order to record the crime in adequate resolution.” he adds. This total picture is recorded all the time. As their name suggests. the surveillance system is only as good as the user who is operating it. This means: The video system runs. Tilt and Zoom. So the resolution at 100 m is exactly as good as it is at 20 m. so constant resolution can be guaranteed over the entire area under surveillance. it is also possible to move within the image and to zoom in on pertinent details. unlike PTZ cameras multifocal sensor systems do not have any mechanical parts. so no details are lost in the recording. www. so there is no wear. a multifocal sensor system always delivers total performance. And if the operator is concentrating live on another area in the surveillance scene at the precise time. which extends the equipment’s operating life significantly. +27 (0)11 979 4540.“In contrast. and if an incident should occur at a given time. because all PTZ functions are fully available even in the past – even as the system continues recording images live. “Even with PTZ cameras. Analysis in the past Seeing live images from the surveillance cameras is one thing – but with professional video security systems. Accordingly. it is only this scene that will be recorded.” says Meier. even if the operator is currently concentrating on a smaller inset. these functions are only possible in live mode. if you want to identify a car thief in a car park with a PTZ camera you would have had to zoom onto the car in question before the theft took place. these cameras can Pan. “Moreover. This opens up a wide range of analysis options.securitysa. which were simply not possible with the prior technology.” For more information contact Dallmeier Southern Africa Office. the entire incident will not be seen on the video images. In contrast. For example. dallmeiersa@dallmeier.dallmeier. the recordings are searched later in order to reconstruct the course of events and identify the individuals responsible. as described most analyses take place in the CCTV Handbook 2013 43 . “Those are three important points straight away: the whole picture is recorded.” states Meier. www. not subsequently. Consequently. So how likely is it that you would just happen to catch someone in the act like that?” Here too. can use PTZ cameras. So if the user zooms in on a certain scene. it is an essential requirement of modern surveillance systems that they are also able to zoom or pan even in the recordings. this is not possible. Permanent recording of the total picture in highest resolution Those who have no desire to install multiple conventional cameras over the area in question. And there is another advantage: Whereas with PTZ cameras only one operator can have control over the camera at a time. so there are no gaps in time. in the recording. since the whole picture (permanent and overall) is constantly recorded in the highest resolution. Meier explains: “Since the overall image was recorded at the highest possible .

Welcome to the Surveillance Selection Guide 2013.securitysa. but for 2013 we have moved it to the CCTV Handbook to ensure the products highlighted have year-round visibility. however. Put them all together and you’re away. One bad link. Instead of only highlighting different cameras (although these are by far the majority of the entries). One of the issues highlighted in many places in this year’s handbook is that a surveillance solution requires more than a good camera. South Africa has an almost endless al array of local and international options to choose from when it comes to surveillance products. we have also opened the door to software and services to provide insight into other critical areas of a surveillance solution. We have also included the contact details of the various suppliers in case you want to find out more. but most often it’s a problem in one of the other areas. One thing is sure. but we’ve tried to highlight the main areas buyers will focus on. you need to ensure you have the right camera. If you want to gain the value and returns possible from a good surveillance system. plan. we couldn’t tell you everything about each camera or system listed. we already have 20 pages of options to choose from. and the chain is broken. management system and so on. 44 CCTV Handbook 2013 www.CAMERA SELECTION GUIDE An option for every requirement The Surveillance Selection Guide 2013 is your one-stop shop for cameras. Now if we could get all our installers and integrators skilled up and registered. the surveillance market would be a shining light in the security industry as a whole. software and services. This guide has also been slightly . This is the second time Hi-Tech Security Solutions is running this guide. but also the right advice. When this happens it’s usually the camera that gets the blame. As is always the case. network. installer or integrator. CCTV Handbook 2013 45 .securitysa.

Day/Night switching.0 / 2. OSD menu containing.8 – 11 mm) is adjustable via Web browser.securitysa. exposure. +27 (0)11 830 2688. indoor box IR and indoor dome IR as well. white balance. DLS 1600. Variations in range: None Contact: Riaan Effects (digital dallmeiersa@dallmeier. Variations in range : The DIS range comes in a bullet IR. L L sync. WDR. Name of software: SMAVIA Recording Server Description: VideoIP server software for the d audio and video streams. Features automatic Day/Night operation supported by integrated ambient light sensing. lens control. 40M IR range. 1pc third generation LED array. integrated IR illumination IP Network Box Camera Brand/Range name: Dallmeier Supplier: DF4910HD-DN/IR Camera name: Resolution: SD (up to D1). live display and playback with SMAVIA Viewing Client or via Ethernet (LAN / WAN) • One access licence for SMAVIA Viewing Client included (basic licence) • Video compression H. sales@viscon. day night setting. It has a single LED array. The basic version with 4 IP based video channels can be expanded by up to 20 further IP channels using a licence C Category: A Analogue 600 TV line D Camera DIS B Brand/Range name: K Keeper CCTV S Supplier: Vision Consulting Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: 5 VCDi 3155 nes 600 TV lines ocus Manual focus No Yes.FC & ROHS Description: The DIS range has a new design. Special (motion detection.264. +27 (0)83 460 8015. MJPEG Contact: Riaan Kruger. stabiliser. Variations in range: The WDR series comes in a box type.264. 3D DNR. sales@viscon.).264 standard. e-mail and FTP image upload. with 600 TVL DIS Chipset. FC & ROHS Description: This is a wide dynamic range 700 TV line infrared bullet camera. also supports OSD menu and has an 8 x digital zoom capability. Contact: Ebrahim Choonara. low-light. IPS 2400) Cost: On request Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent application Standards the software adheres to: . HD (720p. MJPEG Description: Real-time Full HD video (1080p/30) using the H. dallmeiersa@dallmeier. MPEG-4. image freeze etc. language. +27 (0)11 830 2688.) Standards supported: CE. indoor dome and outdoor vari-focal dome as well. weatherproof Night 3MP. Standards supported: CE. all having the same functionality. megapixel (up to 8 MP) • Recording of RTSP cameras optional • Compatible with management system SeMSy III • Configuration and recording of ONVIF compliant cameras in preparation • Connection to Active Directory via LDAP supported • Motion detection and SmartFinder for Dallmeier IP cameras • PRemote-HD in real-time Availability: Standalone: SMAVIA Recording Server (for Windows 7) Package: Preinstalled on SMAVIA Appliances (DMS 2400. monitor type. +27 (0)83 460 2MP. Features/functionality: • Up to 24 video channels (SD-IP / HD-IP) • Simultaneous real-time recording and real-time streaming • Simultaneous remote access. The camera comes with an LED array which has the smart IR function. ECLPS function. HD (up to 1080p). BLC .za 46 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. MJPEG • Resolution SD (up to D1). dallmeier.6mm lens. streams designed designed i d for f the recording of IP-based installation on systems with Windows 7 operating system and suitable hardware equipment. high quality IR cut filter. a removable IR cut filter and an integrated homogeneous IR illumination (semi-covert 850 nm high power LEDs). The motor-driven megapixel vari-focal lens (F1. Alarm notification via DaVid Category: Analogue WDR 700 TV line bullet camera mera Brand/Range name: KEEPER CCTV V Supplier: Vision Consulting lting Camera name: VCIR3160WDR R Resolution: 700TVL Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes. Contact: Ebrahim Choonara. 3. camera name. privacy masking. automatic. 3MP) Auto/Manual focus: Motor-driven (controllable via Web browser) Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Motion detection with selectable sensitivity. excellent day & night picture. Standards supported: H. which supports smart IR technology ( at night if a person approaches the camera the light will lessen so the face can be detected). Comprehensive set of automatic image optimisation functions. waterproof IP66. MPEG-4.CAMERA SELECTION GUIDE Category: proof IP.

com www.3. Day/ IP Dahua Technology Dahua Technology Model: DH. PoE Variations in range: 3. Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer.6mm. 2DNR. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3. AGC.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 15fps@1.0 Cost: Free/charged Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent application Contact: overseas@dahuatech.3M (1280×960)/25/ 30fps@720P (1280×720) • DWDR.3M (1280×960) & 25/30fps@720P (1280×720) • Day/Night (ICR).IPC-K100/ K100A / K100W Resolution: 1. support remote control Dahua devices. PoE Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. PoE (802. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS Contact: overseas@dahuatech. IR LEDs Length 20m • IP66. 8mm optional) • Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Category: IP Brand/Range name: Dahua Technology Supplier: Dahua Technology Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Model: DH-IPC-HFW3200S 2 megapixel Auto/manual focus No No ONVIF Ver.Digital Mobile Surveillance Software(DMSS) f Dahua Surveillance Software DMSS. Auto iris. iOS.3 megapixel progressive scan Aptina CMOS • H. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 6mm fixed lens ( Name of f software: f Description/purpose: Category: IP Brand/Range ge name: Dahua Technology Supplier: Dahua Technology nology Camera name: DH-IPC-HDW2100 W2100 Resolution: 1. 6mm.0 Description: • 1/3-inch 1. Wi-Fi. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3.2. Windows Phone and BlackBerry.securitysa. • Favourite group • Relay out function • Device & channel configuration setting Availability: iOS v4. 2. CMS(DSS/PSS) & DMSS overseas@dahuatech.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 15fps@1. supports Android. DC12V. 6mm. AWB. AGC. 2DNR. AGC.0 • 1/3-inch 2 megapixel progressive scan Exmor CMOS • H. Features/functionality: • Individual menu selection • Add devices through DDNS • Alarm push function • Recording locally in Live preview and playback • Implement slow down. AWB. symbian. Day/Night (ICR).3 megapixel Aptina CMOS • H.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • 25/30fps@1080P (1920×1080) • DWDR. 8mm optional). 8mm optional) • Max.6mm fixed lens (2. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS Contact: overseas@dahuatech. single frame play function in the playback panel • Emap view • Colour setting • Image playback function.2.6mm fixed lens • White LEDs length 10m • PIR sensor range 6m • Micro SD memory Wi-Fi Variations in range: Micro SD memory. Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer.8mm. AWB. CCTV Handbook 2013 47 . IR LEDs Length 20m • IP66. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. speed up. Android v3.3af).3 MP Auto/Manual focus: Auto/manual focus Onboard storage: Yes. Max 32GB Onboard intelligence : No Standards supported: ONVIF Ver. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer.6mm fixed lens (2.0 Description: • 1/3-inch 1.8mm.3MP Auto/Manual focus: Auto/manual manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: ONVIF Ver.

6mm. SSL. QoS. SSL. max 32GB Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: IPv4/IPv6. DHCP. +27 (0)11 553 3300. Day/Night (ICR).8-inch 3.Auto iris. IP Filter. Standards supported: IPv4/IPv6.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding and JPEG image capture • Max 25/30fps@1080p resolution • WDR (DWDR).com .0M (2048×1536) & 25/30fps @1080P (1920×1080) • DWDR.8-inch 3 megapixel progressive scan Exmor CMOS • H. AWB. Bonjour Description: • 1/2. HTTPS. P. SNMP. HTTP.8mm. RTP. max 32GB Micro SD.2. info@ipsecuritysolutions. 2DNR. TCP/IP. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS uatech. Auto focus. +27 (0)11 553 3300. HTTPS.0 megapixel Sony Exmor CMOS Professional 1080 Contact: Mel Labuschagne. HTTPS. IGMP. info@ipsecuritysolutions. IGMP. 720p Contact: Mel Labuschagne. DNS. UPnP. PoE Variations in range: CC432 Dahua IP camera 1/3-inch 1. UPnP. PPPOE. HTTP. NTP. IP66. MP. HTTP.0 megapixel Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: Micro SD. 5 pattern • IR LEDs up to 100m Variations in range: CC464 Dahua IP Camera PTZ 20x 2 MP Full HD H.0 • 1/3-inch 2 megapixel progressive scan Exmor CMOS • H. SSL.264 Dome Contact: Mel Labuschagne. SMTP. SNMP. UDP. UDP.0mm (20x) optical zoom • H. FTP. PoE PoE (802. Auto iris. RTP. ICMP. UDP.3M (1280×960) & 25/30fps @720P (1280×720) • Day/Night (ICR).264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 15fps@1. FTP.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 20fps@3.3 megapixel A ocus Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus O Onboard storage: No O Onboard intelligence: No St Standards supported: IPv4/ overseas@dahuatech.8-inch 2. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3. Bonjour Description: • 1/3-inch 1. FTP. RTSP. TCP/IP. AWB. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. max 32GB ONVIF Ver. 5 auto scan.6mm fixed lens (2. Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer.BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3. DDNS. AGC. IP Dahua IP Security Solutions P Camera Camera name: CC465 Dahua IP Resolution: 2. DNR (2D&3D). TCP/IP. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • Max 240°/s pan speed. AGC. DDNS. IGMP. ICMP.7mm ~ 94. Day/Night (ICR). 8 tour. IP Filter. Bonjour Description: • 4. DDNS.securitysa. PPPOE. Day/Night (ICR). QoS.3 megapixel CMOS 3. AGC. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer.6mm Mini Indoor Dome.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • 25/30fps@1080P (1920×1080) • DWDR. IR LEDs length 20m • Micro SD memory. 360° endless pan rotation • Up to 255 presets. max 32GB Onboard intelligence: No P.CAMERA SELECTION GUIDE Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: IP Dahua Technology Dahua Technology Model: DH-IPC-HFW3200C 2 megapixel Manual Yes. 48 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. DNS. tegory: Category: and/Range name: Brand/Range Supplier: Camera name: IP Dahua IP Security Solutions CC471 Dahua IP camera 1/2. QoS. NTP. SNMP. UPnP. 2DNR.3af). DHCP. +27 (0)11 553 3300. RTSP. 2DNR.3–12mm vari-focal lens • Built-in 2/1 alarm in/out • Max.3 megapixel progressive scan Aptina CMOS • H. NTP. DNS. IR LEDs Length 20m • IP66.0 megapixel Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: Micro SD. 8mm optional) • Max. C Category: B Brand/Range name: Su Supplier: IP Dahua ty IP Security s Solutions C hua Camera name: CC434 Dahua IP camera Re pixel Resolution: 1. SMTP. AGC. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • Built-in 1/1 alarm in/out • PoE (not for –W series).0 megapixel Sony Exmor CMOS Professional 1080 Resolution: 3. AWB. IP Filter. ICMP. SMTP. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. . Wi-F i (-W only) • SD memory Variations in range: CC470 Dahua IP camera 1/2.

HTTPS. UPnP. PPPOE. PoE Variations in range: CC418 Dahua IP camera 1/2.0 megapixel Sony Exmor CMOS IR 30M vari-focal Resolution: 3. RTSP. DHCP. ATW.0 megapixel Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: Micro SD. Weatherproof IP66 housing with bracket. SNMP. ATW and BLC. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3. SSL. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3. info@regalsecurity. +27 (0)11 553 3300. 8mm optional) • Max. DHCP. Bonjour Description: • 1/2.6mm fixed lens with 600TVL HDIS chip and DSP that supports IP Dahua IP Security Solutions CC417 DAHUA IP CAMERA 1/3” 1. +27 (0)11 553 3300. +27 (0)11 553 3300. NTP. TCP/IP. www. 2DNR. Bonjour Description: • 1/3” 1. SMTP. PoE Variations in range: None Contact: Mel Labuschagne. N/A Mel Labuschagne. RTP.8-inch 2. IP Filter. IR LEDs length 20m • Micro SD memory.0 megapixel Sony Exmor CMOS IR 30M vari-focal Contact: Mel Labuschagne. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer.3~12mm vari-focal lens • Built-in 2/1 alarm in/out • Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue Dahua Regal Security CC270 600TVL Fixed focus No Standard DSP with AGC.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max (1280×960) & 25/30fps@ 720P (1280×720) • Day/Night (ICR). FTP. NTP. IP66. UDP. RTSP. SNMP. IGMP. max 32GB Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: IPv4/IPv6. 2DNR. ICMP. +27 (0)11 553 3300.6mm fixed Lens (6mm. PPPOE. TCP/IP. QoS. ICMP.8-inch 3. BLC PAL video standard 50 metre infrared HDIS camera with 6mm lens. HTTPS.8-inch 3 megapixel progressive scan Exmor CMOS • H.securitysa. SSL. info@regalsecurity. HTTP. SMTP. info@ipsecuritysolutions. ATW. AWB. AGC. BLC PAL video standard Indoor dome camera. ATW and BLC. DNS.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 15fps@1. Day/Night (ICR). RTP. QoS. DNS.0M (2048×1536) &25/30fps@1080P (1920×1080) • Category: ory: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue nalogue Dahua ahua Regal gal Security CC280 280 600TVL Fixed focus No Standard DSP with AGC. AGC. AWB. IR LEDs length 20m • IP66. Auto iris. IGMP. HTTP.Category: egory: Brand/Range nd/Range name: Supplier: plier: Camera name: IP Dahua IP Security Solutions CC418-1 Dahua IP camera 1/2. UDP. 3. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. FTP. IP Filter.3 megapixel Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: IPv4/IPv6. DDNS.3 megapixel Aptina CMOS 20m IR Bullet 720p Resolution: 1.3Megapixel progressive scan Aptina CMOS • H. N/A Mel Labuschagne. CCTV Handbook 2013 49 .

IPv6 optional) Description: An all-purpose outdoor cylindrical camera with IR illumination and a vari-focal lens. Pelco-P/D. SMTP. network t Category: Analogue Dahua Elvey Security y Technologies Camera name: DH-SD6436 network IR PTZ dome camera Resolution: 600TVL 25/ 30fps@D1 Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Advance DSP. This model includes a cable managed bracket and sun shield for all weather conditions. SRTP. NTP. up to 32 GB Onboard intelligence: Motion detection. PPPoE. BLC. CGI. Integrated day-and-night with 36X optical zoom. SRTP. RTP. DNS.1x. 802. RTP. network disconnect. Very cost effective and perfect for retail surveillance and similar well lit conditions. true Day/Night Infra-red. FTP. Surprisingly good image quality and unrivalled in its price range. FTP. to provide the reliable video surveillance that’s needed in large outdoor sites. QoS. 1-ch 3. Support a one cabled solution with POE. DS-2CD7153-E (2 MP option) DS-2CD7133-E (VGA option) Rudie Opperman PinnSec / Devtrade Distribution +27 (0)21 550 0247 rudieo@pinnacle. IPv6 optional) Description: A well balanced mini dome HD camera for multi-purpose indoor surveillance. PPPoE. DHCP. CGI. auto recognition of general protocols Description: SD6436-H is based on 600TVL. DHCP. Continuous pan rotation to 360º and tilt movement to 90º. PPPoE. 5 auto scan. DNR.5 mm audio MIC IN / LINE IN 1-ch 3.0 megapixel vandal dome camera Resolution: 2 MP – 1600x1200 Auto/Manual focus: Auto iris. +27 (0)11 401 6700 tasha. 8 Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: O td t D /Ni ht I f d Outdoor. TCP/IP.3 MP – HD720p Manual No Motion. NTP. tampering alarm. CGI. DDNS. 2. This camera is versatile with its adjustable lens and would fit into a professional setup because of the onboard storage and supported protocols. IP address conflict. IP address conflict. PSIA. WDR. DDNS.CAMERA SELECTION GUIDE Category: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: mi ini i Dome Dome camera with 4mm 4m lens Indoor mini DS-2CD7164-E Hikvision Mini dome 1. 255 presents. RTSP. SNMP. RTSP. DDNS. 2 alarm out.1x. IPv6 optional) A small discreet vandal proof mini dome camera with fixed lens. 5 patterns Standards supported: 600 Ω) Contact: Rudie Opperman PinnSec / Devtrade Distribution +27 (0)21 550 0247 e. DHCP. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Rudie Opperman PinnSec / Devtrade Distribution +27 (0)21 550 0247 rudieo@pinnacle. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Elvey Security Technology Tasha Smith. HTTP. DNS. The SD6436-H can also be controlled remotely via RS-485.802. FTP. PSIA.7-9mm @F1.5mm audio out (line level. HTTPS. built-in Web server. The SD6436-H feature ¼-inch Super HAD CCD 50 CCTV Handbook 2013 www.smith@elvey.7-9mm @F1. . SRTP.securitysa. storage exception Standards supported: ONVIF. AGC.2 Onboard storage: No Onboard Intelligence: Motion detection. HTTPS. CR. Support 1 cabled installation with POE. Qos (SIP. TCP/IP. vari-focal cylindrical camera Brand/Range name: DS-2CD8253F-EI Supplier: Hikvision Camera name: IR Bullet Camera Resolution: 2 MP – 1600x1200 Auto/Manual focus: Auto iris 2. rudieo@pinnacle. B. Indoor 2 megapixel vari-focal me infra-red mini dome Brand/Range name: DS-2CD753F-EI Supplier: Hikvision d l Infra-red f d network k Camera name: 2. storage exception Standards supported: ONVIF. HTTP. NTP(SNMP. ICR. TCP/IP. Variations in range: Standard on this model: 2 alarm in.2 Onboard storage: Built-in SD/SDHC slot. network disconnect ONVIF. Maximum IR distance is over 60m. tampering alarm. RTP/ HTTPS (SIP. PSIA. HTTP. 802. Up to 24 different sized privacy zones. DNS.

+27 (0)11 401 6700 tasha.3 MP (1280×960).smith@elvey.5mm/f9~22mm). Powerful 512X WDR (54dB. Flickerless On/Off. Standards supported: N/A Description: 1/3-inch car licence plate pro camera (Sony Effio WDR). Standards supported: IP66. Description: 26X optical zoom. flickerless On/Off. Automatic Gain Control BLC. +27 (0)11 830 1452 sales@crownhyperworld. 8 tours and 8 pattern modes. This camera also features PoE to allow for single cable connection.securitysa. Built-in aspherical D/N Lens (f3. Description: With a 6mm lens this high-definition IP camera with a 1/3-inch 1. CMS (PSS/DSS) and Category: Analogue Dual CCD with 600TVL Brand/Range name: Trend Tech Supplier: Crown Hyper Camera name: TT-65 Resolution: 600 Auto/Manual focus: N/A Onboard storage: N/A Onboard Intelligence: N/A Standards supported: PAL Description: 1/3-inch Sony CCD (Colour). DNR (digital noise reduction). 680TVL. high resolution 600TV lines. 600 TVL. The camera’s 26X optical zoom and 15 privacy zones. NVR. Range.3 MP (1280x960). water resistance: IP66 Variations in range: N/A Contact: Elvey Security Technology. Standards supported: Conforms to the ONVIF standard. quadrangle mosaic privacy mask. 600 TVL (television lines). 0 Lux (LED on). privacy zone Category: Analogue Brand/Range name: Bosch Supplier: Elvey Security Technologies es Camera name: VEZ-413-EWCS Resolution: 600 TVL Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: No Onboard Intelligence: Mechanical D/N filter. Mechanical D/N Filter. Advanced motion detection function. 360-degrees of rotation. PAL: 500(H) X 582(V). B B/W:700TVL A Auto/Manual focus: Auto N No Onboard storage: Y Sony S WDR Wide Wid Dynamic D i Range R e. Digital image stabiliser. motion adaptive digital noise reduction (3DNR) technology. no need to run a separate power Category: IP Camera Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Category: Analogue Brand/Range name: Shany Supplier: lo ogies Elvey Security Technologies M MTC-WDL713EF-C Camera name: C Resolution: Colour: 680TVL. privacy zone selectable. digital image stabiliser. 1. and WDR. IEC 60529 (2001). 16mm Lens IR Distance = 60m. Digital Noise www.smith@elvey. Sense Up. Super Back Light Compensation.smith@elvey. 2D/3D noise reduction. Tasha Smith. Sense Up (512x). B/W:700TVL.Dahua Elvey Security Technologies IPC-HFW2100P 720p (1280x720). Variations in range: N/A Contact: Elvey Security Technology Tasha Smith.8~9. High Light Compensation. Onboard intelligence: CCTV Handbook 2013 51 .0001Lux (IR LEDs on at 2 Lux).2 (LED OFF). +27 (0)11 401 6700 0. Colour. Effio WDR. +27 (0)11 401 6700 tasha. 0. IEC 60529 (2002). high light compensation. anti-headlight. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Crown Hyperworld. SBLC (super backlight compensation).3 Megapixel Aptina CMOS image sensor is capable of HD Resolution up to 1.5 Lux/F1. Maximum pan range of 360°/s and prepositioned pan speed of 360°/s and offers up to 210 presets. 1/3-inch Sony (B/W).co. NTSC: 510(H) X 492(V). Variations in range: Lens Option: Default: 6mm (3.6mm /8mm optional) PoE Contact: Elvey Security Technology Tasha Smith. mechanical IR cut filter. IP66 rated for outdoor and indoor use. D1 (704x576 / 704x480) Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: Yes Onboard intelligence: Built-in Web including 8 auto scan modes. E-zoom function (1~256x).

