Fisheye/Panoramic Cameras: When you want to see everything ......... 76 Fisheye/Panoramic Cameras: CatVision does panoramic views ............ 77 Intelligent Storage: IP surveillance and storage ....................... 78 Technology: Compression: Understanding compression technologies .................................................. 80 Hybrid Technologies: Does hybrid deliver analogue value and IP benefits? ...................................................... 86 Hybrid Technologies: Best of both worlds? ............................................................. 88 Management Platforms: PSIM: Why should I be interested? ..................... 89 Management Platforms: The platform must fit the business................. 91 Analytics: Video synopsis versus video analysis ............................................................. 94 Analytics: Product Overview: Intelligence management framework .. 95 Analytics: Intelligent systems in high motion surveillance ..................................... 96 Connectivity: Don’t ignore wireless ....... 99 Thermal: The expanding role of thermals ....................................................102 Analogue: Still going strong...................105

Editor’s comment .................................... 2 Technology trends Video surveillance trends for 2013.... 4 CCTV Round-table 2013........................ 6 Local CCTV guidelines revised..........14 The future of video: Use your eyes ..16 Syndicate foiled by cooperation ......18 Open platform video set to grow .....20 Surveillance trends for 2013 .............22 System Integrator Profile: Integrated central monitoring .........24 Line of sight and angle of view .......26 Understand the solution.....................28 Integrated proactive security solutions ...................................................30 Low-light cameras: Coming out of the dark .......................32 Wide dynamic range: Challenges and solutions ...................34 HD CCTV – hype or reality? ................38 High-definition/Megapixel: High-definition vs megapixel ...........40 High-definition/Megapixel: Define your definition..........................42 Remote Monitoring: Keeping tabs from a distance ...........66 Remote Monitoring: Remotely reactive .................................68 Remote Monitoring: Process and technology combined ................74

Storage technologies for video surveillance...................................................106 Camera Selection Guide An option for every requirement.....44–65 Case Studies......................................109–112 CCTV Handbook 2013


za Advertising sales Tracy Wolter: tracy@technews. The IP installation has been going on for months with dismal results and poor visibility throughout the day. The crucial part is retaining people who know what they’re doing and have a track record to verify their skills. Technews Publishing (Pty) Ltd cannot be held responsible for the accuracy or veracity of supplied material.EDITOR’S COMMENT All about skills and experience Welcome to the 2013 CCTV Handbook. Get the wrong people and the most impressive IP systems will fail. e-mail address. Reg No. their ability to offer good advice and to deliver. Disclaimer While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained herein. please let me know at andrew@technews. All he really wants is a low-light system that will allow him to perform LPR and visually identify visitors in any light conditions. is running perfectly. Get the right people on board and you can get an analogue system to shine. the publisher and its agents cannot be held responsible for any errors Subscribe online: the success of your project depends on the skills and integrity of the people doing the installation work. 2005/034598/07 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Letters to the Editor should be addressed to Andrew Seldon at andrew@technews. How many people get a client like that? Of and none at night. adapted. orders. renewal status or missing issues. without the prior written permission of Technews Publishing (Pty) Angie Beaumont: angie@technews. We’ve put together an interesting collection of articles from some of the leading minds in the surveillance world for your enjoyment. Pinegowrie 2123 Tel: 011 543 5800 Fax: 011 787 8052 ISSN 1562-952X Editor Andrew Seldon: andrew@technews. I hope you enjoy the handbook and get value from it in whatever field you operate in. It’s a How-To put together by a group of people leading the field in the South African CCTV industry. e-mail: subs@technews. Your choice of installer or integrator can be the make or break factor of your entire project. on the other hand. recording or otherwise. We reserve the right to edit all letters. mechanical. And I guess it wouldn’t hurt to do your own research beforehand to ensure you can separate marketing fact and fiction. a document that will be invaluable to installers as well as those people responsible for their organisation’s surveillance projects. Published by Technews Publishing (Pty) Ltd 1st Floor Stabilitas. Randburg Box 385. Laura Dorrington: laura@technews. 2 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Sending material to this publication will be considered automatic permission to use in full or in part in our Letters Contributors Allyson Koekhoven Craig Donald Business Manager Vivienne Dorrington: vivienne@technews. Articles submitted are deemed to have been cleared for publication. Andrew Be sure to include your . and cost a fortune. Pietermaritzburg Good news for locals The Consumer Goods Council has just released its updated CCTV Guidelines. For the other Make sure you get yours if you want your surveillance system to deliver results. In one he hired an installer who knows his analogue systems backwards and the installation is going smoothly. things didn’t work out all that well. No part of this publication may be reproduced. In the pages that follow. The editor reserves the right to alter or cut inserts and company contact details are printed as provided by the Advertisements. photocopying. The lesson here is that technology is only one part of a surveillance project. you will find information on a variety of issues pertinent to your surveillance Subscription Services For address while there is an almost endless selection of technology to choose from (don’t miss the Selection Guide on page 46 onwards). so he decided IP was the route to take. co. 265 Kent Avenue. The analogue system. 9 Grix Road. A case in point comes from someone busy with two smallish Design and layout: Technique Design Printed by: Intrepid Printers (Pty) Ltd. or any loss incurred as a result. the individual wanted a few bells and whistles. Articles published do not necessarily reflect the views of the publishers. If you have any comments or criticisms. The great thing about the IP installation is that the client was prepared to pay whatever it cost to get what he wanted. stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any Editor All rights reserved. One of the interesting things I heard repeatedly while talking to people and putting this handbook together was that. city and postal code. CCTV Handbook 2013 3 .

Instead. Mobile video streaming – the next gear of mobile video surveillance Traditionally. However. For the police. IMS Research does not expect higher megapixel resolutions to be a mass-market trend. India to remain a high growth market Economic growth in India has slowed. For a control room operative. IMS Research predicts that there will be renewed emphasis on this type of solution. 1. despite this background. It could also provide assistance for lone workers on buses and trains. What is more. IMS Conferences ran an intelligent video conference in Los Angeles and the Embedded Vision Alliance has regularly been bringing together engineers from leading companies to discuss the industry.securitysa. down from 6. These predictions for 2013 and beyond serve to provide insight into key trends and opportunities in the video surveillance industry. Keeping it simple in 2013 Many suppliers of network video surveillance are now targeting smaller installations to grow their businesses. barriers to entry for foreign-owned suppliers are much lower. And quite rightly so. there has been increased buzz around the capability to wirelessly stream video from a mobile video surveillance camera back to a control centre. The unique characteristics of the Indian market make it an exciting place to do business. 3. in the mobile video surveillance market. 2. it expects to see new technology developments and camera features that improve image quality become the key battleground as manufacturers try to establish their own USPs. However. the ability for a control room to view an incident live allows for an instantaneous assessment of the situation and more effective guidance for officers on the ground. In 2011. particularly for those responsible for smaller installations. Intelligent video surveillance Forums discussing this concept are not new. IMS expects that GDP in Asia’s third-largest economy will grow by just 5. recorded video on an on-board device is downloaded wirelessly when the vehicle returns to the station or depot.6 percent in 2010. New battle ground in image quality The increased popularity of HD and megapixel resolution security cameras has been a hot topic in the video surveillance industry over recent years. world shipments of megapixel resolution network security cameras are predicted to out-sell standard resolution network security cameras in 2012 for the first time. easy to operate. 4. compared to other high growth markets.1 percent in 2012. . 2013 will be all about manufacturers making it more straightforward. spending on video surveillance equipment has remained resilient with the Indian market forecast to enjoy healthy double-digit growth in 2012.9 percent in 2011 and 9. and easy to maintain. Ten trends to look out for are listed below. In the coming year. with the explosion of interest in intelligent video and the success of products such as Microsoft’s Kinect. IMS Research therefore predicts 2013 to be the year where suppliers focus on developing products that are easy to install. this brings a number of advantages. Recently. will 2013 be the year of intelligent video? 4 CCTV Handbook 2013 www.TRENDS Video surveillance trends for 2013 What can we expect to see in the coming year in the surveillance market? IMS Research has released its fourth annual video surveillance trends for the year ahead. 5. Network video surveillance can be an overly complex topic.

Private cloud – the future for enterprise video surveillance systems? IMS Research forecasts that private cloud being used for the infrastructure of enterprise video surveillance systems will become a trend over the coming years.securitysa. Both of these examples relate to physical security. IMS Research predicts that 2013 will be the year that video surveillance vendors and PSIM platform providers follow suit. and its ability to provide remote access. 10. niall. Video surveillance service providers have used aspects of cloud computing in their solutions for more than ten years.imsresearch. For more information contact IMS Research. however. Video surveillance goes vertical System integrators and installers have been specialising in specific end-user industries for decades. There has been little debate on the potential for Chinese video surveillance vendors to take advantage of the growth opportunities in other regional markets. Video surveillance as a service (VSaaS). Additionally. which includes: remote access to data. However. remote video monitoring has become an increasingly important recurring monthly revenue (RMR) generator for many alarm receiving centres. identifying the leading local vendors and discussing how western companies can take advantage of this high growth opportunity. 9. and that businesses looking to utilise Big Data will increasingly look at the potential to incorporate video feed meta-data streams into their data CCTV Handbook 2013 5 . there are a number of applications that can leverage remote video surveillance in non-security applications. While Big Data is not going to be a mainstream concept for video surveillance in 2013. with installation. Video content analysis and video meta-data as ‘Big Data’ ‘Big Data’ has been a hot topic for businesses in 2012. Private cloud offers the same advantages as public cloud. To date.6. 7. service and maintenance offerings targeted to the unique requirements of customers in that industry. and shared use of data processing and storage www. Chinese companies looking west It has been well documented that China is one of the largest and fastest growing markets for video surveillance equipment. this is beginning to change with the emergence of key Chinese vendors on the world stage. much of the narrative on this topic has centered on estimating the market opportunity. 8. IMS Research predicts a number of exciting new applications will enter the market in 2013. Remote video applications ‘Remote’ has been a bit of a buzz word for video surveillance in 2012. design. However.jenkins@imsresearch. the prevalence of enterprise video surveillance systems using private cloud is starting to gain some traction as IT managers increasingly take responsibility for the management of video surveillance systems. +44 1933 402 255. has been keenly debated with opinion divided on whether it will be successful. providing there is an Internet connection. IMS Research predicts that the use and aggregation of analytics and video feed metadata as Big Data will continue to grow.

securitysa.6 CCTV Handbook 2013 .

past few years they’ve being inundated by salesmen selling the latest trick. but he is also seeing clients demanding more from their surveillance solutions. megapixel. He also thinks this year is going to be tougher for business than CCTV Handbook 2013 7 . Trends to watch Malan notes that there are many trends in the surveillance market at the moment. which will make a significance impact – and there’s already talk of two terabytes being available within the next twelve to eighteen months. Malan sees this as a way that many people are finding their way into the world of IP surveillance. Hi-Tech Security Solutions invited a few people to join us in a surveillance round-table. To get an update on which technologies are at the value-adding stage and what users are demanding from their surveillance solutions. Moore thinks we’re going to see a lot of Asian products starting to make an impact in higher levels of the CCTV market instead of mainly at the lower levels. I don’t think many other solutions will really make an impact this year. Analytics solutions will also mature and Malan expects to see different aspects taking centre stage. such as high definition (HD). Le Roux has even seen some larger users cutting costs by buying equipment for themselves and then making use of the ‘bakkie brigade’ for installation. noting that SDXC cards already hold 256 gigabytes (GB).”We’re already seeing that happening in the low-light field. as will people-counting. which appeals to many people. even to the point of counteracting the move to cloud-based storage to an extent. the cameras still fail to deliver when it comes to reliability and support. This will put more pressure on manufacturers and distributors to step in and provide on-site assistance – something they already do as a free value-added service. they want to see returns. Alves agrees. We asked our attendees what they thought would be the key issues in surveillance in the coming year or two. “I also think vendors are coming under pricing pressure as manufacturers in the East increase the pressure in terms of quality and price.” From a distributor’s perspective. “We’ll also be seeing cameras in the near future that are able to ‘see’ better than the human eye. which is a good move. “In www. What’s up in the world of surveillance in 2013? Hi-Tech Security Solutions asked the experts. However. Unfortunately. Roy Alves from Axis Communications and Ernst le Roux from CCTV in Focus. What follows is a brief insight into the interesting discussion that followed. “For the Cheap and nasty turns to cheap and quality Malan says Camsecure has also seen the impact of the entry-level ‘bakkie brigade’ getting into the market and punting the cheaper products from the East. They are also looking at the whole solution and not simply the latest camera technology. He also expects to see more VMS systems using edge storage to protect corporate networks. “Facial recognition is going to be tried and tested in the upcoming year. but notes that even with great prices and improved quality.securitysa. Gordon Moore from ADI Global. Alves agrees that edge storage will be important in the coming year. the race for the highest resolution is going to slow down and we’re going to focus more on the image quality and storage. On a positive note.” Le Roux expects to see edge storage have an impact. This is a very exciting time for camera technology. We started the debate by asking each attendee to tell us what they thought the key trend or technology would be in the surveillance market over the next year. but clients still have problems as far as warranties and support are concerned.CCTV ROUND-TABLE 2013 Challenges in store for surveillance By Andrew Seldon. Rob Anderson from Rob Anderson Consulting.” While there are still quality issues. “but we’ve seen the more mature markets staying away from that. One of the most exciting things about the surveillance industry is the technology changes we see on a regular basis that create the potential for awesome advances in image quality and analysis. no matter how fast technology moves. it is only when these solutions get to the maturity level that adds value to the end user that they really show their worth. “On the higher end. he sees edge storage as something that is going to be important over the coming year.” Anderson agrees with the above. but has also seen that the client base is starting to become a lot better educated than they ever have been. this leads to problems as these installers don’t know enough about large-scale integration projects to deliver the quality desired. If they lay out the money. More often than not. such as usability in LPR (licence plate recognition) and movement detection. He has also seen a leap in the quality of products from the East. I think image quality is definitely going to be the focus. Due to the economic conditions. Now they are starting to become a more aware of what they’re really getting and what they really need. widedynamic range and so forth. Our attendees were Francois Malan from Camsecure. not to mention what challenges are in store for the surveillance industry in general. however. these devices are cheaper. but we could see more of them changing their focus and charging for this in future.

” Moore adds that there is definitely a significant increase in Asian products. but problems still crop up far too often. “We also to only do business with companies that produce an annual due diligence or need to move out of the traditional practice of appointing physical security sustainability report to certify they follow the appropriate procedures. or there are bandwidth issues.” A significant change he expects to see is more customers adopting a standard brand as they do in IT. they don’t employ on the relevant technology as well. As mentioned above. “They will accept a price premium for the certainty that they’re getting quality.” Anderson also adds that to ensure projects are handled correctly and installations are done to the appropriate standards. Customers are going to find they’ve got a far larger bill to pay when their installations are handled in an amateur manner and parts of it have to be redone. for example. slave labour. Not only are top-notch skills in short supply.securitysa. as not only do installers rely on them for advice and technical assistance. The other issue is that we don’t have anything in place in South Africa to police standards and specifications.” Common sense standards The issue of standards is one that the UK light fitting industry has dealt with.CCTV ROUND-TABLE 2013 many instances you’re pushing HD video out of the unit and you want to stream it across the network. These experts into security manager roles without ensuring they are up to speed reports show that the company is sustainable financially. we’re going to go the route and say no product will be supplied on our sites unless the manufacture has produced a regular sustainability report. but the end customer often comes to the distributor for help when frustrated with its implementation partner. reliability and support they can count on. camera. “We’re finding Continued on Page 10 Francois Malan 8 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. These courses are part of the manufacturers’ branding attempts as the brand with the most and best-trained technicians have an advantage in a market where skills are in short supply. Le Roux adds that implementing standards such as those that are common in the IT world will also help the security managers to do a better The question on skills While all the participants agree on the need for more education of the security managers and others involved in the market on the customer’s side. They don’t need to be technical experts. the leading companies are in a constant battle to attract and retain . Distributors are also finding themselves in the middle of the skills shortage. Anderson says that the question of unqualified installers and cheap products is as much an issue there as it is Gordon Moore on our surveillance market. He says that image quality is easy to copy since they’re all using the same chips and processors. the software and the viability of the software side of the products. he also insists that the IT decision maker joins the initial planning meetings to ensure the technical side of things is covered. The way companies deal with this is job and produce a solution that meets the company’s expectations. Malan and Le Roux note that the industry is going to have to look at some form of skills development programme in the next couple of years if it wants to avoid paying exorbitant salaries for good technical skills or be branded as a bad service industry. specifying that all cameras (or even all surveillance kit) on site will come from a specific vendor. As Alves notes. or it needs to be rebooted every day.” “As a consulting practice. they’re putting out products that have proper guarantees and but they need to understand what goes into selecting and installing an IP so on. Many of the manufacturers are actively pushing their training and certification courses in an effort to ensure that their installers have the knowledge of the product as well as other skills necessary to ensure the end customer gets a good deal. the cost of the hardware is only a portion of the cost of a camera. such as the device losing its IP address. Moore notes that many distributors are moving to the provision of added value services. “Where we’re seeing the challenge for the system integrator is in the menus. they also note the training opportunities offered to installers and integrators are crucial in ensuring a good implementation. CCTV Handbook 2013 9 .www.

which examines the research company’s top trends for the coming year. Moreover. The pixels are a lot smaller and there’s less ability to get light onto that sensor It seems that defining the role for the camera is more important than ever. and only transmit when there’s something happening at the camera in order to utilise your existing bandwidth as efficiently as possible. adds Alves. in fact. like noise reduction. someone else poaches them and offers them a little more money. some companies are implementing strategies that sees high quality video recorded for seven days – since you will know if there was an incident you need footage from within seven days. for instance. And on the other side of the coin. megapixels is not where the competition really is. For example. take a high quality stream and make it a lower quality stream.securitysa. changing such a broadly used standard will take time.” Rob Anderson that as a distributor we’re having to provide more and more on site support. giving more opportunity for ‘bakkie brigade’ services. Alves says that since most of the top manufacturers use the sensors from a limited number of companies. with most people expecting good growth in this market. taking some of the processing strain off the servers and management platforms. Anderson notes that we need to see more control rooms using HD monitors to make better use of the images available. the fact that HD-SDR (or HDcctv) transmits images uncompressed with distances that are touted to reach 300 metres soon. “The trick is really to get a good VMS that can down-sample the video to those different devices on request or per user requirement. We need to support installers by providing them with the necessary training and knowledge to help them with their customers and on-site installations. the cameras are seeing things in pitch blackness that you can’t see with the human eye. Moore adds that VMSes provide the ability integrate an installation made up of cameras from diverse brands and with different capabilities. Malan says the HD sweet spot at the moment seems to be in the 720p or 1080 sensor. maybe a lower frame rate.265 promises even better performance and should start appearing in the coming year. many of the larger. We should also expect to see more panorama cameras hitting the market in the coming year. while HD (and megapixel in the 2 MP range) seems to be accepted. where the cameras raise the alarm when something happens. broadcast quality and there’s going to be full frame rate when you adopt this technology. There are also standards in HD so you know there’s colour fidelity. wide dynamic managing. as you start going to bigger sensors to do 5 and 8 and 10 megapixels. low light cameras offering colour images in near total darkness and so forth. So you could. Yet. lower light than your human eye. These technologies are getting very interesting. One of the trends they mention is an increase in image quality rather than simply adding megapixels. Anderson expects to see more intelligence in the storage arena.264 seems to be the standard of choice for most systems. “What’s going to count is the processing power on the chipsets behind those sensors that enable the camera to do the necessary things. “The sensor manufacturers are doing some amazing things. instead of buying more hard drive space for footage that isn’t needed in court or for specific reasons. Another critical area for Malan is the VMS (video management system) with many devices linking onto them and being able to rebroadcast at different requested streams. but the company will save on the hard drive capacity it needs. there may yet be room for more HD analogue systems. the importance of Web interfaces and mobile access will become more important as extensions to high quality streams in control rooms. Intelligent platforms And while intelligence in the camera is definitely going to increase. you pay the price in terms of frame rate and low light capabilities.” And the challenge is that as companies start skilling up their technicians and develop them. Roy Alves and Ernst le Roux Continued on Page 12 10 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. We’ve seen sensors now that are very low light. wellstaffed integrators are downsizing and reducing their training and marketing budgets. and manage it from a single console. While you can obtain high megapixel cameras that provide excellent images.CCTV ROUND-TABLE 2013 Continued from Page 8 While there are other compression options available. Additionally. . H. Effective VMSes are also going to provide users with added intelligence to assist in implementing event-based surveillance. low-light capabilities are diminished. Of course. Looking at technology One of the articles running in the CCTV Handbook 2013 is from IMS. Cathexis). Already many management companies are including dewarping software in their platforms to cater for these systems (such as local platform developer. The details will still be there in sufficient quality for analysis should it be needed.” Interestingly enough. the video can be stored at a lower frame rate to save space. If the high quality footage is not needed within that timeframe. Something the standards like ONVIF have not been able to accomplish. management. CCTV Handbook 2013 11 .

installers. There will naturally be some resistance from VMS vendors as this concept would take away some of their core functionality. The low tier of the market is probably still in a 90% analogue to 10% IP scenario. In fact. As technology advances. Given the continued economic uncertainty. Not only will this enable companies to set up their surveillance systems with people who are somewhat less technically skilled. One has to look at the different market tiers to identify what is taking place. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What do you think are the trends/technologies to look out for in 2013? Mel Labuschagne: The price of IP cameras and VMs platforms will continue to drop in 2013. “Basically we’ll be making the products more user friendly for the specific type of person on the other end. Alves notes that we could also see a situation similar to the mobile phone market at the moment where users pay a small amount to download the analytical or performance apps they want to use. only about 15% of recorded footage was of any use after an event.” says Alves. as well as a bigger push on skills development in the security industry as a whole. The largest manufacturer of video surveillance equipment is a Chinese company. Astute integrators. integrators. However. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What do clients want from their surveillance systems? Mel Labuschagne: Clients want what they have wanted. This benefits both the installer and client in ensuring the proposed system is successfully implemented. they could encourage software developers to produce specific apps that are camera manufacturer independent.securitysa. more companies are likely to opt for more technology with a lower onsite guarding presence. his teams found that. surveillance solutions but are put off by the price differential. In the low end of the market. clients are aware of IP surveillance solutions and most are implementing the superior technology. I would say the market split is around 50/50 where customers are aware of IP surveillance solutions but are loathe to spend the extra money. although guards are not going to disappear any time soon. Regal comments While the company was not able to attend the round-table. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: How are customers. expectations are that the PSIM market will eventually find more traction. but it will also speed the time and reduce the cost of installation. This will not only expand the intelligence capabilities tremendously. The market is satisfied with the 1 to 2 megapixel range which gives up to 1080p resolution. Advanced analytics has become more prevalent and at much better prices which has seen more clients implementing this . given the overall conversation. I don’t see that manufacturers looking at increasing the megapixel rating of cameras. Mel Labuschagne from Regal Distributors added his comments to some of the issues raised at the round-table via e-mail. Perhaps the integration project of the year will be integrating technology and human security services effectively. exciting year As always happens in round-tables. Although analytics is still quite difficult to implement and is very reliant on accurate set up which can be very time consuming. “One of the initiatives that we’ve got going at the moment is to ask the question “Who’s installing it?” and based on that we will show the appropriate Web page. In the high-end tier of the market. the same as high definition TV. an increase in edge analytics is to be expected to relieve processing stress on central servers. However.CCTV ROUND-TABLE 2013 Continued from Page 10 As a sidebar. have the majority of the market in the East and are now targeting other regions. the printed report only scratches the surface of what was actually discussed. are now offering plug and play IP solutions (in the up-to 16 camera system range) where the system offers near analogue ease of use.” A tough. He says that in the Western Cape. this coming year should see some incredible improvements in image quality as well as some stiff competition in price in the lower and mid-level markets. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Do you see a significant impact on the local market from quality Asian products? Mel Labuschagne: The Chinese products are having an impact on the traditional suppliers. distributors and vendors will be looking at the IT sector to attain these skills. but you pay per use. meaning that they can work on any brand or product. distributors and vendors handling the lack of high-level skills when it comes to IP surveillance installations? Mel Labuschagne: The IP surveillance market is in the early adopter phase so qualified manpower is still a scarce resource. and even less was usable in court. but create a new market for applications. There will be a continued trend to plug-andplay IP (or easy to use) solutions in not only the low end of the market. Hopefully we will see both the simplification of the technology to make it easier to install. Manufacturers across the board are working on making things as simple as possible to use their products. The same can be said of surveillance cameras and the complexity in setting them up and getting them to perform as one wants. both in terms of storage and intelligent analytics. KISS your camera One final trend worth noting is the move to simplicity. it tends to become complex and unwieldy to use. Le Roux notes it’s important to note that quality is still the key issue when wanting to use surveillance footage for prosecution or even internal investigations. Apps for your surveillance camera? When considering the increased processing power within cameras. In the mid tier of the market. They. we won’t see any decline in the need for management platforms. in the main. and other Chinese suppliers. as more systems are integrated with other components of a complete security installation. the best price / performance (most bang for their buck). numerous manufacturers. The edge (on camera) is where we should see some action during the year. including cost-effective producers from the East. If the camera manufacturers get it right. The ability to accurately identify people and objects requires decent quality. However. many clients may be aware of IP 12 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. This is also the case locally where price / performance and the aggressive sales strategy of the Chinese suppliers is increasing their market share. However. One has to simply do a search on the Internet to find marketing releases from these Chinese surveillance equipment providers on large sites implemented with their products where this would have traditionally been done by Western suppliers. but the high end as well. CCTV Handbook 2013 13 .

Installation and Management Aspects are addressed in Chapter 5 and consists of: • Restrictions of installed cameras. • Site layout. the latter can only be accomplished if CCTV systems are accepted as a reliable source of evidence.securitysa. During the investigation of offences committed and incidents in chain stores. • Why these activities should be observed. • How to determine the standard of picture quality. The guidelines in this section include: • The selection of a suitable service provider. including staff. black and white systems are insufficient for identification of clothing and vehicle colour. Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) plays a valuable role in combating crime through a combination of both proactive and reactive crime prevention measures. The reviewed and updated third edition will be published in March retailers and other business owners.CCTV GUIDELINES Local CCTV guidelines revised Recommended Industry Guideline for CCTV surveillance systems in South Africa. placement and picture quality. detection. As the importance of competent operators and system users cannot be underestimated. • Industry Bodies and NGOs. • System Provider. This empowered business owners with knowledge to make informed business decisions before investing large amounts of money in a business solution. that will enable users to spec their needs at the right pitch. • Existing infrastructure and layout of premises. • Required result of a successful response to . The purpose of including the Legal and Evidentiary Aspects in Chapter 7 of this document is to guide the standardisation of protocols in the handling of video/DVD or other material that has evidential value that is in the possession of private persons employed by the industries. • How to identify target activities to be observed. Through the Consumer Goods Council of South Africa in partnership with Business Against Crime Western Cape (BACWC) working groups were formed to determine: A Recommended Industry Guideline for CCTV surveillance systems in South Africa. Chapter 3 explores the operational requirements (OR) that are fundamental to the design. A classic example of this is the use of CCTV as deterrence to all potential perpetrators. • Training programmes. NPA (National Prosecuting Authority). However. CCTV Staffing and Development in Chapter 6 elaborates on: • Recruitment selection techniques • Training aspects of system operators • Requirements for training courses and training manuals. SAPS. For further information or to order a copy of the Recommended CCTV Industry Guidelines contact Selma Visser on (T) 0861 101 726 or email sv@cgcsa. recommended basic formats for basic affidavits and a recommended general checklist for the CCTV system. This document also includes recommended checklists for operational requirements of the camera. The Role Players and Responsibilities are guided by Chapter 2 and expand on the following roles: • The End User. • Software and other system related requirements. as this may include the detection of movement rather than identification. CCTV industry participants. the use of compression techniques may result in low-resolution images. The experts who shared their expertise in compiling this document included representatives from the CGCSA. • The Justice System. On the reactive side. the visual 14 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. BACWC. CCTV can assist the police in identifying the perpetrators and can also be utilised in various criminal justice procedures as evidence in a court to ensure fair and legal prosecution to all parties involved. the aim was to limit specifications that might lead to the Recommended Guidelines being outdated in the near future due to technology developments. • Camera selection. This includes: • Generic Operational Requirements. recognition and identification with the specific purpose of generating video footage that will support investigations and successful prosecution. This document provides guidelines for optimisation of CCTV that will ensure appropriate/sufficient quality images under different physical and environmental circumstances in and around businesses for monitoring. testing and operation of an effective CCTV system. • Power management. • Quality and routing of cabling. captured on CCTV equipment is of crucial importance during the investigation and procedures that could follow. The first version of this document was compiled in 2004. training and system manuals and • Guidelines on the maintenance and management of the system. thus implying that they will be aware of the fact that their actions are recorded. Although Technical Aspects are addressed in Chapter 4. • General risk considerations. • How to handle incidents are observed. CCTV Handbook 2013 15 .www.

Analogue held one final advantage over IP regarding light sensitivity. and especially when fighting direct sunlight. it is a clear win for the human eye. as humans couldn’t. as CMOS sensor technologies evolve we now have the ability to be almost as light sensitive in 5 MP cameras as the human eye. When we talk of computers. IP camera developers are using the evergrowing processing power in the cameras to look beyond pure resolution and improve overall image clarity with better light sensitivity. While there’s no perfect calculation. improving focus will be the manufacturer focus for the coming years. all-digital thermal network cameras that can be integrated into an IP-based surveillance system. the camera is better than the human eye without even the need to wear sunglasses. Here. the eyes will get very tired and a headache is likely on the horizon. there is the ability to see with absolutely no light at all – which no human can do. we talk of artificial intelligence. 16 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Today we can compare an IP video system to the human eye and the brain. iris. Cameras in surveillance were created to see what we. There are some areas today where the IP camera beats even our own human abilities. Unlike the IT components inside a camera. Then of course. But unlike our eyes. For this we now have professional-grade. cameras have the ability to leverage IR wavelengths and produce a black and white image at night. Still. Moore’s Law is really kicking in with sensor development and we can expect a lot of progress in low light video. Humans and technology make a good combination. Focus. If we compare this with current PTZ cameras. yet neither analogue nor IP could produce colour images in the dark. optical components like the lens do not follow Moore’s Law. Axis Communications. While the eye wins outright for overall resolution. but this is hardly usable for surveillance and it’s not the actual resolution that our brain (the VMS) computes. The human eye is said to have a contrast range to 120 dB. and are no longer just for military usage. the whole eye is said to have a total resolution of more than 100 megapixels. Both of these cornerstones were passed during the last year with the introduction of colour-at-night Lightfinder technology.securitysa. We talk of memory. However. since the human eye lacks optical zoom. In the world of IP video. given that lens Martin Gren technology is not on par with the higher resolutions in security cameras – maxing out around 5 megapixels for professional surveillance – and that most 10-20 MP cameras lack frame rate and image quality around the edges of the scene. Thermal cameras can detect humans and objects in complete darkness as well as poor visibility conditions. However. Yet in the analog CCTV world. So in the long run. Wide dynamic range is another hot issue related to the sensor and image processing. focal length. So while lenses are taking longer to evolve. the eye. the next comparison is with field of view and mechanical speed. Also. but be roughly estimated between 5-10 megapixels depending on the person’s eyesight. cameras are computers that can see. the human eye is faster than the majority and still beats the autofocus algorithms of most cameras. and aperture are all terms used to describe both. and much more light sensitive than the eye in HTDV and VGA resolutions. and where will we fall behind in the future? Many of us suffer with poor night vision. IP security Seeing is believing Let’s start with the obvious comparison: the IP camera and the human eye. There’s one main reason that lenses are not keeping pace with IP camera and sensor development. but also qualities where a surveillance system will never replace human intelligence or intuition. Thus. If compared to the best wide dynamic range network cameras on the market. How do we stack up today with our IP video devices. one can argue that the usable resolution of the cornea or what the brain computes at a given time can vary greatly. the comparisons stopped at seeing. it was natural to compare these devices to the human eye. Now that we’ve covered resolution and light sensitivity of the camera vs. light sensitivity.OPINION The future of video: use your eyes By Martin Gren. it’s a dead heat tie. The eye has a field of view of approximately 75-95° and a pan-tilt speed of roughly 900°/second. lens. when humans try to see during constant contrast . Since the invention of the first analogue video camera. and therefore the human eye: Moore’s Law.

www. Face detection by a video surveillance camera in a crowd is something we all can dream of. Guards and officers in the field can scan quickly for signs of trouble. wider – just like our old analogue TVs. Without the ability to brush debris away from their lenses. One solution could be to pool patent fees amongst the patent holders in order to share these innovations with the world while keeping overall costs down for the end-user. Using analytics with increased edge storage capacities will be attractive because this solution does not require continuous Internet bandwidth. But when it comes to more advanced analytics. Here. anywhere video access and offsite storage has led to the emergence of hosted video. But remember. roy. However. Our long-term memories are unrivalled in the animal world. Until then. For more information contact Axis . +27 (0)11 548 6780. This is happening in our industry as well as many others. but through Moore’s Law. yes. in a footrace. an IP surveillance system has the most reliable long-term memory and its short-term memory growth is far outpacing our own. when talking about analytics and software. we can easily store weeks of high quality video inside the camera or encoder in the coming years. so do security cameras.securitysa. After all. monotonous tasks like people counting. online banking. Local. fog. edge-based recording is then short-term memory – which is improving in the camera not through memory exercises. file sharing and other cloud-based services.axis. but in more unique applications like retail customer reward programmes. Humans have higher pixel vision. even the most advanced computers completely lag humans. the human element will be important for many years to come – even if CSI and other TV shows would like you to believe otherwise. personal storage. Think about the patience you would have to have to sit on the side of a highway and make a note of all the licence plates that drive by. Just as our own human behaviour has dictated the rising use of Gmail. Moore is much faster than Mr. there is nothing like a guard or operator. Moore’s Law keeps on working to give us more processing power and usable resolution. the human brain and intuition wins over a security camera in most aspects. while their colleagues in the command post use cameras to zoom in for a closer – and safer – look. A third layer is when we combine edge recording with hosted video. in the same way the human eye can contract infections and obstructions. While edge recording is perfect for single site deployments. IP video will continue to improve. we as people will have an advantage over surveillance systems for many years because it’s not possible to patent humans (fortunately!). The real game changer will be in the smaller camera count market where we will see edge storage replace the DVR rather soon. Yet a question I often get when speaking about the growth of edge-based and hosted video storage is if these technology trends mean the end of the VMS. which are now available in 64 and 128 GB with more storage to come. the user will never miss a single frame. Darwin. and humans must adapt to get the most out of the technology. there is the rising issue of potential patent lawsuits attempting to block the use of a specific algorithm. Analytics will continue to improve – especially as software developers from all walks of life are attracted to the surveillance industry with the goal to develop applications to run inside the camera itself – but a human will nearly always be required for this aspect of the industry to thrive. the biggest leg up for the camera is that it never needs to sleep! From detection to analysis The no-need-for-rest feature of cameras means that video analytics is superior in the ability to perform around-the-clock. while the latest human evolution seems to be that we are growing larger. I’m not a neurology specialist. if configured properly. machine in the surveillance world. The key to the future is mining all the high-quality video data that IP cameras capture and consider new and novel uses for this information. With the evolution of SD-cards. machine When we compare man vs. Man vs. it’s clear that Mr. but face detection in a controlled environment can be deployed successfully. We continue to see improvements in the evolution of optics and motors in PTZ cameras that Darwin can’t keep up with. This will leave us free to innovate and drive business. While advanced behavioural analytics are improving. installation environment and housings are increasingly important and will see further development. a similar need for anytime. Today’s standard for a modern surveillance system is HDTV and. taller and. dust and even spider webs affect the camera as much as they do our own eyes. The answer is simple: These cameras still need to be managed. So while humans can remember even our earliest memories. This intelligent feature will not only play a big future role in access control. cross-line detection and licence plate recognition (LPR). however. So too do surveillance systems.cameras have a major leg up. When in controlled environments. Our brains can analyse a scene and predict behaviour thanks to human intuition. The retail market will be the biggest winner in the future. so too does Internet bandwidth and availability. CCTV Handbook 2013 17 . the one certainty is that we need to work together for maximum efficiency today and into the future. advanced analytics are working really well. That’s good news for police officers interviewing folks about a crime – even if eyewitness testimony is sometimes proven shaky. Consider long-term memories as the server-based and NVR systems with the ability to download and store video for long periods. Edge-based storage in a small camera system environment has many benefits and it will continue to get better. but the IP camera helps us see in difficult light and pure darkness. movie streaming. Humans are said to have short-term and long-term memories. but the camera never lies or misremembers. This trend may be even more disruptive when we combine good camera-edge-recording and analytics. And as edge-based storage grows. and what does this the best is a good VMS. When it comes to detecting strange behaviour and How’s your long and short-term memory? We all have personal memories that we can look back on in an instant. Unlike our eyes. including the mobile phone market. but the IP camera is there to help with repetitive tasks without getting bored or falling asleep at the wheel. www. hosted video has seen success where the end-user has multiple dispersed sites to monitor. so it’s astonishing how our brains can analyse the pictures/videos from our past and have the ability to record for many years.