N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. vandal-proof casing. auto gain control. dynamic face zoom. on screen display. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Crown Hyperworld. backlight compensation. HDNR.6mm / 6mm Lens. LED array and 25M IR Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range : Contact: Analogue ZK-SIR283F ZKTeco Dot Matrix Face 650TVL / 752x582 Auto No Yes. +27 (0)11 830 1452 sales@crownhyperworld.CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE Category: Analogue A l 700TVL. auto iris 4-9mm Brand/Range name: Trend Tech Supplier: Crown Hyper Camera name: TT_VD230 Resolution: 700TVL Auto/Manual focus: Manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: PAL Description: 1/3-inch Sony CCD Category: gory: y: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera Name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue a ogue ZK-SMD222 ZKTeco IR dome 700TVL / 1020x596 (Effio-E) Manual No No PAL 3. privacy masking. auto white balancing. face detection. backlight compensation. RS-485. 3. PAL 4mm / 6mm / 8mm. motion detection. auto white balancing. auto gain. RS-485. PAL Wide dynamic range. DNR. on screen display. auto gain control. IP66. white balance and mirror function. 4-9mm Manual VF Lens. privacy masking.securitysa. 30m night vision @ 0 LUX. vandal proof dome. auto face 52 CCTV Handbook 2013 LUX. dynamic noise reduction 30m @ 0. OSD operation function. IP66. wide dynamic range. DNR3D. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. 25m night vision @ 0.1LUX. wide dynamic range. backlight compensation.6/6mm lens option. face list. OSD. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue ZK – SIR222 ZKTeco IR bullet 420TVL / 752x582 Manual No No .

privacy masking. auto gain control. PAL 4mm / 8mm / 16mm. 10 – 20m @ 0 ory: Category: Rang ge name: Brand/Range er: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue ZK-SSD ZKTeco IR PTZ 650TVL / 1020x596 Auto No No PAL. on screen display. 12V DC power. IP66. auto white balancing. auto white balancing. dynamic noise reduction 2D.001 LUX. 360° Infinity Pan.securitysa. BLC. on screen display. PAL 12mm/16mm. wide dynamic range. dynamic noise reduction CCTV Handbook 2013 53 . PAL 6mm / 8mm / www. dynamic noise reduction 2D. auto gain control. 30m night vision @ 0. 255 presets. auto white balancing. RS-485. Pelco-P 5. privacy masking.001 LUX. RS-485 N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. 50m night vision @ 0. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. backlight compensation. auto white balancing. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. IP66.001 LUX. IP66. Pelco-D. privacy wide dynamic range. 80m night vision @ 0. backlight compensation. bac light : Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue ZK-SIR283 ZKTeco Dot Matrix 1 700TVL / 1020x596 (Effio-E) Manual No No IP66.Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue ZK-SIR288 ZKTeco Dot Matrix 4 700TVL / 1020x596 (Effio-E) Manual No No IP66. on screen display. 10x optical zoom.5mm – 55mm C Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: A l Analogue ZK-SIR285 ZKTeco Dot Matrix 2 700TVL / 1020x596 (Effio-E) Manual No No IP66. auto gain control N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. wide dynamic range.

Pelco-D H. DDNS. auto redundancy recording.CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP ZK-NVR ZKTecoSA NV 720P @ 25fps Yes – 10TB N PAL.264 MPL3. wide dynamic range. auto redundancy Category: Cat Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP ZK – IP 3 ZKTeco Box IP 720P / 1280x720 Manual Yes – SD. H. RS-485 for PTZ control. BiDi audio. eSATA.264 MPL3. IP66 6mm /12mm fixed lens. motion detection. alarm input and output. motion w@zkteco. onboard bi-directional audio. 15 ~ 30m night vision @ 0 LUX. PoE. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. dual stream. CVBS. dual stream. bi-directional audio. 4 channel / 8 channel Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 59 1047 0 54 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. wide dynamic range. BNC Spot.securitysa. auto IR cut filter. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. C egory: gory: Category: B d/R Brand/Range name: S Supplier: C Camera name: R Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP ZK – IR 3 ZKTeco IR Bullet IP 720P / 1280x720 Manual Yes – TF 32 GB No ONVIF. auto redundancy recording. IP66. alarm input + .co. wide dynamic range. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. motion RJ45 Input (10/100).co. PoE. dual stream. 32 GB No ONVIF 4 – 9mm vari-focal lens. H. auto IR cut filter.264 MPL3. PoE. H. HDMI. USB for backup and mouse control. Category: : Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP P4 ZK – IP o ZKTeco P Cube IP 720P / 1280x720 Manual Yes – TF 32 GB No ONVIF 6mm fixed lens.264.711. 20m night vision @ 0LUX.

Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description:

Variations in range : Contact:

IP P ZK K – MD 3 ZKTeco ZK KTeco IR R Dome IP 720P 20P / 1280x720 Auto Au uto Yes – TF 32 GB No ONVIF, IP66 4 – 9mm vari-focal lens, H.264 MPL3, dual stream, wide dynamic range, bi-directional audio, PoE, motion detection, 15 ~ 20m night vision @ 9LUX, auto redundancy recording, auto IR cut filter, IP66, RS-485, alarm input + output. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047

Category: Ca C Brand/Range name: Bra B Supplier: Su S Camera name: Ca C Resolution: Re R Auto/Manual focus: Au A Onboard storage: On O Onboard intelligence: On O Standards supported: Sta S Description: De D

Variations in range : Contact:

IP ZK – MD4 ZKTeco Mini Dome IP 720P / 1280x720 0 Manual Yes – TF 32 GB No ONVIF 6mm fixed lens, H.264 H 264 MPL3, MPL3 dual d l stream, t wide dynamic range, bi-directional audio, PoE, motion detection, auto redundancy recording. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047

Name of software: ZKiVision Description/purpose: IVision Software is used to view all ZK cameras, DVRs and NVRs in an easy to use, one seat software. Features/functionality: iVision brings great functionality to the market. The key feature of iVision is the facial recognition analytics. Paired with this is the ability to compare these recognised faces to a black list. Another key feature is the linkage ZKTeco have introduced which allows it to combine access control features like granting access to a facility based on their face as the credential. With the blacklist active, alarms and/or events can be generated. Some other features regarded as industry standard are also present, like Emap, independent 4-zone motion detection, backup scheduling, full camera control including PTZ control, footage history searching and camera setting manipulation. Footage history can also be searched by facial events using the relevant search filters. Availability: Available with any ZK surveillance product Cost: No per channel fee, but there is a charge for advanced analytics functionality such a facial recognition. Runs in browser or as an independent application? This software is a standalone application Standards the software adheres to: N/A Contact: Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047

Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard Intelligence:

IP 3 IP. 3.1 1 megapixel/high definition/digital definition/digital Pelco Sarix Pelco Sarix IX30 IP Camera Up to 3.1 megapixel resolution (2048 x 1536) Auto back focus Local storage (micro SD) for alarm capture Yes, camera sabotage detects contrast changes in the field of view. Adaptive motion detection tracks objects that enter the field of view. Standards supported: TCP/IP, UDP/IP (unicast, multicast IGMP), UPnP, DNS, DHCP, RTP, RTSP, NTP, IPv4, SNMPþv2c/v3, QoS, HTTP, HTTPS, LDAP (client), SSH, SSL, SMTP, FTP, and 802.1x (EAP) Description: The Sarix IX30 is a 3.1 megapixel, day/night camera with advanced lowlight technology and a mechanical IR cut filter for increased sensitivity in low-light installations. Sarix technology defines the next generation of video security imaging performance, delivering high definition (HD) resolution, advanced low light capabilities, consistent colour science, and fast processing power. The H.264 compression video files are considerably smaller, making HD video more affordable. Variations in range: The IX30 support two simultaneous video streams. The two streams can be compressed in MJPEG and H.264 formats across several resolution configurations. The IX30 features built-in Power over Ethernet (PoE) IEEE 802.3af, which supplies power to the camera over the network, eliminating the need for a separate power supply. If PoE is not available, 24 VAC can be used to power the camera. Contact: Abie Ali, +27 (0)11 496 2300, CCTV Handbook 2013



Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description:

Variations in range: Contact:

Analogue ZK-DV ZKTeco DVR CIF @ 400fps / DI @ 50fps N/A Yes, 5 TB No PAL H.264, G711, RCA audio output, audio input, VGA + BNC video out, video backup, RJ45 Out, USB mouse + backup ports, mobile preview support, DDNS support, RS-485 for PTZ control, 4ch, 8ch, 16ch N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047

Category: IP. 3.1 megapixel/ high definition Brand/Range name: X-Gen IP Supplier: Gen Security Camera name: Resolution:

GEN HD IP 3 megapixel i l IR outdoor d camera Up to 3.1 megapixel resolution, 2144(H) x1588(V) Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes, this latest line includes the latest WDR (Wide Dynamic Range). These cameras are progressivescanning to handle moving objects. Standards supported: TCP/IP, UDP/IP, RTP, RTSP, RTCP, NTP, HTTP, DHCP, FTP, SMTP, DNS, DDNS. Streaming RTP over RTSP, Unicast RTP, Multicast RTP, ONVIF ver2.0 support, DDNS A&T DDNS support ( Description: GEN HD IP camera has a resolution of 2144 x 1588 and is almost 10X better than an image of D1(704 x 480i) which is the max resolution of an analogue camera recorded DVR. It has the best sensitivity in the world with 0.0002lux. Sens-up 60X in B/W with an HD image sensor and various streaming. Variations in range: Various streaming: H.264 /MPEG4 /MJPEG triplex streaming (Individual streaming simultaneously). Contact: Abie Ali, +27 (0)11 496 2300,

Name of software: ROM – Retail Operations Management Description/purpose: ROM is a software package designed for Retail Operations Management. It uses existing cameras, traditionally used for loss control, for the dual purpose of operational management. This is done by using video analytics to monitor queues and customer flow through the retail operation. Features/functionality: ROM consists of three function modules. CPM is the Cashier Performance Monitoring module which monitors the performance of the cashiers and scores them relative to a performance index. QM is the Queue Management module which monitors queue lengths and customer progress through the queue. CFM is the Customer Flow Monitoring module which monitors customer flow patterns through the establishment. These modules combined provide an effective management tool which enables the retailer to plan and monitor cashier staff, customer service staff and store layout for maximum effectiveness. An advanced graphical reporting system provides an automated report service which allows the retailer to measure store performance automatically and at a glance. Availability: Standalone/network based software package. Operates as an added feature on Nuuo or Pelco CCTV systems. Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent Application Standards the software adheres to: N/A Contact: Abie Ali, +27 (0)11 496 2300,

IP Dynacolor W2 Dynacolor Dynacolor W2 2MP IP Dome Resolution: 1920X1080 (Full HD). Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus, P-Iris allows for better depth of field. Onboard storage: Yes, removable SD Card (up to SD card max capacity). Onboard intelligence: Yes, motion detection, network failure, smart IR detect (auto). Standards supported: ONVIF compliant, H.264 and MJPEG encoding. Description: A versatile IP66 rated PoE dome with audio channel fit for service in any condition. The high quality 2MP image sensor with motorised zoom gives great detail while wide dynamic range compensates for changing light conditions. ONVIF support allows for easy integration and quad streams allow for multiple resolutions to be broadcasted. An SD card can be used for on-board recording. Variations in range: Available in 3.6mm fixed lens with no IR, 3.3-9mm vari-focal with no IR, and 3.3-9mm vari-focal lens with 25m onboard IR LEDs. Vandal proof also available Contact: Security Warehouse Tel: +27 (0)12 653 1005

Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name:


CCTV Handbook 2013

Name of software: Digi-IT NVR/DVR software Description/purpose: Digi-IT’s recording software is suitable for both analogue, IP and hybrid systems. The software runs on the Windows operating system, with easy installation and an easy–to-understand interface. Analogue decoding is done through Digi-IT’s analogue cards. As an open platform NVR a wide range of IP cameras are supported by default. Features/functionality: The software comes standard with recording (video, audio, POS and limited VCA), event (motion, audio, POS etc.), search, point of sales, and scheduling (for recording) functionality. Remote login and viewing is possible via Web browser or free bundled RMS software for Windows or smart phone (for all the popular OSs including Android, Symbian, Windows Mobile and iOS). The software can further be expanded with licences for full VCA (video content analytics), LPR (licence plate recognition) and CMS (central monitoring system). Multiple resolutions are supported, with multi-streaming available for IP cameras. PTZ control is integrated in the software allowing the user to control the PTZ as well as set up multiple touring sequences. Availability: The software is free bundled with Digi-IT analogue cards, IP cameras require a licence per video channel (available in 4,8,16,32 and 64 channel packages or a combination thereof). Digi-iT IP cameras do not require any licence keys and have the full NVR capability. Cost: For IP systems: 4 Channel: R3600 (Retail excl. VAT) 8 Channel: R5600 (Retail excl. VAT) 16 Channel: R9800 (Retail excl. VAT) 32 Channel: R18000 (Retail excl. VAT) 64 Channel: R34000 (Retail excl. VAT) Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent software Standards the software adheres to: Software adheres to: FCC rules: Class A digital device. Contact: Security Warehouse +27 (0)12 653 1005 Name of software: Axis Camera Families for Autodesk Revit Description/purpose: It provides 3D camera models to illustrate what the camera set-up will look like in real life and which areas the surveillance system will cover once installed. Features/functionality: The software allows them to see exactly how the cameras fit into the building layout and to easily detect if views are obstructed by columns or walls, to help reduce unexpected blind spots. This means security system planning can now be completed as an integrated part of the building design, integrating into the same tool flow that is used for the rest of the building design. Users of the CAD system can also access information about each camera such as the model number, mounting accessories, power consumption and resolution. Availability: The Axis Camera Families for Autodesk Revit are available free of charge for existing Axis Partners. The vast majority of Axis Network Cameras are included. Cost: N/A Runs in browser or as an independent application? N/A Standards the software adheres to: N/A Contact: Roy Alves, Axis Communications +27 (0)11 548 6780,

Category: y:

IP. Maximum 1.3 IP 1 3 MP resolution (1280 x 1024), multiple streaming Brand/Range name: Samsung LiteNet Supplier: ADI Global Distribution Camera name: SND-7011 Resolution: Maximum 3 MP resolution (2048 X 1536) Auto/Manual focus: Manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Tampering alarm, motion detection Standards supported: ONVIF 2.1 Description: This cost effective 1.3 MP high definition network camera is a great fit for applications which require high resolution video. The SNB-5001 features contrast enhancement and day/night capabilities for challenging lighting conditions, and is equipped with high-end functionalities such as tampering detection and motion detection. Variations in range: Central management software NET-i viewer , 12V DC, PoE (IEEE802.3af, Class2) Lens Type: Manual / DC Auto Iris Contact: ADI Global Distribution


IP, SD PTZ, TZ, y/night true day/night Brand/Range name: equIP Supplier: ADI Global Distribution Camera name: HDZ30X Resolution: 720 x 576 Auto/Manual focus: N/A Onboard storage: N/A Onboard intelligence: N/A Standards supported: IPv4/v6, TCP/IP, UDP, RTP, RTSP, HTTP, HTTPS, ICMP, FTP, SMTP, DHCP, PPPoE, UPnP, IGMP, SNMP, IEEE 802.1x, QoS, ONVIF. Description: Camera tamper detection. Video motion detection. Digital Noise Reduction. PSIA Support Progressive scan. Variations in range: 0,08 lux (colour) 0,005 lux (B/W) @F1.6, 30IRE. 24 VAC ± 10%, en PoE+, (IEEE 802.3at-2009). Contact: ADI Global Distribution CCTV Handbook 2013


” and Pelco “P” and “D. s. Digital Noise Reduction. 976 x 494 (NTSC) Contact: Edward Seaborne. HTTP. UDP.05 lux (colour)/0. IP.securitysa.1 Description: This cost effective 1. Camera tamper detection. PSIA Support Progressive scan 0. UPnP.moore2@adiglobal. edward. and PoE+ (IEEE 802. SNMP.6.seaborne@za.3 MP high definition network camera is a great fit for applications which require high resolution video. motion detection Standards supported: ONVIF 2. Maximum 1. off (4 programmable zones) • Privacy on.01 lux (B/W). IEEE 802. ADI Global Distribution gordon. DHCP. 12V DC. and is equipped with high-end functionalities such as tampering detection and motion detection. off (4 programmable zones) Variations in range: 976 x 582 (PAL). 24 VAC ± 10%. ICMP.” “ Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard iIntelligence: Analogue mini dome Bosch outdoor mini dome advantage line Bosch Security Systems VDC-242V03-1 650TVL Manual focus No Privacy zones and motion detection functions can be set up in the camera menu system. PoE (IEEE802.” Description: When powered by a MIC IP power supply. Class2) Lens Type: Manual / DC Auto Iris Contact: ADI Global Distribution gordon. QoS. @F1. IGMP. Variations in range: Analogue and IP versions Contact: Edward Seaborne. FTP. The optional hybrid operation provides video and control of the MIC camera over both analogue and IP. and the ability to record video on a network-attached RAID iSCSI storage device or locally on a user-supplied SD or SDHC card (32 GB maximum).bosch.3at-2009). Standards supported: Composite: 1 Vpp. RTP. 75 Ohm Description: • Static analogue mini outdoor dome camera (720TVL sensor) • Day/Night camera (VDN) 0. the MIC camera becomes an IP-enabled device with extra features such as intelligent video analysis (IVA). +27 (0)11 651 58 CCTV Handbook 2013 www.CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE Category: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP equIP ADI Global Distribution HDZ20HDX 1920 x 1080 N/A N/A N/A IPv4/v6. PPPoE. SMTP.12 lx (colour) 0. Video motion detection. The SNB-5001 features contrast enhancement and day/night capabilities for challenging lighting conditions. Standards supported: Multiple protocols.07 lx (B/W) • Motion detection on. 30 HTTPS. +27 (0)11 651 9898. edward. including Bosch “Biphase (OSRD).seaborne@za.moore2@adiglobal.3 MP resolution (1280 x 1024). TCP/IP.3af. multiple streaming Brand/Range name: Samsung LiteNet Supplier: ADI Global Distribution Camera name: SND-7011 Resolution: Maximum 3 MP resolution (2048 X 1536) Auto/Manual focus: Manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Tampering alarm. ONVIF. Variations in range: Central management software NET-i viewer .com Category: Thermal analogue PTZ camera Brand/Range name: Bosch Thermal Supplier: Bosch Security Systems P Camera name: MIC-612TIALG36P Resolution: PAL: 320 x 256 PAL: 640 x 512 Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No ce Onboard intelligence: High-performance ultancamera with simultantical eous thermal/optical video output.

086 100 2288 cctv@cctvsa. configurable frame rate and bandwidth. Intelligent Tracking feature and Wide Dynamic Range Standards supported: Bosch (OSRD). +27 (0)11 651 9898. This includes all call out and labour fees. not only in the area of security but also in production. access control. 086 100 2288 cctv@cctvsa. productivity and reviewing. fire detection and alarm systems. UPnP. Name of company: CCTV Security Surveillance Description of services provided: CCTV Security Surveillance is a South African company. Products supported/promoted: All electronic security systems are available on a full replacement and repair rental option. DHCP. CCTV services the commercial and industrial market. ONVIF. Advanced Networking IPv6. Each client is seen as an individual. loan equipment for while your equipment is in for repairs and quarterly servicing of your system. Contracts are offered over 36. IP. JPEG Description: Individually configurable streams in H. productivity and reviewing. not only in the area of security but also in production. HTTP. Each client is seen as an individual. CCTV offers maintenance contracts on all electronic security equipment.securitysa. Special skills/features/functionality available to customers: CCTV offers maintenance contracts on all electronic security equipment. Each client is seen as an individual. edward. IGMP V2/V3. RTP. M-JPEG. In addition to the above. fire detection and alarm systems. Contact: CCTV Security Surveillance. CCTV offers full maintenance and repair rental contracts on all electronic security equipment. Special skills/features/functionality available to customers: CCTV offers full replacement and repair rental contracts on all new electronic security systems installed by CCTV Security Surveillance. and provides a detailed report on activities.seaborne@za. Variations in range: Indoor/outdoor Contact: Edward Seaborne. and the systems are serviced quarterly. not only in the area of security but also in production. In addition to the with specific requirements. CCTV services the commercial and industrial market. ARP. TCP. They include installation fees. The company specialises in electronic security systems including. Loan equipment is provided while repairs are being undertaken. CCTV. Market size addressed: SME/mid-size companies/ large companies/ enterprise Products supported/promoted: All electronic security systems are able to carry a maintenance contract. Market size addressed: SME/mid-size companies/ large companies/ Name of company: CCTV Security Surveillance Description of services provided: CCTV Security Surveillance is a South African CCTV Handbook 2013 59 . In addition.IP Autodome HD Bosch IP HD Autodome 800 Series B h Security S it Systems S t Supplier: Bosch Camera name: VG5-836-ECEV Resolution: 1920x1080 Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: The AutoDome utilises the built-in Intelligent Video Analytics (IVA) to continuously follow an individual or an object. A random selection is downloaded by CCTV and the footage is reviewed. servicing the markets nationally. fire detection and alarm systems. servicing the markets nationally. DynDNS. SMTP.264 and M-JPEG. 48 or 60 months.1x. H. and as such each system is developed around the client’s needs. SNTP. HTTPS. productivity and reviewing. The company specialises in electronic security systems including. Case studies / references available: • Minimise shrinkage • Additional security • Assistance with human resources • Monitors health and safety regulations Contact: CCTV Security Surveillance. FTP. CCTV. 802. Special skills/features/functionality available to customers: CCTV reviews client’s footage. and as such each system is developed around the client’s needs.264 (ISO/IEC 14496-10). 086 100 2288 cctv@cctvsa. the rental fee of the equipment. access Telnet. and after consultation the client would then determine what search criteria is to be concentrated on. UDP. but not limited to. with specific requirements. Market size addressed: SME/mid-size companies/ large companies/ enterprise. and as such each system is developed around the client’s needs. all call out and labour fees. with specific Category: nge name: Brand/Range Name of company: CCTV Security Surveillance Description of services provided: CCTV Security Surveillance is a South African company. access control. but not limited to. Contact: CCTV Security Surveillance. RTSP. but not limited to www. The company specialises in electronic security systems including. ICMP. servicing the markets nationally. CCTV offers an offsite reviewing service whereby the client is able to download footage which can be independently reviewed. CCTV services the commercial and industrial market. The client can pinpoint which positions / areas need more care.

low-maintenance and with concealed cable duct • Weatherproof from -30 to +60 °C (-22 to +140 °F). External storage: Directly on NAS and PC/Server without additional recording software Contact: Raine Sadie. Vandal proof 1/3”CMOS full HDplus Day/ Night IP fixed dome me Brand/Range name: TopLine cameras Supplier: Geutebruck GmbH H Camera name: TopFD-2233 Resolution: 160 x 120 up to 1920 x 1440 pixels Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus (One push AF function) Onboard storage : 32 MB Flash Onboard intelligence: Multimedia video processor. FPGA. Category: Analogue Brand/Range name: Provision ISR Supplier: utors Hitek Security Distributors Camera name: BZ-472CSX22 Resolution: 650TVL Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus X22 zoom 60 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. 1/3-inch CCD. horizontal angle 90° to 15°. Onboard intelligence: Yes.264 (in combination with third party systems). Standard H. SIP.lahr@geutebrueck. 1/3-inch CMOS and ½-inch CMOS sensors • 720p. EN61000-6-2.8-12mm Mega Pixel lens with IR range of over 40m. 2. Full-HDplus. temperature sensor.812mm.Control room software MxControlCenter. pan and tilt • Integrated microphone.264CCTV (Geutebrück). electronic PTZ function. info@hiteksecurity. internal DVR O R (up to 64 GB). FCC St part15B.3af. Contact: Hitek Security Distributors.8-10mm Mega Pixel lens and IR range of 25m. The DI-390HDVF belongs to the analogue HD technology which is equivalent to a 2. FTP. Variations in range : This range of German-made cameras includes box and dome formats with the following options • colour only / day/night cameras • with AF / without AF • with housings for different environments • 1/1. It also comes with a 3-year swap out guarantee. white balance.AS/NZS3548). Variations in range: In the analogue HD we have another 3 models: 1. 2D DNR. BX-390HD – Box camera with 1080P resolution.CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE IP. back light compensation. 2 & 5 megapixel resolutions Contact: Carmen Lahr. It Features 22X optical zoom. speaker and PIR motion detector Variations in range: Lenses: 22 to 135 mm format. Variations in range : In the zoom camera range we also have the BZ-371CSX22 which has a 1/3-inch Sony Effio 650TVL sensor with a True ICR. Description: Vandal proof 1/3-inch CMOS full HDplus Day/ Night IP fixed dome with AF vario-focal lens 2. speaker.securitysa. POE. water proof and with 1080P Resolution. Including: text overlay.8 mm to 10 mm and dual-streaming in H.264CCTV. Software: (inclusive) MxEasy. g Category: Category: Analogue HD SDI Brand/Range name: Provision ISR Supplier: Hitek Security Distributors Camera name: DI-390HDVF Resolution: 1080P or 2. MJPEG and MPEG4 for Geutebrück MP if we compare it to an IP camera. HLC and OSD. motion .net Category: IP. +49 26 45 137 0 carmen.9. High resolution IP65 camera for day and night operation Brand/Range name: Mobotix Supplier: Industrial Automation And Control Camera name: MX-M12D-SEC-DNIGHT-D43N43 Resolution: 3 MP (2048 x 1536) 36) Auto/Manual focus: Auto Au Onboard storage: Yes. y info@hiteksecurity. raine@iacontrol. 087 625 0810. I4-390HDVF features 2.4mm Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: RS-485 Description: The BZ-472CSX22 is a professional zoom camera from Provision ISR. onboard microO phone. Automatic: mouse click focusing. I2-390HDVF features 2. Contact: Hitek Security Distributors 087 625 0810.8-100mm lens Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes. water proof and with 1080P Resolution. exposure. auto focus. Motion detection Standards supported: HD SDI Description: The DI-390HDVF is a dome HD SDI camera with 1080P resolution and a vari-focal lens of 2. mirror-function. electronic shutter. MJPEG (multiple compression levels).1 MP Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus 2. ONVIF compatible with firmware version 3.3. flickerless and automatic gain control. EN55024.8-inch CCD. recording without network load. 256 MB RAM Standards supported: H. without need for heating (IP65) • Digital continuous zoom. -30 to +60 °C (-22 to +140 °F) Description: • Two separate image sensors for day and D night-time operation • Integrated DVR with HiRes video recording • Permanently fixed lenses at factory for extremely simple installation • Robust. video motion analytics.7-81. Class 0 IP65 (DIN EN 60529).0. +27 (0)12 657 3600. 1. PIR Standards supported: EMC (EN55022. IEEE 802. privacy masking. Full-HD.

ory: Category:

IP round view fo IP. Hemispheric 360° all all-round for complete room monitoring Brand/Range name: Mobotix Supplier: Industrial Automation And Control Camera name: MX-Q24M-SEC-D11 Resolution: 3 MP (2048 x 1536) Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: Yes, Internal DVR (up to 64 GB), recording without network load. Onboard intelligence: Yes, video motion analytics, on board microphone, speaker, VoIP, SIP, FTP, Temperature Sensor Standards supported: EMC (EN50121-4, EN55022, EN55024, EN61000-6-2,FCC part15B, AS/NZS3548) IEEE 802.3af; Class 0,IP65 (DIN EN 60529), -30 to +60 °C (-22 to +140 °F) Description • Complete panorama view, ideal for access control • Quad view to show images from four different angles simultaneously • Digital, continuous zooming and panning • Robust and maintenance-free, without mechanically moving parts • MxAnalytics: heatmap, people counting and fully automatic reports • Alarm function, speaker and microphone integrated Variations in range : Lenses: L11 (hemispherical), L22 (90° x 67°) Software: (inclusive) MxEasy, Control room software MxControlCenter External storage: Directly on NAS and PC/ Server without additional recording software Contact: Raine Sadie, +27 (0)12 657 3600, Name of software: Vivotek VAST Description/purpose: Vivotek provides a feature-rich central management software platform that has been developed specifically for Vivotek products. VAST allows for centralised management of multiple cameras on one central platform. Additionally Vivotek VAST provides a fully featured user interface that is easy to use. Features/functionality: Vivotek VAST utilises a client/server structure which allows for multiple servers and clients to be combined into a single platform. Vivotek VAST is the ideal cost effective surveillance solution that has been designed to scale up to any requirement while still remaining user friendly and flexible. Utilising features that would normally only be available on very costly VMS platforms, VAST is the ideal solution for any surveillance application. Availability: Vivotek VAST is a software-based platform primarily, but is also available on Vivotek’s ND range of NVRs. Cost: VAST has a once off price structure that does not require any annual fees or upgrade costs. Runs in browser or as an independent application? VAST operates as a Windows application. Standards the software adheres to: ONVIF, PSIA and a broad range of standards that make integration possible. Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960,

Category: 2 MP Full HD P-iris focus a assist WDR network camera Brand/Range name: 8000 Series fixed camera ek Supplier: Vivotek Camera name: IP8162P Resolution: 2 megapixel (1920x1080) Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2 TB max. Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection. Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/ RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description : The Vivotek IP8162P camera offers 2-megapixel resolution (1080p full HD @ 30fps). The camera can capture a much more comprehensive area than a standard VGA camera, significantly reducing the number of cameras required. It is especially suitable for monitoring wide-open indoor spaces such as building entrances, airports, or applications requiring accurate identification. With a P-iris lens, which controls the iris with extreme precision with its built-in stepping motor, it maintains the iris opening at an optimal level at all times, resulting in superior image clarity and depth of field as well as image quality. Variations in range: IP8172P, IP8162P, IP8151P, IP8152, IP8133 Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, Name of software: Milestone Software Description/purpose: Milestone Software has been developed to be a complete surveillance platform that supports a large variety IP cameras and devices. Milestone also provides a complete management platform that allows for the integration of hundreds of different devices while using a flexible and easy to use user interface. Features/functionality: Milestone is an IP video management software platform that has been designed to allow for maximum flexibility and integration. With an open platform design, Milestone software allows for hundreds of different devices from multiple vendors to be integrated into a single platform. A flexible rule-based system combined with powerful video motion detection allows for a vast number actions to be taken based on user-selected conditions. Milestone has been developed specifically to scale up to any size and in hundreds of different layouts. From home based solutions to enterprise environments, Milestone is the VMS to use. Availability: Milestone Software is a complete software package that relies on a Windows platform for operation. Cost: Milestone has a broad pricing structure that stretches across a wide range of products and which will meet any demand. Runs in browser or as an independent application? Milestone can be used in a Web-based environment but the core software has been developed to function as an independent application. Standards the software adheres to: ONVIF, PSIA and a broad range of standards that make integration possible. Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, CCTV Handbook 2013




20x zoom, 2 MP full HD WDR, 60 fps PoE Plus camera a

Brand/Range name: 8000 Series Speed Dome Supplier: Vivotek Camera name: SD8362E Resolution: 2 megapixel (1920x1080) Auto/Manual focus: Auto & manual focus ocus Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2 TB max. Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/ RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description: The SD8362E is part of the Supreme series product line offering 2 megapixel or 1080p resolution with superb image quality (up to 60 fps @ 720p and 30 fps @ 1080p). Integrated WDR technology, the SD8362E can also cope with challenging lighting conditions. Adopting a 20x optical zoom lens, the SD8362E is able to capture details at top-notch quality. The camera is especially suitable for monitoring wide-open indoor/outdoor spaces such as airports, high ways and parking lots where high-level reliability and precision are always required. Variations in range: SD8323E, SD8322E, SD8321E Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960,

Category: Ca 5 MP 360° surround view, vandal proof Fisheye fixed va dome camera do Brand/Range name: Br 8000 80 Series FishEye Supplier: Vivotek Su ot tek Camera name: FE8172V Ca 72V Resolution: 5 megapixel Progressive Sensor (1920x1920) Re Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2TB max. Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description: Vivotek FE8172V is the latest fisheye fixed dome network camera, featuring a detailed 5 megapixel resolution sensor with superb image quality. Equipped with a fisheye lens for 180° panoramic view (wall mount) or 360° surround view (ceiling/floor/table mount) without blind spots, the camera is able to provide coverage of wide, open areas, such as airports, shopping malls, parking lots, retail stores, offices and more. Variations in range: FE8171V, CC8130 Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, Category: C 5 MP full HD, Smart Focus System, fixed dome S network camera n Brand/Range name: B 8000 Series Dome 8 Supplier: Vivotek S Camera name: FD8372 C Resolution: 5 megapixel R pixel (2560x1920) 92 20) Auto/Manual focus: Remote focus (auto A ( t focus) f ) Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2 TB max O Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description: Vivotek FD8372 is an IP67 rated indoor/outdoor dome camera offering 5 megapixel resolution with up to 30 fps (1080P) and built-in IR illuminators. The Smart Focus System allows for easy installation and adjustment by adopting a lens with a built-in stepper motor that can remotely control the focal length and precisely adjust the camera focus, offering hassle-free installation and maintenance. The IP8372 is also equipped with a mounting bracket that conceals all cables within. Variations in range: FD8362E, FD8162, FD8335H, FD8134V, FD8134, FD8151V, FD8136 Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960,

Category: 5 MP bullet network camera, a, a , 30m IR, Smart Focus System, m m, WDR, IP67 Brand/Range name: 8000 Series Bullet Supplier: Vivotek tek Camera name: IP8372 72 2 Resolution: 5 megapixel g gapixel (2560x1920) 0x1920) 1920) Auto/Manual focus: Remote focus (auto focus) Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2 TB max. Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/ RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description: Vivotek IP8372 is an IP67 rated outdoor bullet camera offering 5 megapixel resolution with up to 30 fps (1080P) and built-in IR illuminators. The Smart Focus System allows for easy installation and adjustment by adopting a lens with a built-in stepper motor that can remotely control the focal length and precisely adjust the camera focus, offering hassle-free instal lation and maintenance. The IP8372 is also equipped with a mounting bracket that conceals all cables within. Variations in range: IP8362, IP8352, IP8335H, IP8332, IP8330, IP8331 Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960,


CCTV Handbook 2013

tegory: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description:

Variations in range:


IndigoVision 2MP IP bullet camera IndigoVision BX Range IndigoVision BX600HD 2MP Remote zoom and focus Yes up to 32GB Micro SD card not included Motion detection H.264/Mjpeg. Audio G.711, ONVIF The BX range cameras are IndigoVision’s HD and full HD range of ONVIF conformant cameras supported by the reliable SMS4 software management platform. Includes wide dynamic range with IR and a true day/ night mechanical IR cut filter. The unit is IP66 rated with a 3mm-9mm vari-focal lens. BX 500 the full HD PTZ option with 20x optical zoom. BX400 is an indoor/outdoor mini dome option with vandal proof models rated at IK10 Kershia Kistan, Reditron, 087 802 CCTV (2288),

Category: IP 360° megapixel camera Brand/Range name: AV365CO Supplier: Arecont Vision Camera name: H.264SurroundVideo Resolution: 8 megapixel xel Auto/Manual focus: Manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes. 360° view, extended motion detection grid. Privacy masking. Standards supported: H.624 and MJPEG Description: An area typically requiring multiple PTZ cameras or multiple fixed cameras can be covered with a single panoramic camera. It delivers comprehensive coverage with forensic detail – all without the need for an operator or control software. A cost efficient solution, SurroundVideo panoramic cameras virtually obsolete the need and related expense of PTZ cameras. For applications that require critical detail like licence plate recognition, combine the panoramic camera with single sensor megapixel cameras at entrance and exit points. Variations in range: 180° versions, 360° versions, 8 MP or 20 MP Day/Night versions Contact: Kershia Kistan, Reditron, 087 802 CCTV (2288),

Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description:

Variations in range:


IP bullet cameras Rediview IP bullet Reditron RVIP-IRB-Mini 1.3Megapixel Manual Vari focal Lens Yes. Micro SD/HC 64 GB Yes. Masking 5 user-defined areas. H.264 / MJPEG – ONVIF V2.1 Latest sensor technology with 720p resolution. 100% fully functional IP camera with browser support, ONVIF compliance, and embedded Flash technology inside. Offering 3-axis movement. High Powered IR LED for night vision. Supporting PoE or 12V for the most simple of installation. Safari, Chrome, IE, Firefox, Opera: all browser compatible. 1.3 MP HD 30-50m IR 2 MP FHD 30-50m IR 3 MP FHD 30-50m IR Kershia Kistan, Reditron, 087 802 CCTV (2288),

C Category: S D PTZ Sony SNC-EP550 IP HD with 28X optical zoom Brand/Range name: Sony Ipela n Supplier: Reditron 50 Camera name: SNC-EP550 Resolution: 720p Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: Yes up to 32 GB Onboard intelligence: Intelligent motion detection. Filters out normal false alarms normally associated with motion detection. Standards supported: MPEG4, H.264, JPEG. ONVIF. Description: The EP550 is a cost effective HD network PTZ that supports 28x optical zoom. It includes Wide D technology from sony @ 86dB. The PTZ has a 340°-pan area. SD card slot for local stor age is also present. Variations in range: EP-521 – 4sif IP PTZ with 36X optical zoom EP-580 – Full HD IP PTZ with 20x optical zoom ER range support full 360 degree pan Contact: Kershia Kistan, Reditron, 087 802 CCTV (2288), CCTV Handbook 2013


CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP megapixel NetFocus NS Series ForeTech NFTI-H2100 Real-time HD video streams of 1080p – 2. +27 (0)11 624 2576 rmerwe@secequip. Pattern tours. masking. Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No Onboard Intelligence: Yes. pattern tern tours.0 MP Auto focus Yes. Extreme long-range IR camera PTZ Brand/Range name: COP PTZ speed dome Supplier: COP Security urity Camera name: 15-AS55L L Resolution: High horizontal izontal resolution n 550TV lines nes Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus us Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: N/A Description: • Extreme long-range IR positioning high speed PTZ camera 432x power zoom • ¼-inch progressive scan CCD • Super high power Infrared Length LEDs @ 200m • Electronic image stabiliser • WDR support • 8 privacy mask zones • 3D co-ordinate • 128 pre-set positions • Pan range 0˚ ~ 360˚ Name of software: NetFocus Description/purpose: Hybrid recording / display Features/functionality: • Image enhancement by Intelligent noise filtering • Intelligent video analytics • Dual monitor • Thumb nail preview search • Digital camera zoom • CMS/Web/mobile viewing and e-Map monitoring • Wide range of IP camera options and NetFocus IP camera integration Availability: PC based/embedded Cost: No licence fee Unlimited cameras Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent application and browser Standards the software adheres to: ONVIF/CAMS Contact: Riaan van der Merwe.vandermerwe@secequip. PoE high power. external super high speed dome 432x power zoom – 36X optical. simultaneous multi streaming • Local SD card backup • PoE N/A Riaan van der Merwe. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150. Intelligent IR PTZ camera a Brand/Range name: COP PTZ speed dome Supplier: COP Security Camera name: 15-CD60W-1020 Resolution: High horizontal resolution 530TV lines. iPv6 • X20 HD IP outdoor camera • Real-time HD speed dome camera • Triple Secequip +27 (0)82 904 Category: Analogue. speed +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. 32 GB Yes.securitysa. IR distance • Programmable 220 pre-set +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 Category: iPv4. Y-WDR. 12X digital • Electronic image stabiliser • 120-150m IR range with 72 IR LED • Programmable IR schedule. speed 300˚/s • Tilt range +45˚ ~ -50˚. Standards Supported: N/A Description: • Colour/mono. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. 4 pattern tours.vandermerwe@secequip.5˚ ~ 60˚/s • RS-485 multi-protocols communication Variations in range: N/A Contact: Riaan van der Merwe. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150. each 180s memory • 8 Cruising tracks with 32 pre-set positions each • 8 Privacy Mask Zones • IR LED service life >30000 hours Variations in range: N/A Contact: Riaan van der 64 CCTV Handbook 2013 .

za www. Simultaneous multi streaming • Local SD card backup • Day & night by ICR • PoE • Bidirectional audio • 90˚ tilting • Vandal & weatherproof design • Auto focus PoE / 12V. • Auto/manual electronic shutter speed adjustable. IP streamer Integrating these two sensors provides unparalleled performance resulting in accurate detection. iPv6. and rapid deployment scenarios. Description: The system boasts a 37X optical 3.vandermerwe@secequip.0 MP. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150. and identification of intruders. Riaan van der Merwe. megapixel Brand/Range name: NetFocus NS Series Supplier: ForeTech 00ATIR Camera name: NFIB-H2000ATIR Resolution: Real-time HD video streams of 1080p – 2. privacy marking. Masking. Standards supported: ONVIF. Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus. iPv6 • 2-mega HD fixed IP dome camera • Real-time HD definition • Triple codec. Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: PTZ communication via RS-485 / RS-422. Y-WDR.vandermerwe@secequip. +27 (0)11 624 2576 CCTV Handbook 2013 65 . with ultra-high resolution colour CCD and a highly tuned thermal imager for true 24/7 performance. cross Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150. info@securitell-int. Standards supported: N/A Description: • High sensitivity/resolution HDR Wide Dynamic ICR camera in external water proof housing with high power IR LEDs. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. negative. • S/N radio with auto 3D-DNR. • 2X digital zoom with manual pan/tilt. recognition. OnVIF. Description: • 2 mega-HD IR bullet camera • Real-time high definition dome camera • Triple codec. • Challenging high lighting condition. Masking. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150. 32 GB SD Card. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes. • Motion detection.Category: Analogue Street surveillance all-in-one camera. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Riaan van der Category: Customisable dual sensor optical and thermal integrated PTZ system Brand/Range name: Ascendent (Canada) Supplier: Securitell Camera name: Ranger-37X-TI: Electro-Optic PTZ Camera Resolution: Optical: 600TVL (day) / 700TVL (night) Thermal: FLIR Generation 2. megapixel es NetFocus NS Series ForeTech NFIN-H2000ATIR Real-time HD video streams of 1080p – 2. +27 (0)82 556 6565. HDR. PoE high power. H/V mirror. analytics. Yes. Suitable for fixed installations as well as portable. • OSD setup rotation. Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: COP Camera COP Security 15-CO43RVIC Super High resolution CCD with Star-Light more than 600TV lines (D/N) video digital signal processor (SOC) IC. Securitell. Pelco-P/D standard protocol. All of this is integrated into an IP 66 housing constructed of strengthened aluminium with alloy treated anticorrosive Category: IP. freeze. simultaneous multi streaming • Day & night by ICR • PoE • Auto focus • Weatherproof design Variations in range: N/A Contact: Riaan van der Merwe. iPv4. 17μm pixel Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP.5mm IR corrected continuous zoom lens. Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: Yes. Variations in range: Customisable to suite your requirements. iPv4. 32 GB SD Card Onboard intelligence: Yes. • Built in video. analytics. advanced protocol • Analogue to IP converter Contact: Sam Lessing.0 MP Auto focus Yes. Optional: • Various fixed thermal lenses • Optical zoom thermal lenses • 336x256 FLIR thermal imager • 640x480 FLIR thermal imager • Radar integration • Image stabilisation • Heater or blower • Wiper • Pelco D.5mm129. PoE high power.

com . “The bottom line is that customers need to be educated on these benefits in an objective manner. according to Mark Chertkow. Finally. How do you decide when a remote surveillance service is the solution for your application? Is there scope for cloud-based solutions for remote surveillance in Africa? How do you decide when a remote surveillance service is the solution for your application? Is there scope for cloud-based solutions for remote surveillance in Africa? Some may see CCTV as a grudge purchase. A bona fide remote offsite surveillance operator will spend time with the client discussing and establishing specific risk areas. “The vast choice of remote surveillance companies is starting to become a real issue. one increases the operational costs. CEO of Vox Telecom. “It is critical to match the customer’s requirements with the correct system.” said Chertkow. unless these companies do a full needs analysis of customer needs. one is able to sidestep collusion.REMOTE MONITORING Keeping tabs from a distance By Allyson Koekhoven. By moving footage offsite into the cyber realm. one could feed only event-driven footage onto the cloud and download it offsite. but the extractable operational benefits of remote surveillance are manifold. “Often companies only realise after an incident has occurred that physical guarding or technology on their own are simply not a sufficient security tool. offsite footage and incident reports provide customers with a chain of evidence for prosecutory purposes. “By moving monitoring of surveillance offsite. By adopting remote offsite surveillance. We suggest that companies install a separate firewall for business-critical data that only the client can access. MD of Graphic Imaging Technologies (GIT). one pays for bandwidth.” Remote surveillance removes collusion and intimidation once one eliminates the human element from the onsite security equation. Any possible tampering with footage is eliminated.” Wyman concluded. companies are able to save thousands of rands.” Policies and procedures are only as good as the employees implementing them. The biggest stumbling block at present is the lack of knowledge around the benefits of cloud/hosted solutions and remote monitoring.” said Wyman. However.” “The management of companies tends to be wary about having critical business data and footage hosted remotely. or a number plate identification system. or even cameras with night vision will be made once their advantages and applicability to the environment are determined. This also releases capital that can be invested in installing surveillance cameras. the practice also allows the company to employ a covert health and safety watchdog. Remote surveillance will confirm the extent of a security breach and provide the armed reaction company with accurate information on the number of intruders and their positions within the premises. do local companies believe that this is a viable option for Africa? “On the current model. Decisions on whether the client requires hi-res cameras. the likelihood of the service providing a return on investment are highly unlikely. Only by talking to an experienced and reputable company will this be determined. so by pushing footage onto the cloud. Around 95% of alarms received by armed reaction companies are actually false alarms. which are capable of providing eight times more visibility due to their constant coverage of areas.” said Roy Wyman.” said Du Toit. Unfortunately. one can gain a completely objective overview of onsite activities from anywhere at any time. There will be instances where remote offsite monitoring is not the solution. “There is definitely a place for hosting on the cloud. The international market is not faced with the same high levels of crime and collusion that Africa does. There is an overriding fear of systems being hacked.” said Jacques du Toit. Customers are advised to ask prospective remote offsite monitoring companies to provide them with references.securitysa. Visit working sites and establish whether the company you are entrusting the security of your assets to is able to provide you with the system and service you really need. in addition to the monetary benefits derived from instituting remote offsite surveillance. with low-cost emerging companies dominating the market. “However.” Floating on a cloud Given the mixed response to the advantages of cloud or hosted surveillance internationally. MD of Remote Offsite Monitoring (ROM). 66 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Unsafe operating practices and behaviours that infringe the health regulations of an organisation are quickly identified by an independent operator and tagged for immediate resolution.

com CCTV Handbook 2013 67 .www.securitysa.

firstly the control room and secondly the clients side.? Gary Stephenson. Wireless options are also available. within pricing constraints. It is not enough to just insure the availability of lines but also question the speed and amount of data utilisation on these lines. Broadband services such as ADSL is best effort and highly contended and there is no time in which network operators are forced to maintain within a specific time.REMOTE MONITORING Remotely reactive By Andrew Seldon. Our suggestion is that a company uses its primary data service that is not used during the day for security monitoring at night. Most bigger businesses have got IT departments that look after all the communication issues and have often got several configurations that they can use to get video and alarms through to the control room with some sort of fail over as well. It’s of no use having 10 lines running at 100% capacity all the time as data will be lost. What makes a remote monitoring service work? One of the key growth areas in the surveillance market in South Africa is the remote monitoring industry. question the availability of incoming and outgoing lines and question the backup or fail over strategy as well. • If safety and security is really important for a customer. Continued on page 70 Hi-Tech Security Solutions: The issue with any communications activity in South Africa is bandwidth and the reliability of your . MD. In many cases. this is susceptible to lightning and breakdowns. Question the stability of the lines. Daytona Electronics: There are two sides to connectivity. Many commercial and private organisations are opting to have video surveillance protecting people and assets 24x7 in the hope that cameras manned by remote operators are less likely to succumb to intimidation or collusion. that it is uncontended and that there is a guaranteed mean time in which to prepare. this can often be a large obstacle to overcome. but through another vendor using other technologies. Also keep in mind that most larger corporation also have strict IT policies that govern the data communications. it is recommended that nothing less than a 1 Mb DLS is made available for the video streaming. which could be a 3G data card. In most cases these links are of higher quality and come with the required SLA. Still others are using remote video monitoring to support their business processes and health and safety procedures. • If full redundancy is required. and depending on the risk to be protected a fail over line will need to be added to this. such as: • Customers need to understand what kind of connectivity comes with the SLA. bearing in mind the costs of 3G data. with video coverage of your premises. including the hardware are cheaper than manned guarding services. In addition. Jacques Du Toit. Wright Surveillance: Customers will obviously expect to be connected at all times. The obvious alternative is having a separate back-up ADSL service provider to combat failovers on the lines. most communication networks in SA run on a copper backbone and or through Telkom. the remote service providers claim their services. When visiting the control room ask to see the server room handling the control room communications. What should customers expect to get from their service providers in terms of connectivity when they sign up for remote surveillance? Failover/different service providers/ wireless and wired etc. you will have less chance of false alarms as every alert can be verified before dispatching armed response or calling the police. fibre communication is far preferable. Just how effective is this? And what do the people in the industry see happening in the market? Will growth continue or are we seeing a levelling off with larger organisations developing their own in-house remote services? And what are the best practices to follow when looking at a remote service? reasonable. MD. sales manager. a customer must make peace with fact that he needs an exact copy of the primary service. then it is important that one applies for a service that comes with an SLA. Dusty Van Den Berg. The client side will need to be planed based on the client requirements. VoxOrion Telecom: There are a few key issues to take into consideration.securitysa. I would recommend getting the IT department involved from the inception of the project as they will be able to advise what can and what may not be done. Realistically the service provider has to ensure that they have as many fail-over communication options as is 68 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. For smaller business the list is endless. CCTV Handbook 2013 69 .