General supplying footage to identify Masiye and Maj. The two officers to receive Exceptional Service Awards were Warrant As explained by Spar’s Keith Alexander. Rassie Erasmus was next up to receive an Exceptional and no trauma. . it did hit multiple stores in cooperation and the sterling efforts of Mashiane and Nkathingi. the key perpetrators involved. targeting retailers. although other Spar Appreciation. 18 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. lead to some cashiers losing their jobs since The awards were a way for the CGC and Spar to thank and pay tribute to in stores without CCTV coverage. fighting arena. General Norman drawers in retailers – apparently Taioe. Moses Tsomele. even cashiers at work in the fact that when people cooperate. Retail syndicate foiled through cooperation between NPA. which led directly to the arrest the process underway to identify of certain syndicate members. He presented Their modus operandi was certificates to James Oosthuizen to use numerous members of as well as Juan Kotze.securitysa. Commander. the operations of the syndiOfficer Mashiane and Sergeant Nkathingi from the Midrand SAPS. and slick. At the ceremony. owner of high-level informant was also of the Super Spar. while others would L to R: Warrant Officer Mashiane. before CEO. Gwarega Mangozhe made the awards involved in thwarting the long-term operations of a crime syndicate to two police officers who have been key to the success of the investigation. no deaths Chief prosecutor. in North Rand was on hand to the middle of the day. the criminals. cashiers were on a break. simply a slick operation that netted millions in stolen Service Award. Advocate the manager of the Super Spar Juan Kotze played some of the for his quick and decisive action video shots taken and explained All the award recipients. the gang as shields to prevent In her acceptance speech people from seeing what was Masiye encouraged all concerned happening. however. his staff members. SAPS and Spar. The help of a Peet van der Walt. followed by Brigadier Gina Palko. in front of present additional Certificates of everyone. MD of Spar high-value notes from a till.CO-OPERATION GETS RESULTS Syndicate foiled by cooperation By Andrew Seldon. Gauteng Cluster money every month. Sergeant Nkathingi and Moses Tsomele. along with various towns and cities on a regular basis. This brazen approach Excellence from Spar to various to their crime shows how well attendees in appreciation of their trained and confident these continued service to the retail criminals were of getting away industry. Tsomele then also received an This footage showed how it Exceptional Service award from would take less than 10 seconds Mangozhe. There were no guns. Vorna Valley was particular assistance in sealing on hand to pay tribute to one of the fate of this syndicate. Awards presented The Consumer Goods Council (CGC) of South Africa hosted an awards The CGC’s manager of the crime prevention programme. The criminals’ operation involved obtaining a skeleton key to the cash Maj. The efforts of Tsomele were also key to the success of the leader of the syndicate’s cut was between R400 000 and R800 000 the case and Masiye encouraged him to continue his efforts. these people returned to their tills to some of the people who have made the effort to fight crime and do the right find thousands missing with no explanation of how it happened. per month. which was received stores were also involved in on his behalf by Maj. with one informant claiming the prosecutor’s office. to continue to be alert and sometimes find the supervisor praised the cooperation between the various departments and the business on duty and other staff and distract them with questions. for the gangs to remove all the Brett Botten. Gauteng detective head an easy task for this syndicate then received a Certificate of – and stealing money while Appreciation from the CGC. Gauteng Provincial Commissioner Central to the case was the Lt Gen Mzwandile Petros CCTV footage taken at the Vorna also received a Certificate of Valley Spar. It also highlighted the the human shields involved in the operation. noting that the success of this case was a direct result of this While this operation did not involve guns. James Oosthuizen ceremony in February to pay tribute to a few people who had been opened the proceedings. It did. Due to thing in a tough and normally thankless environment. specifically in the crime with their theft. cate were streamlined and professional. and a little help from tills next to the targeted one were oblivious to the crime – it was that fast technology seals the prosecution. crime can be beaten. General Motsikile. CCTV Handbook 2013 19 .

Features like Axis one-click connectivity. and if war or terrorism threatens. data and other security improvements as countries reach election days.of-use in mind. too. Milestone continually evolves our XProtect Smart Client to be the umbrella client interface for operational visibility in a security environment. easy to deploy and easy to use. 3. Milestone’s low and mid-market products are designed to address this trend from XProtect Go through XProtect Professional.securitysa. setup and use) with ease. integrators and end-users alike are demanding ‘easy’ – easy to procure. This can be addressed by the open platform approach from Milestone Systems to allow endless upgrades and integrated solutions that can be added over time.TRENDS Open platform video set to grow By Andrew Seldon. our Web client and remote clients. Offering video via the cloud is really like offering a traditional IT managed service. receiving feature updates that make it well suited as the technology foundation of a hosted video solution. These will come in the future but until then. customers are under pressure. and Milestone Federated Architecture make XProtect Corporate an ideal hosted video solution platform. Consolidated operational user interface (UI). affecting the balance of power and the focus on physical. flooding and drought. we see three trends today affecting Milestone and our marketplace in general: 1. Budgets are scrutinised as demands for a safer environment and affordable security constantly battle for priority. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What do you think will be the biggest trend or influencer in the coming year in the surveillance market sector? Peter Biltsted: Countless circumstances around the globe contribute to growth and innovation – even the smallest upgrade in technology or thinking can become a catalyst for . and we are working hard to continually improve on these products (installation. from the perspective of Milestone and the industry in general. In the low to mid-market. but using new technology. Our XProtect Corporate product continues to be future-ready. hurricanes. high-resolution cameras. Politics: Political changes can influence degrees of regulatory requirements. 2. We hear a lot about cloud technology and VaaS these days. 20 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. or impromptu ones like demonstrations or natural disasters. Hi-Tech Security Solutions asked Milestone’s Peter Biltsted to answer four questions on what to look out for in 2013. talking about it is getting too much hype. Changing requirements can also be driven by large public events like the Olympics. from monitoring and tracking severe storms. Traffic control and management has become part of this trend. We work hard to provide a more flexible. The environment: Another perspective deals with the increased emphasis on climate change. cloud computing and video analytics require the most upto-date hardware and software. The economy: With budget cuts across the board. powerful and relevant client for the operators by XProtect Smart Client. Technology: Technical advances are influencing new degrees of necessity for surveillance and monitoring: biometrics. including the fast growing area of video management systems. Instead. Video as a service (VaaS). we want to make the software tools to enable others to address this type of business model whenever it does become viable. These product offerings are built for ease of use. Basically. Ease of use. to improving protection of energy supplies and natural resources. Milestone does not want to be a hosting company ourselves – that is not our core competency. When considering the trends in the surveillance market. But the bandwidth services have to be in place first and at reasonable prices. Even the smallest upgrade in technology or thinking can become a catalyst for change.

a strong toolset for investigations. Such opportunities underline the fact that an IP VMS with an open platform is more than CCTV Handbook 2013 21 . It has improved the speed of innovation for diverse applications. For more information contact Milestone Systems. The technology adds more value than customers initially expect before installation because no one is locked into one set solution for the future. such as access control. finance. There is also increased use of video content analytics.incorporating single client visibility to the video for live viewing. Single-brand solutions lock customers out of future options to build on their initial investments. handling more than just security matters – adding measurable long-term returns on investments (ROI) and lowering total costs of ownership (TCO). Milestone sees a growing acceptance for open platform video. www. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What technologies/technical implementations do you think will stand out in the coming year? Biltsted: In South Africa.milestonesys. with interoperability to the video interface show people or vehicles on the move. These solutions are now affordable and on the cutting edge of the industry.+45 88 300 300. and prove that open architecture is absolutely the best way to go for sustainable value in customer installations. challenges and innovations. The result of all of this is that the value of video is increased both in real-time and when viewing recorded video. and larger installations and larger corporate entities are setting a surveillance policy for deployment of unified systems with increasing integration of multiple systems into one platform. Today the ease of use. Video analytics have come of age. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: If there is one piece of advice you could give customers and potential customers as the year starts. effectively growing solutions parallel to the necessities of our world as they happen. Open platform IP video is enabling business optimisations on a larger scale. Access control or licence plate recognition. adding real value to the industry rather than just hope. production and logistics. what would it be? Biltsted: Adapting to change through openness – both today and with the future in mind – will have more positive results. benefiting customers’ bottom line as they are able to lift their implementations to new levels of professionalism and Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Do you expect to see your products integrated into third-party solutions or will customers opt for singlebrand solutions in 2013? Biltsted: Value-adding integrations continue to be a huge growth factor to offer efficiency advantages for customers. cdp@milestonesys. improved algorithms (both at the edge and server levels) and data libraries are reducing false alarms and improving reliability across the board. Milestone XProtect Smart Client continues to progress in this direction providing the operators additional visibility and interaction with multiple disparate data that when correlated with video provides the best levels of operational overview. It can deliver ongoing flexibility to respond to changing www. HR. for example. IP video is still driving the convergence of digital systems across multiple areas. and coupling this with integration of third-party alarm or other data (access control for example).securitysa. These solutions are becoming more commonplace today.

helping to lower costs. HD-SDI made very little progress. +27 (0)11 496 2300. Added to that is the fact that costs are too . however. Edge recording onto SD cards is a great technology handling recordings directly onto the IP camera. The growth in IP surveillance will come from small to medium market size deployments. In conclusion. In this by integrating software and high megapixel IP cameras into a business management system. cashier performance predicting customer flow patterns. This year will see the demand increase as prices get lower. Hybrid systems have made a great impact in the CCTV market offering both analogue and IP connectivity. queue management and retail security monitoring. The strong demand for megapixel IP cameras has set the increase to almost 35%. Thermal cameras have been around for many years. we will see development in the HD camera segment. Edge recording on SD cards will become common for users that need basic functionality and act as redundancy for larger VMS systems. I’m not too sure if security managers will be in favour of vital video data sitting in the cloud. Video analytics will certainly be a game changer in the surveillance market. 22 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Yet another trend will see video being recorded in the cloud. but still giving the flexibility to expand into IP technology. the future for the surveillance market looks strong with the fast-paced evolution of technology and the market adapting to it. government installations and high-level security companies. buddy transactions and preventing suspicious transactions like dubious For more information contact Frank Thermal cameras will never replace IR or low light cameras in the foreseeable future due to price. The ROM software uses CCTV cameras for POS interfacing and video analytics for shrinkage control.securitysa. with easier integration and intelligent video analytics. Abie Ali discusses changes he noticed in the CCTV industry in 2012 and looks at what’s coming? How did the CCTV industry change in 2012? A very strong growth in IP video surveillance was the trend. The industry is taking to megapixel IP cameras because of many VMS (video management systems) available. www. A single panoramic camera offers a 360-degree view providing a greater situational awareness than a single camera normally provides. These super resolution cameras will cover a larger viewing area.SURVEILLANCE TRENDS FOR 2013 Surveillance trends By Abie Ali. Trends in the next five years I expect to see include 10 or more megapixel IP super-resolution cameras entering the market. low light and WDR (wide-dynamic range) optimisations. resulting in clear crisp video pictures. operational management. VMS will have a significant growth due to the migration from analogue to IP cameras. Frank Street has been developing its own video analytics called ROM (Retail Operations Management). The other trend in the next five years will see video analytics take on a new dimension in surveillance. Many VMS software packages have the functionality for dewarping and dividing the 360-degree panoramic camera into quad and dual 180-degree video pictures. Panoramic cameras have gained attention of the CCTV market and will grow over the years. ROM is an effective business management tool. sales@frankstreet. at the moment. and is sure to prove itself successful in the years to come. This trend of super megapixel cameras will evolve as VMS servers will have faster processing power. POS (point of sale) integration solutions are now being used by retail giants like Woolworths to aid security with till transaction pilferage. Frank Street.frankstreet. In the camera market. due to price being high and limited recorder support compared to megapixel IP cameras. also reducing licensing costs by requiring only one licence instead of multiple cameras and licences to cover the same area. mostly deployed by the military. With growing concerns in retail security on asset control. Security managers that have recently installed analogue cameras and want to expand are demanding hybrid solutions. for effective management of sales. CCTV Handbook 2013 23 .

a third component – custom integration – has recently been .za. the system adds superior business intelligence not only by providing pertinent information about the hardware health status of the systems that are linked. In addition. The SmartProtect system is currently a generic plug-in system for the Milestone video management platform. allowing him to make the best decision in a fast expeditious manner. The integration module allows for post-event investigations. Because there is a great need for customised or client-specific 24 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. www. The report module was initially developed as a data mining tool to present data in a more refined manner. last year publicly launched its product offering. Video can be searched for any event or transaction. thus reducing the need to separately view multiple systems. SmartProtect. This is facilitated through SmartProtect. but also about user activity. All this data adds value to the video system. info@smartprotect. Many end-users have preferred historical systems that they would like to link with video and this facility will effectively cater for this requirement. For instance. An added benefit of the integration is the ability to prompt the decision-making process with standard operating procedures (SOP).SYSTEM INTEGRATOR PROFILE Integrated central monitoring SmartProtect enables monitoring of multiple system events with video. the name of an employee who is listed in the access control system database can be used as a search item to view the relevant video footage pertaining to his movement throughout the facilities. The system allows centralisation of data from multiple security systems into a database and is then displayed in the video management interface. Initially there were two components – Integration and Reports.smartprotect. Once the operator has acknowledged these procedures a full audit trail is also in place. There is a growing need to add business intelligence to By thinking out of the box there is great value in combining data and linking video to data transactions. Other examples include weighbridge information or licence plates. a software development company. For more information contact SmartProtect. The integration component centralises all events and transactions with relevant video feeds.securitysa. After a request from clients to be better able to manage multiple systems on a common platform. This gives the operator optimised situational Systems can be administrated remotely and can provide predefined automatic reports.

and a strong presence throughout RSA. access control. Tel: +27 (0)11 210 3500 Head Office info@basixgroup. We provide holistic security technology solutions that enable you to concentrate on your core and is responsible for sales. For details on how to include your company in this listing contact vivienne@technews. a global provider of intelligent IP video solutions. installs and maintains security technology solutions. Tel: 0861 500 500 Fax: +27 (0)11 844 3500 Tel: +27 (0)11 781 1341 support@camsecure. fire detection and offer a range of leasing solutions. From UTM Group UTM Group is a provider of end-to-end total security management services with integrated solutions. upgrade. transportation. Tel: +27 (0)11 555 4949 It specialises in fully integrated fire and security systems both nationally and TVMS Our solutions protect and enhance your investments and profits as well as reduce Firetech Projects Firetech Projects provides project solutions to many sectors of the And we can evaluate. along with a true understanding of the security challenges faced by organisations of all sizes. building www. time and Bidvest Magnum We we analyse the client’s needs. The business possesses great depth of skill and www. priority alarms and embedding standard operating procedures to quickly prompt the operator to make the correct response.bidvestmagnum. We pride ourselves on quality expertise and experience in building asset www. we provide turnkey solutions. Specialise in surveillance: access control and T&A. EOH Intelligent Infrastructure supplies and installs security.camsecure. CCTV. As client requirements are Camsecure A network surveillance and electronic security company that has completed many large and prestigious projects throughout the including government.firetech. commercial-industrial and infrastructure We pride ourselves on quality. Instead. CCS can design and install systems to suit your needs and budget. national key points.SYSTEM INTEGRATORS’ PROFILES System integrators It takes appropriate knowledge and experience to create solutions that protect people. video analytics. comfortable and cost-efficient. Tel: 0861 867 8867 (TVMS) sales@tvms. These include managed www. Tel: +27 (0)11 907 3192 repair and maintain your existing system. Skilled. UTM delivers security management services by taking your entire risk value chain into consideration. TVMS offers peace of mind with value for money solutions and exceptional service Together with the Jasco Group’s expertise in the ICT and Energy EOH Intelligent Infrastructure EOH Intelligent Infrastructure is a wholly owned subsidiary of www. Basix is the agent for March Networks. We develop. security system integrators and solution providers with over 20 years’ experience. universities. fire detection: audio evacuation and public address. financial institutions and the private advise on optimum solutions. as well as parking control systems. installation and maintenance to monitoring. As a service to our www. engineering and maintenance services. install and maintain critical building systems that help keep customer workplaces safe. communications and time management hospitals. design the required system and then install it based on clearly defined project guidelines as well as a detailed scope-of-work document. data mining and meaningful business intelligence. Tel: +27 (0)11 695 8000 servicehbsza@honeywell. Hi-Tech Security Solutions provides a list of system integrators end users can contact to discuss theirintegrated security solution Card Control Systems We provide total project solutions based on specialist Jasco Security Solutions Jasco Security Solutions (incorporating Scafell and Multivid) designs.tvms. Tel: 086 022 2266 Bidvest Magnum Technology does not have off-the-shelf security solutions. Global experience across diverse markets positions Honeywell as a technology leader renowned for delivering value. serves government and private sector customers in the profits and assets and deliver business Basix Group The Basix Honeywell Building Solutions Honeywell Building Solutions is a leading provider of integrated technology solutions that support innovative ways of working. Designing event-driven systems and centralising information through maps. expertise and experience. experienced system integrators are the link between technology and solutions that Tel: +27 (0)11 894 7127 kleroux@multivid. access Tel: +27 (0)12 667 2338 CCTV Handbook 2013 25 . install and maintain integrated security solutions. installation and support of products on the African continent. shopping malls.

operators are sitting in the lowest position relative to the ground compared to what is expected. Not only this. it also presents potential problems for monitors. leaning to the side of their control screens in order to see what kind of effect changes or adjustments may have on the monitor wall. Consoles that are inclined slightly forward. One of the most critical design issues in any control room design featuring CCTV should be the line of sight and angle of view of monitors to operators.OPINION Line of sight and angle of view By Dr Craig Donald. 26 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. I’ve divided these up into a few different areas to facilitate looking at the related issues more easily. In one control room I visited recently. or lean back in their chairs to avoid muscle strain. Good control room chairs are difficult to come by and the standard issues often have hydraulic functions that fail fairly quickly. As camera viewing light conditions change. I find that darker images create more difficulty in viewing as soon as one changes the viewing angle from directly in front of the screen. In situations where CCTV is viewing. or monitors fixed to allow a tilting downwards allow an operator to have a more direct view of the scene displayed on screen and facilitate natural viewing. While one may think of monitors being too far away. A further part of the physical environment that is a common issue is the chairs upon which the operators sit. and this can affect the colour intensity and the display contrast on screen. and one almost has to physically lean back in order to view some areas of the screen. Distance is also a complicating factor. There are a number of issues relating to how the angle of view affects the quality of surveillance. Operators are looking around or even The screens themselves LCD/LED and plasma screens have their own limitations built in with their possible angles of view. the increasing use of big 40-inch and large TV type screens has suddenly brought things in too close. The problem with tilting monitors appropriately is further complicated by the fact that the mounting fittings are not standardised and just the process of attaching them to the console or wall is a complicated process that allows little flexibility or ongoing adjustment. At this point with no hydraulic pressure. Leaning back creates the conditions for people to become too relaxed and together with tiredness. Even on my notebook. The quality of lighting can change as it gets darker. Physical issues Physical issues relate to where and how monitor screens are placed on desks. Besides the actual positioning. the angle at which monitors are attached is also an issue. The other alternative for operators is just to disregard the monitors positioned too high and they cease to be a source of information. When mounting such displays. a number of monitors mounted high on a console became unviewable Yet operators hadn’t commented on it and a number of screen views were being disregarded on a constant basis over a period of a couple of years because of the viewing angle. Side views and those from the top and bottom reach points where the quality and contrasts of image deteriorate so much that it becomes difficult to see what is on the screen properly. light intensity changes are a common issue beside the daily shift from light into darkness. The monitors and their angle of view effectively determines the usability of the interface for the operator in order to accomplish surveillance objectives. leads to people dozing or ‘tuning out’. One can even find that monitors on desks would benefit from slight tilting or height adjustments up or down to make for more ergonomic . One can often find monitors placed high up and facing directly away from the wall – this creates a double problem as will be discussed in the section on LCD screens. as soon as one sat down in the seat. a simple aspect of ensuring that you can see past the desktop monitor clearly is often neglected. with visual discomfort and eye strain an additional possible outcome. Ensuring line of sight and angle of view – basic essentials of control room viewing. this needs to be checked from typical seating and standing positions. they are often neglected in the technical installation of the control room.securitysa. Where desktop monitors are used in conjunction with wall mounted monitors. consoles or walls within the control room. but the colour range displayed can change as the viewing angle becomes more extreme. Yet despite the importance of these. and viewing angles of the wall and desk monitors often change as a result. One of the most common issues is placing monitors too high so operators either have to tilt their heads uncomfortably upwards.

X-ray screeners and other security personnel in major operations around the world. Line of sight and angle of view issues are one of the most common problems in control rooms. that it was the first time that the client who was a major national installation company had even done such a thing. This is especially the case with some monitors which have a more reflective surface. He can be contacted on +27 (0)11 787 7811 or craig. Dr Craig Donald is a human factors specialist in security and CCTV. resulting in key aspects of incidents being missed. He also runs CCTV Surveillance Skills and Body Language.donald@ leaderware. Ensuring the design works well in the beginning will solve a lot of problems later. How the available workstation space is occupied by monitors should be based on a usability analysis and what the critical viewing needs are to do surveillance properly. he or she runs the risk of missing important surveillance information. Direct lighting and fluorescent lighting are also the primary problems in that respect and wherever possible. Yet all too often the monitors are mounted more in line with the fact that technicians want to place as many views as possible in one area. this needs to be channelled or provision needs to be made to adjust the effect of direct light. It amazed me at one stage where I sat down with a client and did a mock up on the proposed CCTV workstations to test line of sight and viewing angles. this is most likely to happen when an incident occurs and the operator has to look away in order to make selections or adjustments to screen or to obtain information. The line of sight and the angle of view issues also relates to use of communications equipment. supervisors and managers www. Where the operator has to look away repeatedly every time something is changed.securitysa. indirect lighting should be used. which should be positioned so operators can maintain a clear view of the CCTV monitors while handling an incident. Organisation One ideally wants the best line of sight to the most important monitor displays. never mind sunlight in the control room. Where supervisors are also involved in monitoring what is going on. There is no need for expert advice for the most part – simply sit in a control room chair at the workstation and see if the setup works for you. He is a director of Leaderware which provides instruments for the selection of CCTV operators. and Advanced Surveillance Body Language courses for CCTV operators. While I am a fan of natural lighting. and consults on CCTV management. Another important part of this is that the control screens that are often used to manage camera selection and things like alarm screens should be in line of sight as much as possible. line of sight from the supervisor workstation is also an important element to bear in mind. Ironically.Lighting Lighting reflections have one of the most potential disruptive influences on screen displays. yet they are the simplest to prevent and the most common sense one to get CCTV Handbook 2013 27 .

Understand the whole camera solution. Welldesigned camera configuration software is an indispensable installation and configuration tool. Installers not only have to physically mount. all cameras are given the same default IP address and a unique MAC address. With its back plate removed. look beyond the high-level specs to understand the whole camera solution.3at). and accessories to make the entire installation and commissioning process faster and more efficient. The best camera manufacturers listen to the voice of customer and the integrators’ perspective to improve on physical installation. PoE+ is inadequate and an AC power supply must be used to achieve the lowest operating temperature rating of the camera. senior product manager. if necessary. setup and connect the cameras to the . Managing network connectivity Configuring each IP camera on the network is much different to configuring analogue cameras. For example. A more efficient way is to use the smart configuration software provided by the manufacturer to manage configuration of multiple cameras automatically. outdoor cameras that are warmed by heaters as well as most newer indoor HD PTZ cameras that require additional power to run the pan and tilt motors. allow for individual camera naming and. emallett@tycoint. These vendors are also devoted to employing significant resources on product design. A smarter design has the hole pattern in the back plate positioned to match common electrical gang boxes so the camera can be screwed directly onto the wiring box. power considerations. the best camera manufacturers look beyond simply delivering high quality video capture functionalities. but must also understand the configuration and load balancing of IP networks. When manufactured. a camera can include the adaptor necessary to connect into the wiring conduit to meet the code requirements. Imagine you are installing 50 cameras. batch update camera firmware.3af) and PoE+ (802. 50 cameras connected to a single network means the video streams from all the cameras are moving on the same wires simultaneously. It is important to note that the power supply used will directly affect the low temperature ratings of heated outdoor cameras. The task can be accomplished by opening each camera’s Web user interface and assigning a new IP address. In cases where building codes require plenum-rated flush mount installations. When comparing camera features. Camera installability. www. each camera is assigned a unique IP address. Cameras that focus on “installability” will pay dividends in the long run. For more information contact Tyco Security Products. the same camera can be flush mounted to a surface using integrated swing out clamps to secure it on locations such as a drop ceiling. Tyco Security Products. For IP cameras both these needs can be fulfilled using a PoE (Power over Ethernet) network where only a single RJ-45 cable connection to the camera is necessary. To aid integrators in these new Configuration software will scan and find the connected cameras on the network. Ideally each camera should be named with a common identifier so that it is easy to understand the camera type and location of the camera within the system. as multiple IP cameras are capable of running on the same physical network wire. batch assign IP addresses. The growing deployment of IP video systems has added new layers of complexity that the installer must master to be successful. In order for the network to distinguish one camera’s video stream data from another. wiring. software. A well thought-out and designed camera can reduce the man-hours necessary for installation. A well-designed indoor mini-dome will allow for surface mounting by simply screwing the back plate onto the surface. so the installation environment and camera power/temperature ratings should be carefully considered before deciding on the power supply.INSTALLATIONS Understand the solution By Joel White.securitysa. Time is money so consider using cameras that incorporate features and technology that allow for easier installation and configuration. In certain cases. setup and configuration must be completed for each deployed device in order for the system to recognise and connect to the camera’s video stream. Power supply All cameras need electrical power and connectivity to the recording system. Camera installation. Integrators and installers of video surveillance systems face tasks that are common across both analogue and IP video camera Physical installation Cameras that incorporate multiple installation options into the design of the core product save time and money by enabling faster and easier installation and by reducing or often eliminating the need to purchase mounting accessories or adaptors. Joel White Integrators who use these manufacturers’ cameras realise the benefit through higher profitability and a competitive edge in time saved and fewer accessories to purchase. potentially making your operation more cost competitive and profitable. +27 (0)82 566 5274. and configuration of the cameras on the IP network. PoE+ delivers higher power and is often used with 28 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. PoE power has two standards – PoE (802. each of which must be named and assigned a unique IP address. CCTV Handbook 2013 29 .securitysa.

the process can become more complex as a result of legacy software and firmware issues. it should be integrated with other security systems including fire. as they have the ability to deliver all-important visuals across all areas of operations to ensure health and safety regulations are adhered to. Jasco Security Solutions. these solutions should be integrated with other security systems including fire. but they may not be correctly integrated. alarms and access control. such as alarms. productivity is maintained and crimes can be prevented or more effectively prosecuted. CCTV solutions have become an important part of any corporate or enterprise security solution. not only from a security perspective. The knowledge that they are being watched also helps to incentivise workers to be more productive and efficient. Regardless of the mix of technology however it is advisable to obtain the services of a security and integration If each of these systems is run independently. When dealing with a mixture of old technologies and a newer management platform.jasco. offering greater value in an area which is often a grudge purchase. to all technologies. CCTV delivers the benefit of having eyes on the ground. Solutions operating independently of each other can fail to deliver on the expected benefits. CCTV solutions offer a number of benefits by providing a visual reference and evidence of incidents. newer solutions built using a standards-based approach incorporate greater levels of integration capability. consistent set of rules can be applied across the board. to the right people. When it comes to integration. it can assist with closing loopholes in security and can help organisations to derive operational as well as security benefits from their solutions. appropriate action can be taken in the event of fire or theft and disasters can be prevented in many cases. by integrating this solution into other areas of security. By integrating these solutions and incorporating proactive monitoring of the entire security system.INTEGRATION Integrated proactive security solutions By Kobus le Roux. as a result. and alarms. along with access control solutions. For more information contact Jasco Security Solutions. they should also all be incorporated into a master management platform. using a central platform or building management system. including access control. however. to ensure swift action to be taken. which those with malicious intent can exploit. This not only enables security personnel to see what is happening. enabling remedial action to be taken and processes to be improved to prevent similar problems from occurring in future. This allows for both proactive and reactive action to be taken. In order to derive maximum value and return on investment (ROI) from CCTV. CCTV solutions are part and parcel of modern security systems. Control rooms can monitor that employees are doing their jobs. fire and access control. greater value can be derived for improved ROI. which can be corrected. This master platform will ensure that a single. However. that all solutions follow a single set of rules. In the case of criminal activity. fire detection and suppression. helping to identify perpetrators and backup other findings for swifter prosecution of offenders. it also records this www. Integrated CCTV also ensures that loopholes and vulnerabilities can be eliminated. and acts as a deterrent against unlawful or unethical behaviour within the workplace. kleroux@multivid. However. something which in the case of security can be detrimental as issues are typically only discovered when something goes wrong. that they are using dangerous equipment in a Kobus le Roux safe manner. to ensure that alerts are sent out according to the correct parameters. but also in terms of operations and even health and .za 30 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Without the right partner with the necessary integration skills. This not only helps to ensure that all systems work together in harmony. that they are not accessing hazardous areas and more. Crime is an unfortunate reality in South Africa and. In order to effectively manage these integrated While CCTV is often a grudge purchase. both in terms of security and operational benefits. it is important to integrate CCTV into other security solutions. all solutions may be installed correctly and may seem to be functioning in tandem. with multiple reference sites across various industries to illustrate a track record of success. or visual access to all areas at all times. +27 (0)11 894 7127. there may be an overlap in their functionality or the independent running and variety of different rules may in fact leave vulnerabilities and loopholes in the security system. using a central platform or building management system.securitysa. often forms the bulk of modern security solutions. assuming that the CCTV feed is monitored by a control room. and that optimal security can be maintained at all times. alarms and access control. This then alerts security to potential problems. CCTV. in order to derive maximum value and return on investment (ROI) from CCTV. Recording these feeds enables personnel to discover exactly what occurred in case of any type of incident. recorded CCTV footage can be used to augment evidence in a court of law. CCTV is important. An integration partner and security specialist should have proven skills. in order to leverage maximum value from CCTV solutions. or building management solution. Upgrades may be necessary in order to ensure interoperability and a seamless solution.

com CCTV Handbook 2013 31 .securitysa.www.

“Low light cameras need to provide a high level of detail.LOW LIGHT CAMERAS Coming out of the dark By Allyson Koekhoven. most people prefer a low lux rating. Some cameras have their own built-in LEDs but this has a limited range and images are rarely usable for identification past 15 metres. cameras incorporating the Lightfinder technology can maintain colour in very dark conditions. product manager. In contrast to conventional day and night cameras that switch to black and white in darkness. cannot be recorded and therefore it cannot be used for later analysis or evidence. He needs to ensure that the selected cameras can reduce false alarms and be integrated into existing systems. business development manager – MEA at Axis . There is no doubt that the need for low light cameras is important. For indoor use. “The system integrator determines the quality and end results. Broadcast & Professional Division at Sony. “This new technology compensates for strong backlight and performs in an identical manner to the human eye in terms of being able to simultaneously see dark and bright scenes. Alves concurred with this view adding Charles Volschenk.” added Nyingeni. which include day/night with infrared and thermal imaging.” Volschenk continued. Geutebrück Southern Africa Roy Alves 32 CCTV Handbook 2013 www.” said Roy Alves. External light sources work very well in conjunction with a low light camera and infrared can be used when the lighting needs to be unobtrusive. Cameras with Lightfinder technology have all the advantages of other network cameras such as progressive scan. The Exmor CMOS sensor captures images at four times the speed of previous DynaView and some other Wide-D technologies in the industry. Unfortunately cameras with specialised sensors used to enhance their low light abilities (EMCCD for example). especially in low light or at night. Video Security (IP and Analogue). IP surveillance at Miro Distribution. product manager.” said Edward Nyingeni. according to Bantjes. “Users need to remember that the low light capabilities typically decrease with megapixel cameras. This is especially important when the colour of a suspect’s clothing or accessories could lead to apprehension and arrest. “What the camera cannot see. This is especially useful where users require colour information in the video to enhance recognition and identification of objects. viewed and be subjected to later analysis.” he added. Independent lighting (white or infrared) is essential to supplement the cameras in the provision of a clear and bright image under low light conditions” said Charles Volschenk.securitysa. “There is a broad range of low light cameras available on the market. but their customisation to the application needs to be considered for optimum results.” Volschenk said that most low light cameras are reliable. It is therefore critical to ensure a scene in which camera images can be recorded. in fact more than what the human eye is capable of capturing. MD of Geutebrück South Africa. but they still share some basic limitations. the high-speed Exmor CMOS sensor. Alex Bantjes Question of reliability Reliability depends on the implementation of the camera. Thermal cameras have definite advantages because they do not rely on visible light for imaging. are still quite costly. but do they actually produce the goods at the end of the day? “In addition to the common camera offering low light technologies. “Sony’s View-DR utilises wide dynamic range technology to compensate for strong backlight. Thermal cameras function well in low light but are unfortunately not of much use as an identification tool. “There are some good low light cameras on the market. Lightfinder technology offers the perfect solution for indoor and outdoor surveillance. View-DR is a combination of Sony’s full capture Wide-D technology. where built-in illuminators are preferred. and Visibility Enhancer (VE). and can easily be integrated with numerous application software solutions.” said Alex Bantjes. while the opposite is true of outdoor applications. Sony’s View-DR delivers a much clearer picture. but do they actually produce the goods at the end of the day? There is no doubt that the need for low light cameras is important.

but that their image quality will improve” said Volschenk. namely making any final decisions. On-site analytics will within the scene. camera. Do images. One will be able to when there are both very bright and very dark not simply accept technical store images on the camera areas simultaneously in the field of view of the datasheet stipulated lux levels so that if a DVR is used and or WDR claims. CMOS chips will get bigger to compensate for more of a commodity. Alves said that imaging in low light cameras will improve to a What about WDR? stage where it is superior to “Wide dynamic range is the human eye and there will now almost standard CCTV Handbook 2013 33 . “Thermal cameras are useful in situations where smoke or fog is a problem as they allow the operator to see the outlines of people in visibility conditions that would not be suitable for other low light technologies.”– Wikipedia.securitysa. WDR is advantagoes offline for any reason. www. not all WDR cameras camera is intended to provide clear images even “The storage requirements are equal. irrespecto the stored image in the tive of variances in brightness camera. be very little image noise. with the playing field between suppliers being lower light and ¾ or ½ inch sensors will allow the higher megalevelled. although at an increased price. with greater compensation and gain control.that not only can the footage be used as forensic evidence. Prices will also start to reduce so that it becomes built-in IR LEDs. geous in terms of its ability to one will be able to revert view a scene clearly.” “WDR technology will continue to improve as the goalposts “There will be a move away from pure low lux ratings to constantly move. “In-camera lighting capabilities are advancing but these will probably never be sufficient in extreme low light situations.” Bantjes acknowledged this and added that as the technology Bantjes concluded. “The wide dynamic range (WDR) function of a However. also improve so the need to stream data will be reduced. I believe that thermal cameras will not only become more affordable.” added Alves.” becomes more mainstream. so users need to and the bandwidth required under back light circumstances where intensity request an on-site test before will reduce for high-quality of illumination can vary excessively. we will likely see more accurate representation of colour and shading.” said Volschenk. but that low light cameras are playing a bigger role in proactive surveillance Bantjes said that low light cameras are typically used for intrusion detection and perimeter security. pixel cameras to be competitive.