For example. installation of the appropriate technology best suited to that client’s operating environment. most of the more reputable companies will be very willing to show you their infrastructure and control rooms as they are proud of it. The system must guide the operator on what actions to take and not allow for any shortcuts. how can a potential customer separate those who are capable and those who are trying to cash in on the trend? Stephenson: Establishing and operating a CCTV surveillance control room is a specialised security service. the ability to communicate to both the stakeholder and the armed reaction company. i. i. It still surprises me how many calls we get from clients that have just experienced an incident and their remote surveillance service was found lacking. surveillance.e. and it is also crucial that he be suitably capable of dealing with a tense situation. Wright Surveillance 70 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. etc. people and systems.e. What skills does your remote provider need to have on board? What skills (or people) should they be hiring for what different functions? Stephenson: The quality of the remote monitoring station personnel is integral to the level of service delivery to the client. and additional product specific training. and remote monitoring of the incoming signal/image by experienced and qualified operators. the same gate. what is the remedy. armed response and off-site monitoring services are supplied by different service providers. overall (not connectivity).com . As much as the controllers are there monitoring the site. and availability of spares. Continued on page 72 Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Security skills are always an issue in the industry. the same person. If and when there is a technical issue after hours. which equips them to identify potential threats pro-actively. but as long as you ask plenty of questions you will not come short. Van Den Berg: Vet all your suppliers. computer skills. Look out as well for the ability to report on trends. Du Toit: Most importantly here. installation etc. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Should remote surveillance operators provide a full security service – as in guards. i. sleeping on duty or physical patrols. armed response. and can offer an end-to-end solution. i. must customers look for in their remote service providers? With many people offering remote monitoring.e. Successful service providers in this industry are those with extensive experience in the security industry. as we are all aware things will go wrong at the oddest times. Du Toit: It must be independent. We provide valuable information to the customer – for example: response time to react from the armed reaction company or actual onsite guard activity. Du Toit: The first question to ask is what function one is fulfilling and differentiate between armed reaction. the accuracy of the physical incident report of the event – from the armed reaction company to the customer. It is critical to the success of remote surveillance that the monitoring company does the design and installation of the client’s CCTV system. This entails developing a bespoke security solution for each client. another good question is the availability of technical staff as connections and technical issues do not only occur during office hours. the higher the grade of the operator’s certificate the better. guarding or CCTV installation and maintenance. It is vital for potential customers to look for service providers with a proven track record. see for yourself. For this function one needs an operator that can operate IP-based technology. Our business is not about surveillance. or should they stick to their knitting with surveillance? Stephenson: In order to ensure the highest quality of service delivery and minimise the potential for collusion. monitoring. Keep in mind this is an evolving industry so question on-going training programmes. and communication is key. ‘Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?’ which means ‘Who will guard the guards themselves?’ Having the guarding company monitored by an independent remote monitoring centre who will engage an independent armed response company ensures the client has three layers of protection. For the service to be successful the remote monitoring station must be receiving the appropriate alarm signals and CCTV images.securitysa. the control room must be secure and have an acceptable level of redundancy – from power to security. Van Den Berg: All security staff need to be registered with PSIRA. Our business is monitoring. the situation is properly assessed and the correct communication steps are followed. Monitoring is reactive. recruits high quality CCTV controllers that undergo further specialised in-house training programmes. Other factors to be taken into account include whether the required escalation capabilities are in place.e. In addition. The agent must be appropriately and adequately trained and graded. ask to see all the control room staff as well as the company’s PSIRA certificates. keep calm in a tense situation and communicate with customers and armed reaction companies in an appropriate manner. It is not enough to take the word of a salesman.REMOTE MONITORING Continued from page 68 Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What services and capabilities. then when they come and see how we do things and it becomes clear that the wool was pulled over their eyes. a mention must be made to the technical staff in the background. Go through and see a few suppliers. Question other qualifications achieved by the controllers. One of the benefits of being independent is that one cannot hide one’s dirty washing. – in addition to their remote work. they will be more than willing to also guide you and offer you advice on what to look for and warn you of potential problem to look out for. looking at a live screen 24-hours a day trying to identify suspect behaviour. The list of questions is almost endless. The success of the service is in lowering the customer’s risk. our controllers undergo training in kinesics (understanding body language). our philosophy is that the perfect security service scenario is where the guarding. We are talking about world-class automated communication. etc. is the quality of the control room. So when an alarm is triggered. and request references of existing clients to verify the quality of the service delivery. The systems behind the technology (such as incident management reporting software) must be foolproof – this is the heartbeat of the system. CCTV Handbook 2013 71 .www.

which includes an automated occurrence book and reporting system that is integrated into the software platform. I would not recommend that the client puts all his eggs in one basket so to speak. ensuring that the service will benefit the client and minimise the risk he is experiencing. Immediate evaluation of the activity/event by experienced control room operators is followed by the necessary corrective action. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What are the control room specialities a successful remote service provider needs to have on board? Stephenson: A successful remote monitoring station provides an instant response to received alarms and CCTV footage. I would recommend that the client looks at his entire security risk profile and do a full risk assessment. and calling the appropriate authorities such as armed response and SAPS. IP PABX. it’s not just offering a service at the cheapest . if the operator sees a guard or armed response officer doing something that they are not meant to be doing. offsite central monitoring station allowing optimum effectiveness. we analyse the risk and custom fit a remote video monitoring package to the clients specific requirements. It’s about ensuring that the customer knows he is not just a number to your bottom line. access control and energy management. Our experienced surveillance team operates in a secure. does he tell the client and put his company’s name in a bad light and risk getting into trouble. Van Den Berg: Daytona Electronics is a company that specialises in remote video monitoring for key clients. and what doesn’t. Wright Surveillance consultants have the experience and expertise to offer the WRIGHT solution that is tailored to customers specific needs. offering CCTV planning. and our vast experience ensures that our CCTV security systems deliver as promised. speed and reliability – all essential components when looking to ensure the delivery of a superior security solution. Wright Surveillance is among the pioneers of remote CCTV monitoring in South Africa. Full onsite assessments facilitate delivery of optimised solutions to offer a total integrated security package. that’s when the questions get asked. Wright Surveillance’s extensive experience in the field of remote monitoring means that we’re well aware of what technology delivers the right results in the control room. It is in that your customer knows that you are there looking out for their best interests. We have an experienced and well-motivated team that is driven to ensure customer satisfaction. Van Den Berg: As with any specialised service such as remote video surveillance. for when there is an incident. properly trained and reliable staff and a fully comprehensive incident management report system. After using various products over the years. he is now left with an ethical dilemma. it is attention to detail that is going to set you apart from your opposition. Technologically advanced IT infrastructure is necessary. and provide the best integration. Continued from page 70 Van Den Berg: I believe that the remote surveillance services are only a small part in the bigger picture. installation and maintenance through to remote monitoring in our technologically advanced control room. image quality.REMOTE MONITORING Du Toit: A good relationship with and a clear understanding of the SLA that the armed response company provides to the customer. We offer full time or event-based surveillance plus the option of virtual guard tours and supervision. Du Toit: The biggest difference is that our remote monitoring offering fits into our existing folder of converged communications products being provided No additional connectivity is required – it’s just another IP service offered on top of the client’s data services. It is imperative to have the correct ratio of control room operators to number of clients. It’s in having audibility on everything that happens in and around the control room. This could include notifying the other security services on site. to ensure that all incoming signals are appropriately managed. or does he tell his employer and put the client at risk? Hi-Tech Security Solutions: How does your company differentiate itself in a crowded market? Stephenson: Wright Surveillance is an end-to-end CCTV security solution partner. 72 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. challenging the intruders via onsite speakers. as remote video surveillance is only small part of the entire risk. We have been doing remote video surveillance for more than seven years. hosted e-mail or any other cloud base service offered – simply another piece of the converged communications puzzle. it is a proactive measure to prevent and limit the criminals time on site. we’ve found affordable products and installation techniques that supersede all others on the market.securitysa. redundancy from a connectivity perspective. With over 20 years in the security industry and over 10 years in remote monitoring. and have learned through experience the that this is not a one-package-fits-all-industry. CCTV Handbook 2013 73 .

which has the disadvantage of lower image quality. Closed circuit television (CCTV) systems have become another effective weapon in South Africa’s anti-crime arsenal. where there are bandwidth limitations in rural areas.264 protocol. +27 (0)11 557 9200. DVR and IP encoders and/or cameras to form a remote monitoring solution. Remote CCTV monitoring is currently one of the fastest-growing sectors in the security industry. it is only as good as its installer and equipment used. SMACM. one management operator can monitor several cameras at one time. It has often been said that technology will be South Africa’s saving grace in the war against crime and CCTV is an example of one of those anti-crime technologies that work exceptionally well. While there is a shortage of bandwidth in South Africa’s outlying areas that would benefit most from remote CCTV monitoring. It is important to point out at an early stage that there are two distinct aspects to CCTV remote monitoring – alarm monitoring or video alarm verification and video management. yes. TeleEye adheres to the UK CCTV standard known as BS8418. increasing reliability and efficiency. In the country’s cities. This means they don’t affect each other yet one unified system has been deployed. It is also interesting to note that even our HD CCTV solutions use 50% less bandwidth than systems utilising the H. The twin halves of the remote monitoring equation – video management and alarm verification – are perfectly designed for this industry and many others. That being said. TeleEye has managed to develop a compression protocol called SMAC-M that provides higher quality images and faster frame rates than products using the H. Both halves of the equation work in symphony to ensure a complete remote monitoring solution. where bandwidth and user functions are separated from each other on different data streams and video channels. While CCTV remote monitoring is an effective security solution. Remote management monitoring works as a service because it has the obvious advantage of allowing the client to virtually be in multiple locations at one time. This ensures that local expertise operates according to global best practice with all the associated benefits for clients. in particular. whilst the Philip Smerkovitz client would often engage in their own management monitoring. high end video recording functionality and a TCP/IP video server from a single device. how the site should be installed and how the control room should operate. This means total cost of ownership is lower. TeleEye’s sureGUARD video alarm verification software then provides a complete integrated control room solution providing the necessary features such as remote recordings. We are able to offer both CCTV alarm and management abilities via true multi-stream technology. An effective remote monitoring solution should allow for both security and management function to take place concurrently without affecting each other. should develop critical features in compliance with this standard. This makes more advanced high definition remote monitoring applications highly challenging. TeleEye clients can remain on SD as we offer highly-efficient remote monitoring solutions no matter what the bandwidth available in the client’s area. An example of this would be a company providing a separate alarm panel. comes to mind. The former is concerned with protecting the client’s people and assets. the customer would subscribe to services of a remote video response centre (RVRC). In addition. it is important to state that site installation is absolutely critical in terms of security monitoring. event distribution to operators. MD of TeleEye (South Africa) if CCTV as a service works? The short answer to the question is.264 protocol. It is commonplace that for the security or alarm handling aspect. In 74 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. simply. One of the most important points that prospective CCTV clients need to know is that many video alarm verification and video management systems are cut and pasted together by installers using different standards and manufacturers. You have a massive dispersed workforce to manage and highvalue assets to protect. more bandwidth is becoming available which means now is the time to consider HD CCTV remote monitoring instead of SD . instead of physically watching one individual. www. On the other hand a TeleEye remote monitoring video recording server provides a BS:8418 (British Standard) compliant alarm management system. The mining industry. For more information contact TeleEye (South Africa). sophisticated event management and operator and site logging. In this regard. These include mobile telecommunications where remote base stations require protection and banking where ATMs have become prized targets among criminals who are longer able to crack bank safes or reliably prey on cash-in-transit vehicles. This standard specifies a Code of Practice outlining how TeleEye as a manufacturer.securitysa. TeleEye can quote numerous examples of CCTV installations not properly taking into account critical factors such as backup power.teleeye. while the latter is essentially a management and control function. This is especially relevant to certain industries that are feeling the pinch of rising costs coupled with declining productivity.REMOTE MONITORING Process and technology combined HSS asked Philip Smerkovitz. lightning and surge protection and most importantly the available bandwidth at a client site. CCTV Handbook 2013 75 .

This software is fully featured with remote viewing. Both FullSight camera types utilise a single multi-megapixel sensor. The Digi-iT NVR software records all the possible channels on motion. All models in the range come with day/night IR capabilities. Both the Sentry360 and Sentry180 FullSight cameras are supplied with free SentryCore VMS software. The camera can be mounted on a wall or ceiling and h has a built-in microphone and speaker. each on its own channel. FullSight According to Dean Sichelschmidt. “The Dynacolor is a true da day/night camera featuring ICR (infrared cut) function and a bu built-in IR illuminator with a Smart IR function to provide an 76 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. What’s happening in the world of fisheye/panorama cameras? What’s happening in the world of fisheye/panorama cameras? What functionality do they have and do they have today’s ever-popular low light capabilities? The following companies have integrated with Sentry360: Milestone. All the de-warped views support e-PTZ. utilising the Digi-iT NVR software allows for 360-degree de-warped view. 2 x 180-degree de-warped in one channel. Arteco.securitysa. advanced storage optimisation. NICE. a director of Security Warehouse.3 to 10 MP are available in the FullSight 360 series cameras. Genetec. camera mapping and placement. These cameras provide a 360-degree vantage point with no blind spots and no moving parts. technical director at Natech Universal Technology. The immersive imaging technology allows you to see. Viasys. 180/360 de-warping. Alnet and a further 20 VMS partners. enabling the user to customise all the fields of view for the different . the company’s FullSight range offers panoramic cameras in the 360-degree and 180-degree categories. combined with high-resolution optics. record and playback the full 360-degree field-of-view. The software also offers digital zoom in the live view and playback using t the full power of megapixel c cameras. “The best applications for these cameras include larger areas where users require coverage with fewer cameras.FISHEYE/PANORAMIC CAMERAS When you want to see everything By Allyson Koekhoven. and 4 x 90-degree views. On-board storage enables full redundancy should the NVR lose power supply.” said Sichelschmidt. ensuring that activity is recorded anywhere in the scene at all times. Axxonsoft. Teleste. providing more views and per-channel recording. In addition. 360degree de-warped. “However. “The camera is also integrated with our Digi-iT open platform NVR software. Both cameras are supplied with VMD and full video content analysis with ArtecoLogic.2 lux) functionality and work well with infrared illuminators. They have low light (0. event. The FullSight 180 versions offer a 180-degree view from a surfacemountable dome for both indoor and outdoor usage. Resolutions of 1. said that the Dynacolor fisheye cameras come with free bundled software that can record and view camera data. This would typically be at stadia. Dynacolor Pasco Lattuca.” The Dynacolor camera provides both 180-degree and 360-degree viewing using the Dynacolor NVR software. storage facilities and petrol stations. Video-Insight. there are seven possible views: normal 360-degree fisheye. the company also markets Video-Insight and ArtecoLogic software for panorama cameras. but performs optimally where resolutions of less than 3 MP are required. In total. Infinova.” Lattuca explained. The camera has a resolution of 2 to 8 MP. continuous or a combination of these.

bookmark and export This is contrary to many available VMS systems where the transformation has to be performed by the camera itself demanding that the system receives multiple video streams. At full 5 MP resolution the camera provides 10 frames per second and at full 1080 HD real-time it provides 25 frames per second. POS transaction engines. accommodation and hospitality or for any location where installation points are limited. motion detection. The Dynacolor is a 5 MP camera with quad stream capability. The feature is available as standard in all of the CatVision software packages. 720p HD. www. make it suitable for shop fronts. For more information contact Cathexis Africa.securitysa. rather than multiple streams. including WDR. reception areas and over aisles in retail stores. info@cat. +27 (0)31 240 0800. so only the source video need be recorded. The JPEG 2000 HD panoramic dome cameras feature four 2-MP sensors for a total resolution of 8 MP. This enables the system to receive 180 degree and 360 degree video feeds from fisheye cameras and then transform them into normal views from within the CatVision software. regional sales manager southern Africa. retail. CatVision does panoramic views Cathexis offers completes 180 degree and 360 degree fisheye camera transformation algorithms.” he said.” said Lattuca. www. ACC is also ONVIF compliant and we support numerous integrations with third-party The predominant differentiating factor is that the CatVision software can provide multiple transformed views from a single video CCTV Handbook 2013 77 . The camera can also run on 3 MP. The camera’s powerful light management settings. to effectively capture. “Our JPEG 2000 HD panoramic dome cameras feature four 2 MP sensors which provide 180-degreeor 360-degree coverage in high definition from a single camera. Avigilon Avigilon panoramic cameras use the Avigilon Control Center (ACC) with High Definition Stream Management (HDSM). full 1080p Cathexis has included spherical and rectangular transformation algorithms in its latest CatVision software. you can see the original source feed and transformed views of the same video feed rendered from the CatVision software. integrated graphic mapping. The advanced 3D noise reduction function also assists in providing a clear image at night and eliminates the noise (snowiness) caused by motion recording. In the image. system status and security management. D1. banking.” added Van der Vyver. while efficiently managing bandwidth and” said Ryno van der Vyver. manage and store HD multi-megapixel surveillance video data. The software comes with several advanced features including alarm monitoring. “The JPEG 2000 HD panoramic dome camera is ideal for monitoring indoor and outdoor environments for sectors such as education. VGA and CIF. “ACC records and manages audio and video from Avigilon’s broad range of multi-megapixel IP cameras (from 1 to 29 megapixels) and other leading manufacturers’ equipment.excellent low light image. Another advantage of this feature is that the CatVision archive player can also perform the transformations.

Seagate surveillance drives). Information technology has given us numerous ways to provide the large amounts of storage required. The fast frame rate fallacy When watching a movie or sport on TV. Integration with access control or intrusion alarm systems may also be employed to assist with this. you can look at detectors such as line crossing (in a specific direction maybe). The other challenge is that. but how much motion there is. Even if the camera has high resolution capabilities (but may have been selected for other reasons such as WDR). we still need to look at how we can minimise the storage requirement. It can also be useful to have a video management system that provides the flexibility to record at various frame rates. alison. and high resolution video footage can be a huge consumer of this. but can also reduce load on the network. and sometimes high frame rates are needed (for example licence plate recognition on moving traffic). fibre channel and serial attached SCSI (SAS) which help with the access speeds. with external arrays which allow us to add large numbers of drives. and even recording specifically when there is motion in a particular area of the screen. A video management system can provide you with the flexibility and intelligence to ensure you achieve your goals with the ideal balance between the volume/ detail of stored images and the storage space required. The key thing is to remember what the solution was designed for and to only record what you need. loitering (we don’t care if someone walks past but if they hang around for more than a few minutes we want to know).com Resolution for resolutions sake Don’t think that higher resolution is necessarily better. and this has been used for many years to reduce storage requirements (and help when it comes to searching for footage). in the detail you need and when you need it. Another problem is trying to accurately predict storage requirements when using H. Sometimes. they show each picture twice creating an effective 12fps. It will not only help for storage. In some cases the storage can be more expensive than all the other components. The human eye struggles to discern any difference between 1 MP and 5 MP. this is only going to become more of a challenge. So we all know that storage can get expensive. As well as being able to configure multiple motion based recording zones. don’t be afraid to drop the resolution in the configuration of the camera.securitysa. Here are some techniques that can assist you with this. The fundamental purpose of television is entertainment while the fundamental purpose of video surveillance is security (mostly – even though sometimes the footage can be quite entertaining). Even the most basic analogue systems allow for recording on motion. with some of the IT manufacturers even creating products to address the specific needs of surveillance (e. The standard for most television or movies we watch is around 24fps. This is all excellent technology.r@inhep. Promise storage arrays. Sometimes just a single frame per second may be adequate (for example when looking at a wide area for general activity). is the cost. however. mirror and RAID techniques which help with data redundancy (as well as performance) and even differential backup techniques to make the creation of offsite backups viable.INTELLIGENT STORAGE IP surveillance and storage By Richard Hepplestone. Remember that a “jerky” image due to low frame rate may not be cosmetically nice. The problem though. For more information contact Inhep Digital Security. CCTV product manager at IDS. +27 (0)31 705 1373. an object disappearing and more. This is however only 78 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. For example.g. We need to ask ourselves if high frame rates are necessary. not to mention the value of time saved when retrieving footage. The only time that high resolution is an advantage is if there is a need to use digital zoom capabilities. but may be practically perfectly good for the job. you may choose to have a few days’ short-term storage at high frame rates and then long-term storage at low frame rates. With the way the cameras are dropping in price and giving higher resolutions. intelligent video management software allows for the triggering of recording (as well as alerts) using more intelligent . Although most significant sized projects will more than likely require the leap from simple PC hard drives to enterprise storage systems. Intelligent recording Possibly the most underutilised technique to save on storage space is making use of intelligent recording. relevant as a point of reference since the only similarity between video surveillance and television is the moving picture on the screen. Intelligent recording by effectively managing your surveillance system. the cost saving (in terms of storage) can be higher than the price of the video management software. we want it to appear smooth and lifelike and with the exception of a few highly detail-oriented individuals we get our wish here. good disk access speeds are required. Anyone with experience in high-resolution IP surveillance will agree that one of the most difficult (and often most expensive) components of the solution to manage is storage.264 since it then becomes not only how often there is motion. due to the need to write away multiple streams of high resolution video. In fact with some animated movies. CCTV Handbook 2013 79 .securitysa.

As the industry moves from cated inter-frame compression technologies discussed later. Understanding these differences will allow the system designer to choose the right compression technology to best meet the project’s requirements and performance objectives. tapes to hard disks for video surveillance storage. Knowing when each should The two main frame-by-frame compression technologies curbe used will create the best results in a system design. For example. to compress the information in an image and reduce its file size. These block artifacts can sometimes obscure image details technologies when JPEG images are heavily compressed. diagnostic medical images. Frame-by-frame compression Frame-by-frame. The centralised compression of DVRs typically meant that all rapid access improves investigation effi ciency and can improve the cameras in the surveillance system had to use the same compresforensic viability of the recorded video. Continued on page 82 80 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. video compression duced in 1992. This block-based transformation typically introduces blocking Frame-by-frame and inter-frame compression artifacts. Parking Lot 16 MP 3 JPEG2000 that do not require information When analogue cameras are Cafeteria 5 MP 7 JPEG2000 from other frames – they can connected to a DVR. recorded video can be accessed more quickly. implementations of a particular technology may vary JPEG from one vendor to another. technology impacts the choice of hardware for client workstations. available on the market. on the other hand. and in the capture and transmission of images from satellites and other military applications. document archiving. The end result is a series of individually compressed When the security industry began the transition from using VHS images. success.’ JPEG compression relies on blocks of pixels. compression technologies compress video by applying a compression algorithm to each frame captured JPEG2000 Since its introduction in 2000. For example. While IP camera video Casino 1 MP 30 H. and system designers to have a clear understanding of by the compression process. installers think only of file and JPEG compression is most widely used for static image compression disk size and how that determines the number of days video is in digital cameras and on the Internet. In the most demanding sion technology. how to compress and store video comes into question Application Resolution Image rate Compression technology compression is a series of individually compressed frames again. Based on a compression technique known as a ‘discrete cosine what transmission systems can be used. video comLobby 3 MP 7 JPEG2000 be compressed and transmitted pression is performed inside Doorway 2 MP 15 H. challenged as valid evidence due to incomplete frames generated integrators. JPEG2000 is designed to preserve as much detail and evidence as possible within the image while greatly reducing file sizes. typically 8x8 efficiency of investigations. neglecting the fact that video compression can also impact after the Joint Photographic Experts Group and was initially introa video surveillance system design. There are two broad groups of compression technologies currently used in video surveillance: frame-by-frame compression and interframe compression. in . JPEG2000 has become a widely used standard in many different industries. the compression technologies available. and transform. location. JPEG compression is named stored.264 reduce latency. or intra-frame. it is critical for end-users. IP cameras. by a camera. Often. Each technology group incorporates different formats and in turn has its own trade-offs. analogue cameras and digital video recorders (DVR) to IP cameras the resulting video generand network video recorders Table 1. have allowed for the high security situations.securitysa. and the speed. Understanding compression technologies for HD and megapixel surveillance. This format. because each frame compression is performed acts as an independently accessible frame and is not built up from inside the camera then transmitted to the NVR in the compressed multiple frames. JPEG2000 is used in digital cinema.TECHNOLOGY: COMPRESSION Understanding compression technologies An Avigilon white paper.264 out of a camera more quickly to the recorder unit at a central Hallway 1 MP 15 H.264 Second. First. As a result. the question of Video that is compressed using a frame-by-frame compression how to compress and store video became a top consideration for technology presents a number of benefits over the more complivideo surveillance system designers. At the same time. providing all recorded video as a series of design of hybrid systems that can use multiple compression techindependent video frames ensures that video integrity cannot be nologies on the same system. rently used in video surveillance are discussed in more detail in the There are now a wide variety of compression technologies following sections. but no clear standard has emerged. Compression technology selection by application ated through frame-by-frame (NVR). CCTV Handbook 2013 81 .

264 compresextra information that the sensors generate and sion is actually a variant of the MPEG-4 stanmaintain it in the compressed video. it can also lead to the loss of information because the whole frame is not retained. an inter-frame compression technology will attempt to store only incremental changes between frames and store whole frames only on periodic intervals. vary dramatically throughout the day and by Typically. lighting and activity with inter-frame compression Inter-frame compression technologies rely on scene changes as part of its compression methodology. most implementations of nologies capture 8-bits of dynamic range. P. 30 percent smaller in file size and bandwidth than a conventional and B . It uses the same Figure 2. MPEG-4 compression is limited season. Stream size. compression expressed in bits. Predicted-Frames transmission. Bidirectionaldynamic range and its ability to scale to higher Frames (B-Frames) are sandwiched between resolutions. rather than as independent images. Most compression techSimilar to JPEG. Another feature of H. which can be either another compression are its ability to capture a wide P-Frame or the previous I-Frame. further reducing the information required to represent video. H. Networks and servers should be Continued on page 84 82 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. P. of capturing more than 256 intensities of light and more information than even the human eye H. Variability in the size of the compressed stream presents important challenges in system design. When variable bit rate compression is used. One JPEG2000 advantage and how Avigilon has combined it with High example is motion compensation using motion vectors to compress Definition Stream Management (HDSM) for even greater results is video to a smaller size. I-Frames in a GOP to describe the relative movement of information Inter-frame compression Inter-frame compression technologies rely both on compressing data within a single frame and on analysing changes between frames. Dynamic range is an important I-Frames and P-Frames. commonly referred to as MPEG-4 Part 10 key feature of JPEG2000 is its use of progressive Advanced Video Coding (AVC). Intra-Frames (I-Frames) are complete encoded images JPEG image of the same visual quality.264 compression allows frames to be inserted between section. The sensors loss of information if the camera is capable of used in surveillance cameras are often capable capturing a wider dynamic range. (P-Frames) are coded with reference to the Two additional features of JPEG2000 previous image. This results in a intensities of light within the image. Frame-by-frame The ability to capture dynamic range is able for higher resolution surveillance cameras. The JPEG2000 compression process generates images that are A GOP is typically composed of three different frame types: I. Information on the video. and contain information topic in surveillance because many cameras are on the changes calculated between the previchallenged to record bright and dark areas that ous and subsequent frames. The result is a stream of video that is compressed over multiple frames rather than a series of individual frames. MPEG-4 compression in surveillance are limited which means it can describe 256 different to 8-bits of dynamic range.264 that extends beyond standard MPEG-4 is the availability of de-blocking filters. which was introduced in 1999. De-blocking filters can smooth artifacts created by large amounts of compression. Inter-Frame Compression compression to efficiently allow the transmisbasic concepts of I. but encode As a wavelet-based compression technology. This allows systems to be configured with a higher level of compression while maintaining more detail in the images. and adds similar to the images generated using JPEG additional features for effective streaming and or JPEG2000 compression. The second dard. Typically. H. However. discussed in the ‘Streaming and Network Effects of Compression’ H. and can introduce variability in the size of the compressed data stream that is generated. The technologies used for inter-frame encoding are also often referred to as temporal or ‘time-based’ encoding because they rely on information spread out over time.264 is the newest compression technology JPEG2000 was designed to preserve the used in the security industry. and B Frames to encode sion and display of very high resolution images. JPEG2000 allows different types of frames within video as a group of pictures (GOP) for additional compression with fewer artifacts in the image. but relies on more advanced coding technologies. Most surveillance systems implement a variant of MPEG-4 Part 2.securitysa. Though this technique can result in bandwidth efficiencies. This can add compression artifacts to the image and degrade image quality.TECHNOLOGY: COMPRESSION Continued from page 80 compression for reducing the file size of a digital image. to VGA resolutions and isn’t commonly availFigure 1. there are many different MPEG-4 compression technologies available and few are alike. This variability depends on the compression being used – if it is configured to use a constant bit rate (CBR) or a variable bit rate (VBR). The two main inter-frame compression technologies currently used in video surveillance are discussed in more detail in the following sections: MPEG-4 MPEG-4 compression is an umbrella term used for many different technologies defined by the Moving Picture Experts Group.264 can see. frame rate. the size of the compressed stream is allowed to vary to maintain consistent image quality. the amount of compression applied increases as more activities occur. When configuring a system for a constant bit rate. MPEG-4 compression incorporates the same basic technology as JPEG from a reference frame. CCTV Handbook 2013 83 .www.