Typical situations include: • Surveillance of entrance doors with daylight outside and a darker indoor environment. it is possible to extract some information from the dark areas (Figure 5). for example. The image to the right shows the details that were lost in the camera can – in one bright zone 34 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. It is obviously a user requirement to be able to reliably identify persons. Clearly both images lack information from the full scene. the image is underexposed. perimeter surveillance and other outdoor applications. ie. as shown to the left. in office buildings with many windows or in shopping malls. Parking garage. The analogue-to-digital converter is another component that may limit the dynamic range. If the sensor data is noisy. for example.securitysa. The image to the left shows details that were A good WDR surveillance lost in the dark zone. as shown to the right. The noise floor is a combination of many noise sources within the sensor. driving directly towards the camera. To the left. very common in retail and office applications. WDR techniques facilitate the ability to assimilate information from all light levels in the scene at the same time. • Vehicles with strong headlights. the higher the number of photons per second are illuminating a scene. and therefore. security cameras will have a bit depth of 10 bits. for example 12 bits instead of 10 bits. called the exposure time. Wide dynamic range imaging is a method used to produce images that try to recreate the full scene content in scenes that have a dynamic range that cannot be captured by standard cameras in one image. The more intense the light. but we can clearly see the limitations of the modest dynamic range image of a standard camera when compared with details provided by using the brighter image or a camera with WDR capability (Figure 6). This maximum exposure time might be both too long and too short simultaneously for the same image. • Environments with lots of reflected light. there is a need for security cameras that are capable of detecting items in both dark and extremely bright areas. Each of them is captured in a way that either makes the dark part visible. also with daylight outside and low light levels indoors. transportation. Hence. There are many surveillance situations that offer difficult lighting conditions. To the thereby losing details in right. thereby burning out the bright areas. or makes the bright part visible. the image is overexposed the dark areas. • Vehicles entering a parking garage or tunnel. and the dark shadows inside the parking garage. there is not Background Standard surveillance cameras (without WDR) encounter difficulties in scenes with great variation in light levels. The maximum length of the exposure time is limited by the frame rate – if the camera is a video camera. but it cannot detect all the available photons. . image – capture both these two extremes. A camera can detect reflected photons from a scene. Axis takes us on a journey into the intricacies of wide dynamic range. indoor. clearly show details both in the well-lit entrance. A higher bit depth. objects. One particularly challenging situation is when there is a lot of variation in light levels simultaneously within a scene. Expressed differently. would theoretically increase the number of levels that can be detected. vehicles and activities in situations where there is a wide range of lighting conditions. The pixel size in a digital camera affects the dynamic range of the camera. This white paper explains why standard cameras struggle with WDR scenes and how good WDR performance can be achieved in a video surveillance camera. Challenges Light. Figures 1 and 2. indoor. it is shorter for pixels located in brighter parts of the image than for pixels in darker regions. since both bright and dark areas might be present in the image. but in reality it will increase the image quality only if the sensor data is good enough. • In city surveillance. pixels and dynamic range Light is made up of discrete bundles of energy called photons. where parts of the scene are in direct sunlight and other parts are in deep shadows. Bit depth The bit depth depicts the number of bits used to ‘capture’ the information in one pixel. One limitation is that a camera can only cope with a limited number of photons per exposure interval. Parking garage.WIDE DYNAMIC RANGE Wide dynamic range: Challenges and solutions Axis Communications white paper. In principle. Thus a camera image is just an estimation of a scene. referred to as wide dynamic range (WDR) scenes. Dynamic range is defined at pixel level to be the maximum signal divided by the noise floor. Cameras usually accumulate photons for a limited time. Figures 3 and 4. Below we can see an example of such a scene taken with two different exposures using a standard camera. The correct exposure time for a pixel is one that maximises the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This is. Figures 3 and 4 have insets showing data from the short exposure image in the long exposure image and vice versa.

Subject taken from a standard camera with unchanged settings. Subject is moved into darker and darker shade. It is also important to keep in mind that the display in front of the security manager normally only has a bit depth of 8 bits/colour channel to show the video images. Even with a perfect camera. One way is simply to combine two or more full frame images obtained with different exposure times. will however affect imaging of moving Figure 7. i. Extending the dynamic range to achieve WDR There are a number of ways to improve the dynamic range of a camera without improving the bit depth of the pixels. resulting in increased noise www. There are several different kinds of noise that might be present in an image. A camera can compensate for the noise in the image. as they are often implemented. extracted from the darker image Figure 6. This means that the algorithm to translate from 10 bits in the sensor to the 8 bits in the display is critical in achieving good WDR performance. Noise When designing WDR cameras – or for that matter. Multiple exposure times. One way to achieve WDR is to use different exposure times for different pixels. and the noise results in pixel values that do not reflect the true intensities of the real scene. This can be implemented in various ways. Detail from the parking garage scene. introducing more electrical and advanced components and functions. there will be noise.e. depending on how the image is CCTV Handbook 2013 35 . This means combining signal in shadows from one image with signal from highlights in another. This is because photon shot noise is due to the nature of light itself. but doing so can result in different types of artifacts (see below). So this means sacrificing something else. The same detail taken from the brighter image. Digital images are subject to a wide variety of noise types. which is an expensive task as described above.Figure 5.securitysa. any camera – noise is a major challenge. Increasing meaningful bit depth above 12 bits is generally a very costly exercise both from a component cost perspective and from a complexity perspective. or from a WDR camera much to win by increasing the number of bits.

The range. for example. Depending on the camera type. some more common than others. namely the ratio of smooth area like a wall the radiance of the brightwith only slight illuminaest and the dimmest tion differences might object that can be caphave areas with visible tured by the camera. Motion Motion blur can occur when the image being recorded changes during the recording of a single frame. This might be that this is not the same aesthetically unpleasing. the dynamic range capability of a camera is presented Visualisation in dB units. One dB unit is a measure of a typical example is that a ratio. Regardless of how the dynamic range is extended. If your scene is closest to type B and you answered image 9 or . Artifacts When using information from WDR images. This is one example of artifacts in the image. for example. but is generally a small which was used in Table price to pay for a much 1. be more smeared in its darker parts than in its brighter areas and thereby generate ghosting. A number of different artifacts may exist in a WDR image. as the illumination ratio. It is a way to describe how well the camera can cope with Another visible artifact that might occur is that noise may appear in unexdifficult scenes containing both very bright and very dark objects. these artifacts might look somewhat different due to the utilised capturing techniques. be more smeared in its darker parts than in its brighter parts and will appear to be at two different locations. Figure 8(b). The goal is to show as much detail in all shadows and highlights as possible and thus mimic what the human visual system is doing when the focus is moved from one object to another object. you must be able to accept image 12 or higher to be able to use a standard camera. the following image examples show what happens when a person is moved into darker and darker shade. the slightest change in the scene can generate artifacts. It is only an indication since standard cameras may. See the next section for more information about artifacts. This is sometimes also referred to as ‘cartooning’. Image from camera with low dB also look different due to the fact that the image is now so rich in reproduced tones that it is difficult to display it on a standard screen. which dramatically limit the potential of the solution. Measuring dynamic range In many cases. or in terms of image quality. extended dynamic the dB value is 60 dB. In WDR cameras. either due to rapid movement or if the exposure time is too long versus the movement in the scene. artifacts like stripes and visible pulsing might be present. If the ratio is 1000:1. Note noise. Parking garage. value is calculated as the Image capture logarithm of the ratio (in Figure 9.WIDE DYNAMIC RANGE Figure 8(a). Applications and needs Not all applications require WDR. Which image is still acceptable? If your scene is closest to the type A in Table 1. there will be a price to pay. A moving black and white football will. incorporates the WDR-dynamic capture technology 36 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Artificial illumination A related artifact comes from certain modulated light sources like fluorescent lighting. as various image artifacts are introduced. Ghosting Multiple exposure times will affect imaging of moving targets since the motion blur will be different for objects with different brightness. whether in terms of money since sensors or processors become prohibitively expensive. Image from camera with high dB targets since the motion blur and object location will be different for objects with different brightness. vary in quality. 3) times 20. of course. A moving object will. and you answered image 6 or higher to the question. This gives you an indication of when WDR technology must be used. Such light is a challenge for all cameras since the camera is normally assuming a constant illumination. Using a low dynamic range camera that is configured to avoid clipping the highlights. then a standard camera should be able to cover your needs. If your scene is closest to the very difficult type C. indoor. The image is taken from an Axis camera that A WDR image might this case. then a standard camera is still OK to use. The pected places.

Table however. which allow them to better handle difficult scenes. C: Dark indoor scene with opening. since they can increase the upper detection limit using techniques such as multi-frame exposures. Measuring how well a camera handles dynamic ranges in a scene www. it is important to know that the decibel unit is just an approximation of the dynamical capabilities of the camera. The camera has captured the very high dynamic range of the scene.axis. Axis recommends testing the cameras in the real environment before making a decision. Image results from a WDR camera will differ depending on such aspects as the complexity of the scene and amount of movement. Typical warehouse scene with door or opening to the sunlight outside. Axis is normally modest in the given ratios since a high quality WDR image also depends on the level of artifacts and the quality of the processing.axis. image processing and Axis’ unique competence to build network cameras with WDR performance optimised for security and surveillance requirements. see the following links: • Axis Communications – ‘In the best of light – The challenges of minimum illumination’. www. Some modern surveillance cameras use sensors with extended dynamic range. called Wide Dynamic Range-dynamic capture.pdf • Axis Communications – ‘Lighting for network video – Lighting design guide’. since any signal below this level is drowned in noise.securitysa. Axis’ latest solution is Wide Dynamic Range-dynamic capture.axis. the most important question is: what do you want to see? And. and the units typically used on product datasheets (such as dB) are not a reliable indication of actual WDR performance. To fully appreciate the new capabilities of the cameras. wp_light_sensitivity_41137_en_1011_lo. www. With this definition. Type of scene and matching illumination ratio Type of scene A: Sunlight/shadow. Lobby with large windows. Figure 8 shows two other examples of pictures taken from a scene with wide dynamic range. Useful links For more CCTV Handbook 2013 37 . a good image sensor can reach a dynamic range of about 70 dB. and which is available in AXIS Q1604 Network Cameras. Example A typical example is a sunlit train station with a part of the platform shielded from the sun. When comparing product datasheets from different camera manufacturers.axis. fully describe the WDR capacity. and using advanced image processing. how do you want to present the captured image? Conclusion There are many surveillance situations where there is great variation in light levels within the scene. the camera has further adapted the image to the modest dynamic range of a standard display screen.alves@axis. This presents a technical challenge for security cameras. Axis introduced its improved WDR technology. but that will not necessarily always be the best solution to achieve WDR. 1:2000 The dimmest detectable level can be defined as the noise floor of the sensor pixel. and the second picture was taken with a camera with a low dB value. WDR-dynamic capture uses the latest developments in sensor technology. The dB number cannot. Some special sensors can extend this to readings above 100 dB. and it is difficult to achieve good WDR performance without introducing image artifacts.pdf • Axis Communications – ‘CCD and CMOS sensor technology’. which is a technology optimised for surveillance applications. This will extend the dynamic range of the sensor. As with any video surveillance situation. +27 (0)11 548 6780. Which one is the best from a video surveillance perspective? is difficult.pdf For more information contact Axis Communications. As always. Figure 9 is an image of a parking garage scene taken with an Axis camera that incorporates WDR-dynamic capture technology. it is best to test them. roy. The first picture was taken with a camera with a high dB Axis’ solution for wide dynamic range In 2011. do not be surprised if an Axis camera outperforms a competing camera even if the given ratio is slightly wp_lighting_for_netvid_41222_en_1012_lo. Illumination ratio 1:20 1:200 B: Window illumination indoor. Therefore. www. com/files/whitepaper/wp_ccd_cmos_40722_en_1010_lo.

were analogue.” said Oosthuizen. HD CCTV system installations require no training and no IT knowledge since anyone who can install an analogue system can readily install an HD CCTV system. I do.” Borgmann said that an increasing number of installers are becoming aware of the advantages of HD CCTV. account manager for Grundig. Bearing these factors in mind. sales manager at Reditron. where users are 38 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. “When you replace the existing camera with an HD solution. “HD CCTV is highdefinition over a coax cable. 80% of installations. believe however. uncompressed high definition picture. and the technology on both ends of the solution needs to be compatible.HIGH-DEFINITION/MEGAPIXEL HD CCTV – hype or reality? By Allyson Koekhoven. there is huge potential for HD CCTV. you will need to change the recording platform. This is because HD SDI (serial digital interface) is uncompressed video data that requires expanded amounts of storage. but that there is still a long road for these systems to travel. “Analogue is not yet dead. believes that HD CCTV does offer definite advantages for the end-user. There are two main. In addition. He continued: “An HD CCTV system does not have onboard analytics or storage and uncompressed video is sent in HD format to recorder to be captured and .securitysa. In this arena. that HD CCTV systems will become more intelligent and cost effective as the technology matures. you get a realtime. as both camera and recording device need to be changed. with less than 12 cameras and within a range of 200 m. “Until recently. it’s a good idea to look at the client’s total solution rather than costing HD-SDI products individually. This makes the system more expensive than analogue or even IP solutions where modular migration is possible. overriding issues with HD CCTV: storage and lack of intelligence.” According to MJ Oosthuizen. The problem is that HD over coax is not a cost-effective solution. Is the positive buzz around HD CCTV cameras justified? Are they really the next best thing or just a passing craze? Is the positive buzz around high-definition CCTV (HDcctv or HD CCTV) cameras justified? Are they really the next best thing or just a passing craze? Tristram Borgmann. combined with the lack of the majority of features of analogue or IP solutions.

PTZ dome.” Grundig’s full HD-SDI range includes a box camera. over long distances.grundig-security. www. it forms part of a hybrid solution. “The new 960H technology is fractionally more expensive than current standard 4CIF/D1 solutions but is higher-end analogue with built-in prediction capabilities.” Oosthuizen said. if budgets permit. “Many installers do not understand the new technology. reducing costs. within a single camera view of the HD-SDI DVR. is currently still popular and drives sales strongly. For more information on Grundig Security products contact +49 2191 374 9883 or visit CCTV Handbook 2013 39 . Andreas Kronwald. thus placing it in a firm position to overtake the HD-SDI CCTV offering to the traditional market.implementing HD CCTV into their existing analogue system. perhaps in less critical positions on-site. The demand for HD-SDI solutions are minor. with IR LED options and true day/night functionality. The four analogue video channels can be displayed in quad format.” said Oosthuizen. product manager at Grundig. However. external.” “At least 65% of all analogue sales are for cameras that can record on a standard higher resolution DVR. on the other hand. if they replace an existing Full HD. Our larger system integrators. “HD CCTV is ideal where you need HD with awesome picture quality. an 18x. or each analogue channel can be displayed individually. HD-SDI channel. it will communicate with an HD-SDI system and assess the clients’ true requirement and budget. Simple analogue upgrades Grundig has added a four channel. rather than a best-fit solution. if you need analytics or the installation is large. but the offering on 960H platform or even D1. This is especially true where it is critical to receive live pictures in areas like petrol stations. We have found that even in instances where there are requests for HD-SDI. The CVBS composite video converter. require a flexible solution that can be integrated into a feature-rich IP platform. the highest available for analogue video. analogue to single channel HD-SDI converter to its HD-SDI product range. the analogue cameras can be upgraded. GTH-C0041C. they are more focused on finding the most cost-effective solution. outdoor bullet. The resulting video is of similar resolution to D1. retail shops. It allows installers to consider re-using existing analogue cameras and coaxial cabling within a new CCTV system. then IP is the route to go. cashier zones and banks.” Borgmann concluded.securitysa. 8 and 16 channel DVRs. Later. fixed dome and vandal-resistant fixed dome. “Each analogue channel is recorded as one quarter of the Full HD. analogue to HD-SDI converter makes upgrading existing analogue systems to HD-SDI quick. “The four channel. explains. streams four analogue D1 video channels into one. and 4. simple and cost effective. 1920 x 1080p HD-SDI video channel. Oosthuizen added that installer education plays a large role in the system selection. Users should be cautioned that they need to establish whether.

1 megapixel). Considerations when selecting the Progressive scan cable media include number of cameras. Until recently.HIGH-DEFINITION/MEGAPIXEL High-definition vs megapixel Is there really a difference between high-definition (HD) cameras and megapixel devices? Is there really a difference between high-definition (HD) cameras and megapixel devices? We asked two technically-oriented people active in the CCTV camera industry to give us their opinion of the HD vs megapixel debate – if indeed there really is a debate. type of Megapixel camera manufacturers have often camera. while the highest resolution for reviewcameras offer a variety of formats such as 4:3. Conventional megapixel available today with selectable resolution and cameras often have a number of megapixel frame rates that are ideal for general surveillance resolutions to choose from. just less present will be lost. there are three main fluctuating This is the biggest advantage to HD cameras factors that contribute to bandwidth hogging over megapixel cameras. These options provide system designers with a high degree of flexibility and Picture aspect ratios confidence in their designs. etc with the second frame Whether you prefer megapixel cameras or capture lines 2. This can be manuits subset HD based on your specific needs. etc. of an IP camera – frame rate. megapixel cameras. For example. 7. This has largely been due to Frames per second (FPS) describes the number processing power available on IP cameras as of full video frames displayed or recorded within well as network restraints. Why does the HD format exist? HD format was created to try and standardise the video transmissions of Miro comments Alex Bantjes.securitysa. 720p (1280×720. This is more expensive MJ Oosthuizen – Reditron better systems are a direct result of the superior but provides a much clearer and crisper image. Since each type of business varies. than 1 megapixel) and 1080p (1920×1080. sometimes offering as low as four width. the aspect ratio of viewing across multiple stations allows flexible HD cameras is 16:9 whereas other megapixel designs. video output can be made to any HDTV without cropping or resizing. The HD format has worked well in forcing camera manufacturers to increase processing power and the potential of their IP cameras but conversely it may also begin to limit the development of megapixel cameras. ing can be utilised through a distributed storage . type of terminafootage. applications. high-end megapixel cameras can be up to around 8 megapixel. one second. Reditron’s MJ Oosthuizen commented that HD cameras are just a different form of megapixel cameras. for example the US runs at 30 parameters. the format will need Image sizes to be updated to include higher and higher There are two main resolutions for the HD resolutions otherwise the extra detail possible at specification. location of the cameras (environment). the factured cheaply but often causes blurred wide range of high resolution cameras today images when fast-moving objects are in view. imaging possible with these high-resolution camera technologies. and whether power will be create the image. used interlaced images to create megapixel distance to the server rooms. also weighed in on the 40 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. In the first frame. provides a powerful palette of imaging tools The HD standard requires that frames are for industry professionals. Any one of these factors can be frame rates compared to low-resolution throttled back to reduce the network bandcameras. 5. 3. frames per second while the UK runs at 25. per second. There’s a wide range of megapixel cameras 2. 4. If IP camera manufacturers begin to adopt the HD format for their cameras. Sub streams for Similar to the image size. It’s crystal clear that progressively scanned. Cable selection and bandwidth go handin-hand. his response on some of the differences between traditional HD and megapixel cameras. they caprunning through the cable (UTP). With HD televisions also conforming to the standard. resolution and Alex Bantjes – Miro megapixel cameras have offered very low compression. it The HD standard requires footage to be is important to determine what requirements are created at 25 or 30 frames per second dependneeded to sustain certain defined performance ing on location. and vice versa. 6. Miro’s brand manager for Vivotek. Frame rates For video. frames per second compared to 30 frames you can increase the resolution. At present. if you reduce the frame rate. Below. This essentially uses two frames to tion equipment. such as frame rate. ture lines 1.

Megapixel technology is much more flexible than HD in that each output stream can be defined to optimise video for slow transmission (such as the Internet) or smaller screens (table to cellphone).3 megapixel) or higher.” High definition.securitysa. An image stream is defined as megapixel once the image exceeds a million pixels. Reditron www. is actually a result of the analogue broadcasting/CCTV camera industry. the description 720P refers to the horizontal resolution of the image (16:9) and the letter P indicates progressive scan. megapixel based system design allows for more flexible surveillance systems that can be viewed on many different types of devices at varying frame rates and resolutions. since 720P (1280x720) actually has an image of nine hundred thousand pixels or 0. • Flexible image formats: 4:3. Modern surveillance systems are not exclusively used to display images on monitors or television screens. HD simply refers to a set of standards that are used to describe the image quality of a camera as displayed on a monitor. • Frame rate: 3-15 frames per second – can run up to 30fps on lower MP rated cameras. • Maximum resolution: 20 megapixels. there is in fact a distinct difference. 5:4. aspect ratio. will by definition not be available in an HD stream but only in megapixel. etc. • Two resolutions: HD (720p) and full HD (1080p).com CCTV Handbook 2013 41 . The latest advanced technologies such as adaptive streaming. image resolutions. frame rate and scan type. MJ Oosthuizen. where the frame rate is lowered when there is no motion in the image and then sped up to capture details of moving objects. These standards include image size. For example.1 megapixel. • Progressive scanning: all lines in each frame are drawn in sequence. Definitions High-definition • Conforms better to multimedia systems.9 megapixels. output streams are required in any number of aspect ratios. • 16:9 image format. • Flexible resolutions: 1 to 10 megapixels (or more). It should also be noted that the term 720P is not in fact the same as one megapixel. or HD. but resolution and image format choices are more limited. Although both terms are closely related. The term refers to any camera with a resolution of 1280x1024 (1. Bantjes says. “High definition and megapixel are often mistakenly thought to be the same and the terms are used interchangeably.HD/megapixel debate. HD on the other hand is often too restrictive to meet the requirements of today’s surveillance systems. • Frame rate: 25/30. • Maximum resolution: 2. Megapixel • One million or more pixels of resolution. frame rates etc. In short. measured by pixels of vertical resolution.

But there is a more elegant solution: instead of forcBut since then. the roots of options. without being locked to given formats as 16:9 or 4:3. each of which has a different focal installed at different locations. sible to record yet more information laterally as well. HD cameras are impressive Constant resolution over the entire object space because of a technology that is derived from the field of video – that It is true that HD and megapixel cameras use progressive resolution is to say relating to moving images. and makes it posfewer details. a new technology. “With conventional One of the main arguments advanced by the defenders of high definicameras. team leader.” So in order to obtain a single lens. for modern surveillance tasks. Thus for example When the first HD and megapixel cameras were launched onto the aspect ratios like 5:1. for example situation at hand. Whereas both HD and thin air after the fact. known as multifocal sensor technology is paving the way systems there are no rigid. HD cameras or megapixel cameras? wasted needlessly. not only close up but also at very at every individual installation site. Thanks to this new sensor this in turn involves higher costs: concept. since the resolution it offers is currently equivalent to about 32 times greater than a conventional HD camera. Panomera Multifocal one point must be considered: Sensor Systems at Dallmeier. It can be used from just a single instalEfficient image breakdown lation point to provide surveillance of a huge area. this information ing of the overall image or analysis also cannot be conjured out of in the past. even even at long distances. And that is precisely the Unlike HD and megapixel objective of a professional video cameras. The image is split efficiently without being capabilities. so you are able to make out corresponds more closely to the human field of vision. However.HIGH-DEFINITION/MEGAPIXEL Define your definition Which surveillance option is best suited to today’s surveillance needs? The technological advances that have been made in the field of But real scenes seldom correspond to either of these two formats. This is where the new multifocal sensor technology can help. performs recognise. that is not quent maintenance costs for multiple camera sites are enormous. preset aspect ratios. But length. in the systems work with several lenses. High . much less identify a impressively. person. mulcompletely impossible to even tifocal sensor technology. it is often accepted that definition and megapixel cameras were introduced onto the market unimportant expanses. 42 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. such as the sky. locked into specific aspect ratios such as 16:9 or 4:3. pixels and the recording and storage capacity they take up are all surveillance. and individuals can be recognised. they were clearly superior to the predecessor SD cameras. the poorer the resolution is there. but it is these areas. blurry pictures can be transBut before any discussions formed into high-quality police begin as to whether HD or megawanted posters with just a few pixel cameras are more suitable clicks”. “Movies though they can reach higher or television series like CSI often pixel values than are possible with suggest to viewers that even HD cameras. Resolution on its own is not every“But pixels are still just pixels: thing. megapixel cameras very soon reach “So you are aware that somethe limits of their capabilities in thing is happening here. other dimensions besides only represents a person at a disresolution are important. They adapt the pixel for a whole range of hitherto inconceivable surveillance and analysis ratio to the situation at hand. even that discussion is already outdated: A new ing a scene for surveillance into a given format. network-based surveillance in the last few years are astounding. In this and the question arose: Which are more suitable for professional video case. the multifocal sensor the desired information. which are equipped with system. market a few years ago. so details are still clearly visible. recordof coarse blocks. with multifocal sensor technology. such as tance of 50 m with a collection effective image breakdown. the camera can be adapted optimally to the area for surveilThe appropriate cabling for power supply and data transmission is needed lance. so the infrastructure costs and subselong distances. but they quickly reach their limits precisely when it is important megapixel technology are in the to be able to recognise details field of static photography. explains Roland Meier. efficiently and analyse them sucbecause an HD or MP camera cessfully. past multiple cameras had to be With multifocal sensor systems all PTZ functions like panning and zooming are even available subsequently in the recording. with much higher resolutions. the only way it stands apart from conventional cameras. the resolution drops off as distance increases. 10:1 or 3:4 can be used without any difficulty. will be captured as well. Or to put it tion cameras is that HD uses the widescreen format with an aspect ratio another way: The farther a person or object is away from the camera of 16:9 compared with the 4:3 format of the megapixel cameras. In order to be able to use the if there is no additional image With multifocal sensor systems the aspect ratio can be adapted to the images from surveillance cameras information present. This location. On the other hand. in order to cover all areas of interest.

these functions are only possible in live mode. And there is another advantage: Whereas with PTZ cameras only one operator can have control over the camera at a . this is not possible.” says Meier. so no areas are “Those are three important points straight away: the whole picture is recorded. “So video surveillance becomes a game of chance in the truest sense of the word. So in theory it would be possible to use these cameras to watch over a relatively large area and to pan or zoom to a location of interest if the need CCTV Handbook 2013 43 . This makes it possible to recognise people for example even from 160 m. With conventional HD or MP equipment.” states Meier. so there is no wear. not subsequently. So if the user zooms in on a certain scene. most analyses take place in the past. so no details are lost in the recording. these cameras can Pan. if you want to identify a car thief in a car park with a PTZ camera you would have had to zoom onto the car in question before the theft took place. even if the operator is currently concentrating on a smaller inset. This means: The video system runs. Analysis in the past Seeing live images from the surveillance cameras is one thing – but with professional video security systems. This opens up a wide range of analysis options. Any additional incidents in the viewing range of the PTZ camera are lost and cannot be analysed or proven subsequently. dallmeiersa@dallmeier.” says Meier. the entire incident will not be seen on the video images. in order to record the crime in adequate resolution.” For more information contact Dallmeier Southern Africa Office. the recordings are searched later in order to reconstruct the course of events and identify the individuals responsible. can use PTZ cameras. so constant resolution can be guaranteed over the entire area under surveillance. So how likely is it that you would just happen to catch someone in the act like that?” Here too. and if an incident should occur at a given time. But PTZ cameras do have one critical disadvantage: They only ever record what the operator is currently seeing live. Accordingly. in the recording. www. www. a multifocal sensor system uses different lenses.” he adds. Consequently. it is only this scene that will be recorded.securitysa. with the multifocal sensor system any number of users can connect to the camera and select their entirely individual views. As their name suggests. it is an essential requirement of modern surveillance systems that they are also able to zoom or pan even in the recordings. “Even with PTZ cameras. since the whole picture (permanent and overall) is constantly recorded in the highest resolution. so there are no gaps in time. the solution is available with multifocal sensor systems. In contrast.dallmeier. the surveillance system is only as good as the user who is operating it. So the resolution at 100 m is exactly as good as it is at 20 m. Permanent recording of the total picture in highest resolution Those who have no desire to install multiple conventional cameras over the area in question. “Moreover. And finally: the recording takes place in the highest resolution. a multifocal sensor system always delivers total performance. because all PTZ functions are fully available even in the past – even as the system continues recording images live. unlike PTZ cameras multifocal sensor systems do not have any mechanical parts. Tilt and Zoom. +27 (0)11 979 4540. it is also possible to move within the image and to zoom in on pertinent details. Meier explains: “Since the overall image was recorded at the highest possible resolution. And if the operator is concentrating live on another area in the surveillance scene at the precise time. For example. which extends the equipment’s operating life significantly. as described previously. This total picture is recorded all the time.“In contrast. which were simply not possible with the prior technology.

we already have 20 pages of options to choose from. One bad link.securitysa. you need to ensure you have the right camera. This is the second time Hi-Tech Security Solutions is running this guide. When this happens it’s usually the camera that gets the blame. Now if we could get all our installers and integrators skilled up and registered. management system and so on. South Africa has an almost endless al array of local and international options to choose from when it comes to surveillance . As is always the case. One thing is sure. but we’ve tried to highlight the main areas buyers will focus on. installer or integrator. network. but for 2013 we have moved it to the CCTV Handbook to ensure the products highlighted have year-round visibility. but most often it’s a problem in one of the other areas. Put them all together and you’re away. but also the right advice. This guide has also been slightly expanded. Welcome to the Surveillance Selection Guide 2013. plan. and the chain is broken. we have also opened the door to software and services to provide insight into other critical areas of a surveillance solution.CAMERA SELECTION GUIDE An option for every requirement The Surveillance Selection Guide 2013 is your one-stop shop for cameras. however. We have also included the contact details of the various suppliers in case you want to find out more. If you want to gain the value and returns possible from a good surveillance system. we couldn’t tell you everything about each camera or system listed. software and services. the surveillance market would be a shining light in the security industry as a whole. Instead of only highlighting different cameras (although these are by far the majority of the entries). One of the issues highlighted in many places in this year’s handbook is that a surveillance solution requires more than a good camera. 44 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. CCTV Handbook 2013 45 .

FC & ROHS Description: The DIS range has a new design. It has a single LED array.8 – 11 mm) is adjustable via Web browser. 1pc third generation LED array. automatic. live display and playback with SMAVIA Viewing Client or via Ethernet (LAN / WAN) • One access licence for SMAVIA Viewing Client included (basic licence) • Video compression H. Features automatic Day/Night operation supported by integrated ambient light sensing. privacy masking. high quality IR cut filter. camera name. all having the same C Category: A Analogue 600 TV line D Camera DIS B Brand/Range name: K Keeper CCTV S Supplier: Vision Consulting Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: 5 VCDi 3155 nes 600 TV lines ocus Manual focus No Yes. megapixel (up to 8 MP) • Recording of RTSP cameras optional • Compatible with management system SeMSy III • Configuration and recording of ONVIF compliant cameras in preparation • Connection to Active Directory via LDAP supported • Motion detection and SmartFinder for Dallmeier IP cameras • PRemote-HD in real-time Availability: Standalone: SMAVIA Recording Server (for Windows 7) Package: Preinstalled on SMAVIA Appliances (DMS 2400. The motor-driven megapixel vari-focal lens (F1.6mm lens. 46 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Standards supported: CE.264. Features/functionality: • Up to 24 video channels (SD-IP / HD-IP) • Simultaneous real-time recording and real-time streaming • Simultaneous remote access. 3D DNR. Comprehensive set of automatic image optimisation functions. 3. Contact: Ebrahim Choonara. sales@viscon. indoor box IR and indoor dome IR as well. Variations in range: The WDR series comes in a box type. WDR. MPEG-4. dallmeiersa@dallmeier.) Standards supported: CE. +27 (0)83 460 8015. IPS 2400) Cost: On request Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent application Standards the software adheres to: H. Day/Night switching. HD (up to 1080p).0 / 2. Contact: Ebrahim Choonara.securitysa. FC & ROHS Description: This is a wide dynamic range 700 TV line infrared bullet camera. Special (motion detection. The basic version with 4 IP based video channels can be expanded by up to 20 further IP channels using a licence MPEG-4.264. with 600 TVL DIS Chipset. Variations in range : The DIS range comes in a bullet IR. indoor dome and outdoor vari-focal dome as well. 3MP) Auto/Manual focus: Motor-driven (controllable via Web browser) Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Motion detection with selectable sensitivity. MJPEG Contact: Riaan Kruger. waterproof IP66. sales@viscon.CAMERA SELECTION GUIDE Category: proof IP. Variations in range: None Contact: Riaan . 40M IR range. OSD menu containing. monitor type. HD (720p. +27 (0)83 460 8015. Effects (digital zoom. +27 (0)11 830 Name of software: SMAVIA Recording Server Description: VideoIP server software for the d audio and video streams. white balance. also supports OSD menu and has an 8 x digital zoom capability. MJPEG • Resolution SD (up to D1). ECLPS function. The camera comes with an LED array which has the smart IR function.).com Category: Analogue WDR 700 TV line bullet camera mera Brand/Range name: KEEPER CCTV V Supplier: Vision Consulting lting Camera name: VCIR3160WDR R Resolution: 700TVL Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes. a removable IR cut filter and an integrated homogeneous IR illumination (semi-covert 850 nm high power LEDs). low-light. Standards supported: H. exposure. stabiliser. DLS 1600. +27 (0)11 830 2688. image freeze etc. Alarm notification via DaVid protocol. language. e-mail and FTP image upload.264 standard. dallmeier. excellent day & night picture. weatherproof Night 3MP. lens control. day night MJPEG Description: Real-time Full HD video (1080p/30) using the H. BLC . integrated IR illumination IP Network Box Camera Brand/Range name: Dallmeier Supplier: DF4910HD-DN/IR Camera name: Resolution: SD (up to D1). which supports smart IR technology ( at night if a person approaches the camera the light will lessen so the face can be detected). L L sync. 2MP. streams designed designed i d for f the recording of IP-based installation on systems with Windows 7 operating system and suitable hardware equipment.

CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS Contact: overseas@dahuatech. Auto iris. IR LEDs Length 20m • IP66. speed up. 2DNR. symbian. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. Android v3. 8mm optional). Wi-Fi.8mm.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 15fps@1. 2.0 • 1/3-inch 2 megapixel progressive scan Exmor CMOS • H. Day/Night. Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. Max 32GB Onboard intelligence : No Standards supported: ONVIF Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Category: IP Brand/Range name: Dahua Technology Supplier: Dahua Technology Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Model: DH-IPC-HFW3200S 2 megapixel Auto/manual focus No No ONVIF Ver. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS Contact: overseas@dahuatech. single frame play function in the playback panel • Emap view • Colour setting • Image playback function. 2DNR.0 Description: • 1/3-inch 1.3 MP Auto/Manual focus: Auto/manual focus Onboard storage: Yes. iOS.2. IR LEDs Length 20m • IP66. DC12V.3M (1280×960)/25/ 30fps@720P (1280×720) • CCTV Handbook 2013 47 . AWB. 6mm.3 megapixel Aptina CMOS • H. PoE Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer.6mm.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • 25/30fps@1080P (1920×1080) • DWDR.8mm. Name of f software: f Description/purpose: Category: IP Brand/Range ge name: Dahua Technology Supplier: Dahua Technology nology Camera name: DH-IPC-HDW2100 W2100 Resolution: 1. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3. AGC. 8mm optional) • Max.3. CMS(DSS/PSS) & DMSS overseas@dahuatech. AGC.securitysa. 6mm. support remote control Dahua devices. Features/functionality: • Individual menu selection • Add devices through DDNS • Alarm push function • Recording locally in Live preview and playback • Implement slow down. AGC.IPC-K100/ K100A / K100W Resolution: 1.6mm fixed lens • White LEDs length 10m • PIR sensor range 6m • Micro SD memory Wi-Fi Variations in range: Micro SD memory.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 15fps@1. PoE (802. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. AWB. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3.3af).6mm fixed lens (2. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. IP Dahua Technology Dahua Technology Model: DH. PoE Variations in range: 3.3 megapixel progressive scan Aptina CMOS • H. Windows Phone and BlackBerry. 8mm optional) • www. supports Android.3MP Auto/Manual focus: Auto/manual manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: ONVIF Ver.0 Description: • 1/3-inch 1.0 Cost: Free/charged Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent application Contact: overseas@dahuatech. Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 6mm fixed lens (3.Digital Mobile Surveillance Software(DMSS) f Dahua Surveillance Software DMSS.3M (1280×960) & 25/30fps@720P (1280×720) • Day/Night (ICR).2. Day/Night (ICR). • Favourite group • Relay out function • Device & channel configuration setting Availability: iOS v4.6mm fixed lens (2.

Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. HTTP. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. 2DNR. PPPOE. DNS. max 32GB Micro SD. . FTP. Wi-F i (-W only) • SD memory Variations in range: CC470 Dahua IP camera 1/2. Standards supported: IPv4/IPv6. TCP/IP.0mm (20x) optical zoom • H.6mm fixed lens (2. SNMP. +27 (0)11 553 3300.264 Dome Contact: Mel Labuschagne. DHCP.0M (2048×1536) & 25/30fps @1080P (1920×1080) • DWDR. AGC. PoE PoE (802. SSL.CAMERA SELECTION GUIDE Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: IP Dahua Technology Dahua Technology Model: DH-IPC-HFW3200C 2 megapixel Manual Yes. HTTPS. UPnP. IP66. QoS. AWB. NTP. MP. QoS. max 32GB Onboard intelligence: No P. +27 (0)11 553 3300. DNR (2D&3D). CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3. Day/Night (ICR).3af). Bonjour Description: • 4. RTP. 5 auto scan.8-inch 3. Auto focus. Day/Night (ICR). UDP. RTSP. SMTP. PPPOE. 360° endless pan rotation • Up to 255 presets.0 megapixel Sony Exmor CMOS Professional 1080 Resolution: 3. P. IP Filter. 6mm.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 20fps@3. SMTP. AGC.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • 25/30fps@1080P (1920×1080) • DWDR.8-inch 2. max 32GB ONVIF Ver. info@ipsecuritysolutions. tegory: Category: and/Range name: Brand/Range Supplier: Camera name: IP Dahua IP Security Solutions CC471 Dahua IP camera 1/2. info@ipsecuritysolutions.3 megapixel A ocus Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus O Onboard storage: No O Onboard intelligence: No St Standards supported: IPv4/IPv6. 720p Contact: Mel Labuschagne. SNMP. TCP/IP.0 megapixel Sony Exmor CMOS Professional 1080 Contact: Mel Labuschagne. AGC.6mm Mini Indoor Dome. IP Dahua IP Security Solutions P Camera Camera name: CC465 Dahua IP Resolution: megapixel CMOS 3. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • Built-in 1/1 alarm in/out • PoE (not for –W series). UPnP.0 • 1/3-inch 2 megapixel progressive scan Exmor CMOS • H.3M (1280×960) & 25/30fps @720P (1280×720) • Day/Night (ICR). Bonjour Description: • 1/3-inch 1. 8mm optional) • Max. FTP. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS uatech. IR LEDs length 20m • Micro SD memory. Day/Night (ICR). 48 CCTV Handbook 2013 www.8mm. TCP/ IP Filter.8-inch 3 megapixel progressive scan Exmor CMOS • H. DDNS. 5 pattern • IR LEDs up to 100m Variations in range: CC464 Dahua IP Camera PTZ 20x 2 MP Full HD H. RTSP. DDNS. FTP.0 megapixel Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: Micro SD. AWB. Auto iris. IGMP. QoS. ICMP. SNMP. ICMP.2. HTTPS. AGC. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • Max 240°/s pan speed. ICMP. SSL. PPPOE. .0 megapixel Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: Micro SD. AWB.3–12mm vari-focal lens • Built-in 2/1 alarm in/out • overseas@dahuatech.Auto iris.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 15fps@1. HTTP. IR LEDs Length 20m • IP66. RTP. NTP. UPnP. UDP. HTTP. 2DNR.securitysa. C Category: B Brand/Range name: Su Supplier: IP Dahua ty IP Security s Solutions C hua Camera name: CC434 Dahua IP camera Re pixel Resolution: 1.7mm ~ 94.BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. IP Filter. IGMP.3 megapixel progressive scan Aptina CMOS • H. DNS. UDP. AWB. RTP.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding and JPEG image capture • Max 25/30fps@1080p resolution • WDR (DWDR). RTSP. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. +27 (0)11 553 3300. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3. max 32GB Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: IPv4/IPv6. info@ipsecuritysolutions. 8 tour. SMTP. PoE Variations in range: CC432 Dahua IP camera 1/3-inch 1. DNS. Bonjour Description: • 1/2. IGMP. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. 2DNR.

264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 20fps@3. FTP. PoE Variations in range: None Contact: Mel Labuschagne. +27 (0)11 553 3300. AGC. NTP. ATW and BLC. ICMP. IGMP. AGC.0M (2048×1536) &25/30fps@1080P (1920×1080) • DWDR. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • www.securitysa. AWB. BLC PAL video standard 50 metre infrared HDIS camera with 6mm lens.0 megapixel Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: Micro SD. PoE Variations in range: CC418 Dahua IP camera 1/2.6mm fixed Lens (6mm. PPPOE. 8mm optional) • Max. NTP. Weatherproof IP66 housing with Category: ory: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue nalogue Dahua ahua Regal gal Security CC280 280 600TVL Fixed focus No Standard DSP with AGC. QoS. TCP/IP. RTSP. info@regalsecurity.8-inch 3 megapixel progressive scan Exmor CMOS • H. Auto iris. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web IP Filter. ICMP. +27 (0)11 553 3300. UPnP. ATW. RTSP. +27 (0)11 553 3300. +27 (0)11 553 3300. ATW. AWB.3Megapixel progressive scan Aptina CMOS • Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue Dahua Regal Security CC270 600TVL Fixed focus No Standard DSP with AGC. 2DNR. TCP/IP.3M (1280×960) & 25/30fps@ 720P (1280×720) • Day/Night (ICR).co. 3. IGMP. IR LEDs length 20m • IP66. 2DNR. HTTPS.0 megapixel Sony Exmor CMOS IR 30M vari-focal Contact: Mel Labuschagne. IR LEDs length 20m • Micro SD memory.Category: egory: Brand/Range nd/Range name: Supplier: plier: Camera name: IP Dahua IP Security Solutions CC418-1 Dahua IP camera 1/2. DHCP. FTP. HTTPS. max 32GB Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: IPv4/IPv6. DHCP. ATW and BLC. info@ipsecuritysolutions. IP Filter. SNMP. RTP. DNS.8-inch 2. HTTP. CCTV Handbook 2013 49 . SNMP. Bonjour Description: • 1/3” 1.3 megapixel Aptina CMOS 20m IR Bullet 720p Resolution: 1. SSL. DDNS. UPnP. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. HTTP. PPPOE. UDP. Day/Night (ICR).3~12mm vari-focal lens • Built-in 2/1 alarm in/out • SMTP. UDP. SMTP. N/A Mel Labuschagne.8-inch 3. BLC PAL video standard Indoor dome camera. DDNS. N/A Mel Labuschagne. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3. info@regalsecurity. SSL. IP66.0 megapixel Sony Exmor CMOS IR 30M vari-focal Resolution: 3.6mm fixed lens with 600TVL HDIS chip and DSP that supports AGC. QoS. RTP.3 megapixel Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: IPv4/ IP Dahua IP Security Solutions CC417 DAHUA IP CAMERA 1/3” 1.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 15fps@1. Bonjour Description: • 1/2. info@ipsecuritysolutions.

PPPoE. 2 alarm out.1x. ICR. 2. PSIA.7-9mm @F1. RTP. 5 auto scan. Support a one cabled solution with POE. HTTPS. built-in Web server. RTP.1x. SNMP. RTSP. DDNS. DHCP. FTP.0 megapixel vandal dome camera Resolution: 2 MP – 1600x1200 Auto/Manual focus: Auto iris. DDNS. QoS. The SD6436-H can also be controlled remotely via RS-485. 5 patterns Standards supported: DH-SD. SMTP. 1-ch 3. +27 (0)11 401 6700 tasha. IP address conflict. HTTPS (SIP. SIP. 255 presents. rudieo@pinnacle. DHCP. HTTP. 802.1x. HTTPS. DHCP. BLC. Support 1 cabled installation with POE.securitysa. Up to 24 different sized privacy zones. SRTP. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Elvey Security Technology Tasha Smith. Variations in range: Standard on this model: 2 alarm in. TCP/IP. Qos (SIP. tampering alarm. Continuous pan rotation to 360º and tilt movement to 90º. NTP. network . auto recognition of general protocols Description: SD6436-H is based on 600TVL. PPPoE. PSIA. PSIA. CGI. DNS. vari-focal cylindrical camera Brand/Range name: DS-2CD8253F-EI Supplier: Hikvision Camera name: IR Bullet Camera Resolution: 2 MP – 1600x1200 Auto/Manual focus: Auto iris 2. Integrated day-and-night with 36X optical 50 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. FTP. This camera is versatile with its adjustable lens and would fit into a professional setup because of the onboard storage and supported protocols. FTP. AGC. RTSP. Very cost effective and perfect for retail surveillance and similar well lit conditions. IPv6 optional) A small discreet vandal proof mini dome camera with fixed lens. network disconnect. NTP(SNMP. Maximum IR distance is over 60m. SMTP. SRTP. IPv6 optional) Description: An all-purpose outdoor cylindrical camera with IR illumination and a vari-focal Indoor 2 megapixel vari-focal me infra-red mini dome Brand/Range name: DS-2CD753F-EI Supplier: Hikvision d l Infra-red f d network k Camera name: 2. tampering alarm. t Category: Analogue Dahua Elvey Security y Technologies Camera name: DH-SD6436 network IR PTZ dome camera Resolution: 600TVL 25/ 30fps@D1 Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Advance DSP. WDR. 8 tours.5 mm audio MIC IN / LINE IN 1-ch 3.smith@elvey. CGI. IPv6 optional) Description: A well balanced mini dome HD camera for multi-purpose indoor surveillance. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Rudie Opperman PinnSec / Devtrade Distribution +27 (0)21 550 0247 SELECTION GUIDE Category: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: mi ini i Dome Dome camera with 4mm 4m lens Indoor mini DS-2CD7164-E Hikvision Mini dome 1. HTTP. DDNS. SRTP. This model includes a cable managed bracket and sun shield for all weather conditions. network disconnect ONVIF. DNS. 802. true Day/Night MP – HD720p Manual No Motion. TCP/IP. HTTP.2 Onboard storage: No Onboard Intelligence: Motion detection. CR. DS-2CD7153-E (2 MP option) DS-2CD7133-E (VGA option) Rudie Opperman PinnSec / Devtrade Distribution +27 (0)21 550 0247 rudieo@pinnacle. SMTP. Surprisingly good image quality and unrivalled in its price range.2 Onboard storage: Built-in SD/SDHC slot. up to 32 GB Onboard intelligence: Motion detection. to provide the reliable video surveillance that’s needed in large outdoor sites. AWB. storage exception Standards supported: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: O td t D /Ni ht I f d Outdoor. 600 Ω) Contact: Rudie Opperman PinnSec / Devtrade Distribution +27 (0)21 550 0247 e. Pelco-P/D. storage exception Standards supported: ONVIF. IP address conflict.7-9mm @F1.5mm audio out (line level. DNR. DNS. RTP/RTSP. TCP/IP. The SD6436-H feature ¼-inch Super HAD CCD II. PPPoE.

2 (LED OFF). flickerless On/Off. IP66 rated for outdoor and indoor use.0001Lux (IR LEDs on at 2 Lux).Dahua Elvey Security Technologies IPC-HFW2100P 720p (1280x720). water resistance: IP66 Variations in range: N/A Contact: Elvey Security Technology. Effio WDR. Variations in range: Lens Option: Default: 6mm (3. +27 (0)11 401 6700 tasha. PAL: 500(H) X 582(V).3 MP (1280x960).za Category: Analogue Dual CCD with 600TVL Brand/Range name: Trend Tech Supplier: Crown Hyper Camera name: TT-65 Resolution: 600 Auto/Manual focus: N/A Onboard storage: N/A Onboard Intelligence: N/A Standards supported: PAL Description: 1/3-inch Sony CCD (Colour). B/W:700TVL. 1. anti-headlight. mechanical IR cut filter.8~9. Sense CCTV Handbook 2013 51 . Variations in range: N/A Contact: Elvey Security Technology Tasha Smith. high light compensation. 2D/3D noise Automatic Gain Control IEC 60529 (2002). high resolution 600TV lines. CMS (PSS/DSS) and Category: IP Camera Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Category: Analogue Brand/Range name: Shany Supplier: lo ogies Elvey Security Technologies M MTC-WDL713EF-C Camera name: C Resolution: Colour: 680TVL. +27 (0)11 830 1452 sales@crownhyperworld. IEC 60529 (2001). Sense Up (512x). Description: 26X optical zoom. Mechanical D/N Filter.3 Megapixel Aptina CMOS image sensor is capable of HD Resolution up to 1.smith@elvey. B B/W:700TVL A Auto/Manual focus: Auto N No Onboard storage: Y Sony S WDR Wide Wid Dynamic D i Range R e. including 8 auto scan modes. D1 (704x576 / 704x480) Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: Yes Onboard intelligence: Built-in Web server. digital image stabiliser. The camera’s 26X optical zoom and 15 privacy zones.smith@elvey. Built-in aspherical D/N Lens (f3. 0.5mm/f9~22mm). 680TVL. Tasha Smith. NVR. 8 tours and 8 pattern modes. 0. motion adaptive digital noise reduction (3DNR) technology. SBLC (super backlight compensation). 16mm Lens IR Distance = 60m. +27 (0)11 401 6700 tasha. E-zoom function (1~256x). High Light Compensation. 600 TVL (television lines). Onboard intelligence: Yes. www. quadrangle mosaic privacy Category: Analogue Brand/Range name: Bosch Supplier: Elvey Security Technologies es Camera name: VEZ-413-EWCS Resolution: 600 TVL Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: No Onboard Intelligence: Mechanical D/N filter. +27 (0)11 401 6700 tasha. Flickerless On/Off. and WDR. 1/3-inch Sony (B/W). Standards supported: IP66.securitysa. Standards supported: N/A Description: 1/3-inch car licence plate pro camera (Sony Effio WDR).5 Lux/F1. This camera also features PoE to allow for single cable connection. privacy zone selectable. Super Back Light Compensation. 600 TVL. Digital image stabiliser. Advanced motion detection function. Digital Noise Reduction.6mm /8mm optional) PoE Contact: Elvey Security Technology Tasha Smith. Standards supported: Conforms to the ONVIF standard. Range. 0 Lux (LED on).smith@elvey. 360-degrees of rotation.3 MP (1280×960).co. Powerful 512X WDR (54dB. NTSC: 510(H) X 492(V). Maximum pan range of 360°/s and prepositioned pan speed of 360°/s and offers up to 210 presets. DNR (digital noise reduction). privacy zone selectable. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Crown Hyperworld. no need to run a separate power wire. Description: With a 6mm lens this high-definition IP camera with a 1/3-inch 1.

OSD operation Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range : Contact: Analogue ZK-SIR283F ZKTeco Dot Matrix Face 650TVL / 752x582 Auto No 52 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. vandal proof N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. privacy masking. PAL Wide dynamic range. on screen display. +27 (0)11 830 1452 sales@crownhyperworld.6mm / 6mm Lens. dynamic noise reduction 2D. face list. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 25m night vision @ 0. auto white balancing. wide dynamic range. vandal-proof casing. auto gain. auto iris control. 4-9mm Manual VF Lens.6/6mm lens option.001 LUX. DNR. 4-9mm Brand/Range name: Trend Tech Supplier: Crown Hyper Camera name: TT_VD230 Resolution: 700TVL Auto/Manual focus: Manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: PAL Description: 1/3-inch Sony CCD 700TVL.securitysa. on screen display. white balance and mirror function. LED array and 25M IR distance. RS-485. wide dynamic range.CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE Category: Analogue A l 700TVL. face detection. privacy masking. PAL 4mm / 6mm / 8mm. auto white balancing. backlight dynamic face Category: gory: y: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera Name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue a ogue ZK-SMD222 ZKTeco IR dome 700TVL / 1020x596 (Effio-E) Manual No No PAL 3. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. 3. RS-485. auto gain control. 30m @ 0. IP66. HDNR. OSD. motion detection. IP66. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Crown Hyperworld. backlight compensation. 30m night vision @ 0 LUX. auto gain control.1LUX. DNR3D. backlight compensation. auto face .za Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue ZK – SIR222 ZKTeco IR bullet 420TVL / 752x582 Manual No No IP66.

IP66. bac light www.Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue ZK-SIR288 ZKTeco Dot Matrix 4 700TVL / 1020x596 (Effio-E) Manual No No IP66. IP66. on screen display. Pelco-D. backlight compensation. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. PAL 6mm / 8mm / 12mm. auto gain ory: Category: Rang ge name: Brand/Range er: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue ZK-SSD ZKTeco IR PTZ 650TVL / 1020x596 Auto No No PAL.001 LUX. auto gain control N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 CCTV Handbook 2013 53 . privacy masking. on screen display. auto white C Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: A l Analogue ZK-SIR285 ZKTeco Dot Matrix 2 700TVL / 1020x596 (Effio-E) Manual No No IP66. privacy masking. dynamic noise reduction 2D. auto gain control. backlight compensation. privacy masking. 30m night vision @ 0. IP66. RS-485. 12V DC power. wide dynamic range. RS-485 N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 BLC. 360° Infinity Pan. wide dynamic range. auto white balancing. 255 presets. 10 – 20m @ 0 LUX. PAL 12mm/ 50m night vision @ 0. on screen display. RS-485. 80m night vision @ 0.securitysa. : Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue ZK-SIR283 ZKTeco Dot Matrix 1 700TVL / 1020x596 (Effio-E) Manual No No IP66. Pelco-P 5. auto white balancing.001 LUX. auto white balancing. dynamic noise reduction 2D.5mm – 55mm Lens. dynamic noise reduction 2D. 10x optical wide dynamic range. PAL 4mm / 8mm / 16mm.001 LUX.

CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP ZK-NVR ZKTecoSA NV 720P @ 25fps Yes – 10TB N PAL. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. 20m night vision @ 0LUX. 32 GB No ONVIF 4 – 9mm vari-focal 54 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. bi-directional audio. RS485. Pelco-P. auto IR cut filter. w@zkteco. onboard bi-directional alarm input and output. IP66. Pelco-D H. wide dynamic range. alarm input + output. motion detection. motion detection. USB for backup and mouse control. dual stream. PoE. auto IR cut filter. Category: : Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP P4 ZK – IP o ZKTeco P Cube IP 720P / 1280x720 Manual Yes – TF 32 GB No ONVIF 6mm fixed lens. dual stream. HDMI. MPL3. PoE. IP66 6mm /12mm fixed auto redundancy recording. auto redundancy recording. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. wide dynamic range. dual stream. VGA.264 Category: Cat Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP ZK – IP 3 ZKTeco Box IP 720P / 1280x720 Manual Yes – SD. CVBS. . N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. RS-485 for PTZ C egory: gory: Category: B d/R Brand/Range name: S Supplier: C Camera name: R Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP ZK – IR 3 ZKTeco IR Bullet IP 720P / 1280x720 Manual Yes – TF 32 GB No ONVIF. wide dynamic range. auto redundancy recording. BNC Spot. BiDi audio.264 MPL3. 4 channel / 8 channel Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 59 1047 0 andrew@zkteco. motion detection. 15 ~ 30m night vision @ 0 LUX. DDNS. RJ45 Input (10/100).

Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description:

Variations in range : Contact:

IP P ZK K – MD 3 ZKTeco ZK KTeco IR R Dome IP 720P 20P / 1280x720 Auto Au uto Yes – TF 32 GB No ONVIF, IP66 4 – 9mm vari-focal lens, H.264 MPL3, dual stream, wide dynamic range, bi-directional audio, PoE, motion detection, 15 ~ 20m night vision @ 9LUX, auto redundancy recording, auto IR cut filter, IP66, RS-485, alarm input + output. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047

Category: Ca C Brand/Range name: Bra B Supplier: Su S Camera name: Ca C Resolution: Re R Auto/Manual focus: Au A Onboard storage: On O Onboard intelligence: On O Standards supported: Sta S Description: De D

Variations in range : Contact:

IP ZK – MD4 ZKTeco Mini Dome IP 720P / 1280x720 0 Manual Yes – TF 32 GB No ONVIF 6mm fixed lens, H.264 H 264 MPL3, MPL3 dual d l stream, t wide dynamic range, bi-directional audio, PoE, motion detection, auto redundancy recording. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047

Name of software: ZKiVision Description/purpose: IVision Software is used to view all ZK cameras, DVRs and NVRs in an easy to use, one seat software. Features/functionality: iVision brings great functionality to the market. The key feature of iVision is the facial recognition analytics. Paired with this is the ability to compare these recognised faces to a black list. Another key feature is the linkage ZKTeco have introduced which allows it to combine access control features like granting access to a facility based on their face as the credential. With the blacklist active, alarms and/or events can be generated. Some other features regarded as industry standard are also present, like Emap, independent 4-zone motion detection, backup scheduling, full camera control including PTZ control, footage history searching and camera setting manipulation. Footage history can also be searched by facial events using the relevant search filters. Availability: Available with any ZK surveillance product Cost: No per channel fee, but there is a charge for advanced analytics functionality such a facial recognition. Runs in browser or as an independent application? This software is a standalone application Standards the software adheres to: N/A Contact: Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047

Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard Intelligence:

IP 3 IP. 3.1 1 megapixel/high definition/digital definition/digital Pelco Sarix Pelco Sarix IX30 IP Camera Up to 3.1 megapixel resolution (2048 x 1536) Auto back focus Local storage (micro SD) for alarm capture Yes, camera sabotage detects contrast changes in the field of view. Adaptive motion detection tracks objects that enter the field of view. Standards supported: TCP/IP, UDP/IP (unicast, multicast IGMP), UPnP, DNS, DHCP, RTP, RTSP, NTP, IPv4, SNMPþv2c/v3, QoS, HTTP, HTTPS, LDAP (client), SSH, SSL, SMTP, FTP, and 802.1x (EAP) Description: The Sarix IX30 is a 3.1 megapixel, day/night camera with advanced lowlight technology and a mechanical IR cut filter for increased sensitivity in low-light installations. Sarix technology defines the next generation of video security imaging performance, delivering high definition (HD) resolution, advanced low light capabilities, consistent colour science, and fast processing power. The H.264 compression video files are considerably smaller, making HD video more affordable. Variations in range: The IX30 support two simultaneous video streams. The two streams can be compressed in MJPEG and H.264 formats across several resolution configurations. The IX30 features built-in Power over Ethernet (PoE) IEEE 802.3af, which supplies power to the camera over the network, eliminating the need for a separate power supply. If PoE is not available, 24 VAC can be used to power the camera. Contact: Abie Ali, +27 (0)11 496 2300, CCTV Handbook 2013



Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description:

Variations in range: Contact:

Analogue ZK-DV ZKTeco DVR CIF @ 400fps / DI @ 50fps N/A Yes, 5 TB No PAL H.264, G711, RCA audio output, audio input, VGA + BNC video out, video backup, RJ45 Out, USB mouse + backup ports, mobile preview support, DDNS support, RS-485 for PTZ control, 4ch, 8ch, 16ch N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047

Category: IP. 3.1 megapixel/ high definition Brand/Range name: X-Gen IP Supplier: Gen Security Camera name: Resolution:

GEN HD IP 3 megapixel i l IR outdoor d camera Up to 3.1 megapixel resolution, 2144(H) x1588(V) Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes, this latest line includes the latest WDR (Wide Dynamic Range). These cameras are progressivescanning to handle moving objects. Standards supported: TCP/IP, UDP/IP, RTP, RTSP, RTCP, NTP, HTTP, DHCP, FTP, SMTP, DNS, DDNS. Streaming RTP over RTSP, Unicast RTP, Multicast RTP, ONVIF ver2.0 support, DDNS A&T DDNS support ( Description: GEN HD IP camera has a resolution of 2144 x 1588 and is almost 10X better than an image of D1(704 x 480i) which is the max resolution of an analogue camera recorded DVR. It has the best sensitivity in the world with 0.0002lux. Sens-up 60X in B/W with an HD image sensor and various streaming. Variations in range: Various streaming: H.264 /MPEG4 /MJPEG triplex streaming (Individual streaming simultaneously). Contact: Abie Ali, +27 (0)11 496 2300,

Name of software: ROM – Retail Operations Management Description/purpose: ROM is a software package designed for Retail Operations Management. It uses existing cameras, traditionally used for loss control, for the dual purpose of operational management. This is done by using video analytics to monitor queues and customer flow through the retail operation. Features/functionality: ROM consists of three function modules. CPM is the Cashier Performance Monitoring module which monitors the performance of the cashiers and scores them relative to a performance index. QM is the Queue Management module which monitors queue lengths and customer progress through the queue. CFM is the Customer Flow Monitoring module which monitors customer flow patterns through the establishment. These modules combined provide an effective management tool which enables the retailer to plan and monitor cashier staff, customer service staff and store layout for maximum effectiveness. An advanced graphical reporting system provides an automated report service which allows the retailer to measure store performance automatically and at a glance. Availability: Standalone/network based software package. Operates as an added feature on Nuuo or Pelco CCTV systems. Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent Application Standards the software adheres to: N/A Contact: Abie Ali, +27 (0)11 496 2300,

IP Dynacolor W2 Dynacolor Dynacolor W2 2MP IP Dome Resolution: 1920X1080 (Full HD). Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus, P-Iris allows for better depth of field. Onboard storage: Yes, removable SD Card (up to SD card max capacity). Onboard intelligence: Yes, motion detection, network failure, smart IR detect (auto). Standards supported: ONVIF compliant, H.264 and MJPEG encoding. Description: A versatile IP66 rated PoE dome with audio channel fit for service in any condition. The high quality 2MP image sensor with motorised zoom gives great detail while wide dynamic range compensates for changing light conditions. ONVIF support allows for easy integration and quad streams allow for multiple resolutions to be broadcasted. An SD card can be used for on-board recording. Variations in range: Available in 3.6mm fixed lens with no IR, 3.3-9mm vari-focal with no IR, and 3.3-9mm vari-focal lens with 25m onboard IR LEDs. Vandal proof also available Contact: Security Warehouse Tel: +27 (0)12 653 1005

Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name:


CCTV Handbook 2013

Name of software: Digi-IT NVR/DVR software Description/purpose: Digi-IT’s recording software is suitable for both analogue, IP and hybrid systems. The software runs on the Windows operating system, with easy installation and an easy–to-understand interface. Analogue decoding is done through Digi-IT’s analogue cards. As an open platform NVR a wide range of IP cameras are supported by default. Features/functionality: The software comes standard with recording (video, audio, POS and limited VCA), event (motion, audio, POS etc.), search, point of sales, and scheduling (for recording) functionality. Remote login and viewing is possible via Web browser or free bundled RMS software for Windows or smart phone (for all the popular OSs including Android, Symbian, Windows Mobile and iOS). The software can further be expanded with licences for full VCA (video content analytics), LPR (licence plate recognition) and CMS (central monitoring system). Multiple resolutions are supported, with multi-streaming available for IP cameras. PTZ control is integrated in the software allowing the user to control the PTZ as well as set up multiple touring sequences. Availability: The software is free bundled with Digi-IT analogue cards, IP cameras require a licence per video channel (available in 4,8,16,32 and 64 channel packages or a combination thereof). Digi-iT IP cameras do not require any licence keys and have the full NVR capability. Cost: For IP systems: 4 Channel: R3600 (Retail excl. VAT) 8 Channel: R5600 (Retail excl. VAT) 16 Channel: R9800 (Retail excl. VAT) 32 Channel: R18000 (Retail excl. VAT) 64 Channel: R34000 (Retail excl. VAT) Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent software Standards the software adheres to: Software adheres to: FCC rules: Class A digital device. Contact: Security Warehouse +27 (0)12 653 1005 Name of software: Axis Camera Families for Autodesk Revit Description/purpose: It provides 3D camera models to illustrate what the camera set-up will look like in real life and which areas the surveillance system will cover once installed. Features/functionality: The software allows them to see exactly how the cameras fit into the building layout and to easily detect if views are obstructed by columns or walls, to help reduce unexpected blind spots. This means security system planning can now be completed as an integrated part of the building design, integrating into the same tool flow that is used for the rest of the building design. Users of the CAD system can also access information about each camera such as the model number, mounting accessories, power consumption and resolution. Availability: The Axis Camera Families for Autodesk Revit are available free of charge for existing Axis Partners. The vast majority of Axis Network Cameras are included. Cost: N/A Runs in browser or as an independent application? N/A Standards the software adheres to: N/A Contact: Roy Alves, Axis Communications +27 (0)11 548 6780,

Category: y:

IP. Maximum 1.3 IP 1 3 MP resolution (1280 x 1024), multiple streaming Brand/Range name: Samsung LiteNet Supplier: ADI Global Distribution Camera name: SND-7011 Resolution: Maximum 3 MP resolution (2048 X 1536) Auto/Manual focus: Manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Tampering alarm, motion detection Standards supported: ONVIF 2.1 Description: This cost effective 1.3 MP high definition network camera is a great fit for applications which require high resolution video. The SNB-5001 features contrast enhancement and day/night capabilities for challenging lighting conditions, and is equipped with high-end functionalities such as tampering detection and motion detection. Variations in range: Central management software NET-i viewer , 12V DC, PoE (IEEE802.3af, Class2) Lens Type: Manual / DC Auto Iris Contact: ADI Global Distribution


IP, SD PTZ, TZ, y/night true day/night Brand/Range name: equIP Supplier: ADI Global Distribution Camera name: HDZ30X Resolution: 720 x 576 Auto/Manual focus: N/A Onboard storage: N/A Onboard intelligence: N/A Standards supported: IPv4/v6, TCP/IP, UDP, RTP, RTSP, HTTP, HTTPS, ICMP, FTP, SMTP, DHCP, PPPoE, UPnP, IGMP, SNMP, IEEE 802.1x, QoS, ONVIF. Description: Camera tamper detection. Video motion detection. Digital Noise Reduction. PSIA Support Progressive scan. Variations in range: 0,08 lux (colour) 0,005 lux (B/W) @F1.6, 30IRE. 24 VAC ± 10%, en PoE+, (IEEE 802.3at-2009). Contact: ADI Global Distribution CCTV Handbook 2013


The optional hybrid operation provides video and control of the MIC camera over both analogue and IP. multiple streaming Brand/Range name: Samsung LiteNet Supplier: ADI Global Distribution Camera name: SND-7011 Resolution: Maximum 3 MP resolution (2048 X 1536) Auto/Manual focus: Manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Tampering alarm. Camera tamper detection. Standards supported: Multiple protocols. @F1. RTSP. Variations in range: Central management software NET-i viewer . ONVIF. QoS. ICMP.3 MP resolution (1280 x 1024). including Bosch “Biphase (OSRD).com Category: Thermal analogue PTZ camera Brand/Range name: Bosch Thermal Supplier: Bosch Security Systems P Camera name: MIC-612TIALG36P Resolution: PAL: 320 x 256 PAL: 640 x 512 Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No ce Onboard intelligence: High-performance ultancamera with simultantical eous thermal/optical video output.1x. and PoE+ (IEEE 802. and the ability to record video on a network-attached RAID iSCSI storage device or locally on a user-supplied SD or SDHC card (32 GB maximum). off (4 programmable zones) Variations in range: 976 x 582 (PAL). off (4 programmable zones) • Privacy on.3at-2009). DHCP. 30 IRE.CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE Category: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP equIP ADI Global Distribution HDZ20HDX 1920 x 1080 N/A N/A N/A IPv4/v6. motion detection Standards supported: ONVIF 2.05 lux (colour)/0.moore2@adiglobal.securitysa. Variations in range: Analogue and IP versions Contact: Edward Seaborne.12 lx (colour) 0. PPPoE.07 lx (B/W) • Motion detection on. SNMP. edward. IEEE 802.” “Bilinx.” and Pelco “P” and “D. PoE (IEEE802. +27 (0)11 651 9898. +27 (0)11 651 . UDP. UPnP.01 lux (B/W). RTP. ADI Global Distribution gordon. 12V DC. FTP. HTTP. PSIA Support Progressive scan 0. HTTPS. SMTP. and is equipped with high-end functionalities such as tampering detection and motion detection. The SNB-5001 features contrast enhancement and day/night capabilities for challenging lighting conditions. Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard iIntelligence: Analogue mini dome Bosch outdoor mini dome advantage line Bosch Security Systems VDC-242V03-1 650TVL Manual focus No Privacy zones and motion detection functions can be set up in the camera menu IGMP. Standards supported: Composite: 1 58 CCTV Handbook 2013 www.1 Description: This cost effective 1. Video motion detection.3 MP high definition network camera is a great fit for applications which require high resolution video. Digital Noise IP. Maximum 1. 976 x 494 (NTSC) Contact: Edward Seaborne. TCP/IP. 75 Ohm Description: • Static analogue mini outdoor dome camera (720TVL sensor) • Day/Night camera (VDN) 0. 24 VAC ± 10%. Class2) Lens Type: Manual / DC Auto Iris Contact: ADI Global Distribution gordon. the MIC camera becomes an IP-enabled device with extra features such as intelligent video analysis (IVA).” Description: When powered by a MIC IP power supply.

Special skills/features/functionality available to customers: CCTV offers maintenance contracts on all electronic security equipment. 086 100 2288 cctv@cctvsa.IP Autodome HD Bosch IP HD Autodome 800 Series B h Security S it Systems S t Supplier: Bosch Camera name: VG5-836-ECEV Resolution: 1920x1080 Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: The AutoDome utilises the built-in Intelligent Video Analytics (IVA) to continuously follow an individual or an object. and after consultation the client would then determine what search criteria is to be concentrated on. CCTV. and as such each system is developed around the client’s needs. and as such each system is developed around the client’s needs. but not limited to. all call out and labour Name of company: CCTV Security Surveillance Description of services provided: CCTV Security Surveillance is a South African company. Special skills/features/functionality available to customers: CCTV reviews client’s footage. In addition to the above. M-JPEG. access control. Market size addressed: SME/mid-size companies/ large companies/ enterprise Products supported/promoted: All electronic security systems are able to carry a maintenance contract. but not limited to CCTV. Products supported/promoted: All electronic security systems are available on a full replacement and repair rental option. and the systems are serviced quarterly. ICMP. productivity and reviewing.264 (ISO/IEC 14496-10). IP. iSCSI. TCP. IGMP V2/ ARP. Advanced Networking IPv6. CCTV services the commercial and industrial CCTV services the commercial and industrial www. FTP. not only in the area of security but also in production. Each client is seen as an individual. servicing the markets nationally.264 and M-JPEG. Special skills/features/functionality available to customers: CCTV offers full replacement and repair rental contracts on all new electronic security systems installed by CCTV Security Surveillance. SNMP. 086 100 2288 cctv@cctvsa. UDP. 802. Telnet. servicing the markets nationally. CCTV offers full maintenance and repair rental contracts on all electronic security equipment.seaborne@za. productivity and reviewing. edward. and as such each system is developed around the client’s needs. Case studies / references available: • Minimise shrinkage • Additional security • Assistance with human resources • Monitors health and safety regulations Contact: CCTV Security Surveillance. CCTV offers maintenance contracts on all electronic security equipment. 48 or 60 months. with specific requirements. 086 100 2288 cctv@cctvsa. the rental fee of the equipment. The company specialises in electronic security systems including. CCTV offers an offsite reviewing service whereby the client is able to download footage which can be independently reviewed. Variations in range: Indoor/outdoor Contact: Edward Seaborne. JPEG Description: Individually configurable streams in H. Market size addressed: SME/mid-size companies/ large companies/ enterprise. Loan equipment is provided while repairs are being undertaken. Contracts are offered over 36. The company specialises in electronic security systems including. The company specialises in electronic security systems including. RTSP. HTTP. with specific requirements. and provides a detailed report on activities. +27 (0)11 651 9898. not only in the area of security but also in production. Each client is seen as an individual. Category: nge name: Brand/Range Name of company: CCTV Security Surveillance Description of services provided: CCTV Security Surveillance is a South African company. This includes all call out and labour fees. Name of company: CCTV Security Surveillance Description of services provided: CCTV Security Surveillance is a South African company. ONVIF. fire detection and alarm systems. CCTV services the commercial and industrial market. not only in the area of security but also in production. Intelligent Tracking feature and Wide Dynamic Range Standards supported: Bosch (OSRD).co. configurable frame rate and bandwidth. but not limited to. SNTP. H. Each client is seen as an individual. Market size addressed: SME/mid-size companies/ large companies/ enterprise. HTTPS. The client can pinpoint which positions / areas need more care. access CCTV Handbook 2013 59 . DynDNS. servicing the markets nationally. UPnP. They include installation fees. Contact: CCTV Security Surveillance. In addition.securitysa. with specific requirements. A random selection is downloaded by CCTV and the footage is reviewed. fire detection and alarm systems. access control. CCTV. Contact: CCTV Security Surveillance. RTP. loan equipment for while your equipment is in for repairs and quarterly servicing of your system. productivity and reviewing. In addition to the above. fire detection and alarm systems.