HDSM will send perceived in video by the compression technology.TECHNOLOGY: COMPRESSION Continued from page 82 visualised in the cube displayed in Figures 3 and 4. In addition to reducing client bandwidth. the most current of the frame-by-frame and inter-frame compression technologies.264 compresses multiple streams of video within the camera at different resolutions. additional layers of stream size and therefore allow for simpler system designs. JPEG2000 progressive compression transforms an image into packets that allow a portion of the image to be transmitted and decompressed without requiring the rest of the image. a network is not overwhelmed.264 the scene. and efficient video surveillance management. HDSM also noise within the image will be interpreted as a scene change by the greatly reduces the processing load on the remote client. Streaming high resolution details with Scene lighting will also impact the maintaining the ability to digitally zoom JPEG 2000 ability of inter-frame compression and pan within the original image at algorithms to efficiently compress video. the amount of the monitor used. H. Avigilon’s HDSM technology offers a unique way of working with 84 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. This ensures that feature to only transmit and decompress the portions of the video on higher . HDSM uses this designed for the worst case bandwidth demands.264 can only be streamed in the original Streaming and network effects of compression By increasing camera resolution. the ability to dynamically adapt the resolution. multiple layers of that specific area for viewing. it can view a scene in overview but cannot zoom in to see detail. Without a low resolution stream. If a low-resolution overview image is needed. generate 45 MP of video information the amount of change between frames that is sent from camera to server. The second drawback is apparent when viewing recorded video. as is possible with JPEG2000. For example. Here. and cause bandwidth to increase. HD and megapixel IP cameras come with their own unique challenges for storage. Instead of dynamically adjusting. Avigilon has designed High Definition Stream Management (HDSM) within the Avigilon Control Center Network Video Management Software (NVMS) to deliver these key features. Alternatively. These issues can be addressed by the choice of compression technology and camera resolution. So can increase substantially. server and client by 23 times while Figure 4. When runif a connected client were viewing ning below 10 frames per second.securitysa. Video compressed with H. JPEG2000 and high definition stream management When used with high definition and multi-megapixel surveillance video. when the remote client is only receiving a very-low resolution stream. is no longer available. Often in low light scenes. a camera running at 30 frames per Because HDSM can dynamically second may use a single I-Frame every access the video in layers of detail. At this rate. such as the licence plate in Figure 4. First. the higher resolution stream must be sent at a reduced image rate if limited bandwidth is available. There are two important trade-offs to remember when using H. JPEG2000 can effectively and progressively compress the video and enable advanced functionality for retransmitting and managing the compressed video. and review their respective strengths and weaknesses related to streaming within a network. For example. In the compression algorithm. However. Storage must also that the user is interested in. only 2 MP of information is received and decompressed by when implementing a compression technology. between frames that an inter-frame only 2 MP worth of video information compression has little or no benefit is sent to the client. while storing the entire image on the be chosen carefully to ensure that the required retention times can server. This can be compressed resolution and the resolution cannot progressively adapt after compression. frame-by-frame compreslayer of the cube is sent. sion technologies offer a predictable (constant) compressed data If a more detailed overview image is needed. turer can optimise their motion detection algorithm to prevent the algorithm from interpreting noise in low light images as changes in H. and sends the lower resolution stream to the client for low bandwidth live monitoring while an alternate resolution is recorded on the NVR. full resolution. as the frame rate is decreased. detail are sent. Figure 3. This results in a drachange between individual frames could matic reduction in bandwidth between be very small. If a user is zooming in on a specific region to access Frame rate will also have a dramatic impact on the level of activity full image detail. bandwidth. This allows HDSM over a frame-by-frame compression to reduce the bandwidth between the technology. Since video management servers are typically configured to record the higher resolution stream from the camera. we will compare JPEG2000 and H. as shown in Figure 3. nine 5 MP cameras JPEG 2000 However. example.264 multi-streaming for bandwidth management. Streaming situational awareness with storing scene changes for those frames. This means that as soon as video is sent over low bandwidth connections. a camera manufacthe client instead of the 45 MP of information. there is no lower resolution stream available to view over low bandwidth connections. there the video stream on a standard 1080p may be so much incremental change monitor with a total resolution of 2 MP. and substantial savings in server and client compared to other bandwidth could be achieved by only compression technologies. These additional streams add to the bandwidth transmitted from the camera but are typically much smaller than the full resolution stream being recorded to the server. it two seconds and rely on changes in the can also tailor the size of the video scene to describe the other 58 frames stream being sent to the resolution of in between.264. only the front be met under all conditions.

www. allowing efficient viewing of large numbers of H. For example. activity level. the total 21 MP of information is reduced to 4.264 cameras and multi-streaming enabled. For scenes on a site that require large multi-megapixel IP cameras. an inter-frame compression technology like H. You can choose to bias video display for low resolution decompression at a higher frame rate.4 MP of information if one stream is viewed in detail and eight streams are viewed in low resolution. Choosing the right compression technology Choosing the right camera for each point in a system is critical to a successful video surveillance system design. This allows details to be viewed from one video stream while keeping the overall streaming bandwidth low. users can effectively generate 9 x 2 MP of information for the full resolution streams and 9 x 0. If the end-user’s goal is to cover a larger scene by using a high resolution camera above 2 MP. The lower resolution stream will be used for any overview streams where detail is not required.3 MP for lower resolution streams. Available online tools that include pixels on target calculators are instrumental in helping select the most appropriate camera. Once resolution has been determined.securitysa. the benefits of JPEG2000 and HDSM increase. For lower resolution. HDSM will adaptively manage both a full resolution and a lower resolution stream to the NVR and viewing client.multiple streams of H. When multi-streaming is enabled for H. or smaller scenes of moderate activity with high frame rates. When available. Resolution.264 compressed video to overcome many of these trade-offs. and investigative needs will all influence the selection of compression technology. The first factor to consider will always be resolution.264 video. Avigilon’s HDSM also employs unique technologies to help minimise the demands placed on the client PC for decompressing H. then a frame-by-frame compression technology like JPEG2000 may be the only effective option. with nine 2 MP H. This greatly improves the efficiency of decompression and can allow multiple streams of HD video at 30 image per second to be decompressed simultaneously without using resources from the main processor. HDSM also dynamically adapts the resolution and methods used in the decompression of H. As resolution increases. or full resolution decompression at a lower frame CCTV Handbook 2013 85 . it is important to select a compression technology suited to the application.264 can help minimise the required network bandwidth and storage.264 video. frame rate. that stream will be automatically sent in full resolution while other streams are kept in low resolution for an overview version of the image.264 video to reduce the demands on the client machine.264 video without using the resources of the main processor. A four step control of display quality is also available to enable the manual optimisation of the viewing client.264 compressed video streams simultaneously. When a single stream is zoomed in for more detail. When viewed on the client. JPEG2000 compression is required to manage the high resolution information effectively. HDSM will make use of the advanced processing unit available on NVIDIA graphics cards to decompress H.

This is especially relevant when it comes to the natural expansion of Sensitive to the need for businesses to watch their bottom lines in the current economic downturn. which will in turn create a gap in existing security installations.elvey. Zane Greeff. technical director at Elvey Security Technologies. industry and manufacturing” from television lines to megapixels. it’s understandable that many consumers are anxious about committing to new or upgraded CCTV systems. leaving the average person confused and frustrated. tested. And because IP megapixel quality is constantly being improved. notes Greeff. retail. “Hybrid systems. A hybrid system.” says Greeff. which also reduces data storage requirements and costs. With the debate on the merits of analogue versus IP cameras showing no sign of abating. to the point where they are only taking in about five percent of the information on screen. One of the shortcomings of analogue installations is distance. offer the best of both worlds. Video analytics. says the technology in this particular arena has progressed at a rapid rate in recent years. never tire. this technology. “The starting point to making sense of the subject is to recognise that while IP (Internet protocol) technology is being exalted as the ultimate in image quality. www. IP also outperforms analogue when it comes to distance. It also enables digitised audiovisual streams to be sent to and viewed from anywhere in the world. business. is being used throughout the world by government. higher resolution pictures as a result of the terminology having moved away 86 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. is that it essentially future-proofs one’s business. “Hybrid video analytics are far more reliable than human beings. Chip set technology is behind the number of megapixels in a picture and accordingly the sharpness required to identify criminals and solve crimes. “End users need to be able to distinguish between the various benefits and shortcomings of their current analogue systems in order to be able to make the right upgrade decisions going forward. Analogue CCTV has long delivered acceptable results in the areas of basic staff and visitor surveillance.” he says.HYBRID TECHNOLOGIES Does hybrid deliver analogue value and IP benefits? Hybrid steps to IP saves money and boosts results. “The use of analogue and IP cameras simultaneously is a tailormade solution for a country like South where the small business sector is growing rapidly. the reduction of stock shrinkage and the monitoring of specific high risk areas. “From people counting and licence plate recognition to the ability to adjust automatically to lighting and discriminatory . as is the case for analogue cameras. he continues. Research has shown that the efficiency level of the average CCTV operator drops dramatically after about 20 minutes. too. whose DVRs (digital video recorders) need replacing due to functionality problems or insufficient recording space. An analogue RG59 cable is vulnerable to picture interference. as a result of which many customers question the need to upgrade their systems to IP when their existing infrastructure supports analogue. in fact. Such growth will lead to the natural expansion of properties. analogue technology is tried. he suggests hybridising pre-existing installations. video and sound is a PoE (Power over Ethernet) cable. is therefore to opt for a hybrid DVR. IP benefits Hybrid technology is also being used with great effect in control rooms. IP cameras produce crisper. +27 (0)11 401 6700. and in use by the majority of end users. Hybrid DVRs are capable of using both analogue and digital cameras.smith@elvey. For more information contact Elvey Security Technologies. will easily bridge that gap while saving the end user a lot of money. which would likely comprise an existing CCTV analogue system and infrastructure with IP cameras that would operate through a hybrid DVR. which can severely hamper security operations. All that’s required for power. according to Greeff. on the other hand. warehouses and office space.” Further. Simple and cost-effective to add to pre-existing networks. thereby removing the need for a power supply close to the camera source. he adds.” His suggestion to owners of existing analogue systems. tasha. the addition of IP security cameras to analogue networks allows control room staff to quickly and accurately analyse images and video footage for specific data such as behaviour patterns and perimeter violations. one can look forward to the ever-increasing quality of facial recognition and other video analytics. who have limited concentration Future proof One of the many benefits of moving over to IP. IP cameras are also the answer to the need to transmit video in digital form to and from the Internet and other e-mail clients. warehouses and office space.securitysa. CCTV Handbook 2013 87 .www.

” notes Brecher. but simultaneously retain existing analogue cameras. it is often a good idea to stick with analogue systems. As the technology improves. A middle road is to offer an upgrade with some IP technology. Gordon Moore. “There are some solutions that transmit HD video along co-axial cables. Let’s go “One needs to consider the implementation costs versus the future relevance of the solution when considering a hybrid solution. national sales manager for Elvey Security Technologies. However.” says Brecher. nothing beats a full IP solution. until bandwidth issues have been resolved. Ultimately. This has changed. but I believe that this is not a long-term solution as it normally requires proprietary hardware which is not compatible with all open systems. or do they simply offer median performance levels? Gus Brecher. he adds. when the industry started with IP. There where many instances m where analogue was required for specific wh areas or functionality. one would make use of IP encoders to convert the analogue images to IP so that they can be incorporated into a full IP .” “Hybrid systems are essentially analogue ue and IP solutions. adds that there are three ways of achieving a hybrid solution: • Hybrid DVRs: these are purpose-built recorders that will have a combination of composite video inputs for the analogue cameras and an Ethernet port for the IP cameras. This will be affected by what resolution is i required and how many frames per seco second are recorded. then it would be foolish to change to IP. IP image quality has now improved significantly a and there is an IP solution for every possible scenario. • Encoders: this is probably the most common solution in larger projects where there have already been large investments with analogue cameras in the infrastructure. When implementing a hybrid solution one needs to understand that you will not get the same image quality as a full IP solution. where one can migrate across to IP over a period without having to start from scratch. it is 88 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Seamless.” says Moore. If the image quality of the analogue camera has deteriorated.securitysa. “There are two basic considerations when converting to hybrid solutions. “Hybrid solutions allow for cost-effective upgrade paths. IP is ideal where the user is operating in a remote or very large location. what are the storage requirements? Secondly. Firstly. It is important that one be able le to use them together on a platform to ensure maximised aximised operability.” Is hybrid the solution? In the beginning.” says Ingo Mutinelli. according to Mutinelli. in most cases. A noisy image is always difficult to compress. It is critical. but also to determine whether the system can be supported and integrated ten years down the line. simultaneous operas tion of both analogue and IP video streams should be the goal of any installation. • CMSs: central management software designed to be able to connect to both DVRs and NVRs.HYBRID TECHNOLOGIES Hybrid: Best of both worlds? By Allyson Koekhoven. Therefore. while retaining your existing investment.” Moore concludes. at the end of the day. In this case. MD at Cathexis Africa says it is important to define a hybrid solution. Currently. Are hybrid solutions the ideal solution for those who want the best of the IP world and the best of analogue? Hybrid solutions are touted as the ideal middle ground solution for users who either cannot or do not wish to replace their entire analogue system with IP. ADI product manager CCTV/Access. on one common platform. “So. if you need higher image resolution. there are traditional DVRs which h have the ability to accommodate IP cameras. however. if cost is an issue then hybrid solutions do provide the best of both worlds but. you can simultaneously embrace the latest technology. These solutions are common in smaller installations ranging from 16 to 32 inputs. “ the only consideration for a hybrid solution now would be instances where there has been significant investment in analogue and there are budgetary constraints that restrict one from instituting a full upgrade. and then hen there is the option to insert IP encoders to convert the analogue video stream to IP. “If you are happy with your analogue camera-to-video quality.” says Mutinelli. “One should also consider the limitations such as what kind of infrastructure is a available in terms of the network capacity capacity. However. Common questions that come to the fore are whether they really do offer the best of both technology worlds. converting it to IP with an encoder will make the image worse because of the way the compression engine works. which analogue cameras would you need to convert into IP and how will this signal scale from point A to point B. to have a centralised management system. such as high-speed area domes. IP becomes more affordable. then you need to consider IP. This. necessary to perform a needs analysis to guarantee not only the ability to upgrade a system. there was a requirement st for hybrid solutions because IP had not fo matured. This may present problems with future upgradeability of systems. “Only if both analogue and IP cameras on a site are being monitored from a common control room or management platform can one truly say that it is a hybrid solution. would be software developed by the manufacturer to allow end-users to view cameras from their older DVR and their newer NVRs. With hybrid. thermal cameras and areas where dome large zo zoom lenses were required.

the security industry is now in transition. These key points define a PSIM product. CCTV Handbook 2013 89 . Physical Security Information Management (PSIM) software enables security departments to manage an enterprise’s exposure to security risk. It is designed to aid decision-making and deployment planning within an organisation. This enforces all policies. allowing it to automatically identify situations and then dynamically update them as they unfold. such as bespoke turnkey solutions offered by some integrators. • Data collection: Device level information is collected from all connected systems. access control and building management systems. PSIM provides an off-the-shelf platform to manage all of these systems. It is therefore essential that the PSIM vendor is not tied to any manufacturer of the underlying systems. connecting them together through a single interface. it has been widely accepted that critical information from numerous sources is left to system operators to interpret and act upon consistently and correctly. it can perform intuitive prioritisation and escalation according to a range of predetermined criteria that might include chronology. Physical Security Information Management (PSIM) software aids in decision-making and deployment planning. and have been collated below: • Open platform: It provides easy integration with a variety of systems from leading manufacturers. Secondly. www. This means a large number of organisations are using lots of systems in their control room which cannot work with each other. How does PSIM differ from other forms of integration? How does PSIM help? Firstly. it uses workflow technology to provide operators with guidance and intelligence for situation management. moving from disparate systems to integrated and interoperable systems. which have highlighted some of the features that distinguish a PSIM solution from other physical security and event management products. Most end-users have video surveillance. by Several studies have been carried out in this area by research companies including Frost and Sullivan and IMS. Within physical security operations. such as 9/11 and 7/7.securitysa. including both legacy systems and new technology. It should provide the ability to integrate events and alarms from these systems along with information such as time and geography. This is far more cost-effective than other forms of integration. Security breaches and challenges Following several large security breaches. increases effectiveness and provides evidence of compliance for auditing and risk mitigation. Whilst system integration might not seem much of a challenge in the world of IT where standards have been around for decades. These systems are not integrated together and work independently with no communication with other systems in the ecosystem. the physical security world has been much slower to adapt to change.MANAGEMENT PLATFORMS PSIM: Why should I be interested? CNL Software white paper. As a result. security professionals have recognised the need to bring together this information in a format that can be visualised and distributed. priority and prevailing threat. For example.

• Incident resolution: The PSIM system software should facilitate the presentation of logically displayed and clearly communicated actions. It should provide a set of easyto-use visual tools to generate policies that are automatically imported into the system for use in the identification and resolution of situations. This flexibility is key when selecting a PSIM solution. • Reporting: All activity should be monitored. people and alarms – and shows what is happening in real-time within a given situation or globally across all situations. emphasising added organisation value through hardened security and increased efficiency or reduced ongoing costs. manica@ethele.securitysa. actions taken. For more information contact E-thele.MANAGEMENT PLATFORMS • Data aggregation: The PSIM software should have the ability to evaluate the information that is gathered to identify and priorities real incidents and situations. audio). people and assets relationships is essential. devices. to aid compliance along with the information. including all operator actions. This will reduce the risk of purchasing a system that will need replacing if the organisation’s circumstances change a few years down the line. Organisations should research the product and ensure the PSIM solution is futureproof and can adapt to the organisation’s changing security needs. It should enforce standard operating procedures to an operator. This should offer the ability to display situations. policies. Are all PSIM solutions the same? There are several true PSIM vendors in the market place who have been deploying their PSIM solutions for more than five years now. configurations. It should gather all information (videos. The crucial factor being that the customer can decide what their priorities are and implement all or just a few modules of a PSIM according to their unique situation. For example. www. there are also a large number of companies who are now marketing their old products under the PSIM banner. • Geospatial engine: Dynamically locating and creating relationships between devices. provide training scenarios and as an auditable record of activity subsequent to a security incident. which is creating confusion in the market place as these products do not have many of the features essential to a PSIM solution. alarms. This has enabled them to understand the challenges and create products that are mature enough to meet the wide number of applications seen in PSIM it may automatically identify the nearest cameras to a situation’s address or locate the security person closest to a medical emergency. 90 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. ensuring responses are fast and appropriate. +27 (0)12 665 3158. and results into one folder for compliance and investigative analysis or post situation training. • Visualisation and collaboration: It should provide the ability to visualise a situation as it evolves and to share this intelligence with response teams. These vendors are several versions into the development of their software. situations. tools and contact information needed for resolution – all within a single user interface.ethele. giving them vital experience that only comes from successfully deploying a number of large scale installations. • Modular platform: It should dynamically adapt to changes in . True PSIM solutions have become more sophisticated. and reporting while the system is running and support a distributed architecture for high availability and disaster recovery.

helping to find the cameras automatically. “Although they are not open source. which poses future risk for the business. Milestone Systems says every installation has to be evaluated from the needs of each customer.securitysa. The next thing to look for is ease-of-use. just as the IT industry had to learn to deal with open source systems and applications. and may include OHS. Buret says. The VMS should be easy to install. and to provide the relevant stakeholders with real-time. End-users should ensure that the management platform of choice is not specific to a particular brand of technology. Customisation can be conducted in order to best fit the client’s requirements. also remotely available from home or when travelling. including the CEO who is ultimately responsible. easy to configure and add cameras. operational information. whether they would benefit from analytics. easy to use by the daily operators. Some argue the free systems can’t match the features and functionality of paid for (or some would say “professional” systems). “My definition of a security management platform is not just a CCTV head-end system. maintenance. What do users want from their management systems? We asked one local and one international platform developer for their take on management platforms. local or both? “And don’t just plan for today’s requirements. with multiple languages if necessary. however. VMS wizards are a great tool for fast installation and hook-ups with the cameras on the network. as in trouble? It seems the VMS industry is also under pressure from free software.” One should ensure that any system is compliant with existing IT standards and protocols within the organisation. these paid-for platforms do not have to be expensive. invariably these are quite the opposite in the longer term. How many locations need to be monitored.” Buret adds. if a great new thermal or backlight-capable camera comes out in a year from another company and you need it for a critical security location. whether their video management needs are relatively simple or highly complex. as well as the business operational requirements.The platform must fit the business What do users want from their management systems? What is selling today and what is being avoided? By Andrew Seldon. easy to maintain and upgrade. This brings the best return on the investment. logical navigation to get the job done. as most often an incident will affect multiple stakeholders.? Peter Biltsted Do they need central management. “The paid-for VMS platforms are developed by companies who really focus on VMS.” He adds that the stakeholders are not only Kevin Buret security. director. so the functionality of their offerings are more www. What should an enduser be on the lookout for when considering implementing a management platform? Kevin Buret from Sukema Integrated Solutions says. number and type of cameras desired. Web clients are more streamlined for faster access. surveillance and many others. For example. Middle East and Africa. good online help and other documentation. Choose a user interface (UI) that’s customisable.” Biltsted adds that the free video management systems offered by some camera manufacturers only work with that company’s cameras. process and procedures and disparate technologies. but rather a software solution that adds value to these and other disparate platforms. how many users will there be of the system and what are their skill levels. “Free. customisable in a structured manner. they should be open to be able to work with and interface/integrate with other existing and disparate systems. and will most certainly have a roadmap for future features and expansion. It should bring together the people. open management systems users can obtain for little or no cost. The first question we have to ask is what a management platform is. and with intuitive. have no future roadmap. Free. open systems seem attractive when considering often limited budgets in organisations. without the need to strip out existing equipment. etc. to integrate with other systems. The paid for systems are sustainable. to be able to add cameras from any manufacturer. Today. as long as they meet the requirements and future requirements of the client. These systems are mostly not sustainable.” The most important thing to look for is an IP video management platform that is truly open to ensure the widest options for now and the future. to upgrade with new software versions. but we also have a growing number of smaller. mobile through smartphones and tablets. so using them means you always have to use that brand of cameras. not supported. you can’t use it in your system. supported. for example. but also not just an open source ‘freebie’ that has no business continuity and is not sustainable. we have expensive management systems that can do almost anything. and will ultimately be replaced by systems that comply with industry standards. who should be configuring them according to the organisational policies and procedures. keeping on top of the latest innovations. “These systems are implemented by CCTV Handbook 2013 91 . This locks you into their product road map limitations over time. others say it depends on what your requirements are. Peter Biltsted. Look for multiple clients to interface with the VMS: stationary at a PC.

com .securitysa. you can upgrade to the higher versions with more capability as your needs grow. Milestone XProtect Smart Client is an interface that is adaptable to different skill levels. languages. cumbersome and expensive. “Traditional security management systems are fast working themselves out of the pricing bracket of many organisations. Integration can be accomplished on a database level due to most IP-based systems. the business requirements and processes need to determine the best-suited management system. For example.” Biltsted has a another approach. the management system is the rules engine and information disseminator providing stakeholders with decision-making knowledge. Failing to plan. cumbersome and expensive systems that integrate every single component within the organisation. not to mention money.MANAGEMENT PLATFORMS comprehensive. it is the resistance to change form personnel.. by means of a business requirement study. noting that there is a full range of VMS offerings available today and if you buy a company’s lower end product to start out. Are they worth it? Very large installations may be able to get a reasonable return from this investment. how does it go about planning and starting the installation to prevent it ending up as a complex. Assuming a company has decided they need a professional management platform with all the bells and whistles.” A professional supplier of VMS will give the installer advice and recommendations on how to optimise the use of hardware to be installed with the software. otherwise it is a complete waste of time and money. Each user can tailor the look and functionality to their own needs to optimise their daily tasks and performance. No matter where or how a company starts implementing a management platform. If you also choose an open VMS. you have all the options you could need both today and tomorrow. storage 92 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. the stakeholders. management systems should be focussing on providing effective and efficient operational systems to ensure that staff are only required to have minimal input.” states Buret. “This needs to be driven from the top management downwards. “It is unnecessary to implement large. especially if it’s an open platform solution that allows integration with the widest choice in hardware and other software like access control. and allow for additional budget requirements in the next few financial years to scale the system. One cannot shoehorn and alter the business requirements into a free system so that the system works. etc. Be sure to look for after-sales support as well: a pure VMS manufacturer has dedicated support for customers and ensures that the latest technologies can be utilised.” Complexity not needed Traditional security management systems are large. identify the required operational outcomes. but the majority of smaller installations would be lost with such complex systems.. work within the budget.” One needs to. camera views. Those who have more complex needs can have them while those who don’t. This gives the best total cost of ownership. “A well-planned system that is based on the required outcomes of the client is the starting point of any professional system. integration should only be conducted if it is going to add value to an operational challenge. and do not require expensive integration at a component level. not to mention the giant task of ensuring what you implement is suited to your actual needs and not the vanilla installation your integrator wants to supply. analytics.” “A really good VMS can provide comprehensive features without every user needing to use them. which may not exist as an off the shelf product. “Management should have real-time information at their fingertips to allow them to focus on managing. “The most important factor with any system is not the system itself. access rights.” says Buret. planning and more planning. costly mess? “Planning. won’t. or any system is potentially doomed for failure before it starts. What’s more. Mobile devices are becoming increasingly important as a source for capturing information in real-time. thereby optimising the solution. who need to buy into the process of utilising the system. there is still a technical and skills gap that needs to be overcome. rather than hours spent compiling reactive reports. they require a significant investment in skills. what bandwidth capacity is needed. phase the implementation. the existing disparate systems and technology. then identify the gap between these and the management system/s being considered. and can focus on dealing with the resultant outcome. etc.” he says.