motion detection. Full-HDplus. info@hiteksecurity. I4-390HDVF features 2. recording without network load.Control room software . It also comes with a 3-year swap out guarantee.CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE IP. Motion detection Standards supported: HD SDI Description: The DI-390HDVF is a dome HD SDI camera with 1080P resolution and a vari-focal lens of 2. low-maintenance and with concealed cable duct • Weatherproof from -30 to +60 °C (-22 to +140 °F). 256 MB RAM Standards supported: H. 2 & 5 megapixel resolutions Contact: Carmen Lahr. EN55024. without need for heating (IP65) • Digital continuous zoom.8 mm to 10 mm and dual-streaming in H.1 MP if we compare it to an IP camera. privacy masking. back light compensation. y info@hiteksecurity. auto focus.lahr@geutebrueck. Variations in range : This range of German-made cameras includes box and dome formats with the following options • colour only / day/night cameras • with AF / without AF • with housings for different environments • 1/1. onboard microO phone. Vandal proof 1/3”CMOS full HDplus Day/ Night IP fixed dome me Brand/Range name: TopLine cameras Supplier: Geutebruck GmbH H Camera name: TopFD-2233 Resolution: 160 x 120 up to 1920 x 1440 pixels Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus (One push AF function) Onboard storage : 32 MB Flash Onboard intelligence: Multimedia video processor. FPGA. PIR Standards supported: EMC (EN55022. Standard H. temperature sensor. External storage: Directly on NAS and PC/Server without additional recording software Contact: Raine Sadie. electronic PTZ function. white balance.812mm.securitysa. video motion analytics. Contact: Hitek Security Distributors 087 625 0810. Category: Category: Analogue Brand/Range name: Provision ISR Supplier: utors Hitek Security Distributors Camera name: BZ-472CSX22 Resolution: 650TVL Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus X22 zoom 3. speaker and PIR motion detector Variations in range: Lenses: 22 to 135 mm format.7-81. flickerless and automatic gain control. Automatic: mouse click focusing. electronic shutter. Full-HD. 087 625 0810. water proof and with 1080P Resolution. pan and tilt • Integrated microphone. FCC St part15B. Onboard intelligence: Yes. 3.0. FTP.8-inch CCD.9. +49 26 45 137 0 60 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. internal DVR O R (up to 64 GB).264CCTV (Geutebrück). I2-390HDVF features 2. Class 0 IP65 (DIN EN 60529).8-12mm Mega Pixel lens with IR range of over 40m. 1/3-inch CMOS and ½-inch CMOS sensors • 720p. Contact: Hitek Security Distributors. VoIP.AS/NZS3548).8-10mm Mega Pixel lens and IR range of 25m. IEEE 802. EN61000-6-2. HLC and OSD. -30 to +60 °C (-22 to +140 °F) Description: • Two separate image sensors for day and D night-time operation • Integrated DVR with HiRes video recording • Permanently fixed lenses at factory for extremely simple installation • Robust. The DI-390HDVF belongs to the analogue HD technology which is equivalent to a 2.1 MP Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus 2. ONVIF compatible with firmware version 3.8-100mm lens Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes. Variations in range: In the analogue HD we have another 3 models: 1. MJPEG (multiple compression levels). BX-390HD – Box camera with 1080P resolution. Software: (inclusive) MxEasy. raine@iacontrol. MJPEG and MPEG4 for Geutebrück systems. 2D DNR. water proof and with 1080P Resolution. horizontal angle 90° to 15°.co. 1.3. Including: text overlay. SIP. It Features 22X optical zoom. Description: Vandal proof 1/3-inch CMOS full HDplus Day/ Night IP fixed dome with AF vario-focal lens 2. speaker.3af.264CCTV. 1/3-inch CCD. +27 (0)12 657 3600. exposure. mirror-function. Variations in range : In the zoom camera range we also have the BZ-371CSX22 which has a 1/3-inch Sony Effio 650TVL sensor with a True ICR. High resolution IP65 camera for day and night operation Brand/Range name: Mobotix Supplier: Industrial Automation And Control Camera name: MX-M12D-SEC-DNIGHT-D43N43 Resolution: 3 MP (2048 x 1536) 36) Auto/Manual focus: Auto Au Onboard storage: Yes.264 (in combination with third party systems).com g Category: Category: Analogue HD SDI Brand/Range name: Provision ISR Supplier: Hitek Security Distributors Camera name: DI-390HDVF Resolution: 1080P or 2. 2.4mm Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: RS-485 Description: The BZ-472CSX22 is a professional zoom camera from Provision ISR.

ory: Category:

IP round view fo IP. Hemispheric 360° all all-round for complete room monitoring Brand/Range name: Mobotix Supplier: Industrial Automation And Control Camera name: MX-Q24M-SEC-D11 Resolution: 3 MP (2048 x 1536) Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: Yes, Internal DVR (up to 64 GB), recording without network load. Onboard intelligence: Yes, video motion analytics, on board microphone, speaker, VoIP, SIP, FTP, Temperature Sensor Standards supported: EMC (EN50121-4, EN55022, EN55024, EN61000-6-2,FCC part15B, AS/NZS3548) IEEE 802.3af; Class 0,IP65 (DIN EN 60529), -30 to +60 °C (-22 to +140 °F) Description • Complete panorama view, ideal for access control • Quad view to show images from four different angles simultaneously • Digital, continuous zooming and panning • Robust and maintenance-free, without mechanically moving parts • MxAnalytics: heatmap, people counting and fully automatic reports • Alarm function, speaker and microphone integrated Variations in range : Lenses: L11 (hemispherical), L22 (90° x 67°) Software: (inclusive) MxEasy, Control room software MxControlCenter External storage: Directly on NAS and PC/ Server without additional recording software Contact: Raine Sadie, +27 (0)12 657 3600, Name of software: Vivotek VAST Description/purpose: Vivotek provides a feature-rich central management software platform that has been developed specifically for Vivotek products. VAST allows for centralised management of multiple cameras on one central platform. Additionally Vivotek VAST provides a fully featured user interface that is easy to use. Features/functionality: Vivotek VAST utilises a client/server structure which allows for multiple servers and clients to be combined into a single platform. Vivotek VAST is the ideal cost effective surveillance solution that has been designed to scale up to any requirement while still remaining user friendly and flexible. Utilising features that would normally only be available on very costly VMS platforms, VAST is the ideal solution for any surveillance application. Availability: Vivotek VAST is a software-based platform primarily, but is also available on Vivotek’s ND range of NVRs. Cost: VAST has a once off price structure that does not require any annual fees or upgrade costs. Runs in browser or as an independent application? VAST operates as a Windows application. Standards the software adheres to: ONVIF, PSIA and a broad range of standards that make integration possible. Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960,

Category: 2 MP Full HD P-iris focus a assist WDR network camera Brand/Range name: 8000 Series fixed camera ek Supplier: Vivotek Camera name: IP8162P Resolution: 2 megapixel (1920x1080) Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2 TB max. Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection. Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/ RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description : The Vivotek IP8162P camera offers 2-megapixel resolution (1080p full HD @ 30fps). The camera can capture a much more comprehensive area than a standard VGA camera, significantly reducing the number of cameras required. It is especially suitable for monitoring wide-open indoor spaces such as building entrances, airports, or applications requiring accurate identification. With a P-iris lens, which controls the iris with extreme precision with its built-in stepping motor, it maintains the iris opening at an optimal level at all times, resulting in superior image clarity and depth of field as well as image quality. Variations in range: IP8172P, IP8162P, IP8151P, IP8152, IP8133 Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, Name of software: Milestone Software Description/purpose: Milestone Software has been developed to be a complete surveillance platform that supports a large variety IP cameras and devices. Milestone also provides a complete management platform that allows for the integration of hundreds of different devices while using a flexible and easy to use user interface. Features/functionality: Milestone is an IP video management software platform that has been designed to allow for maximum flexibility and integration. With an open platform design, Milestone software allows for hundreds of different devices from multiple vendors to be integrated into a single platform. A flexible rule-based system combined with powerful video motion detection allows for a vast number actions to be taken based on user-selected conditions. Milestone has been developed specifically to scale up to any size and in hundreds of different layouts. From home based solutions to enterprise environments, Milestone is the VMS to use. Availability: Milestone Software is a complete software package that relies on a Windows platform for operation. Cost: Milestone has a broad pricing structure that stretches across a wide range of products and which will meet any demand. Runs in browser or as an independent application? Milestone can be used in a Web-based environment but the core software has been developed to function as an independent application. Standards the software adheres to: ONVIF, PSIA and a broad range of standards that make integration possible. Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, CCTV Handbook 2013




20x zoom, 2 MP full HD WDR, 60 fps PoE Plus camera a

Brand/Range name: 8000 Series Speed Dome Supplier: Vivotek Camera name: SD8362E Resolution: 2 megapixel (1920x1080) Auto/Manual focus: Auto & manual focus ocus Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2 TB max. Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/ RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description: The SD8362E is part of the Supreme series product line offering 2 megapixel or 1080p resolution with superb image quality (up to 60 fps @ 720p and 30 fps @ 1080p). Integrated WDR technology, the SD8362E can also cope with challenging lighting conditions. Adopting a 20x optical zoom lens, the SD8362E is able to capture details at top-notch quality. The camera is especially suitable for monitoring wide-open indoor/outdoor spaces such as airports, high ways and parking lots where high-level reliability and precision are always required. Variations in range: SD8323E, SD8322E, SD8321E Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960,

Category: Ca 5 MP 360° surround view, vandal proof Fisheye fixed va dome camera do Brand/Range name: Br 8000 80 Series FishEye Supplier: Vivotek Su ot tek Camera name: FE8172V Ca 72V Resolution: 5 megapixel Progressive Sensor (1920x1920) Re Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2TB max. Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description: Vivotek FE8172V is the latest fisheye fixed dome network camera, featuring a detailed 5 megapixel resolution sensor with superb image quality. Equipped with a fisheye lens for 180° panoramic view (wall mount) or 360° surround view (ceiling/floor/table mount) without blind spots, the camera is able to provide coverage of wide, open areas, such as airports, shopping malls, parking lots, retail stores, offices and more. Variations in range: FE8171V, CC8130 Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, Category: C 5 MP full HD, Smart Focus System, fixed dome S network camera n Brand/Range name: B 8000 Series Dome 8 Supplier: Vivotek S Camera name: FD8372 C Resolution: 5 megapixel R pixel (2560x1920) 92 20) Auto/Manual focus: Remote focus (auto A ( t focus) f ) Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2 TB max O Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description: Vivotek FD8372 is an IP67 rated indoor/outdoor dome camera offering 5 megapixel resolution with up to 30 fps (1080P) and built-in IR illuminators. The Smart Focus System allows for easy installation and adjustment by adopting a lens with a built-in stepper motor that can remotely control the focal length and precisely adjust the camera focus, offering hassle-free installation and maintenance. The IP8372 is also equipped with a mounting bracket that conceals all cables within. Variations in range: FD8362E, FD8162, FD8335H, FD8134V, FD8134, FD8151V, FD8136 Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960,

Category: 5 MP bullet network camera, a, a , 30m IR, Smart Focus System, m m, WDR, IP67 Brand/Range name: 8000 Series Bullet Supplier: Vivotek tek Camera name: IP8372 72 2 Resolution: 5 megapixel g gapixel (2560x1920) 0x1920) 1920) Auto/Manual focus: Remote focus (auto focus) Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2 TB max. Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/ RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description: Vivotek IP8372 is an IP67 rated outdoor bullet camera offering 5 megapixel resolution with up to 30 fps (1080P) and built-in IR illuminators. The Smart Focus System allows for easy installation and adjustment by adopting a lens with a built-in stepper motor that can remotely control the focal length and precisely adjust the camera focus, offering hassle-free instal lation and maintenance. The IP8372 is also equipped with a mounting bracket that conceals all cables within. Variations in range: IP8362, IP8352, IP8335H, IP8332, IP8330, IP8331 Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960,


CCTV Handbook 2013

tegory: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description:

Variations in range:


IndigoVision 2MP IP bullet camera IndigoVision BX Range IndigoVision BX600HD 2MP Remote zoom and focus Yes up to 32GB Micro SD card not included Motion detection H.264/Mjpeg. Audio G.711, ONVIF The BX range cameras are IndigoVision’s HD and full HD range of ONVIF conformant cameras supported by the reliable SMS4 software management platform. Includes wide dynamic range with IR and a true day/ night mechanical IR cut filter. The unit is IP66 rated with a 3mm-9mm vari-focal lens. BX 500 the full HD PTZ option with 20x optical zoom. BX400 is an indoor/outdoor mini dome option with vandal proof models rated at IK10 Kershia Kistan, Reditron, 087 802 CCTV (2288),

Category: IP 360° megapixel camera Brand/Range name: AV365CO Supplier: Arecont Vision Camera name: H.264SurroundVideo Resolution: 8 megapixel xel Auto/Manual focus: Manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes. 360° view, extended motion detection grid. Privacy masking. Standards supported: H.624 and MJPEG Description: An area typically requiring multiple PTZ cameras or multiple fixed cameras can be covered with a single panoramic camera. It delivers comprehensive coverage with forensic detail – all without the need for an operator or control software. A cost efficient solution, SurroundVideo panoramic cameras virtually obsolete the need and related expense of PTZ cameras. For applications that require critical detail like licence plate recognition, combine the panoramic camera with single sensor megapixel cameras at entrance and exit points. Variations in range: 180° versions, 360° versions, 8 MP or 20 MP Day/Night versions Contact: Kershia Kistan, Reditron, 087 802 CCTV (2288),

Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description:

Variations in range:


IP bullet cameras Rediview IP bullet Reditron RVIP-IRB-Mini 1.3Megapixel Manual Vari focal Lens Yes. Micro SD/HC 64 GB Yes. Masking 5 user-defined areas. H.264 / MJPEG – ONVIF V2.1 Latest sensor technology with 720p resolution. 100% fully functional IP camera with browser support, ONVIF compliance, and embedded Flash technology inside. Offering 3-axis movement. High Powered IR LED for night vision. Supporting PoE or 12V for the most simple of installation. Safari, Chrome, IE, Firefox, Opera: all browser compatible. 1.3 MP HD 30-50m IR 2 MP FHD 30-50m IR 3 MP FHD 30-50m IR Kershia Kistan, Reditron, 087 802 CCTV (2288),

C Category: S D PTZ Sony SNC-EP550 IP HD with 28X optical zoom Brand/Range name: Sony Ipela n Supplier: Reditron 50 Camera name: SNC-EP550 Resolution: 720p Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: Yes up to 32 GB Onboard intelligence: Intelligent motion detection. Filters out normal false alarms normally associated with motion detection. Standards supported: MPEG4, H.264, JPEG. ONVIF. Description: The EP550 is a cost effective HD network PTZ that supports 28x optical zoom. It includes Wide D technology from sony @ 86dB. The PTZ has a 340°-pan area. SD card slot for local stor age is also present. Variations in range: EP-521 – 4sif IP PTZ with 36X optical zoom EP-580 – Full HD IP PTZ with 20x optical zoom ER range support full 360 degree pan Contact: Kershia Kistan, Reditron, 087 802 CCTV (2288), CCTV Handbook 2013


4 pattern tours. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No Onboard Intelligence: Yes. Y-WDR. Intelligent IR PTZ camera a Brand/Range name: COP PTZ speed dome Supplier: COP Security Camera name: 15-CD60W-1020 Resolution: High horizontal resolution 530TV lines. PoE high power. IR distance • Programmable 220 pre-set Category: Analogue.vandermerwe@secequip. masking. iPv6 • X20 HD IP outdoor camera • Real-time HD speed dome camera • Triple codec. +27 (0)11 624 2576 +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. iPv4. Name of software: NetFocus Description/purpose: Hybrid recording / display Features/functionality: • Image enhancement by Intelligent noise filtering • Intelligent video analytics • Dual monitor • Thumb nail preview search • Digital camera zoom • CMS/Web/mobile viewing and e-Map monitoring • Wide range of IP camera options and NetFocus IP camera integration Availability: PC based/embedded Cost: No licence fee Unlimited cameras Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent application and browser Standards the software adheres to: ONVIF/CAMS Contact: Riaan van der Merwe. pattern tern tours. Pattern tours.securitysa. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 64 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. 12X digital • Electronic image stabiliser • 120-150m IR range with 72 IR LED • Programmable IR speed 300˚/s • Tilt range +45˚ ~ -50˚. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 Extreme long-range IR camera PTZ Brand/Range name: COP PTZ speed dome Supplier: COP Security urity Camera name: 15-AS55L L Resolution: High horizontal izontal resolution n 550TV lines nes Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus us Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: N/A Description: • Extreme long-range IR positioning high speed PTZ camera 432x power zoom • ¼-inch progressive scan CCD • Super high power Infrared Length LEDs @ 200m • Electronic image stabiliser • WDR support • 8 privacy mask zones • 3D co-ordinate • 128 pre-set positions • Pan range 0˚ ~ 360˚. 32 GB rmerwe@secequip. Standards Supported: N/A Description: • Colour/mono. external super high speed dome 432x power zoom – 36X .co.0 MP Auto focus Yes. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 Category: Analogue.CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP megapixel NetFocus NS Series ForeTech NFTI-H2100 Real-time HD video streams of 1080p – 2. speed 0.5˚ ~ 60˚/s • RS-485 multi-protocols communication Variations in range: N/A Contact: Riaan van der Merwe.vandermerwe@secequip.vandermerwe@secequip. each 180s memory • 8 Cruising tracks with 32 pre-set positions each • 8 Privacy Mask Zones • IR LED service life >30000 hours Variations in range: N/A Contact: Riaan van der Merwe.vandermerwe@secequip. simultaneous multi streaming • Local SD card backup • PoE N/A Riaan van der Merwe. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan.

cross line. Integrating these two sensors provides unparalleled performance resulting in accurate Category: Customisable dual sensor optical and thermal integrated PTZ system Brand/Range name: Ascendent (Canada) Supplier: Securitell Camera name: Ranger-37X-TI: Electro-Optic PTZ Camera Resolution: Optical: 600TVL (day) / 700TVL (night) Thermal: FLIR Generation 2. Description: • 2 mega-HD IR bullet camera • Real-time high definition dome camera • Triple codec. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan.securitysa. Masking. +27 (0)82 556 6565. analytics. All of this is integrated into an IP 66 housing constructed of strengthened aluminium with alloy treated anticorrosive coating. simultaneous multi streaming • Day & night by ICR • PoE • Auto focus • Weatherproof design Variations in range: N/A Contact: Riaan van der Merwe. and rapid deployment www. 17μm pixel pitch. H/V mirror. PoE high power. iPv4. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150. Securitell. 32 GB SD Card. recognition. • Auto/manual electronic shutter speed adjustable. • Motion detection. • 2X digital zoom with manual pan/tilt. Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes. megapixel es NetFocus NS Series ForeTech NFIN-H2000ATIR Real-time HD video streams of 1080p – 2. • OSD setup menu. PoE high power. Pelco-P/D standard protocol. 32 GB SD Card Onboard intelligence: Yes. freeze.0 Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP. iPv4. • Challenging high lighting condition.vandermerwe@secequip. Optional: • Various fixed thermal lenses • Optical zoom thermal lenses • 336x256 FLIR thermal imager • 640x480 FLIR thermal imager • Radar integration • Image stabilisation • Heater or blower • Wiper • Pelco D. • Built in video. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. Yes. Description: The system boasts a 37X optical 3. Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus. HDR. Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: Yes. with ultra-high resolution colour CCD and a highly tuned thermal imager for true 24/7 performance. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Riaan van der Merwe. analytics.0 MP Auto focus Yes. negative. and identification of intruders.5mm IR corrected continuous zoom Category: IP. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150. Y-WDR.vandermerwe@secequip. Standards supported: ONVIF. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150. Simultaneous multi streaming • Local SD card backup • Day & night by ICR • PoE • Bidirectional audio • 90˚ tilting • Vandal & weatherproof design • Auto focus PoE / 12V. Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: COP Camera COP Security 15-CO43RVIC Super High resolution CCD with Star-Light more than 600TV lines (D/N) video digital signal processor (SOC) IC. • S/N radio with auto 3D-DNR. IP streamer available. Masking. iPv6 • 2-mega HD fixed IP dome camera • Real-time HD definition • Triple codec. Variations in range: Customisable to suite your requirements. Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: PTZ communication via RS-485 / RS-422. Riaan van der Merwe. advanced protocol • Analogue to IP converter Contact: Sam Lessing. Suitable for fixed installations as well as privacy marking. megapixel Brand/Range name: NetFocus NS Series Supplier: ForeTech 00ATIR Camera name: NFIB-H2000ATIR Resolution: Real-time HD video streams of 1080p – 2. CCTV Handbook 2013 65 . Standards supported: N/A Description: • High sensitivity/resolution HDR Wide Dynamic ICR camera in external water proof housing with high power IR LEDs.5mm129.Category: Analogue Street surveillance all-in-one camera. rotation. iPv6. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan.

Finally.” said Roy Wyman.securitysa. A bona fide remote offsite surveillance operator will spend time with the client discussing and establishing specific risk areas. one is able to sidestep collusion. “The vast choice of remote surveillance companies is starting to become a real issue.” said Chertkow. Remote surveillance will confirm the extent of a security breach and provide the armed reaction company with accurate information on the number of intruders and their positions within the premises. companies are able to save thousands of rands.” Remote surveillance removes collusion and intimidation once one eliminates the human element from the onsite security equation. 66 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. “There is definitely a place for hosting on the cloud. “The bottom line is that customers need to be educated on these benefits in an objective manner. so by pushing footage onto the cloud. one can gain a completely objective overview of onsite activities from anywhere at any time. the practice also allows the company to employ a covert health and safety watchdog. but the extractable operational benefits of remote surveillance are manifold. Decisions on whether the client requires hi-res cameras. unless these companies do a full needs analysis of customer needs. By adopting remote offsite surveillance. one could feed only event-driven footage onto the cloud and download it offsite. one increases the operational costs.” Wyman concluded. We suggest that companies install a separate firewall for business-critical data that only the client can access.” “The management of companies tends to be wary about having critical business data and footage hosted remotely. CEO of Vox Telecom. in addition to the monetary benefits derived from instituting remote offsite surveillance. one pays for bandwidth. “By moving monitoring of surveillance offsite. Only by talking to an experienced and reputable company will this be determined. with low-cost emerging companies dominating the market. do local companies believe that this is a viable option for Africa? “On the current model. which are capable of providing eight times more visibility due to their constant coverage of areas. according to Mark Chertkow. This also releases capital that can be invested in installing surveillance cameras.” Floating on a cloud Given the mixed response to the advantages of cloud or hosted surveillance internationally. MD of Remote Offsite Monitoring (ROM). The biggest stumbling block at present is the lack of knowledge around the benefits of cloud/hosted solutions and remote monitoring. How do you decide when a remote surveillance service is the solution for your application? Is there scope for cloud-based solutions for remote surveillance in Africa? How do you decide when a remote surveillance service is the solution for your application? Is there scope for cloud-based solutions for remote surveillance in Africa? Some may see CCTV as a grudge purchase. “Often companies only realise after an incident has occurred that physical guarding or technology on their own are simply not a sufficient security tool. Customers are advised to ask prospective remote offsite monitoring companies to provide them with references. or even cameras with night vision will be made once their advantages and applicability to the environment are determined.” said Wyman.” said Du Toit. However. MD of Graphic Imaging Technologies (GIT). Unsafe operating practices and behaviours that infringe the health regulations of an organisation are quickly identified by an independent operator and tagged for immediate resolution. There will be instances where remote offsite monitoring is not the solution. or a number plate identification system. Unfortunately. There is an overriding fear of systems being hacked.” said Jacques du Toit. “It is critical to match the customer’s requirements with the correct system. “However. offsite footage and incident reports provide customers with a chain of evidence for prosecutory purposes. Any possible tampering with footage is eliminated. Visit working sites and establish whether the company you are entrusting the security of your assets to is able to provide you with the system and service you really need. By moving footage offsite into the cyber realm. the likelihood of the service providing a return on investment are highly unlikely.REMOTE MONITORING Keeping tabs from a distance By Allyson Koekhoven. The international market is not faced with the same high levels of crime and collusion that Africa .” Policies and procedures are only as good as the employees implementing them. Around 95% of alarms received by armed reaction companies are actually false alarms. CCTV Handbook 2013 67 .

It’s of no use having 10 lines running at 100% capacity all the time as data will be lost. bearing in mind the costs of 3G data. It is not enough to just insure the availability of lines but also question the speed and amount of data utilisation on these lines. The obvious alternative is having a separate back-up ADSL service provider to combat failovers on the lines. question the availability of incoming and outgoing lines and question the backup or fail over strategy as well. Jacques Du Toit. The client side will need to be planed based on the client requirements. with video coverage of your premises. but through another vendor using other technologies.REMOTE MONITORING Remotely reactive By Andrew Seldon. Most bigger businesses have got IT departments that look after all the communication issues and have often got several configurations that they can use to get video and alarms through to the control room with some sort of fail over as well. Question the stability of the lines. it is recommended that nothing less than a 1 Mb DLS is made available for the video streaming. Daytona Electronics: There are two sides to connectivity. When visiting the control room ask to see the server room handling the control room communications. I would recommend getting the IT department involved from the inception of the project as they will be able to advise what can and what may not be done. Our suggestion is that a company uses its primary data service that is not used during the day for security monitoring at night. firstly the control room and secondly the clients side. this is susceptible to lightning and breakdowns. MD. Dusty Van Den Berg. In many cases. Wright Surveillance: Customers will obviously expect to be connected at all times. which could be a 3G data card. MD. that it is uncontended and that there is a guaranteed mean time in which to prepare. Still others are using remote video monitoring to support their business processes and health and safety procedures. Wireless options are also available. What makes a remote monitoring service work? One of the key growth areas in the surveillance market in South Africa is the remote monitoring industry. and depending on the risk to be protected a fail over line will need to be added to this. In addition. Continued on page 70 Hi-Tech Security Solutions: The issue with any communications activity in South Africa is bandwidth and the reliability of your connectivity. Many commercial and private organisations are opting to have video surveillance protecting people and assets 24x7 in the hope that cameras manned by remote operators are less likely to succumb to intimidation or collusion. this can often be a large obstacle to overcome. then it is important that one applies for a service that comes with an SLA. In most cases these links are of higher quality and come with the required SLA. most communication networks in SA run on a copper backbone and or through Telkom. • If full redundancy is required. including the hardware are cheaper than manned guarding services. fibre communication is far preferable. Just how effective is this? And what do the people in the industry see happening in the market? Will growth continue or are we seeing a levelling off with larger organisations developing their own in-house remote services? And what are the best practices to follow when looking at a remote service? reasonable. VoxOrion Telecom: There are a few key issues to take into consideration. you will have less chance of false alarms as every alert can be verified before dispatching armed response or calling the police. sales manager.securitysa. within pricing constraints. the remote service providers claim their services. For smaller business the list is endless. Broadband services such as ADSL is best effort and highly contended and there is no time in which network operators are forced to maintain within a specific . Also keep in mind that most larger corporation also have strict IT policies that govern the data communications. such as: • Customers need to understand what kind of connectivity comes with the SLA. What should customers expect to get from their service providers in terms of connectivity when they sign up for remote surveillance? Failover/different service providers/ wireless and wired etc.? Gary Stephenson. a customer must make peace with fact that he needs an exact copy of the primary service. • If safety and security is really important for a customer. Realistically the service provider has to ensure that they have as many fail-over communication options as is 68 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. CCTV Handbook 2013 69 .

the same person. Go through and see a few suppliers. most of the more reputable companies will be very willing to show you their infrastructure and control rooms as they are proud of it. Monitoring is reactive. monitoring. installation etc. – in addition to their remote work.e. We are talking about world-class automated communication. keep calm in a tense situation and communicate with customers and armed reaction companies in an appropriate manner. For this function one needs an operator that can operate IP-based technology. The list of questions is almost endless.e. One of the benefits of being independent is that one cannot hide one’s dirty washing. So when an alarm is triggered. what is the remedy. Wright Surveillance 70 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. must customers look for in their remote service providers? With many people offering remote monitoring. Du Toit: Most importantly here. For the service to be successful the remote monitoring station must be receiving the appropriate alarm signals and CCTV images. the ability to communicate to both the stakeholder and the armed reaction company. The success of the service is in lowering the customer’s risk. Continued on page 72 Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Security skills are always an issue in the industry. Keep in mind this is an evolving industry so question on-going training programmes. but as long as you ask plenty of questions you will not come short. the higher the grade of the operator’s certificate the better. Our business is monitoring. It still surprises me how many calls we get from clients that have just experienced an incident and their remote surveillance service was found lacking. and availability of spares. The system must guide the operator on what actions to take and not allow for any shortcuts. and it is also crucial that he be suitably capable of dealing with a tense situation. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Should remote surveillance operators provide a full security service – as in guards. how can a potential customer separate those who are capable and those who are trying to cash in on the trend? Stephenson: Establishing and operating a CCTV surveillance control room is a specialised security service. armed response and off-site monitoring services are supplied by different service providers. Du Toit: The first question to ask is what function one is fulfilling and differentiate between armed reaction. armed response.REMOTE MONITORING Continued from page 68 Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What services and capabilities. What skills does your remote provider need to have on board? What skills (or people) should they be hiring for what different functions? Stephenson: The quality of the remote monitoring station personnel is integral to the level of service delivery to the client. as we are all aware things will go wrong at the oddest times. and request references of existing clients to verify the quality of the service delivery. etc. installation of the appropriate technology best suited to that client’s operating environment.securitysa. The agent must be appropriately and adequately trained and graded. the control room must be secure and have an acceptable level of redundancy – from power to security. For example. our philosophy is that the perfect security service scenario is where the guarding. and additional product specific training. people and systems. i. It is not enough to take the word of a salesman. the accuracy of the physical incident report of the event – from the armed reaction company to the customer.e. a mention must be made to the technical staff in the background. If and when there is a technical issue after hours. Van Den Berg: All security staff need to be registered with PSIRA. Our business is not about surveillance. i.e. the same gate. Other factors to be taken into account include whether the required escalation capabilities are in place. Question other qualifications achieved by the controllers. the situation is properly assessed and the correct communication steps are followed. It is critical to the success of remote surveillance that the monitoring company does the design and installation of the client’s CCTV system. then when they come and see how we do things and it becomes clear that the wool was pulled over their eyes. Successful service providers in this industry are those with extensive experience in the security industry. ‘Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?’ which means ‘Who will guard the guards themselves?’ Having the guarding company monitored by an independent remote monitoring centre who will engage an independent armed response company ensures the client has three layers of protection. Van Den Berg: Vet all your suppliers. looking at a live screen 24-hours a day trying to identify suspect behaviour. surveillance. In addition. and communication is key. Look out as well for the ability to report on trends. etc. Du Toit: It must be . computer skills. which equips them to identify potential threats pro-actively. This entails developing a bespoke security solution for each client. The systems behind the technology (such as incident management reporting software) must be foolproof – this is the heartbeat of the system. recruits high quality CCTV controllers that undergo further specialised in-house training programmes. another good question is the availability of technical staff as connections and technical issues do not only occur during office hours. and can offer an end-to-end solution. overall (not connectivity). As much as the controllers are there monitoring the site. sleeping on duty or physical patrols. It is vital for potential customers to look for service providers with a proven track record. We provide valuable information to the customer – for example: response time to react from the armed reaction company or actual onsite guard activity. they will be more than willing to also guide you and offer you advice on what to look for and warn you of potential problem to look out for. i. i. ask to see all the control room staff as well as the company’s PSIRA certificates. is the quality of the control room. and remote monitoring of the incoming signal/image by experienced and qualified operators. or should they stick to their knitting with surveillance? Stephenson: In order to ensure the highest quality of service delivery and minimise the potential for collusion. see for yourself. guarding or CCTV installation and maintenance. our controllers undergo training in kinesics (understanding body language).

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ensuring that the service will benefit the client and minimise the risk he is experiencing. We have an experienced and well-motivated team that is driven to ensure customer satisfaction. does he tell the client and put his company’s name in a bad light and risk getting into trouble. It’s about ensuring that the customer knows he is not just a number to your bottom line. or does he tell his employer and put the client at risk? Hi-Tech Security Solutions: How does your company differentiate itself in a crowded market? Stephenson: Wright Surveillance is an end-to-end CCTV security solution partner. I would recommend that the client looks at his entire security risk profile and do a full risk assessment. to ensure that all incoming signals are appropriately managed. installation and maintenance through to remote monitoring in our technologically advanced control room. Van Den Berg: As with any specialised service such as remote video surveillance. for when there is an incident. Wright Surveillance’s extensive experience in the field of remote monitoring means that we’re well aware of what technology delivers the right results in the control room. properly trained and reliable staff and a fully comprehensive incident management report system. It is in that your customer knows that you are there looking out for their best interests. redundancy from a connectivity perspective. image quality. It’s in having audibility on everything that happens in and around the control room. hosted e-mail or any other cloud base service offered – simply another piece of the converged communications puzzle. Technologically advanced IT infrastructure is necessary. and have learned through experience the that this is not a one-package-fits-all-industry. we analyse the risk and custom fit a remote video monitoring package to the clients specific requirements. We have been doing remote video surveillance for more than seven years.REMOTE MONITORING Du Toit: A good relationship with and a clear understanding of the SLA that the armed response company provides to the customer. With over 20 years in the security industry and over 10 years in remote monitoring. and what doesn’t. it’s not just offering a service at the cheapest price. as remote video surveillance is only small part of the entire risk. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What are the control room specialities a successful remote service provider needs to have on board? Stephenson: A successful remote monitoring station provides an instant response to received alarms and CCTV footage. if the operator sees a guard or armed response officer doing something that they are not meant to be doing. We offer full time or event-based surveillance plus the option of virtual guard tours and supervision. we’ve found affordable products and installation techniques that supersede all others on the market. I would not recommend that the client puts all his eggs in one basket so to speak. it is a proactive measure to prevent and limit the criminals time on site. Immediate evaluation of the activity/event by experienced control room operators is followed by the necessary corrective action. Wright Surveillance is among the pioneers of remote CCTV monitoring in South Africa. Full onsite assessments facilitate delivery of optimised solutions to offer a total integrated security package. it is attention to detail that is going to set you apart from your opposition. Our experienced surveillance team operates in a secure. that’s when the questions get asked. After using various products over the years. speed and reliability – all essential components when looking to ensure the delivery of a superior security solution. and provide the best integration. Continued from page 70 Van Den Berg: I believe that the remote surveillance services are only a small part in the bigger picture. It is imperative to have the correct ratio of control room operators to number of clients. IP PABX. and our vast experience ensures that our CCTV security systems deliver as promised. Du Toit: The biggest difference is that our remote monitoring offering fits into our existing folder of converged communications products being provided No additional connectivity is required – it’s just another IP service offered on top of the client’s data services. access control and energy management. Wright Surveillance consultants have the experience and expertise to offer the WRIGHT solution that is tailored to customers specific needs. 72 CCTV Handbook 2013 . he is now left with an ethical dilemma. which includes an automated occurrence book and reporting system that is integrated into the software platform. challenging the intruders via onsite speakers. and calling the appropriate authorities such as armed response and SAPS. offsite central monitoring station allowing optimum effectiveness.securitysa. offering CCTV planning. This could include notifying the other security services on site. Van Den Berg: Daytona Electronics is a company that specialises in remote video monitoring for key clients.

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lightning and surge protection and most importantly the available bandwidth at a client site. The twin halves of the remote monitoring equation – video management and alarm verification – are perfectly designed for this industry and many others. We are able to offer both CCTV alarm and management abilities via true multi-stream technology. These include mobile telecommunications where remote base stations require protection and banking where ATMs have become prized targets among criminals who are longer able to crack bank safes or reliably prey on cash-in-transit vehicles. TeleEye’s sureGUARD video alarm verification software then provides a complete integrated control room solution providing the necessary features such as remote recordings. While CCTV remote monitoring is an effective security solution. the customer would subscribe to services of a remote video response centre (RVRC). should develop critical features in compliance with this standard. more bandwidth is becoming available which means now is the time to consider HD CCTV remote monitoring instead of SD CCTV. This means they don’t affect each other yet one unified system has been deployed. In conclusion. it is important to state that site installation is absolutely critical in terms of security monitoring. +27 (0)11 557 . whilst the Philip Smerkovitz client would often engage in their own management monitoring. It has often been said that technology will be South Africa’s saving grace in the war against crime and CCTV is an example of one of those anti-crime technologies that work exceptionally well. In the country’s cities. An example of this would be a company providing a separate alarm panel. SMACM. That being said. while the latter is essentially a management and control function. yes. This makes more advanced high definition remote monitoring applications highly challenging. In this regard. simply. In addition. sophisticated event management and operator and site logging. An effective remote monitoring solution should allow for both security and management function to take place concurrently without affecting each other. increasing reliability and efficiency. This ensures that local expertise operates according to global best practice with all the associated benefits for 74 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. This standard specifies a Code of Practice outlining how TeleEye as a manufacturer. comes to mind.REMOTE MONITORING Process and technology combined HSS asked Philip Smerkovitz. For more information contact TeleEye (South Africa). It is important to point out at an early stage that there are two distinct aspects to CCTV remote monitoring – alarm monitoring or video alarm verification and video management. Both halves of the equation work in symphony to ensure a complete remote monitoring solution.264 protocol. It is commonplace that for the security or alarm handling aspect. how the site should be installed and how the control room should operate. This is especially relevant to certain industries that are feeling the pinch of rising costs coupled with declining productivity. TeleEye has managed to develop a compression protocol called SMAC-M that provides higher quality images and faster frame rates than products using the H. This means total cost of ownership is lower. in particular. The former is concerned with protecting the client’s people and assets. MD of TeleEye (South Africa) if CCTV as a service works? The short answer to the question is.264 protocol. which has the disadvantage of lower image quality. While there is a shortage of bandwidth in South Africa’s outlying areas that would benefit most from remote CCTV monitoring. TeleEye can quote numerous examples of CCTV installations not properly taking into account critical factors such as backup power. Closed circuit television (CCTV) systems have become another effective weapon in South Africa’s anti-crime arsenal. The mining industry.securitysa. instead of physically watching one individual. Remote management monitoring works as a service because it has the obvious advantage of allowing the client to virtually be in multiple locations at one time. TeleEye adheres to the UK CCTV standard known as BS8418. where there are bandwidth limitations in rural areas. One of the most important points that prospective CCTV clients need to know is that many video alarm verification and video management systems are cut and pasted together by installers using different standards and manufacturers. Remote CCTV monitoring is currently one of the fastest-growing sectors in the security industry. TeleEye clients can remain on SD as we offer highly-efficient remote monitoring solutions no matter what the bandwidth available in the client’s area. You have a massive dispersed workforce to manage and highvalue assets to protect. www. one management operator can monitor several cameras at one time. On the other hand a TeleEye remote monitoring video recording server provides a BS:8418 (British Standard) compliant alarm management system.teleeye. It is also interesting to note that even our HD CCTV solutions use 50% less bandwidth than systems utilising the H. where bandwidth and user functions are separated from each other on different data streams and video channels. DVR and IP encoders and/or cameras to form a remote monitoring solution. it is only as good as its installer and equipment used. high end video recording functionality and a TCP/IP video server from a single device. event distribution to operators. CCTV Handbook 2013 75 .

storage facilities and petrol stations.3 to 10 MP are available in the FullSight 360 series cameras. All models in the range come with day/night IR capabilities. All the de-warped views support e-PTZ. enabling the user to customise all the fields of view for the different channels. What’s happening in the world of fisheye/panorama cameras? What’s happening in the world of fisheye/panorama cameras? What functionality do they have and do they have today’s ever-popular low light capabilities? The following companies have integrated with Sentry360: Milestone. In total. 360degree de-warped. event. Both cameras are supplied with VMD and full video content analysis with ArtecoLogic. but performs optimally where resolutions of less than 3 MP are required. Arteco.” said Sichelschmidt. Axxonsoft. combined with high-resolution optics.2 lux) functionality and work well with infrared illuminators. This software is fully featured with remote . camera mapping and placement.” Lattuca explained. On-board storage enables full redundancy should the NVR lose power supply. The camera has a resolution of 2 to 8 MP. “The Dynacolor is a true da day/night camera featuring ICR (infrared cut) function and a bu built-in IR illuminator with a Smart IR function to provide an 76 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. technical director at Natech Universal Technology.FISHEYE/PANORAMIC CAMERAS When you want to see everything By Allyson Koekhoven. The Digi-iT NVR software records all the possible channels on motion. “The camera is also integrated with our Digi-iT open platform NVR software. Alnet and a further 20 VMS partners. said that the Dynacolor fisheye cameras come with free bundled software that can record and view camera data. The immersive imaging technology allows you to see. Resolutions of 1. there are seven possible views: normal 360-degree fisheye. ensuring that activity is recorded anywhere in the scene at all times. The software also offers digital zoom in the live view and playback using t the full power of megapixel c cameras. The camera can be mounted on a wall or ceiling and h has a built-in microphone and speaker. the company also markets Video-Insight and ArtecoLogic software for panorama cameras. providing more views and per-channel recording. and 4 x 90-degree views. utilising the Digi-iT NVR software allows for 360-degree de-warped view. continuous or a combination of these. the company’s FullSight range offers panoramic cameras in the 360-degree and 180-degree categories. The FullSight 180 versions offer a 180-degree view from a surfacemountable dome for both indoor and outdoor usage.securitysa. FullSight According to Dean Sichelschmidt. Video-Insight. record and playback the full 360-degree field-of-view. Infinova. These cameras provide a 360-degree vantage point with no blind spots and no moving parts. Both FullSight camera types utilise a single multi-megapixel sensor.” The Dynacolor camera provides both 180-degree and 360-degree viewing using the Dynacolor NVR software. 2 x 180-degree de-warped in one channel. “However. Genetec. each on its own channel. a director of Security Warehouse. This would typically be at stadia. 180/360 de-warping. advanced storage optimisation. Viasys. In addition. They have low light (0. “The best applications for these cameras include larger areas where users require coverage with fewer cameras. Both the Sentry360 and Sentry180 FullSight cameras are supplied with free SentryCore VMS software. Teleste. NICE. Dynacolor Pasco Lattuca.