7. it’s our way of doing business. Availability/resilience: A PSIM software platform must have capability for redundant functionality (eg. It must be able to watch and monitor the functionality and integrity of the underlying subsystems and detect possible threats on the network. multi-site (even cross-national) implementations that want centralised control with local access. Making the right choice Seeing that there are many options when it comes to management platforms. and the wide set of proven third-party integrations possible. 4. For example. The rules based workflow should be sufficiently complex as to adapt to escalating situations. the location and the scope of the threat it presents. Milestone Federated Architecture is a huge benefit to large. the implementation and training. Whether it is sold through a channel partner or directly from Sukema. working together to make IP video surveillance the best that it can be. communication gateways and databases) to support continuity of business and disaster recovery. “Partners and end-users testify to the ease of installing and working with XProtect: the wizards for fast camera connections. manage/ counter the threat and control response operations. access control. Features and functionalities in most modern day systems are very similar. using a system that can grow with your needs? Biltsted says evaluations about what is important can only be made by each customer. in complex solutions utilisation of 64-bit OS technology should be considered for optimisation of the solution. to medium hospital type size. perimeter protection. XProtect Smart Wall is the go-to choice for our customers with big command centres. Web enabled/browser-based platform that is accessible to authorised users from any location around the world. A rules-based workflow for response: A PSIM software platform must be able to immediately offer a step-by-step action plan. the PSIM platform must be able to graphically display situational information in a manner that provides responders with a picture of the nature of the event. easy and www. video. to respond. Clients can add onto the core in a modular fashion according to their increasing requirements and budget Post-event reporting and analysis: A PSIM software platform must provide an audit log that allows for post-event forensic review detailing the event situation and the action taken. the reseller/end-user should look at what services are offered with the product and if it is enough for you. etc. therefore hardware and vendor agnostic. whose needs vary from type of organisation to size to geography and over time. in addition to setting compression of the data as desired. Biltsted says that if these services are not offered. to the diversity and number of hardware devices supported.). 2.” IMS Research: What is PSIM software? IMS Research believes that a PSIM software platform must meet the seven following criteria: 1. 3. fire and life safety. mass notification and building automation. this only forms about 20% of implementing a successful management system that meets the client’s requirements.” Buret says Sukema’s platform “is developed by ourselves in South CCTV Handbook 2013 93 . as well as any customisation required by the client.” requirements. as well as enterprise versions for global mining size organisations. what should users be looking for when considering a management platform? Do you go for a system that can do everything and set it up to meet your needs. support and maintenance is quick.XProtect_ clients efficient. Source: http://imsresearch. php?pr_id=1779. Milestone has beneficial archiving capabilities such as pruning or grooming the video to different levels and storage types which saves on bandwidth. No software resides on a user’s PC. It must be capable of developing customised reports that allow for analysis of multiple events in order to optimise policies and response. In case of an event.” He adds that the global network of partners and customers in the Milestone ecosystem which all contribute inspiration and continued innovation is also important. Visualisation: A PSIM software platform must be able to visualise the actual situation independently from active events. examples include (but are not limited to) video surveillance. alerts and reporting. “The Milestone open platform is not just about our software. This includes the ability to integrate backup systems to automate transfer of control room capabilities. Correlation and verification: A PSIM software platform must be able to automatically connect and cross-reference multiple events from multiple disparate security systems in real-time and give the ability to flexibly set rules. 5. servers. etc. The PSIM platform should be capable of integration with other business systems within a corporate IT-infrastructure such as ERP systems. therefore upgrades. or do you start small. Real-time policy/configuration management: A PSIM software platform must be able to define and change policies and parameters related to various connected devices in the underlying subsystems (such as access control. Connectivity and integration: A PSIM software platform must connect and manage multiple disparate security systems. provisioning systems. data warehouses. The PSIM platform should be open. comprehensive management features. “Another thing is a dedicated VMS manufacturer will use the latest programming tools and technologies. 6. based on pre-determined rules and policies. intrusion.” The Sukema platform consists of a core Microsoft compliant. and capable of connecting to any input sensors and external applications. We are open in our collaboration with our partners and the customers.securitysa. “The determining factor in the Milestone VMS open platform is the broadest ability to choose: from the range of functionality in our portfolio of products that are regularly upgraded. “Our systems cater for clients from a residential estate size. to large corporate size. It must be able to integrate real world information as a geo-spatial representation. Our search and export tools are praised. etc. we are always directly responsible for the BRS with the client. too. and is supported and maintained by ourselves.

With the power of this forensic technology. to allow for more specific focus and less distraction. highlighting incidents or suspicious behaviour and allowing the potential of CCTV footage to be fully a form of forensic video analysis. such as trees waving in the wind. For example. and even if the manpower exists to do this. stores can use this technology to analyse and identify shopping behaviours and patterns. video analysis is simply a generic term to describe computerised processing and analysis of video streams. leveraging value out of CCTV is often a challenging task. It enables users to obtain better quality evidence faster. reducing the time and cost of manpower. as once problem areas have been identified and trends have been picked up. This does not necessarily mean that it will make the task of finding those critical seconds any easier. Video analysis tools can assist in this scenario. and often simply acts as a deterrent to those with malicious intent. and by combining these movements into a single video with time stamps for each individual event. short circuiting the lengthy process of identifying key events. for example.git. One of the major challenges facing any user of CCTV is the sheer volume of recorded events that occurs every day. Events can be browsed through frame by frame. any organisation can use the software to improve staff productivity. Video synopsis software allows users to index and view original event videos with a single click and combine multiple clips into a single summary review. forensic video synopsis enables real value to be leveraged from hours of footage. reducing review time even further. By enabling hours of footage to be viewed in a matter of minutes. turning hours of footage into synopses of just a few minutes. this information can be used to modify behaviours in any scenario. the type of analysis used is critical in ensuring the success of the solution. For more information contact Graphic Image Technologies. The ability to home in on specific areas allows the viewer to. and assist with improving store layout. However. The areas of exclusion can help to remove movement which is irrelevant. In the retail environment. and the deterrent that such a system provides can go a long way towards preventing theft and helping law enforcement agencies to identify and prosecute offenders. technology called video synopsis can prove far more useful and efficient. When looking for a video analysis solution. Surveillance has become an essential element of modern security solutions as it delivers the ability to monitor areas of operation. . casinos can use video synopsis technology to monitor tables for suspicious behaviour and ensure that cheating can easily be detected and the perpetrators identified. Video synopsis enables the viewer to summarise hours of footage into just a few minutes.securitysa. the human eye gets tired and is prone to missing incidents that appear on camera. To put it simply. Sifting through hours of mundane footage for seconds of useful video is an almost impossible task without specialised analysis tools. Video synopsis works by detecting movement in the field of the video. +27 (0)11 483 94 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. and identify which aisles and shelves are most frequented by customers. However. Forensic video synopsis technology increases the accuracy of video analysis and dramatically decreases the time required to browse footage. Video synopsis (VS) is the simultaneous presentation of events that happened at different times. as sifting through hours and hours of footage is typically not feasible. It is also possible to apply areas of interest and areas of exclusion to either home in on a specific area or exclude areas of footage that are not relevant.ANALYTICS Video synopsis versus video analysis By Mark Chertkow. and videos can be exported to create evidence files. Using advanced video analysis tools such as video synopsis. Video synopsis. provide evidence in case of an incident. These snapshots can then be used for identifying suspicious behaviour and perpetrators of incidents. however. One of the obvious applications of this is to identify criminals. In fact. identify incidents and improve service levels. focus exclusively on a door that was broken into or a shelf from where an item was stolen. This can help to ensure optimal product placement for maximum revenue. replacing the fast forward function with an intelligent solution that enables all video footage to be reviewed every day for better security. the power of video synopsis goes beyond crime prevention and has applications in a number of different areas. any user can gain real value from hours of otherwise meaningless CCTV footage. GIT. users can rapidly review and index full-length footage and create synopsis videos that overlays multiple objects and activities that occurred at different times. enables the viewer to summarise hours of footage into just a few minutes. VS creates a snapshot of events that summarises hours of footage. Hospitals can utilise the technology to monitor patient care. However. for behavioural analysis and

Cengence Incident Management is a Web-based tool for registering. analyses and draws associations to the incident and reports on a possible outcome based on patterns thereby enabling management decision making. These incidents can also be raised anonymously thereby reducing victimisation. the support and maintenance of devices and staff tracking within an organisation. +27 (0)11 805 6600. Cengence Gatekeeper is an access control device software application used for management of visitors and staff access with their related and/ or allocated assets. a comprehensive knowledge base and better results. and reporting of staff performance. mitigation/eradication of risk. Data is then captured in a centralised data repository from where various analytical algorithms.pbstechnologies. www. integrated and holistic view of their business. Cengence Tricorder is a mobile tool used on a cell phone or smart phone in conjunction with Cengence Pulse to facilitate stock control. Incidents logged are processed and analysed in real-time in order to generate fast and efficient results. This interface allows for the creation of structured data from a series of unstructured or unsorted data. Cengence TaskMaster is a complex tasking system that allows the user to define and manage required tasks in line with CCTV Handbook 2013 95 . retrieve.gilbert@pbstechnologies. Cengence Scribe is a user friendly Web based tool used to store. It manages the information of persons. assets and documentation used during the investigation. documenting. The system utilises a process flow system which will allow for the creation of complex tasks in line with pre-defined outcomes. It allows for the real-time management of devices. acceptance and escalation of job cards. Cengence is a locally developed Complex Intelligence Management Framework (CIMF) comprising multiple products created to meet the requirements of complex intelligence. operating entities and areas of operational efficiency. It is an end to end system which not only automates the management of task but also aids in strategic. as prevalent in the Cengence Complexis package. Specific task outcomes and tasks can be linked to specific person or groups for execution thereof. For more information contact PBS Technologies. The persons or groups will then be automatically notified of the pending task as well as track and monitor the progress. Cengence Threat is primarily a data capturing and result rendering interface that affords the user the ability to automatically or manually capture data in a prescribed and customisable format. Result sets can be pre-defined and thus force specific analytical data to be produced in line with the client’s specific needs and requirements. This complex intelligence management framework provides clients with an intelligent. reporting and investigating any incidents on a single or across multiple sites. It drives proper functioning and reporting of system performance and service delivery in an auditable manner. Business Intelligence reports and task progress reports will also allow for more accurate and real-time management of the operational and tactical business decision making in order to achieve improved efficiencies. update and manage all documentation within an organisation. It integrates information into a centralised system. enhanced communication. monitoring and notification of incidents and faults. the creation.ANALYTICS: PRODUCT OVERVIEW Intelligence management framework Local management platform puts everything in front of operators. Tasks are created manually using a front-end screen (either in Pulse self. Cengence provides intelligent business solutions across multiple industries. All data gathered is compiled into an identikit that is saved for further analysis. Cengence integrates into all brands of product and systems thus making it non brand specific. Cengence Customer Portal is the gateway through which a channel partner is able to execute and control a range of activities which will manage the administration of their clients’ activities with respect to the use of purchased products. Cengence Essentials is an analytical and efficiency tool effective in the monitoring and managing of all systems and related services. monitoring and management. Results can then be rendered within the Cengence Threat or any other interface and automated actions executed through the use of the Cengence TaskMaster package. or on a Web page accessible from any Internet capable device). to allow for accurate and user required result sets from the analysed data. Cengence Essentials has a variety of modules which are added to Cengence Pulse thereby providing a comprehensive management system. will then extract user requested information and display it in a format that is easy to understand and fully customised. billy. Cengence Complexis is an advanced analytical tool that can process and analyse vast amounts of data in extremely short times. All the Cengeance Essentials modules can be procured separately as required by the client. reduced costs. increased market share. Cengence Pulse is the heart of the Cengence product line and is the platform to roll out Cengence throughout an organisation.securitysa. enabling effective management of operational concerns within an www. Its privilege system together with document inscription ensures secure access to sensitive information. Data is collated and read from the access control database which maintains records and keeps a history of all movement within the environment.

• Presenting evidence to courts for prosecution. Thus. In some control rooms the operation is efficient. Furthermore. System components often fail and there is often neither the will nor the resources to maintain sophisticated Dr Bennie Coetzer systems. Protoclea Advanced Image Engineering. but sufficient resolution to perform adequate detection is also required. as motion in large spaces are analysed. they can perform intelligent interpretation of events automatically and in context with the present scenario. intelligent systems can perform mundane tasks without supervision such as searching intelligently through video material for objects. not the least sharing of cameras between multiple monitoring agencies – a possibility that has become significantly easier with the advent of digital cameras and networks. maintenance and so on. Clearly it would be a waste to simply place cameras everywhere. • Identifying real incidents and selecting actual incidents from false alarms. When considering the application of CCTV in high-motion areas. In most cases. suitable and trained staff is used. The cost of covering an area has reduced dramatically in the recent past but it is still costly when one considers installation. Some factors are relevant with regards to the technology used. cameras are everywhere and placed anywhere. Secondly. etc.securitysa. broad area coverage is required.ANALYTICS Intelligent systems in high motion surveillance By Dr Bennie Coetzer. the appearance of objects (specific vehicles. incidents or even actions. Detection An important technical parameter when it comes to detection is the ability to recognise possible events. It therefore assumes that cameras are placed such that they cover areas where incidents are expected to happen and where the surveillance operator has jurisdiction to monitor. When it comes to camera coverage for this purpose. it is important to consider the critical aspects of street surveillance. (This discussion will be limited to CCTV and its options but other aspects of street surveillance are obviously also important). limited concentration and others). Firstly. the success of such systems is often touted to be high but ends up mediocre. In most cases their diligence overcomes the shortcomings of technology. So what should be the criteria for a good street surveillance solution? In order to define solutions. Covering an area is a subject where many strategies can be deployed to reduce cost. control room diligence overcomes the shortcomings of technology. Humans are particularly good at these tasks but suffer from human frailty (lack of alertness. • Investigating incidents post-incident and gathering evidence. specific people) or out-of-place behaviour such as movement in dead . Intelligent systems automate tasks. What would be the characteristics of a system capable of delivering the above functionality and how can intelligent systems offer a contribution? In order to investigate what such systems can offer a brief definition of the characteristics of intelligent systems in this context would be in order. 96 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. may trigger investigation. When these systems are evaluated. the quality of technology is often not fit for purpose. Let’s briefly explore each of the above characteristics and the contribution of intelligent systems in each. According to the SAPS forensic department. a number of aspects are clear. Secondly. preferably pro-actively. • Managing these incidents remotely from a control room. running. such as street surveillance environments. it appears that where systems are successful. more than 95% of video footage analysed by them turns out to be unusable for investigation purposes and even more are less useful for prosecution. specific recognition such as facial or ANPR does require much better resolution. While behavioural analysis does not necessarily require high detail. this has often more to do with the control room operations than the technical systems themselves. Detection is often a question of recognising behaviour or anomalies. they operate without or with minimal human intervention. Street (CBD) surveillance consists fundamentally of: • Detecting possible events.

it can be used to create tracks of movement and predict destinations. so what can intelligent systems offer? A number of automated tools can be used to assist humans in this detection. immediate facial recognition or number plate recognition can identify objects specifically assisting an operator in knowing who he is dealing Continued on page 98 www. significantly reduce false alarms. These cameras are very poor in their ability to monitor as they have essentially tunnel vision and have to be directed if used in the monitoring sense. even to some extent. shape recognition).securitysa. higher resolution cameras can be used with no loss of information. improved detection. Here identification becomes paramount and therefore resolution is critical. analysis of detected events CCTV Handbook 2013 97 . humans offer at present by far the best abilities. providing at best. In addition. With wide area sensing illumination becomes a real problem as cameras have notoriously low dynamic ranges and special care must be taken to offer constant level illumination or support illumination. in particular. automated detection. or support illumination. But to be useful it must be able to offer some capabilities such as continuous detection. ANPR. Last but not least. combining information into single events. Identification When it comes to identification. Modern image processing techniques can support this function successfully by offering both behaviour detection (motion and tracking analysis) as well as specific object detection (facial.Wide area detection sensing will therefore probably consist of wideangle views to cover most of the area with specific high-resolution (narrow angle) views on specific places monitored for specific events. Behavioural analysis is a hot topic today and. Analysis of historic events and time-line analysis can create pro-active trends and contextual analysis can be used to create priorities in detected events. intelligent systems strive to improve detection and. With the use of low-light capabilities. a time sliced view of any area. assist humans and reduce reaction time in addition to potentially lower the cost of providing security and indeed even of hardware required. These include rapid pointing of the camera by pointing at a position on the static (wide area) scene and automatically designate the camera to slew to this point. by using sophisticated analysis and cross-correlation techniques. In this context. Similarly. (When cameras with resolution higher than the screen resolution are used. resulting in significant cost saving. while still in its infancy.) This means that fewer cameras can be used to achieve the same result. This will assist human operators by taking over the mundane and boring tasks of continuous monitoring. very good identification can be achieved. filtering true alarms from false/ nuisance alarms and so on. Fortunately. All of this serves to improve the quality of service. What can intelligent systems offer? In the detection arena. time to reach possible targets and. These do not have to be from single views but can be achieved in a combination of multiple camera views. But when it comes to identification they can zoom in to any object and because of their narrow view the camera is essentially subject to a very even illumination spread. intent of the action. because machines can work in parallel and process a lot of information simultaneously. Such analysis in conjunction with scenario analysis can offer very powerful incident detection capabilities. the use of pan/tilt/zoom cameras have also become much cheaper and their capabilities have also increased dramatically. some pixels are simply not displayed and no one can observe what happens unless you zoom in – an action that will only be performed when something has been detected in the first place. the requirements change dramatically.

high-motion systems will be the use of intelligent systems. in shadows as well as in bright areas. as well as access to historical information such as names. but more than that. One of the most obvious tasks would be to search through available historical events of both the incident and the pre-incident information. Whenever identification is important resolution should not be sacrificed. • Evidence can be stored securely until the trial is complete. Frame rate is only required to be high if the possibility of missing an action exists. to identify its number plate at least 500 pixels per metre. To recognise the shape and model at least 10 pixels per metre. or influence. This could include a variety of image enhancement to allow for detection of when it comes to incident management. addresses and prior or www. While this is clearly a human task. Post-event analysis Once the excitement has died down the real work often starts. • Be in constant communication with resources and offering them useful information as well. frame rates of 10 fps to 12 fps are usually sufficient. Dynamic range – this is difficult to define as it is seldom specified by manufacturers.5 dB (for simple processes) is required throughout the scene. The task requires amongst others the following of the command and control system: • Presentation of visible views of all views that are relevant to the incident and removal of irrelevant views. vehicles and other events prior to the incident and it can do this automatically. Thus. the incident. The design should consider what the information is to be used for and once this is defined. Consideration should be given to video resolution. These have the potential of reducing human workload. but if objects are to be identified over the image a contrast difference between subject and background of at least 0. or their low storage requirement resulting in long storage periods.ANALYTICS Continued from page 97 with based on prior information. however. • In addition. Frame rate – a parameter which is often overstated to the detriment of resolution. camera dynamic range. It is sad to say that in most cases the actual use of the information is disregarded to save money. Such plans could have foreseen certain disasters and initial war room views could be pre-set to speed up reaction. Most of these functions. a company specialising in the development of products such as those described in this article. etc. machines could offer a significant contribution to the surveillance process. • Offering additional information. This requires amongst others: • Evidence be packaged in formats that prosecutors can easily access and present. Intelligent machines can locate sightings of people. Video resolution – this must be such that the type of object is recognisable at the distance seen. An intelligent system should be able to treat recorded video as live video and perform all the same detection and recognition functions on historical information – often faster than real-time. Using track analysis. look into dark spots. storage period and so on and at the risk of stating the obvious some aspects should be re-stated. 98 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. such as other events that are happening in the area that may be affected by.securitysa. controlling the camera to search for subjects. are primarily the responsibility of the prosecution agency. • Understanding the environment and location by presenting the team with maps/building layouts of the relevant areas. This requires access to historical information and this is also where many systems fail. Whether the incident was contained or not the analysis of what led up to the event and what happened during the event must now take place. Once this is done relevant information can be extracted and saved into long-term storage. • Evidence is treated in such a way that it cannot be tampered with or be lost. would need at least three pixels per metre on the object. predicting possible scenarios and monitoring these potential spots. Storage period – the general rule of thumb is that the storage period need not be longer than the period required to recognise the crime. ie. Evidence for prosecution While the prosecution effort is generally not part of the command and control system and at this point. how would intelligent systems assist at the post-event analysis level. immediate access to relevant recordings of the incident. humans are in a class of their own. Incident management includes a number of functions such as continuously monitoring the event itself. This ability to bring scenario analysis into decision making is an area that promises huge advances in security provision and particularly in high dynamic environments such as street surveillance control rooms. Dr Coetzer can be contacted at Protoclea Advanced Image Engineering (benniec@protoclea. required frame rate. the best. identifying people. other than packaging of the evidence and the way it is packaged. important that evidence is managed in a way that is conducive to successful prosecution. The automatic identification of objects allows operators to rapidly classify an event into an incident and also to prioritise incidents according to historical information that may have been gathered. also assist in contextualising the incident and managing it appropriately. to recognise that an object is a car one Conclusion It should be clear that the next wave in security systems and in . combined analysis from multiple sources and so on they can assist in powerful analysis of information creating very good evidence for prosecution. communicating with these resources and so on. intelligent systems can greatly assist in the following way: • Enhancing the views that operators have of the incident. It is. It is probably safe to say that cameras and video recording equipment are mostly sold on their ability to compress video streams into narrow bandwidths. Incident management Up to this point. the use of intelligence is somewhat limited to that of the lawyers and advocates. understanding what resources are available to manage the incident. Similar specifications for identifying all objects must be calculated and appropriate camera specifications be used. For most views frame rates of less than 8 fps is adequate to determine behaviour and if less of an eye strain is important due to long viewing periods. Given that the above was achieved. • The presentation of relevant views can be automatic by the use of scenario planning and analysis. it has the potential of using humans in a way where their unique and powerful abilities are best used. resulting in improved security at a lower cost. most cost effective solution that will still achieve this should be acquired. This is clearly a big job and is often handled by an incident management team. However.facebook.

which is quite different to technologies like Internet access where most of the traffic is one way in the direction of downlink. In addition. • Sophisticated Media Access Control (MAC) protocols and Air Interfaces/ Frames which cater for the un-interrupted delivery of time sensitive data. which equates to dedicated bandwidth per CCTV surveillance camera in a Point-toMultipoint (PtMpt) environment. Likewise. while meshing type technologies also make the technology more resilient. “Wired solutions. • Robust performance in dense urban areas in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) and near-line-of-sight (nLOS) situations. Fortunately. video. remote locations can also be connected to live streams at very low bandwidth requirements – which is perfect for our unreliable cellular networks. When it comes to selecting the solution for your project. the jury is still out. In a similar vein. It’s a shared media solution. as found in a multi-service environment. he says: Any wireless technology that has tick boxes next to the following: • A wireless portfolio that includes Point-to-Point (PtP) as well as a solution for Point-toMultipoint where dedicated bandwidth is allocated per subscriber unit. Graham Duxbury. Moreover.11 CSMA/SA Mac protocol does not allow for Looking at wireless When it comes to wireless networking.CONNECTIVITY Don’t ignore wireless The networking technology chosen for surveillance projects is a crucial component of the final success of the solution. • Enough bandwidth per PtP link. www. but with the right technology.securitysa. but there seems to be a tendency for installers to prefer wired systems. Duxbury says most data-oriented wireless technologies are well suited to CCTV applications. WiFi: Due to the cheap nature of these solutions. • Fixed and low latency for zero video hiccups. economies of scale cannot be reached.” Peter Turvey. typically they are intended for the low end of the market. With all the planning and preparation that goes into buying surveillance cameras and the supporting software. CEO of Duxbury Networking says it’s a question of horses for courses. your surveillance solution is going to be a disappointment. So. • Outstanding interference mitigation mechanisms in unlicensed wireless frequency bands. Their security is robust and reliable and shared media solutions such as 802. these include: WiMax: Due to technology being designed for home-user Internet access traffic. such as other traffic to cater for. and how you build the overall solution that matters more than the individual components and technologies. Not that the right wireless technology can’t handle video streams. over 200 Mbps per sector for a typical large CCTV deployment. MD. When asked what wireless technology is suited for surveillance solutions that require reliability and constant throughput. Thus.” He adds that there may also be additional considerations. we have a few options when it comes to connectivity. many IP cameras support built-in WiFi.” • Configurable uplink and downlink – remember video surveillance is mostly one way in the direction of uplink. Radwin SADC Region is naturally a supporter of wireless solutions. “In my opinion. it is how you use and integrate all the communication systems. use them – but they may not always be suited to the environment. with a growing trend to using wireless networks in support of surveillance streams. • Enough bandwidth per sector in PtMpt to handle at least 50 x 3MP cameras. The nature of the WiFi 802. eg. it has a typical one-third uplink and two-thirds downlink ratio.11ABGN (and future releases) are cost-effective and can be built to reliably carry video and other data traffic in the last mile. If you forget to ensure there is enough bandwidth over the network technology you choose. the connectivity. due to the 35 Mbps per sector limit on CCTV Handbook 2013 99 . always provide the best in bandwidth. one can be forgiven for forgetting another vital component of the mix. ie. By Andrew Seldon. Turvey notes that some wireless technologies are not suited for CCTV surveillance. including copper and fibre-optic. not designed for dedicated high bandwidth traffic. “In addition. but again may not be the perfect option. the experience and expertise of the reseller or installer comes to the fore. Not only that. point-to-point and point-to-multipoint solutions in both the licensed and unlicensed frequencies provide for measurable and reliable video backhaul. if you can. wireless technologies (mostly WiFi) are significantly more flexible.

making them much more suitable for surveillance applications. and is therefore intended for applications that most downlink in nature.securitysa. unlike fibre. as well as leading-edge storage. but a combination of many. software. Wireless. there isn’t a single best method of connectivity. as long as the right product is used. there are some circumstances where a cable infrastructure simply isn’t viable or even possible. Mining environments. Miro IP surveillance. “The CCTV market is being advanced by users’ needs to monitor more locations. Turvey says that. which are constantly changing. to always do a proof of concept (POC) to ensure that a solution will operate as marketed.” He does note.11n). that where fibre is already installed it is very good option and should be utilised if possible. Packet loss. high . etc. is quick and easy to install and very costeffective when compared to fibre. dongles. And while in a perfect laboratory environment a vendor might be able to reproduce its marketing specifications. tablets. it must be understood that if a fibre installation is one metre short. Today. It’s a shared media solution. standard WiFi equipment is still not the best option for wireless transmission. It is advisable 100 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. eg. a variety of wireless communication. which one is best? The truth is. brand manager. time. CAT5 networking cable is typically the preferred medium for IP surveillance as it provides great speed and very few hassles once installed.CONNECTIVITY the dedicated delivery of traffic and it cannot guarantee low latencies. “However. However. Wireless is typically not an in building solution but can be deployed to cover a campus wide CCTV deployment. combined with cable infrastructure where possible. with fluid recordings and no dropped frames. more efficiently. management of these infrastructures becomes critical. Duxbury notes that one of the issues one needs to focus on is finding a supplier that knows how to offer the best advice. How get connected Technology is not the only issue to consider when deploying a surveillance solution. and with the introduction of the latest wireless standard (802. Carrier grade wireless equipment manufacturers such as Radwin and Linkra. “Traditionally. on the other hand. it typically can never be reproduced in a real-live field environment. Standard outdoor WiFi equipment has been used successfully in many of these applications. however. will ensure a reliable surveillance system. the less bandwidth is available for the video surveillance solution. are able to transmit data much faster. Carrier grade products are a far better option. They are typically presented with marketing material that is similar between vendors even though the underlying technologies are very different. “Customers/installers face the challenge of incorporating these new systems into existing networks and integrating them with information management systems. can be installed in a day. serve larger geographic areas. as this requires digging up pavements and roadways in order to lay trunking for the cables to use. organisations built separate surveillance networks alongside their regular corporate networks.” He adds that it is an alarming issue that a chief finance officer (CFO) or a chief technical officer (CTO) is being asked to make decisions on technologies that could be foreign to them. Each connectivity method usually has its own unique set of characteristics that make it ideal for certain applications. therefore there is no dedicated bandwidth. splicing. In short. and with less interference. end-to-end solution – from the camera to the disk drive. implementations are offering faster speeds and even more reliability than ever before. being IP based means that a number of different connectivity options are available. but having a carrier grade wireless solution. they began to engineer end-to-end solutions that used a single transport medium. as with analogue CCTV systems. if the fibre does not exist then costs will soar. 3G: Has a ratio of one-third uplink and two-thirds downlink for data traffic (3G HSDPA+ standard – 5. Due to the collision nature of the protocol. the market teems with new high definition IP camera options.1 Mbps downlink).” Connectivity: cable or wireless? By Chris Sutherland. “That said. simply cannot rely of a cable-based solution. which offers great throughput and great reliability. sometimes it might stretch the truth somewhat. Although CAT5 is great for the task. converged CCTV/data networks are headed in this direction.7 Mbps uplink and 21. and said product is installed properly. etc adds excessive costs to the deployment. For these scenarios. “When the significant cost and performance benefits of fully converged networks was realised. However. as the cost of trenching.” Turvey says that one must also exercise caution and not just believe what one reads when presented with a vendor’s marketing documentation. then an integrated fibre option was selected. They therefore need to source from suppliers who understand the connectivity requirements of an overarching. and some of the best-designed surveillance systems do not purely rely on one data transport medium. standard WiFi IP surveillance systems are indeed possible. which means that the more 3G phones.” Certain wireless technologies are also suited for long distances without the hassles associated with laying and maintaining cable.” says Duxbury. If the corporate or campus network was fibre based. are used in a 3G cell. installers typically turn to wireless networking. and dropped links are always a possibility when using standard WiFi. “What’s more. Internet access. Gated communities and estates also tend to have issues with cable systems. even on a campus or in building. has no real distance limitations for CCTV. underlining the fact that sheer bandwidth is no guarantee of ultimate performance. distribution and analytics solutions capable of recognising potential security breaches without human involvement. view clearer images and automatically analyse large amounts of data. who do not conform to standard WiFi protocols. due to it not being specifically designed for surveillance applications. it begs the question. WiFi cannot guarantee the timeous delivery of video traffic. with the proliferation of wireless networks today. control and management systems. and no longer are installers compelled to use coax cable. when dealing with converged multiservice networks. the nature of wireless is obviously untethered and can be delivered over long distances (up to 120 kilometres) as long as the above criteria is met. it is too long a distance for fibre. Now that so many different IP-based connectivity options are available. CCTV Handbook 2013 101 .www.

However. Brendon Cowley. Today the image sensors have much higher resolution giving us farther detection ranges as well as cleaner and crisper imaging. • Their capabilities of detecting intrusion through heavy fog / mist are improving. than using conventional video cameras. With the price shift. • A variety of detectors can be found nowadays. The first thermals launched had lower resolution sensors which made detection ranges fairly limited. director of C3 102 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Axis Communications: There has been a definite change in the market from analogue to IP thermal cameras. (180x120. as with any military pedigree. many of whom – somewhat ironically – have a military background. We need to bring military applications to bear against the country’s hardened criminals. • Thermals are being manufactured to include intelligent video analytics for surveillance purposes. Axis Communications sales manager for Africa John Loftus. this thinking is gradually giving way to a realisation that South Africa is indeed engaged in a war of sorts. it has made thermal technology more accessible and available to every day use. Jason McGregor. 640x480). 384x288. MD of TeleEye (South Africa): Security installers and design engineers have historically considered such state-of-the-art technology as thermal imaging to only be suitable for military applications. Philip Smerkovitz. how has the thermal market changed over the past few years? Jason McGregor. innovative engineering has seen thermal imaging now well integrated into security applications throughout the civilian sector.THERMAL The expanding role of thermals Thermal cameras are still a popular addition to the security arsenal of many organisations. Thermal manufacturers have been at pains to be to point out cost benefits and point to the fact that although undoubtedly thermal cameras are more expensive than conventional CCTV. larger areas can be protected using a far less number of thermal cameras. This has allowed the technology to be accessed and tested by a greater number of potential customers. Another major driving factor has been the take up of premium motor manufacturers utilising thermal technology for nighttime driving. C3: • Thermals are becoming more IP orientated and able to integrate to IP surveillance solutions. Many corporate managers still view the technology as somewhat ‘over the top’ Fortunately. MASS Price decline has been the prime mover in helping thermal technology break into the mainstream CCTV market. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Apart from price declines and more companies becoming involved in manufacturing thermal cameras. John Loftus. history shows that many applications designed for use in the world’s militaries have the potential to cross over into the civilian space with just a few clever tweaks.securitysa. Hi-Tech Security Solutions asked a few people in the know for their views on this market and where they thought it was heading. • Thermals are being used far more as a 24/7 surveillance camera and not just used for night-time viewing. there is still the challenge of trying to properly communicate the advantages of thermal imaging in the commercial security arena. 320x240. However. Thermal cameras are still a popular addition to the security arsenal of many . who then want to use this technology on their own property. While not related to the CCTV arena. Similarly. MD of MASS Brendon Cowley. Couple that to PTZ units and you have an all-encompassing solution. General Motors’ Hummer is an excellent example of how a vehicle with a military pedigree can perfectly appeal to civilians following a well thought-out makeover. The introduction of dual thermal imaging cameras has increased the appeal of thermals dramatically.

One must remember that thermal cameras are not only suitable for night-time illumination. process control. Thermal imagers can see them well because they don’t just make pictures from heat. thermals offer a far more reliable detection medium than conventional video cameras due to the high contrast of the images relayed. precious metal refineries and classified national keypoint sites. With the increased use of unmanned analytics. nature conservation. Thermal cameras don’t have these shortcomings as they detect heat/ energy and not reflected light. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What are the primary functions people are using thermals for? Where are they best suited? McGregor: We are seeing thermal being used across the board into varying segments. generate their own contrast because they generate their own heat. health and safety. they just have different lenses for different distances. They need enough light. Wherever there is a high risk or high value area that requires a sophisticated surveillance system. The vast majority of thermal cameras are sold alongside a video camera as a complimentary technology. Loftus: Perimeter detection. Without a doubt. This ability also means they can transcend security applications and also be ideal for traffic monitoring. preventative maintenance and so on. too. gold CCTV Handbook 2013 103 . detection or identification is required.securitysa. Everything you see in normal daily life has a heat signature. An army might order 10 000 thermal imaging devices whereas a civilian population. Smerkovitz: Applications include areas where it is impractical. automation. TeleEye. they make pictures from the minute differences in heat between objects. can convincingly demonstrate that the total cost of ownership of thermal cameras is much lower over long distances compared to traditional surveillance cameras. and corporate organisations. thermal cameras are the best 24-hour imaging option. But the amount of reflected light they receive is not the only factor that determines whether or not you’ll be able to see with these cameras: image contrast matters. Thermal cameras also have the distinct advantage of being able to see through smoke and fog and this makes them ideal for marine. wide open spaces.The crossover of military technologies into the civilian arena has the advantage of price decreases being able to be realised as uptake increases. areas where there is little or no additional or ambient lighting. C3 has installed thermal cameras at a variety of places such as power stations. Outdoor applications where long range recognition. Few people realise that thermal cameras are not blinded by sunlight making them an excellent daytime option as well. Many of the objects you could be looking for. They also have the ability to cover long ranges meaning they have traditionally been deployed in the protection of large perimeters found in mines. Perimeter monitoring remains one of the most popular applications for thermal cameras. Cowley: Best suited for low light conditions and large open spaces where intrusions with a normal day/ night camera become difficult to detect. like people. tunnels of the Gautrain. and law enforcement applications. estates and office parks. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: A thermal camera is a thermal camera. thermals are suitable. not cost effective or environmentally restricted when it comes to white light or IR illumination. Day/night cameras/IR devices and night vision devices work by detecting reflected light energy. Is this true? How do your thermals differentiate themselves? McGregor: Whilst sensors themselves can be quite similar. and enough contrast to create usable images. residential estates. Primary use is detection rather than surveillance. Industrial requirements remain high and we contain to see healthy growth in this area. might order 100 000 thermal imaging systems. albeit different resolution are available our differentiating factor is the ability to stream multiple colour palettes from the same camera which enables www. Within corporate South Africa we are seeing excellent uptake when it comes to reliable perimeter protection at an affordable price. Potential thermal camera applications are limited only by the creativity of the installer. Flir Systems distributors. which has been eagerly adopted by many residential estates.

The higher the frequency the higher the frame rate the better the quality of the image. Loftus: Yes. exact positioning devices. Perhaps most importantly. Edge storage as well as the ability to load third-party analytics directly onto the camera gives the end user flexibility and scalability to customise each camera to their required application. Product ranges will be expanded to include dome-type multi-sensors. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Some manufacturers offer dual thermal/visual cameras that allow operators to zoom in when an alert is raised. is another in a long list of advantages of these devices. verification and recognition of targets in the absence of light. many thermal cameras are now available with builtin analytics. red-tape requirements and resolutions. For example. the farther the field of view (FOV) is. will detect intrusions at a much farther distance (450 m). Loftus: Higher resolutions. whereas a camera with a 20 μm using the same 50 mm lens. We also offer either 9 Hz or 25 Hz units. depending on client requirements. Loftus: The vast majority of thermal cameras are sold alongside a video camera as a complementary technology. Smerkovitz: Image quality will continually improve in leaps and bounds as advanced software becomes available. Due to this increased resolution these modules are suitable for identifying and surveying areas in their own right. such as Flir. Cowley: No. While you might consider a quarter of degree to be adequate thermal sensitivity as soon as you look at a low contrast scene you’ll discover the image quality adversely effects the image quality as noise begins to dominate the image. analogue units with an additional encoder. Cowley: At present there is only one high end manufacturer of thermal cameras for the commercial market that has the zoom capability on both the thermal and visual / CCD camera. Operators can also make use of the optical zoom camera to further interrogate the target. TeleEye always recommends that clients ensure their thermal imaging systems use the DDE software algorithm for optimal image quality. Different lenses are indeed offered for different distances with one particular lens being able to detect a human being at a staggering 18 kilometres. Less than 50 mK is ideal and will result in higher sensitivity of the thermal sensor which will result in better detection of intrusions and higher image quality (less noise). Megapixel sensors are now available but are very expensive and will not reach the mainstream market in the foreseeable future. The mainstream security market is using uncooled thermal modules and the first of these introduced to the mainstream security market were general low resolution 160x90 pixels. Cooled thermals calibrated to a known temperature which means they are more sensitive to minute temperature changes. light permitting. a camera that has an Micron Pitch 50 μm using a 50 mm lens may detect intrusions at a distance of 300 m. There are quite a few factors that differentiate one thermal camera from another. 104 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Cowley: Temperature monitoring / flame detection / intelligent video analytics. Smerkovitz: These dual function cameras are already widely used and will remain popular since they offer all the benefits of long-range thermal detection. Oculus currently offers an IP option with a DRS core. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What advances in thermal technology can we expect to see in the next year or so? McGregor: More analytics. the thermal being used to detect a threat and the video camera to identify. they are particularly suited for very long-range applications and are generally only used by military or government in high risk areas where the cost can be accepted against the protection required. • Hertz: This is the frequency at which the camera operates and is directly related to frame rate. Loftus: Thermal cameras are split into two main categories cooled and uncooled modules. which will continue to drive development of edge analytics providing the customer with an array of applications which can be installed on the camera. This calibration process results in greater image quality and improved camera performance. Oculus offers an industry leading hi-res 640x480 option.securitysa. better quality products will become available at lower prices. • Micron Pitch (μm): The smaller the micron pitch number is . Oculus offers three different thermal cores (from three different core manufacturers) each with different pricing. The rest of the dual thermal / CCD with zoom capabilities offer the zoom on the CCD only. multiple camera options on one platform. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Are we going to see more intelligence built into thermals in the future? McGregor: Axis will continue to support and promote our ACAP (Axis Camera Application Platform ) offering. Let’s talk about a few of them: • Sensitivity of the thermal sensor: As you review published camera specifications you will see thermal sensitivity specifications range between . Greater analytical capability will be built into future camera systems further reducing reliance on human operators who are by nature never 100% reliable or accurate. 320x240 and more recently 640x480 thermals modules are now available and these provide excellent images. this statement is not true. Smerkovitz: Absolutely. coupled with stronger processors and higher resolutions. • NUC: As the number of pixels increases and their sensitivity improves the quality of image is increasingly dependent on a process called Non Uniformity Calibration or NUC. image quality is crucial and several different resolutions are available. again. These are still popular and are used generally as a detector with analytics. will these solutions become the norm? McGregor: This is becoming an offer from many manufacturers but is very costly so will remain a niche requirement. Alternatively. Smerkovitz: Leading manufacturers in thermal imaging.THERMAL better detection in changing environments.25°C (250 mK) and 0. offer many lens variants which. in some cases very similar in quality achieved from a monochrome video camera. As one would imagine.05°C (50 mK).

year on year www. Both IP and analogue cameras employ an analogue image sensor. Most CCTV setups run on a time lapse basis (around twenty-five frames per second (PAL). Analogue has and does perform exceptionally well at night. A standard analogue CCTV surveillance system includes the cameras. and have a very easy to use system. analogue CCTV cameras have a relatively low cost up front. 4 CMOS 600 TVL cameras. michelle@syntech. laptop or desktop computer). Initially. CP Plus entry-level DIY kits are also available for the B2B market from Syntech for a retail price of around R5999. the market was abuzz. where IP cameras can use either CCD or CMOS sensors. either within a retail environment (at the till point or in store). All analogue cameras employ a CCD sensor. In South Africa. and are generally compatible with different types of surveillance equipment. celebrating over 70 years of existence. These DIY kits include a DVR. and in dark areas. DIS cameras have become very competitive in the analogue market. The pricing at the time was sky high and the perception of installing CCTV into certain sectors of the market was perceived as a negative. which enables Syntech to offer resellers scalable solutions according to their ensuring peace of mind in the safety of our homes. Syntech. Analogue CCTV has become readily available to the public. there are shortages that occur. and DIS (Digital Image System) boasting advanced features in terms of image quality. while retaining sophisticated technology. Businesses and home-owners alike steered away from the expensive ‘élite’ option of having closed circuit television. We’re moving away from the current entry level 420 and 480 TVLs and making our entry level 600 and 700 TVLs. but needs to be monitored to protect your assets). the pricing of the equipment is substantially lower and more cost-effective than it has ever been. When analogue cameras entered the market a few decades ago. As each picture is made up of horizontal lines. The image detail of analogue cameras is measured in TVL (TV Lines). a monitor. Analogue CCD cameras also manage motion well. with features capable of performing in extremely low illumination areas. to encapsulate quality images benefiting people in security conscious environments. While IP (Internet protocol) cameras have appeared on the market. There are some significant advantages in CCD image quality over CMOS. offering a higher overall reliability as a time-proven surveillance system. 18 metre cabling per camera. It’s the quality of the analogue cameras which make all the difference. CP Plus systems are technically easy to install. or within a business (where deviant behaviour has a better disguise. Today it’s a different story. and meet many application requirements for cost-effective surveillance systems. cameras were released at 320 and 340 TVLs. which is either a charge coupled device (CCD – the digital microchip which produces the picture signal) or a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS). Analogue CCTV manufacturers have a vast range of camera specifications. from fixed and varifocal lenses. These digital recordings are often compressed in order to save the footage regularly. As a business owner. we feel the need to have a security system. Analogue cameras send analogue signals to a DVR (digital video recorder) or other platform ( CCTV TIMELINE 1942 First used by the US Military to monitor the testing of the V2 missiles 1953 Used in the UK for the first time for the Queen’s coronation 1960s Started appearing in public places to monitor crowd behaviour during rallies and public figure appearances 1980s VCRs (Video Cassette Recorders) came onto the scene making CCTV more popular enabling its users more storage of their video surveillance 1990s The DVR (Digital Video Recorder) was born. This allowed images from existing analogue cameras to be recorded and stored on hard disk drives with images being a much higher quality 2013 The analogue system is KING. although the signal needs to be converted via a video capture card in your computer. Syntech. models. Analogue signals can be recorded on your PC as a digital recording. and thirty frames per second (NTSC). the cost of implementing a surveillance system is now relatively small compared to the cost of not having that system in place – a major factor in the decision to install a CCTV system. energy-efficiency capability and overall system stability. in a warehouse (where consumable products may go missing). As home-owners. Analogue CCTV has become readily available to the public. sizes and CCTV Handbook 2013 105 . the pricing of the equipment is substantially lower and more cost-effective than it has ever been. For more information contact Michelle Marais.ANALOGUE Analogue: still going strong By Michelle Marais. The manufacturers are still improving their analogue ranges with such concepts as WDR (Wide Dynamic Range) allowing a camera to filter intense back light and enhancing the ability to distinguish features and shapes by scanning the same frame twice and then processing the image pixel by pixel into a single frame. There are many areas of safety that concern us. Most DVRs act like a network camera. primarily around how well each sensor type works in low light conditions. manufactured and technically improved. to box camera sets with interchangeable lens configurations to best suit the solution required. a four-way power supply and a 4 channel DVR with a 500 GB hard drive. Replacement of a damaged or broken camera has become far easier. allowing digital broadcasting of the video signal. cables and a DVR. the number of interlaced even and odd lines define the quality and resolution of the picture.

The surveillance industry continues to transition from analogue to digital. In 2011. this means that data is both spread out over multiple drives and additional information is stored to allow data to be rebuilt after failure. The unique demands that result from the transition from analogue to digital image capture are largely driven by the fact that digital images can exceed the resolution limits of analogue cameras. The trade-off for improved speed and reliability is increased cost. For example. SSDs rely on a large amount of solid-state memory. With striping. As a result. SSDs also offer substantial increases in speed for both reading and writing data over mechanical HDDs. Striping improves performance of a RAID system by writing data to a large number of drives simultaneously so that the duration of a single write operation is greatly reduced. To help understand these concepts better its best to review how they’re implemented in real surveillance systems and the different RAID levels used. the typical price per gigabyte of raw HDD storage has decreased from $56. A conventional mechanical hard disk operates using a series of spinning rigid plates that store information using magnetism. RAID 0 allows a group of hard drives to act as a single usable storage array with increased performance of distributing load across all hard drives. For example if you had eight hard How you store your video footage impacts your ability to make optimal use of it. This is the most fault tolerant RAID setup since all data is mirrored fully.50. RAID levels 5 and 6 are more commonly used for large amounts of storage for surveillance video. Beyond redundancy and fault tolerance. essentially microchips. However.securitysa. moving parts to store information. Because of this. the ability to increase the density in which data is stored has allowed HDD size to shrink tremendously. and have no 106 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. RAID 0 is the simplest form and provides no redundancy or fault tolerance. playback and manage. Storage technologies Disk drives The hard disk drive (HDD) is the central component to the digital storage of surveillance video. The way surveillance images are stored has also changed from analogue-based recording solutions – like VHS tapes and film – to digital storage on hard drives. however since it requires twice as many hard drives to provide the needed capacity it’s typically used only for operating systems or programs. more efficient and progressively .053 per gigabyte in 2011. although multiple pairs of mirrored hard drives can be striped together in a RAID 10 or a RAID 1+0 array. the part of the analogue to digital surveillance transition – how images are captured – is placing unique demands on surveillance storage technology. most surveillance systems in place today make use of hard disks to store surveillance images digitally. 1. With hard drive capacity doubling approximately every two years and the cost per unit shrinking by 50%. This transition is taking place on two fronts – how the images are captured and how they are stored. mirroring and striping. HDD technology has evolved incrementally from the same basic concept pioneered in 1956 – a stack of spinning platters and scanning heads. data can be spread out at a low level across multiple hard drives.30 per gigabyte in 1998 to $0. Using striping without parity or mirroring. implementing RAID also increases the performance of a storage system by increasing the throughput beyond what could be accomplished with a single hard drive. most surveillance systems use multiple disks in redundant configurations (see the next section on RAID for more detail). it’s created in both places. Hard drives have the possibility of failure – especially when using moving components – so redundancy is a critical consideration to ensure data won’t be lost and systems will continue to operate in the event of a drive failure.STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES Storage technologies for video surveillance An Avigilon white paper. Striping with parity extends the process of breaking up a file and storing it across multiple drives to include a calculated value – parity information – in addition to the original data that rebuilds data if some portion of it is later lost. the cost per gigabyte of SSD technology was $1. Though declining rapidly – at 30 times more than current HDD prices – the cost of SSDs are too expensive for the large storage capacities needed for most surveillance systems. 5 and 6. The data is read from the spinning platters using scanning heads positioned over the spinning disks. Along with the reliability and resiliency improvements that are gained with the elimination of moving parts. One shortcoming of HDD technology is its reliance on mechanical moving parts. The most common RAID levels in a surveillance system are 0. This white paper explores available surveillance video storage technologies and the impact of each solution on video management software performance to arm security and IT professionals with the information to make the best storage decisions when designing a surveillance system. The most important technology that will impact any storage system involving multiple hard drives is called RAID – redundant array of independent disks. RAID provides redundancy by grouping multiple hard drives and employing different techniques. to distribute data across multiple hard drives. Solid state drives (SSDs) are another option. This change resulted in a dramatic capacity increase while costs continued to decrease. and rarely as the RAID level for large amounts of storage like surveillance video. RAID 5 uses striping with distributed parity. Moving parts always come with some risk of failure over time. search. These demands require integrators and customers to have a deeper understanding of the storage technologies available and the impact that each storage option has on their surveillance system. Redundancy – RAID The fundamental technology of digital surveillance storage – the hard drive – is only the beginning of the hardware involved in a storage system. Mirroring is the simplest form of redundancy and simply copies the data on two drives – as any data is written. Though the fundamentals of HDD technology haven’t changed. surveillance storage is less expensive. RAID 1 mirrors all data to two drives and uses no striping or parity. Higher resolution and higher definition images mean more detail and better evidence in surveillance video but also mean each camera has the potential to generate larger images that require appropriate technology solutions to efficiently store. Innovations in speed and interfaces have also allowed HDDs to handle larger amounts of incoming data and quickly provide that data back to applications enabling advances like HD and megapixel surveillance.

no data is lost and the system can rebuild the contents of the failed drive once it’s replaced by using the data on the other seven drives. The next important topic is how the surveillance system communicates with that storage. storage area network (SAN). In the following section we’ll explore how video surveillance software stores video in more detail. Rebuild time increases with array size. Usually it’s a very small amount of information. metadata and surveillance video – that need to be stored and pose unique CCTV Handbook 2013 107 . They also allow features like search. alarms.securitysa. RAID 5 provides fault tolerance to a single drive failure.drives in a RAID 5 setup each file would be spread out over seven drives and parity information about the file written to the eighth drive. RAID 6 becomes more important as array size grows and to ensure storage isn’t vulnerable in the event of a rebuild process. An important thing that differentiates the storage communication technologies is whether they provide block level or file level access to the storage device from the connected servers and applications. users and groups. events. and organise files. rules. accessed infrequently and does not present high demands on speed of retrieval. including Avigilon Control Center (ACC). DAS is the simplest and most economical for storage that needs to be accessed by only a single server. RAID 6 extends RAID 5 by distributing parity information for each file to two drives. the parity information won’t always be written to the same drive with every file. Configuration data does pose some unique demands because it has to be encrypted and only modified when proper security checks have been performed. A wide variety of technologies are available for communication in SANs. As a result. A surveillance system could make use of a simple file system for everything from configuration files to the video itself – typically however performance needs require the use of a relational database in addition to a basic file system to provide the necessary performance of writing. Video management software (VMS) simplifies the process by storing data between files and databases based on its nature. The methods of attachment vary but for enterprise class storage it’s done via a serial attached SCSI (SAS) cable from a dedicated hardware RAID card. iSCSI is more cost effective because it uses standard network cabling and switches when compared to the more expensive and complex cabling and switching that Fibre Channel requires. a VMS will typically store this data within a structured database. Since RAID 5 distributes the parity information. NAS is the final category for connecting storage to a surveillance system. and system logs. Storage communication We’ve already discussed the basic technologies commonly used for surveillance storage – a collection of hard disk drives most likely grouped in a RAID 5 or 6 configuration. VMS storage and impact on surveillance design A typical surveillance system generates four types of data – systemrelated configuration data. In surveillance. A VMS will also use a database to provide these features. NAS provides only file level access to a storage volume while DAS and SAN provide block level access. RAID is implemented either at the hardware or software level within a server or storage enclosure. playback. increased performance of spreading disk operations over multiple hard drives and only costs an additional hard drive in each array of disks. however modern SANs used for surveillance most often use either Fibre Channel or iSCSI. so RAID 6 ensures data is not vulnerable during the rebuild process. The simplest form of software used by any surveillance application is a file system. the file system provides the basic functionality to read. The choice between the two protocols is based on the needs of the network in terms on interconnectivity and performance. Relational databases play a key role storing and indexing data for video surveillance systems. Generally this communication will fall into one of three categories – directly attached storage (DAS). Implementing RAID at the software level relies on system resources and introduces additional overhead and delays that impact performance of your storage and make it unsuitable for video surveillance storage. The difference between block and file level access translates primarily to performance: block level access provides higher performance by allowing lower level access. As the name implies DAS provides storage directly attached to a server. In the event any one of the eight drives fails. block level access is required by most systems. indexing. The smallest and simplest type of data is system-related configuration data. backups. A fundamental operating system feature. For these reasons. resources. this allows the system to tolerate the failure of two drives in an array without losing data but costs an additional drive per array. and export to happen efficiently. SAN will typically be used for very large amounts of storage that require access from multiple servers while centralising management. or network attached storage (NAS). This can be information on recording schedules. www. Storage architecture The final layer between a surveillance application and storage is the software technology and architecture used to structure and index stored video. write. and scalability. file level access and the use of network attached storage is typically limited to applications with very few cameras. while file level access limits performance but can provide easier concurrent access to multiple users in non-surveillance applications like file sharing. and managing the complex event and video related information that’s part of a surveillance system. configuration data and events. For the performance needs of surveillance and truly enterprise class storage a hardware RAID controller is a requirement for any surveillance video storage.