The camera’s powerful light management settings.” he said. Avigilon Avigilon panoramic cameras use the Avigilon Control Center (ACC) with High Definition Stream Management (HDSM). The software comes with several advanced features including alarm monitoring. info@cat. system status and security management. accommodation and hospitality or for any location where installation points are limited. This enables the system to receive 180 degree and 360 degree video feeds from fisheye cameras and then transform them into normal views from within the CatVision software. motion detection. CatVision does panoramic views Cathexis offers completes 180 degree and 360 degree fisheye camera transformation algorithms. The JPEG 2000 HD panoramic dome cameras feature four 2-MP sensors for a total resolution of 8 The predominant differentiating factor is that the CatVision software can provide multiple transformed views from a single video feed. POS transaction engines.securitysa. “ACC records and manages audio and video from Avigilon’s broad range of multi-megapixel IP cameras (from 1 to 29 megapixels) and other leading manufacturers’ equipment. www. This is contrary to many available VMS systems where the transformation has to be performed by the camera itself demanding that the system receives multiple video streams. Another advantage of this feature is that the CatVision archive player can also perform the transformations. ACC is also ONVIF compliant and we support numerous integrations with third-party providers.” said retail. www. bookmark and export functionality. Cathexis has included spherical and rectangular transformation algorithms in its latest CatVision software. to effectively CCTV Handbook 2013 77 . you can see the original source feed and transformed views of the same video feed rendered from the CatVision software. manage and store HD multi-megapixel surveillance video data. including WDR. make it suitable for shop fronts. full 1080p “The JPEG 2000 HD panoramic dome camera is ideal for monitoring indoor and outdoor environments for sectors such as education. while efficiently managing bandwidth and storage.” said Ryno van der” added Van der Vyver. The feature is available as standard in all of the CatVision software packages. regional sales manager southern Africa. +27 (0)31 240 0800. 720p HD. “Our JPEG 2000 HD panoramic dome cameras feature four 2 MP sensors which provide 180-degreeor 360-degree coverage in high definition from a single camera. The advanced 3D noise reduction function also assists in providing a clear image at night and eliminates the noise (snowiness) caused by motion recording. reception areas and over aisles in retail stores. The camera can also run on 3 MP. so only the source video need be recorded. The Dynacolor is a 5 MP camera with quad stream capability. integrated graphic mapping. For more information contact Cathexis Africa. In the image. rather than multiple streams. banking. VGA and CIF.cathexis. At full 5 MP resolution the camera provides 10 frames per second and at full 1080 HD real-time it provides 25 frames per second.excellent low light image. D1.

Intelligent recording by effectively managing your surveillance system. For more information contact Inhep Digital Security. In some cases the storage can be more expensive than all the other components. With the way the cameras are dropping in price and giving higher resolutions. with external arrays which allow us to add large numbers of drives. Another problem is trying to accurately predict storage requirements when using H. the cost saving (in terms of storage) can be higher than the price of the video management software. The human eye struggles to discern any difference between 1 MP and 5 MP. we want it to appear smooth and lifelike and with the exception of a few highly detail-oriented individuals we get our wish here. don’t be afraid to drop the resolution in the configuration of the camera. So we all know that storage can get expensive. Here are some techniques that can assist you with this. Sometimes just a single frame per second may be adequate (for example when looking at a wide area for general activity). and sometimes high frame rates are needed (for example licence plate recognition on moving traffic). The problem though. We need to ask ourselves if high frame rates are necessary. The fast frame rate fallacy When watching a movie or sport on TV. you can look at detectors such as line crossing (in a specific direction maybe). alison. A video management system can provide you with the flexibility and intelligence to ensure you achieve your goals with the ideal balance between the volume/ detail of stored images and the storage space required. due to the need to write away multiple streams of high resolution video. Information technology has given us numerous ways to provide the large amounts of storage required. It will not only help for storage. not to mention the value of time saved when retrieving footage. relevant as a point of reference since the only similarity between video surveillance and television is the moving picture on the screen. in the detail you need and when you need it. +27 (0)31 705 1373. but how much motion there is. Even if the camera has high resolution capabilities (but may have been selected for other reasons such as WDR). The key thing is to remember what the solution was designed for and to only record what you need. you may choose to have a few days’ short-term storage at high frame rates and then long-term storage at low frame rates. Intelligent recording Possibly the most underutilised technique to save on storage space is making use of intelligent recording. The only time that high resolution is an advantage is if there is a need to use digital zoom capabilities.g. CCTV product manager at IDS. The other challenge is that.r@inhep. For example.264 since it then becomes not only how often there is motion. but can also reduce load on the network. this is only going to become more of a challenge. Integration with access control or intrusion alarm systems may also be employed to assist with this. and this has been used for many years to reduce storage requirements (and help when it comes to searching for footage). intelligent video management software allows for the triggering of recording (as well as alerts) using more intelligent detectors. we still need to look at how we can minimise the storage requirement. Sometimes.INTELLIGENT STORAGE IP surveillance and storage By Richard Hepplestone. Seagate surveillance drives). Although most significant sized projects will more than likely require the leap from simple PC hard drives to enterprise storage systems. It can also be useful to have a video management system that provides the flexibility to record at various frame rates. an object disappearing and more. Anyone with experience in high-resolution IP surveillance will agree that one of the most difficult (and often most expensive) components of the solution to manage is storage. Remember that a “jerky” image due to low frame rate may not be cosmetically nice. however. loitering (we don’t care if someone walks past but if they hang around for more than a few minutes we want to know). In fact with some animated movies. Promise storage arrays. and high resolution video footage can be a huge consumer of this. The standard for most television or movies we watch is around 24fps. This is however only 78 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. is the cost. The fundamental purpose of television is entertainment while the fundamental purpose of video surveillance is security (mostly – even though sometimes the footage can be quite entertaining).securitysa. and even recording specifically when there is motion in a particular area of the screen. fibre channel and serial attached SCSI (SAS) which help with the access speeds. but may be practically perfectly good for the job. they show each picture twice creating an effective 12fps. good disk access speeds are required. Even the most basic analogue systems allow for recording on motion. This is all excellent . with some of the IT manufacturers even creating products to address the specific needs of surveillance ( Resolution for resolutions sake Don’t think that higher resolution is necessarily better. mirror and RAID techniques which help with data redundancy (as well as performance) and even differential backup techniques to make the creation of offsite backups viable. As well as being able to configure multiple motion based recording zones. CCTV Handbook 2013 79 .

Knowing when each should The two main frame-by-frame compression technologies curbe used will create the best results in a system design. and the speed. Frame-by-frame compression Frame-by-frame. As a result. rently used in video surveillance are discussed in more detail in the There are now a wide variety of compression technologies following sections. JPEG2000 is designed to preserve as much detail and evidence as possible within the image while greatly reducing file sizes. The end result is a series of individually compressed When the security industry began the transition from using VHS images. At the same time. JPEG2000 has become a widely used standard in many different industries. technology impacts the choice of hardware for client workstations. tapes to hard disks for video surveillance storage. challenged as valid evidence due to incomplete frames generated integrators. by a camera. recorded video can be accessed more quickly. Continued on page 82 80 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. While IP camera video Casino 1 MP 30 H. Each technology group incorporates different formats and in turn has its own trade-offs. In the most demanding sion technology. implementations of a particular technology may vary JPEG from one vendor to another.TECHNOLOGY: COMPRESSION Understanding compression technologies An Avigilon white paper. and system designers to have a clear understanding of by the compression process.’ JPEG compression relies on blocks of pixels. the question of Video that is compressed using a frame-by-frame compression how to compress and store video became a top consideration for technology presents a number of benefits over the more complivideo surveillance system designers. For example. how to compress and store video comes into question Application Resolution Image rate Compression technology compression is a series of individually compressed frames again. video compression duced in 1992. These block artifacts can sometimes obscure image details technologies when JPEG images are heavily compressed.264 reduce latency. There are two broad groups of compression technologies currently used in video surveillance: frame-by-frame compression and interframe compression. As the industry moves from cated inter-frame compression technologies discussed later. IP cameras. JPEG2000 is used in digital cinema. have allowed for the high security situations. the compression technologies available. because each frame compression is performed acts as an independently accessible frame and is not built up from inside the camera then transmitted to the NVR in the compressed multiple frames. available on the market. This format. neglecting the fact that video compression can also impact after the Joint Photographic Experts Group and was initially introa video surveillance system design. First. location. installers think only of file and JPEG compression is most widely used for static image compression disk size and how that determines the number of days video is in digital cameras and on the Internet. it is critical for end-users. Compression technology selection by application ated through frame-by-frame (NVR). analogue cameras and digital video recorders (DVR) to IP cameras the resulting video generand network video recorders Table 1. The centralised compression of DVRs typically meant that all rapid access improves investigation effi ciency and can improve the cameras in the surveillance system had to use the same compresforensic viability of the recorded video. video comLobby 3 MP 7 JPEG2000 be compressed and transmitted pression is performed inside Doorway 2 MP 15 H. to compress the information in an image and reduce its file size. Understanding these differences will allow the system designer to choose the right compression technology to best meet the project’s requirements and performance objectives. document archiving. but no clear standard has emerged. and in the capture and transmission of images from satellites and other military applications. Understanding compression technologies for HD and megapixel surveillance. Based on a compression technique known as a ‘discrete cosine what transmission systems can be used. compression technologies compress video by applying a compression algorithm to each frame captured JPEG2000 Since its introduction in 2000. This block-based transformation typically introduces blocking Frame-by-frame and inter-frame compression artifacts. JPEG compression is named stored. or intra-frame. typically 8x8 efficiency of investigations. Often. Parking Lot 16 MP 3 JPEG2000 that do not require information When analogue cameras are Cafeteria 5 MP 7 JPEG2000 from other frames – they can connected to a DVR. providing all recorded video as a series of design of hybrid systems that can use multiple compression techindependent video frames ensures that video integrity cannot be nologies on the same system.264 out of a camera more quickly to the recorder unit at a central Hallway 1 MP 15 H.securitysa. success.264 Second. and transform. diagnostic medical images. on the other hand. in size. For . CCTV Handbook 2013 81 .

264 is the newest compression technology JPEG2000 was designed to preserve the used in the security industry. Networks and servers should be Continued on page 84 82 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. When variable bit rate compression is used. rather than as independent images. Most compression techSimilar to JPEG. One JPEG2000 advantage and how Avigilon has combined it with High example is motion compensation using motion vectors to compress Definition Stream Management (HDSM) for even greater results is video to a smaller size. This variability depends on the compression being used – if it is configured to use a constant bit rate (CBR) or a variable bit rate (VBR). However. but encode As a wavelet-based compression technology. which can be either another compression are its ability to capture a wide P-Frame or the previous I-Frame. Dynamic range is an important I-Frames and P-Frames. MPEG-4 compression is limited season. frame rate.TECHNOLOGY: COMPRESSION Continued from page 80 compression for reducing the file size of a digital image. H. When configuring a system for a constant bit rate. Frame-by-frame The ability to capture dynamic range is able for higher resolution surveillance cameras. Bidirectionaldynamic range and its ability to scale to higher Frames (B-Frames) are sandwiched between resolutions. Information on the video. further reducing the information required to represent video. Another feature of H.264 can see. Inter-Frame Compression compression to efficiently allow the transmisbasic concepts of I. H. MPEG-4 compression incorporates the same basic technology as JPEG from a reference frame. This allows systems to be configured with a higher level of compression while maintaining more detail in the images. The JPEG2000 compression process generates images that are A GOP is typically composed of three different frame types: I. which was introduced in 1999. and can introduce variability in the size of the compressed data stream that is generated. Stream size. Typically. an inter-frame compression technology will attempt to store only incremental changes between frames and store whole frames only on periodic intervals.264 compresextra information that the sensors generate and sion is actually a variant of the MPEG-4 stanmaintain it in the compressed video. I-Frames in a GOP to describe the relative movement of information Inter-frame compression Inter-frame compression technologies rely both on compressing data within a single frame and on analysing changes between frames. lighting and activity with inter-frame compression Inter-frame compression technologies rely on scene changes as part of its compression methodology. vary dramatically throughout the day and by Typically.264 compression allows frames to be inserted between section. commonly referred to as MPEG-4 Part 10 key feature of JPEG2000 is its use of progressive Advanced Video Coding (AVC). P. 30 percent smaller in file size and bandwidth than a conventional and B frames. It uses the same Figure 2. and adds similar to the images generated using JPEG additional features for effective streaming and or JPEG2000 compression. MPEG-4 compression in surveillance are limited which means it can describe 256 different to 8-bits of dynamic range. and B Frames to encode sion and display of very high resolution images. the amount of compression applied increases as more activities occur.264 that extends beyond standard MPEG-4 is the availability of de-blocking filters. This results in a intensities of light within the image. it can also lead to the loss of information because the whole frame is not retained. Most surveillance systems implement a variant of MPEG-4 Part 2. the size of the compressed stream is allowed to vary to maintain consistent image quality. The sensors loss of information if the camera is capable of used in surveillance cameras are often capable capturing a wider dynamic range. De-blocking filters can smooth artifacts created by large amounts of compression. (P-Frames) are coded with reference to the Two additional features of JPEG2000 previous . P. The result is a stream of video that is compressed over multiple frames rather than a series of individual frames. The two main inter-frame compression technologies currently used in video surveillance are discussed in more detail in the following sections: MPEG-4 MPEG-4 compression is an umbrella term used for many different technologies defined by the Moving Picture Experts Group. there are many different MPEG-4 compression technologies available and few are alike. The technologies used for inter-frame encoding are also often referred to as temporal or ‘time-based’ encoding because they rely on information spread out over time. Though this technique can result in bandwidth efficiencies. and contain information topic in surveillance because many cameras are on the changes calculated between the previchallenged to record bright and dark areas that ous and subsequent frames. Variability in the size of the compressed stream presents important challenges in system design. but relies on more advanced coding technologies. compression expressed in bits. most implementations of nologies capture 8-bits of dynamic range. The second dard. to VGA resolutions and isn’t commonly availFigure 1. Predicted-Frames transmission. JPEG2000 allows different types of frames within video as a group of pictures (GOP) for additional compression with fewer artifacts in the image.securitysa. This can add compression artifacts to the image and degrade image quality. of capturing more than 256 intensities of light and more information than even the human eye H. Intra-Frames (I-Frames) are complete encoded images JPEG image of the same visual quality. discussed in the ‘Streaming and Network Effects of Compression’ H.

com CCTV Handbook 2013 83 .securitysa.www.

additional layers of stream size and therefore allow for simpler system designs.264 the scene. This ensures that feature to only transmit and decompress the portions of the video on higher activity. a network is not overwhelmed. If a user is zooming in on a specific region to access Frame rate will also have a dramatic impact on the level of activity full image detail. when the remote client is only receiving a very-low resolution stream. the amount of the monitor used.TECHNOLOGY: COMPRESSION Continued from page 82 visualised in the cube displayed in Figures 3 and 4. server and client by 23 times while Figure 4. detail are sent. These issues can be addressed by the choice of compression technology and camera resolution. This can be compressed resolution and the resolution cannot progressively adapt after compression.264 compresses multiple streams of video within the camera at different resolutions. between frames that an inter-frame only 2 MP worth of video information compression has little or no benefit is sent to the client. there is no lower resolution stream available to view over low bandwidth connections.264. the ability to dynamically adapt the resolution. JPEG2000 can effectively and progressively compress the video and enable advanced functionality for retransmitting and managing the compressed video.securitysa. HD and megapixel IP cameras come with their own unique challenges for storage. the most current of the frame-by-frame and inter-frame compression technologies. it two seconds and rely on changes in the can also tailor the size of the video scene to describe the other 58 frames stream being sent to the resolution of in between. Streaming high resolution details with Scene lighting will also impact the maintaining the ability to digitally zoom JPEG 2000 ability of inter-frame compression and pan within the original image at algorithms to efficiently compress video. only 2 MP of information is received and decompressed by when implementing a compression technology. For example. only the front be met under all conditions. the higher resolution stream must be sent at a reduced image rate if limited bandwidth is available. HDSM also noise within the image will be interpreted as a scene change by the greatly reduces the processing load on the remote client. full resolution. This means that as soon as video is sent over low bandwidth connections. bandwidth. Avigilon’s HDSM technology offers a unique way of working with 84 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. it can view a scene in overview but cannot zoom in to see detail. This allows HDSM over a frame-by-frame compression to reduce the bandwidth between the technology. Alternatively. turer can optimise their motion detection algorithm to prevent the algorithm from interpreting noise in low light images as changes in H. HDSM uses this designed for the worst case bandwidth demands. JPEG2000 progressive compression transforms an image into packets that allow a portion of the image to be transmitted and decompressed without requiring the rest of the image. generate 45 MP of video information the amount of change between frames that is sent from camera to server. and cause bandwidth to increase. Figure 3. and review their respective strengths and weaknesses related to streaming within a network. example. Often in low light scenes. HDSM will send perceived in video by the compression technology. When runif a connected client were viewing ning below 10 frames per second. However. Storage must also that the user is interested in. Without a low resolution stream. a camera running at 30 frames per Because HDSM can dynamically second may use a single I-Frame every access the video in layers of detail. These additional streams add to the bandwidth transmitted from the camera but are typically much smaller than the full resolution stream being recorded to the server. and sends the lower resolution stream to the client for low bandwidth live monitoring while an alternate resolution is recorded on the NVR. and efficient video surveillance management. frame-by-frame compreslayer of the cube is sent. First. multiple layers of that specific area for viewing. In addition to reducing client bandwidth.264 multi-streaming for bandwidth management. In the compression algorithm. sion technologies offer a predictable (constant) compressed data If a more detailed overview image is needed. JPEG2000 and high definition stream management When used with high definition and multi-megapixel surveillance video. nine 5 MP cameras JPEG 2000 However. Streaming situational awareness with storing scene changes for those frames. there the video stream on a standard 1080p may be so much incremental change monitor with a total resolution of 2 MP. as the frame rate is decreased. For . as is possible with JPEG2000. Since video management servers are typically configured to record the higher resolution stream from the camera. while storing the entire image on the be chosen carefully to ensure that the required retention times can server. such as the licence plate in Figure 4. If a low-resolution overview image is needed. So can increase substantially. Here. a camera manufacthe client instead of the 45 MP of information. as shown in Figure 3.264 can only be streamed in the original Streaming and network effects of compression By increasing camera resolution. is no longer available. The second drawback is apparent when viewing recorded video. and substantial savings in server and client compared to other bandwidth could be achieved by only compression technologies. Instead of dynamically adjusting. Video compressed with H. H. There are two important trade-offs to remember when using H. Avigilon has designed High Definition Stream Management (HDSM) within the Avigilon Control Center Network Video Management Software (NVMS) to deliver these key features. At this rate. we will compare JPEG2000 and H. This results in a drachange between individual frames could matic reduction in bandwidth between be very small.

securitysa. This greatly improves the efficiency of decompression and can allow multiple streams of HD video at 30 image per second to be decompressed simultaneously without using resources from the main processor.264 cameras and multi-streaming enabled. activity level.264 video without using the resources of the main processor. HDSM also dynamically adapts the resolution and methods used in the decompression of H. users can effectively generate 9 x 2 MP of information for the full resolution streams and 9 x 0. When a single stream is zoomed in for more detail. the total 21 MP of information is reduced to 4. HDSM will make use of the advanced processing unit available on NVIDIA graphics cards to decompress H. an inter-frame compression technology like H. and investigative needs will all influence the selection of compression technology. When viewed on the client. Resolution. then a frame-by-frame compression technology like JPEG2000 may be the only effective option. frame rate. You can choose to bias video display for low resolution decompression at a higher frame rate. Available online tools that include pixels on target calculators are instrumental in helping select the most appropriate camera.3 MP for lower resolution streams.264 video.264 video to reduce the demands on the client machine.multiple streams of H. it is important to select a compression technology suited to the application. As resolution increases.264 compressed video streams simultaneously. Avigilon’s HDSM also employs unique technologies to help minimise the demands placed on the client PC for decompressing H. or smaller scenes of moderate activity with high frame rates. that stream will be automatically sent in full resolution while other streams are kept in low resolution for an overview version of the image. For example. The first factor to consider will always be resolution. For scenes on a site that require large multi-megapixel IP cameras. allowing efficient viewing of large numbers of H. The lower resolution stream will be used for any overview streams where detail is not required. JPEG2000 compression is required to manage the high resolution information effectively. www.4 MP of information if one stream is viewed in detail and eight streams are viewed in low resolution. When multi-streaming is enabled for H.264 compressed video to overcome many of these trade-offs.264 video. with nine 2 MP H. A four step control of display quality is also available to enable the manual optimisation of the viewing client. When available. HDSM will adaptively manage both a full resolution and a lower resolution stream to the NVR and viewing client. This allows details to be viewed from one video stream while keeping the overall streaming bandwidth CCTV Handbook 2013 85 . If the end-user’s goal is to cover a larger scene by using a high resolution camera above 2 MP. For lower resolution.264 can help minimise the required network bandwidth and storage. Choosing the right compression technology Choosing the right camera for each point in a system is critical to a successful video surveillance system design. Once resolution has been determined. or full resolution decompression at a lower frame rate. the benefits of JPEG2000 and HDSM increase.

smith@elvey. “From people counting and licence plate recognition to the ability to adjust automatically to lighting and discriminatory conditions. Hybrid DVRs are capable of using both analogue and digital cameras. according to Greeff. +27 (0)11 401 6700. With the debate on the merits of analogue versus IP cameras showing no sign of abating. it’s understandable that many consumers are anxious about committing to new or upgraded CCTV systems. warehouses and office space.” he says. will easily bridge that gap while saving the end user a lot of” Further. thereby removing the need for a power supply close to the camera source. which can severely hamper security operations. he adds. Chip set technology is behind the number of megapixels in a picture and accordingly the sharpness required to identify criminals and solve crimes. is therefore to opt for a hybrid DVR. IP cameras produce crisper. tasha. Research has shown that the efficiency level of the average CCTV operator drops dramatically after about 20 minutes. analogue technology is tried. and in use by the majority of end users. this technology. is being used throughout the world by government. who have limited concentration spans. in fact. he continues. technical director at Elvey Security Technologies. tested.” says Greeff. offer the best of both worlds. Video . never tire. the addition of IP security cameras to analogue networks allows control room staff to quickly and accurately analyse images and video footage for specific data such as behaviour patterns and perimeter violations. This is especially relevant when it comes to the natural expansion of properties. too.elvey. notes Greeff. A hybrid system. business. For more information contact Elvey Security Technologies. IP cameras are also the answer to the need to transmit video in digital form to and from the Internet and other e-mail clients. leaving the average person confused and frustrated. industry and manufacturing sectors. which will in turn create a gap in existing security installations. “Hybrid systems. An analogue RG59 cable is vulnerable to picture interference. the reduction of stock shrinkage and the monitoring of specific high risk Future proof One of the many benefits of moving over to IP. video and sound is a PoE (Power over Ethernet) cable. “Hybrid video analytics are far more reliable than human beings. as is the case for analogue cameras. is that it essentially future-proofs one’s business. One of the shortcomings of analogue installations is distance. Simple and cost-effective to add to pre-existing networks. one can look forward to the ever-increasing quality of facial recognition and other video analytics. retail. “End users need to be able to distinguish between the various benefits and shortcomings of their current analogue systems in order to be able to make the right upgrade decisions going forward. whose DVRs (digital video recorders) need replacing due to functionality problems or insufficient recording space. www.” His suggestion to owners of existing analogue systems.HYBRID TECHNOLOGIES Does hybrid deliver analogue value and IP benefits? Hybrid steps to IP saves money and boosts results.” from television lines to IP also outperforms analogue when it comes to distance. to the point where they are only taking in about five percent of the information on screen. Such growth will lead to the natural expansion of properties. where the small business sector is growing rapidly. which would likely comprise an existing CCTV analogue system and infrastructure with IP cameras that would operate through a hybrid DVR. Sensitive to the need for businesses to watch their bottom lines in the current economic downturn. And because IP megapixel quality is constantly being improved. he suggests hybridising pre-existing installations. “The use of analogue and IP cameras simultaneously is a tailormade solution for a country like South Africa. which also reduces data storage requirements and costs. “The starting point to making sense of the subject is to recognise that while IP (Internet protocol) technology is being exalted as the ultimate in image quality. It also enables digitised audiovisual streams to be sent to and viewed from anywhere in the world. as a result of which many customers question the need to upgrade their systems to IP when their existing infrastructure supports analogue. higher resolution pictures as a result of the terminology having moved away 86 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. IP benefits Hybrid technology is also being used with great effect in control rooms. All that’s required for power. says the technology in this particular arena has progressed at a rapid rate in recent years. Zane Greeff. warehouses and office space. Analogue CCTV has long delivered acceptable results in the areas of basic staff and visitor surveillance. on the other hand. CCTV Handbook 2013 87 .

IP is ideal where the user is operating in a remote or very large location. As the technology improves. This may present problems with future upgradeability of systems. and then hen there is the option to insert IP encoders to convert the analogue video stream to .” says Brecher. ADI product manager CCTV/Access. Seamless. however. • CMSs: central management software designed to be able to connect to both DVRs and NVRs.” “Hybrid systems are essentially analogue ue and IP solutions. then it would be foolish to change to IP. However. at the end of the day. there are traditional DVRs which h have the ability to accommodate IP cameras. he adds. adds that there are three ways of achieving a hybrid solution: • Hybrid DVRs: these are purpose-built recorders that will have a combination of composite video inputs for the analogue cameras and an Ethernet port for the IP cameras. When implementing a hybrid solution one needs to understand that you will not get the same image quality as a full IP solution. It is important that one be able le to use them together on a platform to ensure maximised aximised operability. A middle road is to offer an upgrade with some IP technology. “Hybrid solutions allow for cost-effective upgrade paths. With hybrid. This has changed. it is 88 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. where one can migrate across to IP over a period without having to start from scratch. However. IP image quality has now improved significantly a and there is an IP solution for every possible scenario.” Is hybrid the solution? In the beginning. “If you are happy with your analogue camera-to-video quality. if cost is an issue then hybrid solutions do provide the best of both worlds but. it is often a good idea to stick with analogue systems. Common questions that come to the fore are whether they really do offer the best of both technology worlds.” says Ingo Mutinelli. “There are two basic considerations when converting to hybrid solutions. when the industry started with IP.” says Moore. on one common platform. “ the only consideration for a hybrid solution now would be instances where there has been significant investment in analogue and there are budgetary constraints that restrict one from instituting a full upgrade. would be software developed by the manufacturer to allow end-users to view cameras from their older DVR and their newer NVRs. simultaneous operas tion of both analogue and IP video streams should be the goal of any installation. national sales manager for Elvey Security Technologies. IP becomes more affordable. according to Mutinelli. in most cases. there was a requirement st for hybrid solutions because IP had not fo matured. In this case. you can simultaneously embrace the latest technology. while retaining your existing investment. Let’s go “One needs to consider the implementation costs versus the future relevance of the solution when considering a hybrid solution. There where many instances m where analogue was required for specific wh areas or functionality. • Encoders: this is probably the most common solution in larger projects where there have already been large investments with analogue cameras in the infrastructure. These solutions are common in smaller installations ranging from 16 to 32 inputs. Ultimately. Gordon Moore. Therefore. such as high-speed area domes. thermal cameras and areas where dome large zo zoom lenses were required. if you need higher image resolution.HYBRID TECHNOLOGIES Hybrid: Best of both worlds? By Allyson Koekhoven. what are the storage requirements? Secondly. “Only if both analogue and IP cameras on a site are being monitored from a common control room or management platform can one truly say that it is a hybrid solution. one would make use of IP encoders to convert the analogue images to IP so that they can be incorporated into a full IP solution.” says Mutinelli. A noisy image is always difficult to compress. but simultaneously retain existing analogue cameras. Firstly. “So. but I believe that this is not a long-term solution as it normally requires proprietary hardware which is not compatible with all open systems. This. then you need to consider IP. nothing beats a full IP solution. but also to determine whether the system can be supported and integrated ten years down the line. necessary to perform a needs analysis to guarantee not only the ability to upgrade a system. “One should also consider the limitations such as what kind of infrastructure is a available in terms of the network capacity capacity. Currently. This will be affected by what resolution is i required and how many frames per seco second are recorded. If the image quality of the analogue camera has deteriorated. to have a centralised management system. or do they simply offer median performance levels? Gus Brecher.securitysa.” notes Brecher. which analogue cameras would you need to convert into IP and how will this signal scale from point A to point B. It is critical. Are hybrid solutions the ideal solution for those who want the best of the IP world and the best of analogue? Hybrid solutions are touted as the ideal middle ground solution for users who either cannot or do not wish to replace their entire analogue system with IP. MD at Cathexis Africa says it is important to define a hybrid solution. converting it to IP with an encoder will make the image worse because of the way the compression engine works.” Moore concludes. “There are some solutions that transmit HD video along co-axial cables. until bandwidth issues have been resolved.

Physical Security Information Management (PSIM) software enables security departments to manage an enterprise’s exposure to security risk. • Data collection: Device level information is collected from all connected systems. Within physical security operations. This enforces all policies. www.MANAGEMENT PLATFORMS PSIM: Why should I be interested? CNL Software white paper. the physical security world has been much slower to adapt to change. These key points define a PSIM product. such as bespoke turnkey solutions offered by some integrators. These systems are not integrated together and work independently with no communication with other systems in the ecosystem. It is designed to aid decision-making and deployment planning within an organisation. It should provide the ability to integrate events and alarms from these systems along with information such as time and geography.securitysa. Physical Security Information Management (PSIM) software aids in decision-making and deployment CCTV Handbook 2013 89 . allowing it to automatically identify situations and then dynamically update them as they unfold. by Several studies have been carried out in this area by research companies including Frost and Sullivan and IMS. such as 9/11 and 7/7. Security breaches and challenges Following several large security breaches. Secondly. This means a large number of organisations are using lots of systems in their control room which cannot work with each other. including both legacy systems and new technology. access control and building management systems. it can perform intuitive prioritisation and escalation according to a range of predetermined criteria that might include chronology. it has been widely accepted that critical information from numerous sources is left to system operators to interpret and act upon consistently and correctly. connecting them together through a single interface. How does PSIM differ from other forms of integration? How does PSIM help? Firstly. priority and prevailing threat. location. PSIM provides an off-the-shelf platform to manage all of these systems. For example. which have highlighted some of the features that distinguish a PSIM solution from other physical security and event management products. This is far more cost-effective than other forms of integration. Whilst system integration might not seem much of a challenge in the world of IT where standards have been around for decades. It is therefore essential that the PSIM vendor is not tied to any manufacturer of the underlying systems. increases effectiveness and provides evidence of compliance for auditing and risk mitigation. the security industry is now in transition. As a result. and have been collated below: • Open platform: It provides easy integration with a variety of systems from leading manufacturers. Most end-users have video surveillance. security professionals have recognised the need to bring together this information in a format that can be visualised and distributed. moving from disparate systems to integrated and interoperable systems. it uses workflow technology to provide operators with guidance and intelligence for situation management.