The amount of video generated by a single server will vary based on number of cameras. performance becomes limited – external databases require data be passed between processes from the main VMS process to the process running the database. Another core technology Avigilon Control Center uses is a unique file system architecture to manage storage efficiently for HD video surveillance system. As outlined earlier.avigilon. In addition. Events will typically be small in size but can be high in volume and place significant demands on a system to store. corrupted by another application. Therefore. ryno. For example. These features greatly reduce investigation time and allow security professionals to quickly access all the additional information captured by HD and multi-megapixel IP surveillance cameras. The high performance embedded database used in ACC is tuned to ensure the industry’s fastest HD searching and a responsive time line that allows intuitive jog and shuttle playback controls. The physical position of data on disks impacts performance tremendously. data from a camera can become widely spread out over a disk. Metadata is any additional information that describes or adds to the content of the video. As well. Beyond understanding the technologies involved. Events also require rapid indexing and searchability – functionality that is also best supported by a database. it’s important that the VMS be aware of and manage fragmentation as it writes and overwrites video on a disk. motion events. and amount of motion. implementations. general system events. deleted and overwritten on a disk – fragmentation can occur and related data is no longer located on the disk close to other related . device input and output events. This results in cumbersome investigations and limits an operator’s ability to realise the value of high-resolution cameras. if the free space or regions being written are spread far apart. or accessed insecurely than one embedded and managed by the VMS. Fragmentation is ignored by most conventional computer applications and systems rely either on user-initiated applications or periodic tasks to defragment a disk. As a result. For motion detection and analytics applications this will include the location of motion within video as well as object location and direction. which has several disadvantages. it’s important to understand how Avigilon Control Center (ACC) has been architected to minimise storage requirements and maximise performance despite the higher storage demands of high-definition surveillance.vandervyver@avigilon. Disk fragmentation is a key concern. HD video places unique demands on a storage system as the video generated is higher in resolution. Unfortunately – in the case of surveillance systems – the storage system is required 24x7 to write high volumes of data generated by video. or Postgres SQL. knowing how a VMS uses storage is necessary to understanding how the VMS can affect the quality of evidence a surveillance system stores. Summary Advances in storage technology are accelerating the transition from analogue to digital in surveillance and enabling security enhancing technologies like HD surveillance systems. Second. index and search. Data ageing. The use of a database embedded into the VMS is unique to Avigilon and delivers considerable advantages. writing video may also take longer which can limit system capacity. The type of database used and how it’s managed also impacts the speed of playback and searching. The use of these buckets allows ACC to strictly manage fragmentation while enabling technologies like data ageing and backup of HD video in highly efficient ways not possible with other systems. allows JPEG and JPEG2000 compressed video to be automatically managed to store video at half the original frame rate after a set period. storage is performed on hard disks comprised of rapidly rotating disks. and challenges related to surveillance video storage. As outlined previously. Embedding the database means data and queries are quickly handled and database resources can be more actively managed by the VMS process. The unique file system used by Avigilon allows data ageing to be applied at different times for different cameras on a single server allowing finer control of storage allocation then other VMS that only rarely offers any ageing settings and typically only has a global value. Tightly related to the video and generating at an equal rate but in smaller size is metadata. upgrades. but can be several terabytes per day. For more information contact Avigilon. external databases are subject to separate management of licensing. the downtime needed to defragment a disk after fragmentation has occurred is unacceptable. and in large corporate environments may require involvement of other departments tasked with managing all external databases on site. a high definition stream management (HDSM) technology. The type of events generated and stored will range from user audit events. How does Avigilon store video? Now that we’ve covered the technologies. or external events from an integrated system. Other VMS will typically use an external database. An external database can easily be patched incorrectly. how a VMS stores video significantly impacts the performance and features of a surveillance 108 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. MySQL. if the data can’t be easily and rapidly searched – it will not enable the effective handling of investigations. Because this data must be stored in an indexed fashion that’s rapidly searchable. and then at a quarter the original frame rate after a further point of time. Metadata that’s inaccurately sequenced relative to video becomes useless. Avigilon Control Center’s purpose built approach to using the best available storage technologies and architectures provides users with a system that is highly scalable and provides rapid access to the best evidence and reduced investigation times. Over time – as different amounts of data are written. such as Microsoft SQL Server. Searching and playback of that data can become very slow. www. The video itself poses the largest challenge to a storage system. Conventional off the shelf database technologies are unable to provide the efficiency and power required to quickly search and playback HD video. resolution. Two important demands must be carefully accounted for by the VMS when storing metadata: speed of searching and time synchronisation to the video. potentially higher in data rate and contains more information than conventional video leading to users doing more searching and reviewing as the value of their stored video increases. A full understanding of these technologies empowers security professionals to understand the options available when purchasing or designing video surveillance.securitysa. The most important and significant type of data generated by a VMS is the surveillance video itself. if related data is all physically located in one place the speed to read access the data is greatly reduced. the database plays a key role in a surveillance system.STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES Another data type generated by a VMS for storage is events. +27 (0)72 584 4992. it must be stored in a database. For this reason. First. When fragmentation is not managed properly in a video surveillance environment. For this reason Avigilon Control Center makes use of a high performance embedded database that is tailored for HD video surveillance storage. The file system used to store the video content in ACC makes use of files broken into different intelligent buckets whose content and structure are managed by ACC and indexed within the embedded high performance database. The high volume needs of managing event storage are met well by a database. Typically the data generated by video is much too large for storage within a database so it is usually stored separately in a file system and indexed in a database.

even complete darkness cannot offer criminals a place to hide. “It is imperative that warehouses. reasons that we selected Axis as our IP partner for this project. petrochemical. mainly in High definition images South Africa and in southern The main entrance to the Africa. was being monitored by four different analogue camera systems. soil fumigation. entrance and exit needs to 4. administrative buildings. while the IT server room records and acts as a main buffer for the whole system. a small industrial town just outside of Johannesburg. Chemsystems: provides are monitored by Axis P1344 chemical products Mike van Schelt. haze. making effective security surveillance extremely difficult. manufacture and installation of CCTV and automation systems for the power generation. based solution makes this entirely possible. “The Axis Q1910-E Thermal Network Camera presented itself as the most intelligent option. Africa. “We realised that AECI– Chempark’s perimeter was a major security issue that required careful attention and meticulous product investigation. lubricants. The versatility of the Axismoplastic compounds to a diverse range of industries. Axis P1344 ensures that control room personnel are able to view 2. “Picture quality and ease of installation were just two of the many 3. it is rapidly becoming a force to be reckoned with in the security and surveillance industry. Its site at Chloorkop. that offers complete perimeter coverage and extensive internal monitoring capabilities. thermal cameras are ideal for securing perimeters and dark or shadowed areas. For a long time thermal imaging was too costly for any application outside of the military. intersection. The firstto a diverse range of rate HDTV image quality of industries. Chemserve Systems. The Axis PTZ network cameras provide a visual of what security can expect to encounter during these responses. For more information contact Axis Communications. toiletry and detergent industries in South where clarity and detail are critical.” Axis Q1910-E uses thermal imaging to detect people. AECI’s Chemserve Systems provides chemical products to a diverse range of industries.” 5.” A fortified boundary SLA Group has over 24 years’ experience in the design. Creating images based on the heat that is generated by any object. This ensures that our customer has complete control of the entire site at all CCTV Handbook 2013 109 .axis. It has been a pleasure dealing with such a professional system integrator.” says Teixeira.securitysa. “Any movement after working hours will automatically trigger an alarm that security officers can react to immediately.alves@axis. The vacant land that borders the north and west sides of the Chloorkop AECI’s site no longer poses a threat to the security of the premises. site and the internal roads 1. financial director. Seasoned IP CCTV and systems integration as price is driven down by improved technology. reliability or long-term stability. Plastamid: plays a leading role in the manufacture and supply of therbe accessible by the surveillance cameras. objects and incidents in complete darkness or challenging conditions such as smoke.CASE STUDY Perimeter protection at its most effective AECI’s Chemserve Systems goes thermal to secure its Chloorkop site. systems and solutions in southern Africa. Chemfit: has 30 years’ experience in supplying traded and blended The system has paid for itself in terms of efficacy. Akulu Marchom: supplies chemical raw materials and value-adding video surveillance of the highest possible resolution in the zones services to the cosmetics. IU: manufactures and supplies a range of polyurethane products. person or vehicle and requiring no additional light source. however. including water treatment. iron and steel and chemical industries. Thanks to the installation of Axis thermal network cameras. roy. “Every single corridor. The main entrance control room maintains centralised control of the entire system. designed and installed a cohesive solution. SLA Group. A decision was taken to consolidate and upgrade the existing solution. workshops and storage tankers are under 24-hour surveillance. thereby reducing the risk of an incident or intrusion failing detection by security personnel. +27 (0)11 548 6780. using Axis network cameras. Teixeira.” remarks SLA Group’s Alexandre Teixeira. Protecting essential stock AECI–Chempark divisions supply an extensive range of specialty chemical products and related services for industrial use across a broad spectrum of customers in the manufacturing and mining sectors.” specialty chemicals to a broad range of industries. polymers and plastics. www. dust and light fog. Network Cameras. mining.” says technologies. Previously this open area was responsible for continuous trespassing and the removal of large quantities of valuable stock. This sustained involvement allows SLA Group to offer best value for money solutions without compromising on quality.

the security provider.securitysa. The biometric system used was the Morpho Access fingerprint biometrics. the engineering contractor. What was the timeframe in which you implemented the solution? The project ran over a sevenmonth period (starting in February 2012 and ending in Sept 2012) and coincided with the civil construction of the mine and plant. one for security and one for process control. Johannesburg. The customer is also guaranteed of a future-proof solution fully upgradable should they require growth or changes. Any other comments you want included? Although the fire system was delivered by another vendor. Security and Integrated Systems. Martin van der Westhuizen. The video system installed is the Tyco American Dynamics Video Edge Network video recorders with the Illustra 400 Series IP dome and bullet cameras as well as VideoEdge IP Speed dome PTZ cameras. connected back to network switches with a single cable for data and What were the customer benefits? Using a full IP system. The system needed to provide full biometric access control into the mining area. Cameras were placed at all critical process areas to monitor the process flow. This is a very innovative use of the integrated power of the security system to support operations without interfering with it. ADT was able to integrate it into the security system for monitoring and secure mustering of staff during a fire. What were the client’s needs? The project scope was to supply a fully-integrated security solution for a diamond mine in Botswana. business development manager Fire. to and from the security areas and within the high-risk diamond recovery building. On the access side. ADT Security. There are also cameras mounted inside the vacuum chambers of the cyclone sorting units to monitor a process that is normally impossible to see. What technology was used? All systems implemented were full IP systems with power over Ethernet connections. short house and diamond export Focused surveillance was needed on all mining areas included in perimeter. What was unique about this particular solution? CCTV and access control was used to manage high risk areas without the hindrance of physical barriers. Should the staff member deviate from this. and the mine staff ensured the system was designed and implemented to be efficiently applied and supported all disciplines on the mine. What solutions did ADT Security put in place? We applied the Tyco C-Cure 9000 access control system with full IP Edge door controllers. Access to work areas was granted per area and per duration and loaded into the system. crushing and Minimal cable runs were required as all devices 110 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. This use of technology for both security and process is fairly unique. DRA. smart card technology with Morpho Access fingerprint biometrics and full IP PoE door controllers were used. We were able to utilise the fibre ring network around the mine and plant to connect all systems to the servers and control rooms. has been integrally involved with the implementation of security solutions for a diamond mine in Botswana.CASE STUDY Watching the diamonds Integrated security installation keeps diamonds in the right hands. Further to this. For more information contact . What would you say are the success factors of this case? Close cooperation of ADT. Staff can now proceed to working areas through virtual barriers to the approved and disarmed areas. Two monitoring control rooms were required. recovery and process areas. He provides the following information on the project. The IP intercom system delivered was the Aiphone IP intercom system. the CCTV system is installed for security as well as process and production. the CCTV system will register the intrusion and immediate action can be taken. the customer received easy and fast implementation and ease of use. mining and materials handling. 0860 100 911. mpaynter. The security system was the latest in digital security with virtual matrices and content analytics.

dates from 1896 and is one of only twenty artworks of its kind still in existence. where only one operator can control the camera. thus extending the camera’s lifetime and drastically reducing maintenance. Over recent years the company has repeatedly chosen Geutebrück video solutions to safeguard its buildings and collections and the new Bergisel development was no different. Ettiene Swanepoel. the video security system also monitors all the sensitive areas in and around the museum’s exhibitions of Tyrolean history. irrespective of where specific lenses are deployed in the field of vision. while the other sensors are deployed to provide an overall panoramic view and recording. mid-field areas and longer distances. The Tyrol Panorama. However.” said Swanepoel. The combined museum and gallery complex is run by Tyrolean State Museums which also manages the Tyrolean State Museum Ferdinandeum. the Museum of Tyrolean Folk Art. Court Church and the Folk Song Archive. It is commonly accepted that with increasing distance. 1000-square-metre. It is thus possible to later reconstruct any event for use as evidence in court. and to recognise all persons involved. +27 (0)11 867 6585. Panomera has no movable mechanical parts. into the Panomera system. technical director for local distributors MASS. at high resolutions. The combination of sensors will all be viewed and recorded as one scene with the ability to access a single sensor during either playback or live viewing. canvas panorama depicting the local battles of 1809 against Napoleonic and Bavarian Innsbruck installer Fiegl & Spielberger supplied the alarm and video solutions including Geutebrück re_porter-16 video systems. A well-known problem with PTZ cameras is that the operator is forced to choose between overview image and detailed view. and installed more than sixty Sony cameras.” Swanepoel said. the Panomera always records the entire scene. with Panomera.securitysa. charles@geutebruck. over large distances. high-tech concrete and glass construction is set into the hillside next to the Tyrolean Imperial Infantry Museum at Bergisel to the south of the city. has been designed to showcase both the Huge width and depth capability with high quality By Allyson Koekhoven. each of the individual users can select their view individually and zoom or pan as they desire. Dallmeier’s Panomera system allows users to view wide vistas. over large distances. which means there is no wear. in the Austrian Tyrol. Dallmeier’s Panomera system allows users to view wide vistas. an unlimited number of operators can navigate across the entire scene independently of each other. the three-storey. one will see increasing pixellation of the image. life and culture. “The Panomera camera overcomes this and is capable of recording up to 30 frames a second with viewing and recording in real-time.Panoramic views with Geutebrück New Innsbruck museum rounded off with Geutebrück video. Completed in 2011. the Zeughaus (Armoury). Its core exhibit. For more information contact Geutebrück. www. In contrast to PTZ cameras. “The engineers at Dallmeier tackled this issue and developed a technology that utilises a multi-focal sensor system. In contrast to PTZ cameras. Although all operators are connected with the same camera. recently restored. each with its own lens. 360-degree wraparound painting of the same name. a new purpose-built museum in Innsbruck.geutebrueck. the vast. the Inn Valley and the Alps beyond. together with one overall view. explained that the main limitation with many megapixel panoramic cameras is the gradual degradation of picture quality as the digital zoom ratio increases. as well as the modern day panoramic outlook over Innsbruck. at high resolutions. it is able to isolate a single sensor/lens combination to focus on a specific area within the total field of vision. The sensors are arranged with preselected focal length lenses to focus on close-up CCTV Handbook 2013 111 . Besides focusing on the giant panoramic canvas and its viewing gallery. regardless of where it took place. By implementing a number of megapixel sensors.

120 IP and analogue cameras were installed to provide comprehensive monitoring. For more information contact Bosch Security Systems . As a result. A 24-hour access control and detection of suspicious behaviour were key requirements. When its Russian subsidiary. manica@ethele. At the same time IPSecurityCenter will collect data for reporting. which offers the reliable detection of suspicious where Ferrero produces its all-time favourite Kinder Chocolate and the Raffaello praline in an 80 000-square-metre plant. explains Manica Sanders. The scada software will later be integrated onto the same common platform. perimeter intrusion detection and video analytics technologies. business development manager at E-thele. and which created around 1 000 jobs. equipped with four workstations and such features as the quick search function within video archives. which will be one of the first attempts at marrying operations with security onto a common operating system. and a reduction in the total cost of ownership. but also a major factor in the health and safety compliance policy.CASE STUDY Sweet surveillance with Bosch Security Food production today is not simply a business. Zama Zamas meet PSIM IPSecurityCenter PSIM solution chosen to optimise protection of a gold mine. as well as intelligent analysis Christine. was in need of plant security when expanding its production in Eastern Europe and Russia. the mining client will use IPSecurityCenter to expand their existing CCTV video surveillance capability while optimising the significant investment in currently installed legacy technologies such as access control. body scanners and asset tracking as well as other security and operations systems. one of the most crucial factors to address was the security of the facilities. Mining organisations have a duty of care to protect staff and visitors. In order to store video files. ZAO Ferrero Russia. In terms of cameras. disparate security technologies. As well as securing the mines themselves there is also a need to secure gold in transit. the industry introduced the International Food Standard (IFS) in 2003 to support manufacturers and retailers in their striving for quality. “IPSecurityCenter will provide the client’s operators with real-time situation awareness. consequently safety records can be influenced negatively by death or injury of illegal miners as they are legally recorded as if they were opened its first factory in Vorsha .bosch. +27 (0)12 665 Chocolate producer opens a secure facility in Russia. therefore. +27 (0)11 651 9838. had to be excluded. fire detection. Physical Security Information Management (PSIM) software developer CNL Software and E-thele SQD Networks a local company involved in the design. this surveillance solution is equipped with Intelligent Video Analysis (IVA) from Bosch. Ferrero. One aspect of this standard is the protection of the production facilities. forensic investigation and evidence gathering purposes”. Environmental influences. physical alarm systems. MD at E-thele SQD. It also takes into consideration changing light and environmental conditions. such as rain or snow. Access 112 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. The camera control is coordinated by the Bosch Video Management System (BVMS). including surveillance of the exterior and interior premises. it was vital to have an expandable surveillance system.ethele. By combining several products and technologies. In order to guarantee a globally comparable and accepted norm. nine iSCSI arrays with a total capacity of 100 TB were installed. is not only a key component of the security operation. tools and equipment against theft through illegal mining activities by Zama Zamas (illegal miners) and by miners employed by the organisation. guiding the response teams over vast areas both above and below ground. To reduce the theft of assets and the number of injuries on The solution supplied by Bosch comprised cameras and storage capabilities. illegally parked cars or changing aspect ratios of objects. “IPSecurityCenter will enable this gold mine giant to improve its security solutions while optimising currently installed. lighting conditions or leaves.” For more information contact E-thele . in the Vladimir region northwest of Moscow. For evaluating the recorded scenes. The cost of the IPSecurityCenter solution versus the estimated savings in preventing gold theft was a good security investment for the organisation. implementation and support of situational management and PSIM solutions will provide an integrated security management solution to one of the world’s largest producers of gold. This specific mine in South Africa has the on-going challenge of protecting its gold. comfortable management. as well as the ability to be integrated into the existing IP network. “The key factor was the level of security they could expect from a solution and the expected level of return on investment”. www. the popular Italian chocolate manufacturer. www. “Building on the initial CCTV and access control integration the plan is to incorporate facial recognition. such as unauthorised access to restricted areas. Additionally. making the operator’s work more targeted and efficient. GIS.Smit@za. Bosch provided Ferrero with an integrated security solution that offers high-quality images. aligned using an encoder. such as weather. explains Wolfgang Engling.securitysa. backed by video storage.boschsecurity.South Africa & Sub-Sahara

za info@regalsecurity.103* www.adiglobal.21 39* 69* 41* www.17.112 www. 45* 87* 37* vivienne@technews.CCTV 2013 Company ADI Global Distribution ADT ADT Business Solutions Avigilon Axis Communications Bosch Security Systems Camsecure Cathexis Africa CCTV Security Surveillance Clearline Crown Hyper World Dahua Technology Dallmeier Southern Africa Office Elvey Security Technologies E-thele Fibre Optic Services & Cabling Flir Commercial Systems Frank Street Geutebrück Graphic Image Technologies Grundig Security Hikvision HiTek Security Distributors Honeywell SA IAC IMS Research Inhep Digital Security IP Security Solutions Jasco Security Solutions Leaderware Milestone Systems Mimic Crafts PBS Technologies Pinnacle Security Solutions Progroup Radwin Reditron Regal Security Distributors Secequip Security & Communication Warehouse SmartProtect Technews Publishing TeleEye (South Africa) Tyco Security Products UTM Group Vision Consulting Wright Surveillance ZKTeco (SA) Telephone 0860 22 55 23 0860 100 911 086 12 12 410 +27 (0)72 584 4992 +27 (0)11 548 6780 +27 (0)11 651 9838 +27 (0)11 781 1341 +27 (0)31 240 0800 +27 (0)11 454 5440 +27 (0)11 848 1100 +27 (0)11 830 1452 +86 571 8768 8883 +27 (0)11 979 4540 +27 (0)11 401 6700 +27 (0)12 665 3158 +27 (0)12 993 2479 +32 3665 5100 +27 (0)11 496 2300 +27 (0)71 673 3005 +27 (0)11 483 0333 +49 2191 374 9883 +86 571 8807 5998 +27 (0)21 946 3344 +27 (0)11 695 8000 +27 (0)12 657 3600 +44 1933 402 255 +27 (0)31 705 1373 +27 (0)11 553 3300 +27 (0)11 894 7127 +27 (0)11 787 7811 +45 88 300 300 +27 (0)11 689 5700 +27 (0)11 805 6600 +27 (0)11 265 3000 +27 (0)11 493 1545 +27 (0)82 551 5600 087 802 CCTV (2288) +27 (0)11 553 3300 +27 (0)11 624 2815 +27 (0)12 653 1005 +27 (0)11 543 5800 +27 (0)11 557 9200 +27 (0)82 566 5274 0860 22 22 66 +27 (0)11 830 2688 0861 974 448 +27 (0)12 259 1047 E-mail quickfind Website 101* 97* 31* 27* 21* ebrahim@viscon.77 23*.com 5* 44* 4.27 75* 29* .com 24* info@cat.viscon.108 IFC*.com 78 24 73* www.112 81* www.109 33* 15* 3*.za 79*.43 90* 71* 85* 13* * Denotes advertiser For more information on these and other suppliers please see 74 www.111* 9* 35* 83* 110 OBC* 39 19* 95 11*.za 20.5 www.28 43* Page

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