MANAGEMENT PLATFORMS • Data aggregation: The PSIM software should have the ability to evaluate the information that is gathered to identify and priorities real incidents and situations.securitysa. • Geospatial engine: Dynamically locating and creating relationships between devices. situations. manica@ethele. It should provide a set of easyto-use visual tools to generate policies that are automatically imported into the system for use in the identification and resolution of situations. It should enforce standard operating procedures to an operator. giving them vital experience that only comes from successfully deploying a number of large scale installations. and results into one folder for compliance and investigative analysis or post situation training. tools and contact information needed for resolution – all within a single user interface.ethele. which is creating confusion in the market place as these products do not have many of the features essential to a PSIM solution. emphasising added organisation value through hardened security and increased efficiency or reduced ongoing costs. people and assets relationships is essential. devices. This has enabled them to understand the challenges and create products that are mature enough to meet the wide number of applications seen in PSIM today. audio). This flexibility is key when selecting a PSIM policies. people and alarms – and shows what is happening in real-time within a given situation or globally across all situations. actions taken. alarms. This should offer the ability to display situations. • Modular platform: It should dynamically adapt to changes in 90 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. provide training scenarios and as an auditable record of activity subsequent to a security incident. Organisations should research the product and ensure the PSIM solution is futureproof and can adapt to the organisation’s changing security needs. along with the information. • Reporting: All activity should be monitored. For more information contact E-thele. True PSIM solutions have become more sophisticated. Are all PSIM solutions the same? There are several true PSIM vendors in the market place who have been deploying their PSIM solutions for more than five years now. +27 (0)12 665 3158. • Incident resolution: The PSIM system software should facilitate the presentation of logically displayed and clearly communicated actions. including all operator actions. www. to aid compliance management. It should gather all information (videos. it may automatically identify the nearest cameras to a situation’s address or locate the security person closest to a medical emergency. ensuring responses are fast and appropriate. For example. there are also a large number of companies who are now marketing their old products under the PSIM banner. and reporting while the system is running and support a distributed architecture for high availability and disaster recovery. This will reduce the risk of purchasing a system that will need replacing if the organisation’s circumstances change a few years down the These vendors are several versions into the development of their software. • Visualisation and collaboration: It should provide the ability to visualise a situation as it evolves and to share this intelligence with response . configurations. The crucial factor being that the customer can decide what their priorities are and implement all or just a few modules of a PSIM according to their unique situation.

these paid-for platforms do not have to be expensive. surveillance and many others. Middle East and Africa. you can’t use it in your system. easy to maintain and upgrade.The platform must fit the business What do users want from their management systems? What is selling today and what is being avoided? By Andrew Seldon. so the functionality of their offerings are more www. if a great new thermal or backlight-capable camera comes out in a year from another company and you need it for a critical security location. easy to configure and add cameras. whether their video management needs are relatively simple or highly complex. not supported.” Biltsted adds that the free video management systems offered by some camera manufacturers only work with that company’s cameras. to integrate with other systems. good online help and other documentation. mobile through smartphones and tablets. without the need to strip out existing equipment. open systems seem attractive when considering often limited budgets in organisations. invariably these are quite the opposite in the longer term. as in trouble? It seems the VMS industry is also under pressure from free software. including the CEO who is ultimately responsible. and to provide the relevant stakeholders with real-time.securitysa. process and procedures and disparate technologies. as long as they meet the requirements and future requirements of the client. Peter Biltsted. we have expensive management systems that can do almost anything. and will most certainly have a roadmap for future features and expansion. operational information. but also not just an open source ‘freebie’ that has no business continuity and is not sustainable. The first question we have to ask is what a management platform is.? Peter Biltsted Do they need central management. Today. This locks you into their product road map limitations over time. These systems are mostly not sustainable. For example. and may include OHS. What should an enduser be on the lookout for when considering implementing a management platform? Kevin Buret from Sukema Integrated Solutions says. logical navigation to get the job done.” One should ensure that any system is compliant with existing IT standards and protocols within the organisation. as most often an incident will affect multiple stakeholders. so using them means you always have to use that brand of cameras. and with intuitive.” He adds that the stakeholders are not only Kevin Buret security. This brings the best return on the investment. to be able to add cameras from any manufacturer. Look for multiple clients to interface with the VMS: stationary at a CCTV Handbook 2013 91 . others say it depends on what your requirements are. “My definition of a security management platform is not just a CCTV head-end system. number and type of cameras desired. but we also have a growing number of smaller. “Although they are not open source. What do users want from their management systems? We asked one local and one international platform developer for their take on management platforms. The VMS should be easy to install. open management systems users can obtain for little or no cost. for example. which poses future risk for the business. Milestone Systems says every installation has to be evaluated from the needs of each customer. helping to find the cameras automatically. Customisation can be conducted in order to best fit the client’s requirements. It should bring together the people. Some argue the free systems can’t match the features and functionality of paid for (or some would say “professional” systems). Web clients are more streamlined for faster access. End-users should ensure that the management platform of choice is not specific to a particular brand of technology. also remotely available from home or when travelling. however. The next thing to look for is ease-of-use. keeping on top of the latest innovations. to upgrade with new software versions. but rather a software solution that adds value to these and other disparate platforms. easy to use by the daily operators. maintenance. with multiple languages if necessary. they should be open to be able to work with and interface/integrate with other existing and disparate systems. etc. local or both? “And don’t just plan for today’s requirements. “Free. director. Free. customisable in a structured manner. Choose a user interface (UI) that’s customisable.” The most important thing to look for is an IP video management platform that is truly open to ensure the widest options for now and the future. “The paid-for VMS platforms are developed by companies who really focus on VMS.” Buret adds. who should be configuring them according to the organisational policies and procedures. how many users will there be of the system and what are their skill levels. Buret says. VMS wizards are a great tool for fast installation and hook-ups with the cameras on the network. whether they would benefit from analytics. just as the IT industry had to learn to deal with open source systems and applications. How many locations need to be monitored. “These systems are implemented by professionals. and will ultimately be replaced by systems that comply with industry standards. as well as the business operational requirements. supported. The paid for systems are sustainable. have no future roadmap.

storage 92 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. then identify the gap between these and the management system/s being considered. you have all the options you could need both today and tomorrow.” Complexity not needed Traditional security management systems are large. “The most important factor with any system is not the system itself. What’s more. No matter where or how a company starts implementing a management platform. One cannot shoehorn and alter the business requirements into a free system so that the system works. and can focus on dealing with the resultant outcome. noting that there is a full range of VMS offerings available today and if you buy a company’s lower end product to start out. Are they worth it? Very large installations may be able to get a reasonable return from this investment.” says Buret. there is still a technical and skills gap that needs to be overcome. the management system is the rules engine and information disseminator providing stakeholders with decision-making knowledge. thereby optimising the solution. by means of a business requirement study.” A professional supplier of VMS will give the installer advice and recommendations on how to optimise the use of hardware to be installed with the software. “A well-planned system that is based on the required outcomes of the client is the starting point of any professional system. the existing disparate systems and technology. camera views.” One needs to. work within the budget. they require a significant investment in skills. “It is unnecessary to implement large.. Be sure to look for after-sales support as well: a pure VMS manufacturer has dedicated support for customers and ensures that the latest technologies can be utilised. analytics. what bandwidth capacity is needed. access rights. which may not exist as an off the shelf product. rather than hours spent compiling reactive reports.” “A really good VMS can provide comprehensive features without every user needing to use them. otherwise it is a complete waste of time and money. but the majority of smaller installations would be lost with such complex systems. Each user can tailor the look and functionality to their own needs to optimise their daily tasks and performance. you can upgrade to the higher versions with more capability as your needs grow. Integration can be accomplished on a database level due to most IP-based systems. planning and more planning.securitysa. who need to buy into the process of utilising the system. it is the resistance to change form personnel. Mobile devices are becoming increasingly important as a source for capturing information in real-time. phase the implementation. not to mention the giant task of ensuring what you implement is suited to your actual needs and not the vanilla installation your integrator wants to supply. etc. languages.MANAGEMENT PLATFORMS comprehensive. how does it go about planning and starting the installation to prevent it ending up as a complex. Assuming a company has decided they need a professional management platform with all the bells and whistles. won’t.. cumbersome and expensive. Failing to plan. integration should only be conducted if it is going to add value to an operational . etc. “Traditional security management systems are fast working themselves out of the pricing bracket of many organisations.” Biltsted has a another approach. management systems should be focussing on providing effective and efficient operational systems to ensure that staff are only required to have minimal input.” states Buret.” he says. the business requirements and processes need to determine the best-suited management system. “This needs to be driven from the top management downwards. the stakeholders. Milestone XProtect Smart Client is an interface that is adaptable to different skill levels. “Management should have real-time information at their fingertips to allow them to focus on managing. identify the required operational outcomes. and do not require expensive integration at a component level. not to mention money. Those who have more complex needs can have them while those who don’t. For example. costly mess? “Planning. and allow for additional budget requirements in the next few financial years to scale the system. This gives the best total cost of ownership. or any system is potentially doomed for failure before it starts. cumbersome and expensive systems that integrate every single component within the organisation. especially if it’s an open platform solution that allows integration with the widest choice in hardware and other software like access control. If you also choose an open VMS.

mass notification and building automation. to large corporate size. this only forms about 20% of implementing a successful management system that meets the client’s requirements. we are always directly responsible for the BRS with the client. what should users be looking for when considering a management platform? Do you go for a system that can do everything and set it up to meet your needs. intrusion. The PSIM platform should be open. Milestone has beneficial archiving capabilities such as pruning or grooming the video to different levels and storage types which saves on based on pre-determined rules and policies. or do you start small. the location and the scope of the threat it presents. manage/ counter the threat and control response operations. alerts and reporting. 4. to respond. to medium hospital type size.” The Sukema platform consists of a core Microsoft compliant. provisioning systems. comprehensive management features. Visualisation: A PSIM software platform must be able to visualise the actual situation independently from active events. Our search and export tools are CCTV Handbook 2013 93 . working together to make IP video surveillance the best that it can be. Biltsted says that if these services are not offered. It must be capable of developing customised reports that allow for analysis of multiple events in order to optimise policies and response. This includes the ability to integrate backup systems to automate transfer of control room capabilities. the PSIM platform must be able to graphically display situational information in a manner that provides responders with a picture of the nature of the event. Correlation and verification: A PSIM software platform must be able to automatically connect and cross-reference multiple events from multiple disparate security systems in real-time and give the ability to flexibly set rules. etc. “Our systems cater for clients from a residential estate size. examples include (but are not limited to) video surveillance. “The determining factor in the Milestone VMS open platform is the broadest ability to choose: from the range of functionality in our portfolio of products that are regularly upgraded. Post-event reporting and analysis: A PSIM software platform must provide an audit log that allows for post-event forensic review detailing the event situation and the action taken. easy and www. using a system that can grow with your needs? Biltsted says evaluations about what is important can only be made by each customer. the reseller/end-user should look at what services are offered with the product and if it is enough for you. Making the right choice Seeing that there are many options when it comes to management platforms.XProtect_ clients efficient. Connectivity and integration: A PSIM software platform must connect and manage multiple disparate security systems. “The Milestone open platform is not just about our software. 3. 6. access control. and the wide set of proven third-party integrations possible. We are open in our collaboration with our partners and the customers. in addition to setting compression of the data as desired. 2. to the diversity and number of hardware devices supported.).” IMS Research: What is PSIM software? IMS Research believes that a PSIM software platform must meet the seven following criteria: 1. therefore upgrades.” Buret says Sukema’s platform “is developed by ourselves in South Africa. etc.securitysa. perimeter protection. and is supported and maintained by ourselves. The rules based workflow should be sufficiently complex as to adapt to escalating situations. In case of an event. It must be able to watch and monitor the functionality and integrity of the underlying subsystems and detect possible threats on the network. whose needs vary from type of organisation to size to geography and over time. php?pr_id=1779. For example. therefore hardware and vendor agnostic. communication gateways and databases) to support continuity of business and disaster recovery. it’s our way of doing business. Clients can add onto the core in a modular fashion according to their increasing requirements and budget constraints. Web enabled/browser-based platform that is accessible to authorised users from any location around the world. as well as enterprise versions for global mining size organisations. too. data warehouses.” requirements. A rules-based workflow for response: A PSIM software platform must be able to immediately offer a step-by-step action plan. fire and life safety. 5. It must be able to integrate real world information as a geo-spatial representation. “Another thing is a dedicated VMS manufacturer will use the latest programming tools and technologies. The PSIM platform should be capable of integration with other business systems within a corporate IT-infrastructure such as ERP systems. servers. Source: http://imsresearch. “Partners and end-users testify to the ease of installing and working with XProtect: the wizards for fast camera connections. Availability/resilience: A PSIM software platform must have capability for redundant functionality (eg. as well as any customisation required by the client. No software resides on a user’s PC. support and maintenance is quick. XProtect Smart Wall is the go-to choice for our customers with big command centres. the implementation and training. 7. Milestone Federated Architecture is a huge benefit to large. Whether it is sold through a channel partner or directly from Sukema. in complex solutions utilisation of 64-bit OS technology should be considered for optimisation of the solution. multi-site (even cross-national) implementations that want centralised control with local access. Real-time policy/configuration management: A PSIM software platform must be able to define and change policies and parameters related to various connected devices in the underlying subsystems (such as access control. and capable of connecting to any input sensors and external applications. etc.” He adds that the global network of partners and customers in the Milestone ecosystem which all contribute inspiration and continued innovation is also important. video. Features and functionalities in most modern day systems are very similar.

reducing review time even further. However. replacing the fast forward function with an intelligent solution that enables all video footage to be reviewed every day for better security. This does not necessarily mean that it will make the task of finding those critical seconds any easier. Hospitals can utilise the technology to monitor patient care. Forensic video synopsis technology increases the accuracy of video analysis and dramatically decreases the time required to browse footage. For more information contact Graphic Image Technologies. However. +27 (0)11 483 0333. for example. By enabling hours of footage to be viewed in a matter of minutes. In fact. and often simply acts as a deterrent to those with malicious intent. The areas of exclusion can help to remove movement which is irrelevant. It is also possible to apply areas of interest and areas of exclusion to either home in on a specific area or exclude areas of footage that are not relevant. To put it simply. however. highlighting incidents or suspicious behaviour and allowing the potential of CCTV footage to be fully utilised. as once problem areas have been identified and trends have been picked up. this information can be used to modify behaviours in any scenario. the power of video synopsis goes beyond crime prevention and has applications in a number of different areas. leveraging value out of CCTV is often a challenging task. a form of forensic video analysis. any organisation can use the software to improve staff productivity.git. With the power of this forensic technology.securitysa. casinos can use video synopsis technology to monitor tables for suspicious behaviour and ensure that cheating can easily be detected and the perpetrators identified. The ability to home in on specific areas allows the viewer to. forensic video synopsis enables real value to be leveraged from hours of footage. to allow for more specific focus and less distraction. technology called video synopsis can prove far more useful and Surveillance has become an essential element of modern security solutions as it delivers the ability to monitor areas of . Video synopsis. turning hours of footage into synopses of just a few minutes. Sifting through hours of mundane footage for seconds of useful video is an almost impossible task without specialised analysis tools. 94 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. focus exclusively on a door that was broken into or a shelf from where an item was stolen. However. Events can be browsed through frame by frame. and assist with improving store layout. Using advanced video analysis tools such as video synopsis. the type of analysis used is critical in ensuring the success of the solution. One of the obvious applications of this is to identify criminals. Video synopsis enables the viewer to summarise hours of footage into just a few minutes. These snapshots can then be used for identifying suspicious behaviour and perpetrators of incidents. enables the viewer to summarise hours of footage into just a few minutes. This can help to ensure optimal product placement for maximum revenue.ANALYTICS Video synopsis versus video analysis By Mark Chertkow. In the retail environment. and videos can be exported to create evidence files. One of the major challenges facing any user of CCTV is the sheer volume of recorded events that occurs every day. For example. Video synopsis (VS) is the simultaneous presentation of events that happened at different times. provide evidence in case of an incident. reducing the time and cost of manpower. such as trees waving in the wind. and by combining these movements into a single video with time stamps for each individual and identify which aisles and shelves are most frequented by customers. markc@git. identify incidents and improve service levels. Video synopsis works by detecting movement in the field of the video. Video analysis tools can assist in this scenario. users can rapidly review and index full-length footage and create synopsis videos that overlays multiple objects and activities that occurred at different times. Video synopsis software allows users to index and view original event videos with a single click and combine multiple clips into a single summary review. When looking for a video analysis solution. video analysis is simply a generic term to describe computerised processing and analysis of video streams. It enables users to obtain better quality evidence faster. the human eye gets tired and is prone to missing incidents that appear on camera. VS creates a snapshot of events that summarises hours of any user can gain real value from hours of otherwise meaningless CCTV footage. stores can use this technology to analyse and identify shopping behaviours and patterns. for behavioural analysis and more. www. and even if the manpower exists to do this. short circuiting the lengthy process of identifying key events. and the deterrent that such a system provides can go a long way towards preventing theft and helping law enforcement agencies to identify and prosecute offenders. as sifting through hours and hours of footage is typically not feasible.

Cengence Customer Portal is the gateway through which a channel partner is able to execute and control a range of activities which will manage the administration of their clients’ activities with respect to the use of purchased products. enabling effective management of operational concerns within an organisation. Results can then be rendered within the Cengence Threat or any other interface and automated actions executed through the use of the Cengence TaskMaster package. and reporting of staff performance. Tasks are created manually using a front-end screen (either in Pulse self. Data is collated and read from the access control database which maintains records and keeps a history of all movement within the environment. Cengence Incident Management is a Web-based tool for registering. Cengence Tricorder is a mobile tool used on a cell phone or smart phone in conjunction with Cengence Pulse to facilitate stock control. All data gathered is compiled into an identikit that is saved for further analysis. Result sets can be pre-defined and thus force specific analytical data to be produced in line with the client’s specific needs and requirements. or on a Web page accessible from any Internet capable device). Cengence Gatekeeper is an access control device software application used for management of visitors and staff access with their related and/ or allocated assets. enhanced communication. Incidents logged are processed and analysed in real-time in order to generate fast and efficient results. to allow for accurate and user required result sets from the analysed data. a comprehensive knowledge base and better results. For more information contact PBS Technologies. It is an end to end system which not only automates the management of task but also aids in strategic. This complex intelligence management framework provides clients with an intelligent.gilbert@pbstechnologies. It allows for the real-time management of devices. Cengence Essentials has a variety of modules which are added to Cengence Pulse thereby providing a comprehensive management www. Cengence Threat is primarily a data capturing and result rendering interface that affords the user the ability to automatically or manually capture data in a prescribed and customisable format. Data is then captured in a centralised data repository from where various analytical algorithms. It integrates information into a centralised system. Cengence Scribe is a user friendly Web based tool used to store. the support and maintenance of devices and staff tracking within an organisation. retrieve. Cengence provides intelligent business solutions across multiple industries. documenting. Cengence integrates into all brands of product and systems thus making it non brand specific. acceptance and escalation of job cards. monitoring and management. Its privilege system together with document inscription ensures secure access to sensitive information.securitysa. will then extract user requested information and display it in a format that is easy to understand and fully customised. mitigation/eradication of risk. operational and tactical business decision making in order to achieve improved efficiencies. It manages the information of persons. Cengence Essentials is an analytical and efficiency tool effective in the monitoring and managing of all systems and related services. reduced costs. These incidents can also be raised anonymously thereby reducing victimisation. Cengence TaskMaster is a complex tasking system that allows the user to define and manage required tasks in line with requirements. integrated and holistic view of their business. This interface allows for the creation of structured data from a series of unstructured or unsorted data. reporting and investigating any incidents on a single or across multiple sites. Cengence Complexis is an advanced analytical tool that can process and analyse vast amounts of data in extremely short times. The persons or groups will then be automatically notified of the pending task as well as track and monitor the progress. monitoring and notification of incidents and faults. The system utilises a process flow system which will allow for the creation of complex tasks in line with pre-defined outcomes.pbstechnologies. analyses and draws associations to the incident and reports on a possible outcome based on patterns thereby enabling management decision making. Cengence is a locally developed Complex Intelligence Management Framework (CIMF) comprising multiple products created to meet the requirements of complex intelligence. www.ANALYTICS: PRODUCT OVERVIEW Intelligence management framework Local management platform puts everything in front of operators. Business Intelligence reports and task progress reports will also allow for more accurate and real-time management of the tasks. It drives proper functioning and reporting of system performance and service delivery in an auditable manner. Specific task outcomes and tasks can be linked to specific person or groups for execution thereof. Cengence Pulse is the heart of the Cengence product line and is the platform to roll out Cengence throughout an organisation. update and manage all documentation within an organisation. operating entities and areas of operational efficiency. +27 (0)11 805 as prevalent in the Cengence Complexis package. assets and documentation used during the investigation. the creation. increased market CCTV Handbook 2013 95 . All the Cengeance Essentials modules can be procured separately as required by the client. billy.

cameras are everywhere and placed anywhere. 96 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. running. preferably pro-actively. limited concentration and others). Some factors are relevant with regards to the technology used. Intelligent systems automate tasks. Detection is often a question of recognising behaviour or anomalies. Furthermore. suitable and trained staff is used. such as street surveillance environments. Secondly. as motion in large spaces are analysed. a number of aspects are clear. they can perform intelligent interpretation of events automatically and in context with the present scenario. but sufficient resolution to perform adequate detection is also required. Secondly. (This discussion will be limited to CCTV and its options but other aspects of street surveillance are obviously also important). control room diligence overcomes the shortcomings of technology. It therefore assumes that cameras are placed such that they cover areas where incidents are expected to happen and where the surveillance operator has jurisdiction to monitor. Thus. • Identifying real incidents and selecting actual incidents from false alarms. it appears that where systems are successful. Protoclea Advanced Image Engineering. When these systems are evaluated. Street (CBD) surveillance consists fundamentally of: • Detecting possible events. the appearance of objects (specific vehicles. it is important to consider the critical aspects of street surveillance. Detection An important technical parameter when it comes to detection is the ability to recognise possible events. So what should be the criteria for a good street surveillance solution? In order to define solutions. In most cases their diligence overcomes the shortcomings of technology.ANALYTICS Intelligent systems in high motion surveillance By Dr Bennie Coetzer. they operate without or with minimal human intervention. In some control rooms the operation is efficient. not the least sharing of cameras between multiple monitoring agencies – a possibility that has become significantly easier with the advent of digital cameras and networks. the success of such systems is often touted to be high but ends up mediocre. According to the SAPS forensic . Covering an area is a subject where many strategies can be deployed to reduce cost. broad area coverage is required. In most cases. • Presenting evidence to courts for prosecution. the quality of technology is often not fit for purpose. incidents or even actions. Clearly it would be a waste to simply place cameras everywhere. more than 95% of video footage analysed by them turns out to be unusable for investigation purposes and even more are less useful for prosecution. Let’s briefly explore each of the above characteristics and the contribution of intelligent systems in each. specific people) or out-of-place behaviour such as movement in dead spots. What would be the characteristics of a system capable of delivering the above functionality and how can intelligent systems offer a contribution? In order to investigate what such systems can offer a brief definition of the characteristics of intelligent systems in this context would be in order. this has often more to do with the control room operations than the technical systems themselves. System components often fail and there is often neither the will nor the resources to maintain sophisticated Dr Bennie Coetzer systems. may trigger investigation. When considering the application of CCTV in high-motion areas. The cost of covering an area has reduced dramatically in the recent past but it is still costly when one considers installation. When it comes to camera coverage for this purpose. Firstly. specific recognition such as facial or ANPR does require much better resolution. etc.securitysa. While behavioural analysis does not necessarily require high detail. maintenance and so on. Humans are particularly good at these tasks but suffer from human frailty (lack of alertness. • Investigating incidents post-incident and gathering evidence. • Managing these incidents remotely from a control room. intelligent systems can perform mundane tasks without supervision such as searching intelligently through video material for objects.

In this context. These include rapid pointing of the camera by pointing at a position on the static (wide area) scene and automatically designate the camera to slew to this point. providing at best. These do not have to be from single views but can be achieved in a combination of multiple camera views. higher resolution cameras can be used with no loss of information. With the use of low-light capabilities. it can be used to create tracks of movement and predict destinations. even to some extent. assist humans and reduce reaction time in addition to potentially lower the cost of providing security and indeed even of hardware required. intelligent systems strive to improve detection and. automated detection. What can intelligent systems offer? In the detection arena. All of this serves to improve the quality of service. Modern image processing techniques can support this function successfully by offering both behaviour detection (motion and tracking analysis) as well as specific object detection (facial.Wide area detection sensing will therefore probably consist of wideangle views to cover most of the area with specific high-resolution (narrow angle) views on specific places monitored for specific events. Behavioural analysis is a hot topic today and. very good identification can be achieved. the use of pan/tilt/zoom cameras have also become much cheaper and their capabilities have also increased dramatically. significantly reduce false alarms. With wide area sensing illumination becomes a real problem as cameras have notoriously low dynamic ranges and special care must be taken to offer constant level illumination or support CCTV Handbook 2013 97 . by using sophisticated analysis and cross-correlation techniques. combining information into single events. so what can intelligent systems offer? A number of automated tools can be used to assist humans in this detection. But to be useful it must be able to offer some capabilities such as continuous detection. These cameras are very poor in their ability to monitor as they have essentially tunnel vision and have to be directed if used in the monitoring sense. Such analysis in conjunction with scenario analysis can offer very powerful incident detection capabilities. This will assist human operators by taking over the mundane and boring tasks of continuous monitoring. Similarly. shape recognition). filtering true alarms from false/ nuisance alarms and so on. some pixels are simply not displayed and no one can observe what happens unless you zoom in – an action that will only be performed when something has been detected in the first place. humans offer at present by far the best abilities. or support illumination. analysis of detected events can.securitysa. ANPR. Fortunately. Last but not least. a time sliced view of any area. time to reach possible targets and. (When cameras with resolution higher than the screen resolution are used. In addition. improved detection. while still in its infancy. Here identification becomes paramount and therefore resolution is critical. Identification When it comes to identification. intent of the action. resulting in significant cost saving. Analysis of historic events and time-line analysis can create pro-active trends and contextual analysis can be used to create priorities in detected events. the requirements change dramatically. But when it comes to identification they can zoom in to any object and because of their narrow view the camera is essentially subject to a very even illumination spread. in particular. immediate facial recognition or number plate recognition can identify objects specifically assisting an operator in knowing who he is dealing Continued on page 98 www.) This means that fewer cameras can be used to achieve the same result. because machines can work in parallel and process a lot of information simultaneously.

Incident management includes a number of functions such as continuously monitoring the event itself. frame rates of 10 fps to 12 fps are usually sufficient.securitysa. a company specialising in the development of products such as those described in this article. • Offering additional information. other than packaging of the evidence and the way it is packaged. look into dark spots. but more than that. Evidence for prosecution While the prosecution effort is generally not part of the command and control system and at this point. Once this is done relevant information can be extracted and saved into long-term storage. immediate access to relevant recordings of the incident. The design should consider what the information is to be used for and once this is defined. Intelligent machines can locate sightings of people. This could include a variety of image enhancement to allow for detection of weapons. also assist in contextualising the incident and managing it appropriately. required frame rate. • In addition. resulting in improved security at a lower cost. For most views frame rates of less than 8 fps is adequate to determine behaviour and if less of an eye strain is important due to long viewing periods. The task requires amongst others the following of the command and control system: • Presentation of visible views of all views that are relevant to the incident and removal of irrelevant views. would need at least three pixels per metre on the object. It is sad to say that in most cases the actual use of the information is disregarded to save money. high-motion systems will be the use of intelligent systems. It is. Video resolution – this must be such that the type of object is recognisable at the distance or www. • Be in constant communication with resources and offering them useful information as well. Frame rate is only required to be high if the possibility of missing an action exists.ANALYTICS Continued from page 97 with based on prior information.5 dB (for simple processes) is required throughout the scene. However. Dr Coetzer can be contacted at Protoclea Advanced Image Engineering ( These have the potential of reducing human workload. Storage period – the general rule of thumb is that the storage period need not be longer than the period required to recognise the crime. • Understanding the environment and location by presenting the team with maps/building layouts of the relevant areas. machines could offer a significant contribution to the surveillance process. identifying people. Such plans could have foreseen certain disasters and initial war room views could be pre-set to speed up reaction. in shadows as well as in bright areas. intelligent systems can greatly assist in the following way: • Enhancing the views that operators have of the incident. important that evidence is managed in a way that is conducive to successful prosecution. when it comes to incident management. Thus. are primarily the responsibility of the prosecution agency. Whether the incident was contained or not the analysis of what led up to the event and what happened during the event must now take place. controlling the camera to search for subjects. Using track analysis. The automatic identification of objects allows operators to rapidly classify an event into an incident and also to prioritise incidents according to historical information that may have been gathered. storage period and so on and at the risk of stating the obvious some aspects should be re-stated. This requires amongst others: • Evidence be packaged in formats that prosecutors can easily access and present. While this is clearly a human task. most cost effective solution that will still achieve this should be acquired. addresses and prior suspicions. predicting possible scenarios and monitoring these potential spots. communicating with these resources and so on. Dynamic range – this is difficult to define as it is seldom specified by manufacturers. This is clearly a big job and is often handled by an incident management team.facebook. to recognise that an object is a car one Conclusion It should be clear that the next wave in security systems and in particular. it has the potential of using humans in a way where their unique and powerful abilities are best used. To recognise the shape and model at least 10 pixels per metre. the incident. Similar specifications for identifying all objects must be calculated and appropriate camera specifications be used. as well as access to historical information such as names. • Evidence can be stored securely until the trial is complete. This requires access to historical information and this is also where many systems fail. humans are in a class of their own. Whenever identification is important resolution should not be sacrificed. to identify its number plate at least 500 pixels per metre. Given that the above was achieved. how would intelligent systems assist at the post-event analysis level. the use of intelligence is somewhat limited to that of the lawyers and . ie. 98 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Most of these functions. the best. such as other events that are happening in the area that may be affected by. combined analysis from multiple sources and so on they can assist in powerful analysis of information creating very good evidence for prosecution. etc. One of the most obvious tasks would be to search through available historical events of both the incident and the pre-incident information. or influence. but if objects are to be identified over the image a contrast difference between subject and background of at least 0. vehicles and other events prior to the incident and it can do this automatically. • Evidence is treated in such a way that it cannot be tampered with or be lost. Consideration should be given to video resolution. or their low storage requirement resulting in long storage periods. however. • The presentation of relevant views can be automatic by the use of scenario planning and analysis. This ability to bring scenario analysis into decision making is an area that promises huge advances in security provision and particularly in high dynamic environments such as street surveillance control rooms. Post-event analysis Once the excitement has died down the real work often starts. An intelligent system should be able to treat recorded video as live video and perform all the same detection and recognition functions on historical information – often faster than real-time. It is probably safe to say that cameras and video recording equipment are mostly sold on their ability to compress video streams into narrow bandwidths. understanding what resources are available to manage the incident. Frame rate – a parameter which is often overstated to the detriment of resolution. camera dynamic range. Incident management Up to this point.

In a similar vein. www. Thus. Their security is robust and reliable and shared media solutions such as 802. ie. if you can. many IP cameras support built-in WiFi. eg. It’s a shared media solution. • Robust performance in dense urban areas in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) and near-line-of-sight (nLOS) situations.11 CSMA/SA Mac protocol does not allow for Looking at wireless When it comes to wireless networking. • Enough bandwidth per sector in PtMpt to handle at least 50 x 3MP cameras. “Wired solutions. If you forget to ensure there is enough bandwidth over the network technology you choose. Graham Duxbury. not designed for dedicated high bandwidth traffic. which is quite different to technologies like Internet access where most of the traffic is one way in the direction of downlink. as found in a multi-service environment. such as other traffic to cater for. By Andrew Seldon. but with the right technology. while meshing type technologies also make the technology more resilient. but again may not be the perfect option. In addition. due to the 35 Mbps per sector limit on bandwidth. The nature of the WiFi 802.11ABGN (and future releases) are cost-effective and can be built to reliably carry video and other data traffic in the last mile. Duxbury says most data-oriented wireless technologies are well suited to CCTV applications. CEO of Duxbury Networking says it’s a question of horses for courses. • Outstanding interference mitigation mechanisms in unlicensed wireless frequency bands.” Peter Turvey. Fortunately. these include: WiMax: Due to technology being designed for home-user Internet access traffic. but there seems to be a tendency for installers to prefer wired systems.” • Configurable uplink and downlink – remember video surveillance is mostly one way in the direction of uplink. Not only that.CONNECTIVITY Don’t ignore wireless The networking technology chosen for surveillance projects is a crucial component of the final success of the solution. “In my opinion. the experience and expertise of the reseller or installer comes to the fore. including copper and fibre-optic. • Fixed and low latency for zero video hiccups. When asked what wireless technology is suited for surveillance solutions that require reliability and constant throughput. economies of scale cannot be reached. remote locations can also be connected to live streams at very low bandwidth requirements – which is perfect for our unreliable cellular networks. use them – but they may not always be suited to the environment. Not that the right wireless technology can’t handle video streams.securitysa. Radwin SADC Region is naturally a supporter of wireless CCTV Handbook 2013 99 . it is how you use and integrate all the communication systems. Likewise. which equates to dedicated bandwidth per CCTV surveillance camera in a Point-toMultipoint (PtMpt) environment. • Sophisticated Media Access Control (MAC) protocols and Air Interfaces/ Frames which cater for the un-interrupted delivery of time sensitive data. typically they are intended for the low end of the market. WiFi: Due to the cheap nature of these solutions. wireless technologies (mostly WiFi) are significantly more flexible. • Enough bandwidth per PtP link. it has a typical one-third uplink and two-thirds downlink ratio. With all the planning and preparation that goes into buying surveillance cameras and the supporting software. and how you build the overall solution that matters more than the individual components and technologies.” He adds that there may also be additional considerations. Turvey notes that some wireless technologies are not suited for CCTV surveillance. the connectivity. Moreover. point-to-point and point-to-multipoint solutions in both the licensed and unlicensed frequencies provide for measurable and reliable video backhaul. your surveillance solution is going to be a disappointment. video. the jury is still out. When it comes to selecting the solution for your project. MD. So. over 200 Mbps per sector for a typical large CCTV deployment. we have a few options when it comes to connectivity. “In addition. with a growing trend to using wireless networks in support of surveillance streams. he says: Any wireless technology that has tick boxes next to the following: • A wireless portfolio that includes Point-to-Point (PtP) as well as a solution for Point-toMultipoint where dedicated bandwidth is allocated per subscriber unit. one can be forgiven for forgetting another vital component of the mix. always provide the best in bandwidth.

” He does note. brand manager. standard WiFi equipment is still not the best option for wireless transmission. which are constantly changing.” Certain wireless technologies are also suited for long distances without the hassles associated with laying and maintaining cable. which means that the more 3G phones. the nature of wireless is obviously untethered and can be delivered over long distances (up to 120 kilometres) as long as the above criteria is met. the less bandwidth is available for the video surveillance solution. the market teems with new high definition IP camera options. as long as the right product is used. can be installed in a day. end-to-end solution – from the camera to the disk drive. Carrier grade products are a far better option. tablets. and with less interference. They therefore need to source from suppliers who understand the connectivity requirements of an overarching.securitysa.” says Duxbury. “However. who do not conform to standard WiFi protocols. Duxbury notes that one of the issues one needs to focus on is finding a supplier that knows how to offer the best advice. Gated communities and estates also tend to have issues with cable systems. it typically can never be reproduced in a real-live field environment. will ensure a reliable surveillance system. are used in a 3G cell. control and management systems. “That said. combined with cable infrastructure where possible. and is therefore intended for applications that most downlink in nature. organisations built separate surveillance networks alongside their regular corporate networks. And while in a perfect laboratory environment a vendor might be able to reproduce its marketing specifications. which one is best? The truth is. but a combination of many. as with analogue CCTV systems. Turvey says that. Internet access. view clearer images and automatically analyse large amounts of data. and said product is installed properly. “Traditionally. as this requires digging up pavements and roadways in order to lay trunking for the cables to . In short. are able to transmit data much faster. etc. “When the significant cost and performance benefits of fully converged networks was realised. which offers great throughput and great reliability. They are typically presented with marketing material that is similar between vendors even though the underlying technologies are very different. simply cannot rely of a cable-based solution. high latencies. splicing. dongles. Due to the collision nature of the protocol. unlike fibre. implementations are offering faster speeds and even more reliability than ever before. “The CCTV market is being advanced by users’ needs to monitor more locations. Wireless is typically not an in building solution but can be deployed to cover a campus wide CCTV deployment. Now that so many different IP-based connectivity options are available. However. WiFi cannot guarantee the timeous delivery of video traffic. Today. software. it is too long a distance for fibre. How get connected Technology is not the only issue to consider when deploying a surveillance solution. converged CCTV/data networks are headed in this direction. if the fibre does not exist then costs will soar. with fluid recordings and no dropped frames. Each connectivity method usually has its own unique set of characteristics that make it ideal for certain applications.” Turvey says that one must also exercise caution and not just believe what one reads when presented with a vendor’s marketing documentation. “Customers/installers face the challenge of incorporating these new systems into existing networks and integrating them with information management systems. when dealing with converged multiservice networks. underlining the fact that sheer bandwidth is no guarantee of ultimate performance. Packet loss. even on a campus or in building. However. etc adds excessive costs to the deployment. and no longer are installers compelled to use coax cable.11n). Carrier grade wireless equipment manufacturers such as Radwin and Linkra. time. that where fibre is already installed it is very good option and should be utilised if possible. standard WiFi IP surveillance systems are indeed possible. and with the introduction of the latest wireless standard (802. distribution and analytics solutions capable of recognising potential security breaches without human involvement. eg. If the corporate or campus network was fibre based. Wireless. For these scenarios. serve larger geographic areas.” Connectivity: cable or wireless? By Chris Sutherland. due to it not being specifically designed for surveillance applications. to always do a proof of concept (POC) to ensure that a solution will operate as marketed. installers typically turn to wireless networking. however. but having a carrier grade wireless solution. has no real distance limitations for CCTV. 3G: Has a ratio of one-third uplink and two-thirds downlink for data traffic (3G HSDPA+ standard – 5. and some of the best-designed surveillance systems do not purely rely on one data transport medium. more efficiently. being IP based means that a number of different connectivity options are available. it begs the question.CONNECTIVITY the dedicated delivery of traffic and it cannot guarantee low latencies. “What’s more. Miro IP surveillance. It’s a shared media solution. and dropped links are always a possibility when using standard WiFi. it must be understood that if a fibre installation is one metre short.” He adds that it is an alarming issue that a chief finance officer (CFO) or a chief technical officer (CTO) is being asked to make decisions on technologies that could be foreign to them. as well as leading-edge storage. there are some circumstances where a cable infrastructure simply isn’t viable or even possible. on the other hand. Mining environments. then an integrated fibre option was selected. as the cost of trenching. they began to engineer end-to-end solutions that used a single transport medium. with the proliferation of wireless networks today. It is advisable 100 CCTV Handbook 2013 www.1 Mbps downlink). CAT5 networking cable is typically the preferred medium for IP surveillance as it provides great speed and very few hassles once installed. there isn’t a single best method of connectivity. a variety of wireless communication. Although CAT5 is great for the task. Standard outdoor WiFi equipment has been used successfully in many of these applications. sometimes it might stretch the truth somewhat. is quick and easy to install and very costeffective when compared to fibre. making them much more suitable for surveillance applications. therefore there is no dedicated bandwidth.7 Mbps uplink and 21. management of these infrastructures becomes critical. CCTV Handbook 2013 101 .

Brendon Cowley. However. Many corporate managers still view the technology as somewhat ‘over the top’ Fortunately. many of whom – somewhat ironically – have a military background. • A variety of detectors can be found nowadays. • Thermals are being used far more as a 24/7 surveillance camera and not just used for night-time viewing. Couple that to PTZ units and you have an all-encompassing solution. C3: • Thermals are becoming more IP orientated and able to integrate to IP surveillance solutions. (180x120. it has made thermal technology more accessible and available to every day use. Jason McGregor. However. MASS Price decline has been the prime mover in helping thermal technology break into the mainstream CCTV market. than using conventional video cameras. Thermal cameras are still a popular addition to the security arsenal of many organisations. Axis Communications: There has been a definite change in the market from analogue to IP thermal cameras. 320x240.securitysa. director of C3 102 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. innovative engineering has seen thermal imaging now well integrated into security applications throughout the civilian sector. Another major driving factor has been the take up of premium motor manufacturers utilising thermal technology for nighttime driving. The introduction of dual thermal imaging cameras has increased the appeal of thermals dramatically. Axis Communications sales manager for Africa John Loftus.THERMAL The expanding role of thermals Thermal cameras are still a popular addition to the security arsenal of many organisations. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Apart from price declines and more companies becoming involved in manufacturing thermal cameras. who then want to use this technology on their own property. 384x288. While not related to the CCTV arena. General Motors’ Hummer is an excellent example of how a vehicle with a military pedigree can perfectly appeal to civilians following a well thought-out makeover. The first thermals launched had lower resolution sensors which made detection ranges fairly limited. This has allowed the technology to be accessed and tested by a greater number of potential customers. Hi-Tech Security Solutions asked a few people in the know for their views on this market and where they thought it was heading. larger areas can be protected using a far less number of thermal cameras. 640x480). as with any military pedigree. MD of MASS Brendon Cowley. MD of TeleEye (South Africa): Security installers and design engineers have historically considered such state-of-the-art technology as thermal imaging to only be suitable for military applications. Thermal manufacturers have been at pains to be to point out cost benefits and point to the fact that although undoubtedly thermal cameras are more expensive than conventional CCTV. • Their capabilities of detecting intrusion through heavy fog / mist are . We need to bring military applications to bear against the country’s hardened criminals. Philip Smerkovitz. Today the image sensors have much higher resolution giving us farther detection ranges as well as cleaner and crisper imaging. this thinking is gradually giving way to a realisation that South Africa is indeed engaged in a war of sorts. John Loftus. With the price shift. • Thermals are being manufactured to include intelligent video analytics for surveillance purposes. history shows that many applications designed for use in the world’s militaries have the potential to cross over into the civilian space with just a few clever tweaks. how has the thermal market changed over the past few years? Jason McGregor. there is still the challenge of trying to properly communicate the advantages of thermal imaging in the commercial security arena. Similarly.

estates and office parks. Smerkovitz: Applications include areas where it is impractical. Everything you see in normal daily life has a heat CCTV Handbook 2013 103 . health and safety. thermals are suitable. The vast majority of thermal cameras are sold alongside a video camera as a complimentary technology. detection or identification is required. Thermal imagers can see them well because they don’t just make pictures from heat. and law enforcement applications. albeit different resolution are available our differentiating factor is the ability to stream multiple colour palettes from the same camera which enables www. Potential thermal camera applications are limited only by the creativity of the installer. C3 has installed thermal cameras at a variety of places such as power stations.securitysa. They also have the ability to cover long ranges meaning they have traditionally been deployed in the protection of large perimeters found in mines. Industrial requirements remain high and we contain to see healthy growth in this area. Perimeter monitoring remains one of the most popular applications for thermal cameras.The crossover of military technologies into the civilian arena has the advantage of price decreases being able to be realised as uptake increases. They need enough light. process control. Is this true? How do your thermals differentiate themselves? McGregor: Whilst sensors themselves can be quite similar. too. Within corporate South Africa we are seeing excellent uptake when it comes to reliable perimeter protection at an affordable price. This ability also means they can transcend security applications and also be ideal for traffic monitoring. Many of the objects you could be looking for. and enough contrast to create usable images. wide open spaces. Wherever there is a high risk or high value area that requires a sophisticated surveillance system. gold mines. like people. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: A thermal camera is a thermal camera. Thermal cameras don’t have these shortcomings as they detect heat/ energy and not reflected light. can convincingly demonstrate that the total cost of ownership of thermal cameras is much lower over long distances compared to traditional surveillance cameras. Outdoor applications where long range recognition. Cowley: Best suited for low light conditions and large open spaces where intrusions with a normal day/ night camera become difficult to detect. Without a doubt. precious metal refineries and classified national keypoint sites. Primary use is detection rather than surveillance. automation. Day/night cameras/IR devices and night vision devices work by detecting reflected light energy. Loftus: Perimeter detection. generate their own contrast because they generate their own heat. thermals offer a far more reliable detection medium than conventional video cameras due to the high contrast of the images relayed. which has been eagerly adopted by many residential estates. Thermal cameras also have the distinct advantage of being able to see through smoke and fog and this makes them ideal for marine. might order 100 000 thermal imaging systems. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What are the primary functions people are using thermals for? Where are they best suited? McGregor: We are seeing thermal being used across the board into varying segments. preventative maintenance and so on. tunnels of the Gautrain. TeleEye. they make pictures from the minute differences in heat between objects. and corporate organisations. One must remember that thermal cameras are not only suitable for night-time illumination. With the increased use of unmanned analytics. But the amount of reflected light they receive is not the only factor that determines whether or not you’ll be able to see with these cameras: image contrast matters. not cost effective or environmentally restricted when it comes to white light or IR illumination. they just have different lenses for different distances. nature conservation. residential estates. areas where there is little or no additional or ambient lighting. Few people realise that thermal cameras are not blinded by sunlight making them an excellent daytime option as well. thermal cameras are the best 24-hour imaging option. Flir Systems distributors. An army might order 10 000 thermal imaging devices whereas a civilian population.

05°C (50 mK). light permitting. Perhaps most importantly. red-tape requirements and resolutions. Cowley: At present there is only one high end manufacturer of thermal cameras for the commercial market that has the zoom capability on both the thermal and visual / CCD . the thermal being used to detect a threat and the video camera to identify. they are particularly suited for very long-range applications and are generally only used by military or government in high risk areas where the cost can be accepted against the protection required. Cowley: No. Let’s talk about a few of them: • Sensitivity of the thermal sensor: As you review published camera specifications you will see thermal sensitivity specifications range between 0. depending on client requirements. • Micron Pitch (μm): The smaller the micron pitch number is . Product ranges will be expanded to include dome-type multi-sensors. Loftus: The vast majority of thermal cameras are sold alongside a video camera as a complementary technology. this statement is not true. again. Different lenses are indeed offered for different distances with one particular lens being able to detect a human being at a staggering 18 kilometres. whereas a camera with a 20 μm using the same 50 mm lens. will detect intrusions at a much farther distance (450 m). Cooled thermals calibrated to a known temperature which means they are more sensitive to minute temperature changes. which will continue to drive development of edge analytics providing the customer with an array of applications which can be installed on the camera. Operators can also make use of the optical zoom camera to further interrogate the target. Smerkovitz: These dual function cameras are already widely used and will remain popular since they offer all the benefits of long-range thermal detection. analogue units with an additional encoder. Alternatively. Oculus offers an industry leading hi-res 640x480 option. Smerkovitz: Absolutely. Smerkovitz: Leading manufacturers in thermal imaging. such as Flir. in some cases very similar in quality achieved from a monochrome video camera. verification and recognition of targets in the absence of light. will these solutions become the norm? McGregor: This is becoming an offer from many manufacturers but is very costly so will remain a niche requirement. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Some manufacturers offer dual thermal/visual cameras that allow operators to zoom in when an alert is raised. The higher the frequency the higher the frame rate the better the quality of the image. Oculus offers three different thermal cores (from three different core manufacturers) each with different pricing.securitysa. exact positioning devices. • NUC: As the number of pixels increases and their sensitivity improves the quality of image is increasingly dependent on a process called Non Uniformity Calibration or NUC. Loftus: Yes. There are quite a few factors that differentiate one thermal camera from another. While you might consider a quarter of degree to be adequate thermal sensitivity as soon as you look at a low contrast scene you’ll discover the image quality adversely effects the image quality as noise begins to dominate the image. Cowley: Temperature monitoring / flame detection / intelligent video analytics. 104 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Are we going to see more intelligence built into thermals in the future? McGregor: Axis will continue to support and promote our ACAP (Axis Camera Application Platform ) offering. Loftus: Higher resolutions. • Hertz: This is the frequency at which the camera operates and is directly related to frame rate. These are still popular and are used generally as a detector with analytics. image quality is crucial and several different resolutions are available. For example.25°C (250 mK) and 0. 320x240 and more recently 640x480 thermals modules are now available and these provide excellent images. multiple camera options on one platform. coupled with stronger processors and higher resolutions.THERMAL better detection in changing environments. Greater analytical capability will be built into future camera systems further reducing reliance on human operators who are by nature never 100% reliable or accurate. better quality products will become available at lower prices. Smerkovitz: Image quality will continually improve in leaps and bounds as advanced software becomes available. As one would imagine. This calibration process results in greater image quality and improved camera performance. Due to this increased resolution these modules are suitable for identifying and surveying areas in their own right. a camera that has an Micron Pitch 50 μm using a 50 mm lens may detect intrusions at a distance of 300 m. Edge storage as well as the ability to load third-party analytics directly onto the camera gives the end user flexibility and scalability to customise each camera to their required application. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What advances in thermal technology can we expect to see in the next year or so? McGregor: More analytics. many thermal cameras are now available with builtin analytics. is another in a long list of advantages of these devices. Oculus currently offers an IP option with a DRS core. TeleEye always recommends that clients ensure their thermal imaging systems use the DDE software algorithm for optimal image quality. Megapixel sensors are now available but are very expensive and will not reach the mainstream market in the foreseeable future. We also offer either 9 Hz or 25 Hz units. Loftus: Thermal cameras are split into two main categories cooled and uncooled modules. offer many lens variants which. Less than 50 mK is ideal and will result in higher sensitivity of the thermal sensor which will result in better detection of intrusions and higher image quality (less noise). The rest of the dual thermal / CCD with zoom capabilities offer the zoom on the CCD only. the farther the field of view (FOV) is. The mainstream security market is using uncooled thermal modules and the first of these introduced to the mainstream security market were general low resolution 160x90 pixels.

which enables Syntech to offer resellers scalable solutions according to their requirements. the number of interlaced even and odd lines define the quality and resolution of the picture. and thirty frames per second (NTSC).securitysa. either within a retail environment (at the till point or in store). energy-efficiency capability and overall system stability. we feel the need to have a security system. and DIS (Digital Image System) boasting advanced features in terms of image quality. Analogue has and does perform exceptionally well at night. and in dark areas. cables and a DVR. CP Plus systems are technically easy to install. When analogue cameras entered the market a few decades although the signal needs to be converted via a video capture card in your computer. The image detail of analogue cameras is measured in TVL (TV Lines). there are shortages that occur. primarily around how well each sensor type works in low light conditions. Businesses and home-owners alike steered away from the expensive ‘élite’ option of having closed circuit television. As each picture is made up of horizontal lines. with features capable of performing in extremely low illumination areas. It’s the quality of the analogue cameras which make all the difference. laptop or desktop computer). a monitor. This allowed images from existing analogue cameras to be recorded and stored on hard disk drives with images being a much higher quality 2013 The analogue system is KING. Today it’s a different story. sizes and looks. Most DVRs act like a network camera. michelle@syntech. the cost of implementing a surveillance system is now relatively small compared to the cost of not having that system in place – a major factor in the decision to install a CCTV system. We’re moving away from the current entry level 420 and 480 TVLs and making our entry level 600 and 700 TVLs. and have a very easy to use system. from fixed and varifocal lenses. Analogue CCD cameras also manage motion well. Initially. These DIY kits include a DVR. a four-way power supply and a 4 channel DVR with a 500 GB hard drive. DIS cameras have become very competitive in the analogue market. to box camera sets with interchangeable lens configurations to best suit the solution required. or within a business (where deviant behaviour has a better disguise. the pricing of the equipment is substantially lower and more cost-effective than it has ever been. CP Plus entry-level DIY kits are also available for the B2B market from Syntech for a retail price of around R5999. Analogue cameras send analogue signals to a DVR (digital video recorder) or other platform (smartphone. The pricing at the time was sky high and the perception of installing CCTV into certain sectors of the market was perceived as a negative. Analogue CCTV has become readily available to the public. models. Analogue CCTV manufacturers have a vast range of camera specifications. ensuring peace of mind in the safety of our homes. offering a higher overall reliability as a time-proven surveillance system. For more information contact Michelle Marais. allowing digital broadcasting of the video signal. 18 metre cabling per camera. Analogue signals can be recorded on your PC as a digital recording. Replacement of a damaged or broken camera has become far easier.ANALOGUE Analogue: still going strong By Michelle Marais. These digital recordings are often compressed in order to save the footage regularly. cameras were released at 320 and 340 TVLs. There are many areas of safety that concern us. Syntech. analogue CCTV cameras have a relatively low cost up front. Most CCTV setups run on a time lapse basis (around twenty-five frames per second (PAL). In South Africa. manufactured and technically improved. celebrating over 70 years of existence. There are some significant advantages in CCD image quality over CMOS. in a warehouse (where consumable products may go missing). year on year www. and are generally compatible with different types of surveillance equipment. while retaining sophisticated technology. As home-owners. As a business owner. but needs to be monitored to protect your assets). which is either a charge coupled device (CCD – the digital microchip which produces the picture signal) or a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS). Syntech. While IP (Internet protocol) cameras have appeared on the CCTV TIMELINE 1942 First used by the US Military to monitor the testing of the V2 missiles 1953 Used in the UK for the first time for the Queen’s coronation 1960s Started appearing in public places to monitor crowd behaviour during rallies and public figure appearances 1980s VCRs (Video Cassette Recorders) came onto the scene making CCTV more popular enabling its users more storage of their video surveillance 1990s The DVR (Digital Video Recorder) was born. All analogue cameras employ a CCD sensor. where IP cameras can use either CCD or CMOS sensors. The manufacturers are still improving their analogue ranges with such concepts as WDR (Wide Dynamic Range) allowing a camera to filter intense back light and enhancing the ability to distinguish features and shapes by scanning the same frame twice and then processing the image pixel by pixel into a single frame. Both IP and analogue cameras employ an analogue image sensor. the pricing of the equipment is substantially lower and more cost-effective than it has ever been. to encapsulate quality images benefiting people in security conscious environments. 4 CMOS 600 TVL cameras. A standard analogue CCTV surveillance system includes the cameras. Analogue CCTV has become readily available to the public. and meet many application requirements for cost-effective surveillance systems. the market was CCTV Handbook 2013 105 .

and rarely as the RAID level for large amounts of storage like surveillance video. This change resulted in a dramatic capacity increase while costs continued to decrease. In 2011. the cost per gigabyte of SSD technology was $1.053 per gigabyte in 2011. more efficient and progressively powerful. RAID levels 5 and 6 are more commonly used for large amounts of storage for surveillance video.STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES Storage technologies for video surveillance An Avigilon white paper. The most important technology that will impact any storage system involving multiple hard drives is called RAID – redundant array of independent disks. The unique demands that result from the transition from analogue to digital image capture are largely driven by the fact that digital images can exceed the resolution limits of analogue cameras. HDD technology has evolved incrementally from the same basic concept pioneered in 1956 – a stack of spinning platters and scanning heads. Because of this. most surveillance systems use multiple disks in redundant configurations (see the next section on RAID for more detail). The most common RAID levels in a surveillance system are 0. implementing RAID also increases the performance of a storage system by increasing the throughput beyond what could be accomplished with a single hard . This white paper explores available surveillance video storage technologies and the impact of each solution on video management software performance to arm security and IT professionals with the information to make the best storage decisions when designing a surveillance system. Beyond redundancy and fault tolerance. A conventional mechanical hard disk operates using a series of spinning rigid plates that store information using magnetism. mirroring and striping. to distribute data across multiple hard drives. Hard drives have the possibility of failure – especially when using moving components – so redundancy is a critical consideration to ensure data won’t be lost and systems will continue to operate in the event of a drive failure. Storage technologies Disk drives The hard disk drive (HDD) is the central component to the digital storage of surveillance video. The surveillance industry continues to transition from analogue to digital. SSDs rely on a large amount of solid-state memory. most surveillance systems in place today make use of hard disks to store surveillance images digitally. Innovations in speed and interfaces have also allowed HDDs to handle larger amounts of incoming data and quickly provide that data back to applications enabling advances like HD and megapixel surveillance. surveillance storage is less expensive.50. the part of the analogue to digital surveillance transition – how images are captured – is placing unique demands on surveillance storage technology.30 per gigabyte in 1998 to $0. RAID 5 uses striping with distributed parity. RAID 0 allows a group of hard drives to act as a single usable storage array with increased performance of distributing load across all hard drives. Though declining rapidly – at 30 times more than current HDD prices – the cost of SSDs are too expensive for the large storage capacities needed for most surveillance systems. data can be spread out at a low level across multiple hard drives. Higher resolution and higher definition images mean more detail and better evidence in surveillance video but also mean each camera has the potential to generate larger images that require appropriate technology solutions to efficiently store.securitysa. The trade-off for improved speed and reliability is increased cost. To help understand these concepts better its best to review how they’re implemented in real surveillance systems and the different RAID levels used. For example. Striping with parity extends the process of breaking up a file and storing it across multiple drives to include a calculated value – parity information – in addition to the original data that rebuilds data if some portion of it is later lost. With hard drive capacity doubling approximately every two years and the cost per unit shrinking by 50%. Though the fundamentals of HDD technology haven’t changed. With striping. RAID 0 is the simplest form and provides no redundancy or fault tolerance. These demands require integrators and customers to have a deeper understanding of the storage technologies available and the impact that each storage option has on their surveillance system. Using striping without parity or mirroring. Mirroring is the simplest form of redundancy and simply copies the data on two drives – as any data is written. however since it requires twice as many hard drives to provide the needed capacity it’s typically used only for operating systems or programs. it’s created in both places. Solid state drives (SSDs) are another option. Redundancy – RAID The fundamental technology of digital surveillance storage – the hard drive – is only the beginning of the hardware involved in a storage system. although multiple pairs of mirrored hard drives can be striped together in a RAID 10 or a RAID 1+0 array. For example if you had eight hard How you store your video footage impacts your ability to make optimal use of it. playback and manage. 5 and 6. As a result. Moving parts always come with some risk of failure over time. However. the ability to increase the density in which data is stored has allowed HDD size to shrink tremendously. 1. RAID 1 mirrors all data to two drives and uses no striping or parity. Striping improves performance of a RAID system by writing data to a large number of drives simultaneously so that the duration of a single write operation is greatly reduced. The data is read from the spinning platters using scanning heads positioned over the spinning disks. The way surveillance images are stored has also changed from analogue-based recording solutions – like VHS tapes and film – to digital storage on hard drives. One shortcoming of HDD technology is its reliance on mechanical moving parts. essentially microchips. the typical price per gigabyte of raw HDD storage has decreased from $56. search. RAID provides redundancy by grouping multiple hard drives and employing different techniques. This is the most fault tolerant RAID setup since all data is mirrored fully. This transition is taking place on two fronts – how the images are captured and how they are stored. this means that data is both spread out over multiple drives and additional information is stored to allow data to be rebuilt after failure. Along with the reliability and resiliency improvements that are gained with the elimination of moving parts. moving parts to store information. SSDs also offer substantial increases in speed for both reading and writing data over mechanical HDDs. and have no 106 CCTV Handbook 2013 www.

increased performance of spreading disk operations over multiple hard drives and only costs an additional hard drive in each array of disks. Rebuild time increases with array size. Video management software (VMS) simplifies the process by storing data between files and databases based on its nature. Storage architecture The final layer between a surveillance application and storage is the software technology and architecture used to structure and index stored video. while file level access limits performance but can provide easier concurrent access to multiple users in non-surveillance applications like file sharing. A surveillance system could make use of a simple file system for everything from configuration files to the video itself – typically however performance needs require the use of a relational database in addition to a basic file system to provide the necessary performance of writing. A VMS will also use a database to provide these features. DAS is the simplest and most economical for storage that needs to be accessed by only a single server. The methods of attachment vary but for enterprise class storage it’s done via a serial attached SCSI (SAS) cable from a dedicated hardware RAID card. including Avigilon Control Center (ACC). and scalability. this allows the system to tolerate the failure of two drives in an array without losing data but costs an additional drive per array. They also allow features like search. and export to happen efficiently. A wide variety of technologies are available for communication in SANs. The next important topic is how the surveillance system communicates with that storage. playback.securitysa. Storage communication We’ve already discussed the basic technologies commonly used for surveillance storage – a collection of hard disk drives most likely grouped in a RAID 5 or 6 configuration. RAID 6 extends RAID 5 by distributing parity information for each file to two drives. www. events. the file system provides the basic functionality to read. The difference between block and file level access translates primarily to performance: block level access provides higher performance by allowing lower level access. file level access and the use of network attached storage is typically limited to applications with very few cameras. rules. In the event any one of the eight drives fails. As a result. resources. iSCSI is more cost effective because it uses standard network cabling and switches when compared to the more expensive and complex cabling and switching that Fibre Channel requires. For these reasons. RAID 5 provides fault tolerance to a single drive failure. Relational databases play a key role storing and indexing data for video surveillance systems. Usually it’s a very small amount of information. RAID 6 becomes more important as array size grows and to ensure storage isn’t vulnerable in the event of a rebuild process. the parity information won’t always be written to the same drive with every file. The smallest and simplest type of data is system-related configuration data. VMS storage and impact on surveillance design A typical surveillance system generates four types of data – systemrelated configuration data. SAN will typically be used for very large amounts of storage that require access from multiple servers while centralising management. and system logs. Generally this communication will fall into one of three categories – directly attached storage (DAS). alarms. write. metadata and surveillance video – that need to be stored and pose unique challenges. Implementing RAID at the software level relies on system resources and introduces additional overhead and delays that impact performance of your storage and make it unsuitable for video surveillance storage. As the name implies DAS provides storage directly attached to a server. and organise files. so RAID 6 ensures data is not vulnerable during the rebuild process. indexing. NAS provides only file level access to a storage volume while DAS and SAN provide block level access. configuration data and events. and managing the complex event and video related information that’s part of a surveillance system. Configuration data does pose some unique demands because it has to be encrypted and only modified when proper security checks have been performed. backups. RAID is implemented either at the hardware or software level within a server or storage enclosure. The simplest form of software used by any surveillance application is a file system. accessed infrequently and does not present high demands on speed of retrieval. or network attached storage (NAS). In the following section we’ll explore how video surveillance software stores video in more detail. An important thing that differentiates the storage communication technologies is whether they provide block level or file level access to the storage device from the connected servers and applications. For the performance needs of surveillance and truly enterprise class storage a hardware RAID controller is a requirement for any surveillance video storage. users and groups. In surveillance. This can be information on recording schedules. block level access is required by most systems. however modern SANs used for surveillance most often use either Fibre Channel or iSCSI. A fundamental operating system feature. no data is lost and the system can rebuild the contents of the failed drive once it’s replaced by using the data on the other seven drives. storage area network (SAN). a VMS will typically store this data within a structured CCTV Handbook 2013 107 . NAS is the final category for connecting storage to a surveillance system. The choice between the two protocols is based on the needs of the network in terms on interconnectivity and performance. Since RAID 5 distributes the parity information.drives in a RAID 5 setup each file would be spread out over seven drives and parity information about the file written to the eighth drive.

Metadata that’s inaccurately sequenced relative to video becomes useless. An external database can easily be patched incorrectly. or Postgres SQL. These features greatly reduce investigation time and allow security professionals to quickly access all the additional information captured by HD and multi-megapixel IP surveillance cameras. Typically the data generated by video is much too large for storage within a database so it is usually stored separately in a file system and indexed in a database. motion events. The use of these buckets allows ACC to strictly manage fragmentation while enabling technologies like data ageing and backup of HD video in highly efficient ways not possible with other systems. As outlined previously. For this reason. and then at a quarter the original frame rate after a further point of time. Avigilon Control Center’s purpose built approach to using the best available storage technologies and architectures provides users with a system that is highly scalable and provides rapid access to the best evidence and reduced investigation times.vandervyver@avigilon. The high performance embedded database used in ACC is tuned to ensure the industry’s fastest HD searching and a responsive time line that allows intuitive jog and shuttle playback controls. Unfortunately – in the case of surveillance systems – the storage system is required 24x7 to write high volumes of data generated by video. Because this data must be stored in an indexed fashion that’s rapidly searchable. For motion detection and analytics applications this will include the location of motion within video as well as object location and direction. if the free space or regions being written are spread far apart. Disk fragmentation is a key concern. The type of database used and how it’s managed also impacts the speed of playback and searching. For this reason Avigilon Control Center makes use of a high performance embedded database that is tailored for HD video surveillance storage. The video itself poses the largest challenge to a storage system. corrupted by another application. upgrades.STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES Another data type generated by a VMS for storage is events. The use of a database embedded into the VMS is unique to Avigilon and delivers considerable advantages. Searching and playback of that data can become very slow. Summary Advances in storage technology are accelerating the transition from analogue to digital in surveillance and enabling security enhancing technologies like HD surveillance systems. A full understanding of these technologies empowers security professionals to understand the options available when purchasing or designing video surveillance. As outlined earlier. The most important and significant type of data generated by a VMS is the surveillance video itself. For example. This results in cumbersome investigations and limits an operator’s ability to realise the value of high-resolution cameras. a high definition stream management (HDSM) technology. Therefore. general system events. For more information contact Avigilon. First. HD video places unique demands on a storage system as the video generated is higher in resolution. the downtime needed to defragment a disk after fragmentation has occurred is unacceptable. and amount of motion. How does Avigilon store video? Now that we’ve covered the technologies. potentially higher in data rate and contains more information than conventional video leading to users doing more searching and reviewing as the value of their stored video increases. Tightly related to the video and generating at an equal rate but in smaller size is metadata. In addition. implementations. Metadata is any additional information that describes or adds to the content of the video. Beyond understanding the technologies involved. but can be several terabytes per day. and in large corporate environments may require involvement of other departments tasked with managing all external databases on site. Conventional off the shelf database technologies are unable to provide the efficiency and power required to quickly search and playback HD video. Events also require rapid indexing and searchability – functionality that is also best supported by a database. www. As a result. Embedding the database means data and queries are quickly handled and database resources can be more actively managed by the VMS process. if the data can’t be easily and rapidly searched – it will not enable the effective handling of investigations. it’s important that the VMS be aware of and manage fragmentation as it writes and overwrites video on a disk. how a VMS stores video significantly impacts the performance and features of a surveillance system. if related data is all physically located in one place the speed to read access the data is greatly reduced. Other VMS will typically use an external database. storage is performed on hard disks comprised of rapidly rotating disks. resolution. As well. Two important demands must be carefully accounted for by the VMS when storing metadata: speed of searching and time synchronisation to the video. The type of events generated and stored will range from user audit events. When fragmentation is not managed properly in a video surveillance environment. such as Microsoft SQL Server. it’s important to understand how Avigilon Control Center (ACC) has been architected to minimise storage requirements and maximise performance despite the higher storage demands of high-definition surveillance. The physical position of data on disks impacts performance tremendously. performance becomes limited – external databases require data be passed between processes from the main VMS process to the process running the database. external databases are subject to separate management of licensing. Events will typically be small in size but can be high in volume and place significant demands on a system to store. data from a camera can become widely spread out over a disk. it must be stored in a 108 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Over time – as different amounts of data are written. knowing how a VMS uses storage is necessary to understanding how the VMS can affect the quality of evidence a surveillance system . The unique file system used by Avigilon allows data ageing to be applied at different times for different cameras on a single server allowing finer control of storage allocation then other VMS that only rarely offers any ageing settings and typically only has a global value. and challenges related to surveillance video MySQL. The file system used to store the video content in ACC makes use of files broken into different intelligent buckets whose content and structure are managed by ACC and indexed within the embedded high performance database. deleted and overwritten on a disk – fragmentation can occur and related data is no longer located on the disk close to other related data. writing video may also take longer which can limit system capacity. ryno. device input and output events. the database plays a key role in a surveillance system. Second. +27 (0)72 584 4992. index and search. Another core technology Avigilon Control Center uses is a unique file system architecture to manage storage efficiently for HD video surveillance system. allows JPEG and JPEG2000 compressed video to be automatically managed to store video at half the original frame rate after a set period. The high volume needs of managing event storage are met well by a database. Fragmentation is ignored by most conventional computer applications and systems rely either on user-initiated applications or periodic tasks to defragment a disk.avigilon. The amount of video generated by a single server will vary based on number of cameras. Data ageing. which has several disadvantages.securitysa. or accessed insecurely than one embedded and managed by the VMS. or external events from an integrated system.

The firstto a diverse range of rate HDTV image quality of industries. systems and solutions in southern Africa. polymers and plastics. “We realised that AECI– Chempark’s perimeter was a major security issue that required careful attention and meticulous product investigation. This sustained involvement allows SLA Group to offer best value for money solutions without compromising on quality. mining.securitysa. administrative buildings. a small industrial town just outside of Johannesburg. reasons that we selected Axis as our IP partner for this including water treatment. designed and installed a cohesive solution. while the IT server room records and acts as a main buffer for the whole system. SLA Group. For a long time thermal imaging was too costly for any application outside of the military. iron and steel and chemical industries. Chemfit: has 30 years’ experience in supplying traded and blended The system has paid for itself in terms of efficacy.alves@axis. This ensures that our customer has complete control of the entire site at all times.” remarks SLA Group’s Alexandre Teixeira. www. +27 (0)11 548 6780. toiletry and detergent industries in South where clarity and detail are critical. Creating images based on the heat that is generated by any object.CASE STUDY Perimeter protection at its most effective AECI’s Chemserve Systems goes thermal to secure its Chloorkop site. financial director. Plastamid: plays a leading role in the manufacture and supply of therbe accessible by the surveillance cameras. using Axis network cameras. Axis P1344 ensures that control room personnel are able to view 2. mainly in High definition images South Africa and in southern The main entrance to the Africa. was being monitored by four different analogue camera systems. Previously this open area was responsible for continuous trespassing and the removal of large quantities of valuable stock.” specialty chemicals to a broad range of industries. “Any movement after working hours will automatically trigger an alarm that security officers can react to immediately. Chemserve Systems. site and the internal roads 1. “It is imperative that warehouses. IU: manufactures and supplies a range of polyurethane products. roy. workshops and storage tankers are under 24-hour CCTV Handbook 2013 109 . Protecting essential stock AECI–Chempark divisions supply an extensive range of specialty chemical products and related services for industrial use across a broad spectrum of customers in the manufacturing and mining sectors. For more information contact Axis Communications. Akulu Marchom: supplies chemical raw materials and value-adding video surveillance of the highest possible resolution in the zones services to the cosmetics. it is rapidly becoming a force to be reckoned with in the security and surveillance industry. however. entrance and exit needs to 4. haze. The Axis PTZ network cameras provide a visual of what security can expect to encounter during these responses.axis. The versatility of the Axismoplastic compounds to a diverse range of industries. Network Cameras. intersection. Africa. manufacture and installation of CCTV and automation systems for the power generation. person or vehicle and requiring no additional light source. Seasoned IP CCTV and systems integration provider. even complete darkness cannot offer criminals a place to hide.” says Teixeira. “Every single corridor.” Axis Q1910-E uses thermal imaging to detect people. based solution makes this entirely possible. “Picture quality and ease of installation were just two of the many www. Teixeira. soil fumigation.” says technologies. It has been a pleasure dealing with such a professional system integrator. lubricants. Thanks to the installation of Axis thermal network cameras. as price is driven down by improved technology. petrochemical. Chemsystems: provides are monitored by Axis P1344 chemical products Mike van Schelt. reliability or long-term stability. The main entrance control room maintains centralised control of the entire system.” 5. making effective security surveillance extremely difficult. that offers complete perimeter coverage and extensive internal monitoring capabilities. dust and light fog. objects and incidents in complete darkness or challenging conditions such as smoke. The vacant land that borders the north and west sides of the Chloorkop AECI’s site no longer poses a threat to the security of the premises. AECI’s Chemserve Systems provides chemical products to a diverse range of industries.” A fortified boundary SLA Group has over 24 years’ experience in the design. thereby reducing the risk of an incident or intrusion failing detection by security personnel. thermal cameras are ideal for securing perimeters and dark or shadowed areas. Its site at Chloorkop. “The Axis Q1910-E Thermal Network Camera presented itself as the most intelligent option. A decision was taken to consolidate and upgrade the existing solution.

smart card technology with Morpho Access fingerprint biometrics and full IP PoE door controllers were used. DRA. Security and Integrated .za@adt. ADT Security. business development manager Fire. We were able to utilise the fibre ring network around the mine and plant to connect all systems to the servers and control rooms. For more information contact ADT. Minimal cable runs were required as all devices 110 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. What would you say are the success factors of this case? Close cooperation of ADT. The video system installed is the Tyco American Dynamics Video Edge Network video recorders with the Illustra 400 Series IP dome and bullet cameras as well as VideoEdge IP Speed dome PTZ cameras. recovery and process areas. mining and materials handling. Two monitoring control rooms were required. Further to this. the engineering contractor. What technology was used? All systems implemented were full IP systems with power over Ethernet connections. the security provider. The biometric system used was the Morpho Access fingerprint biometrics. Access to work areas was granted per area and per duration and loaded into the system. ADT was able to integrate it into the security system for monitoring and secure mustering of staff during a fire. Any other comments you want included? Although the fire system was delivered by another vendor. the CCTV system will register the intrusion and immediate action can be taken. What was unique about this particular solution? CCTV and access control was used to manage high risk areas without the hindrance of physical barriers. Cameras were placed at all critical process areas to monitor the process flow. What were the client’s needs? The project scope was to supply a fully-integrated security solution for a diamond mine in Botswana. Focused surveillance was needed on all mining areas included in perimeter. mpaynter. The IP intercom system delivered was the Aiphone IP intercom system.CASE STUDY Watching the diamonds Integrated security installation keeps diamonds in the right hands. one for security and one for process control. This use of technology for both security and process is fairly What were the customer benefits? Using a full IP system. This is a very innovative use of the integrated power of the security system to support operations without interfering with it. The system needed to provide full biometric access control into the mining area. Johannesburg. There are also cameras mounted inside the vacuum chambers of the cyclone sorting units to monitor a process that is normally impossible to see. The security system was the latest in digital security with virtual matrices and content analytics. 0860 100 911. to and from the security areas and within the high-risk diamond recovery building. Should the staff member deviate from this. The customer is also guaranteed of a future-proof solution fully upgradable should they require growth or changes. connected back to network switches with a single cable for data and power. On the access side. Martin van der Westhuizen. He provides the following information on the project. What was the timeframe in which you implemented the solution? The project ran over a sevenmonth period (starting in February 2012 and ending in Sept 2012) and coincided with the civil construction of the mine and plant. short house and diamond export and the mine staff ensured the system was designed and implemented to be efficiently applied and supported all disciplines on the mine. What solutions did ADT Security put in place? We applied the Tyco C-Cure 9000 access control system with full IP Edge door controllers. has been integrally involved with the implementation of security solutions for a diamond mine in Botswana. Staff can now proceed to working areas through virtual barriers to the approved and disarmed areas. crushing and flotation. the customer received easy and fast implementation and ease of use. the CCTV system is installed for security as well as process and production.securitysa.

“The Panomera camera overcomes this and is capable of recording up to 30 frames a second with viewing and recording in real-time. However. over large distances. For more information contact Geutebrück. thus extending the camera’s lifetime and drastically reducing maintenance. the three-storey. Innsbruck installer Fiegl & Spielberger supplied the alarm and video solutions including Geutebrück re_porter-16 video systems. and installed more than sixty Sony cameras. while the other sensors are deployed to provide an overall panoramic view and recording. “The engineers at Dallmeier tackled this issue and developed a technology that utilises a multi-focal sensor system. mid-field areas and longer distances. Dallmeier’s Panomera system allows users to view wide vistas.” Swanepoel said. a new purpose-built museum in Innsbruck. high-tech concrete and glass construction is set into the hillside next to the Tyrolean Imperial Infantry Museum at Bergisel to the south of the city. the Zeughaus (Armoury). the vast. Panomera has no movable mechanical parts. where only one operator can control the camera. canvas panorama depicting the local battles of 1809 against Napoleonic and Bavarian forces. each of the individual users can select their view individually and zoom or pan as they desire. and to recognise all persons involved. at high resolutions.. the Museum of Tyrolean Folk Art. with Panomera. as well as the modern day panoramic outlook over Innsbruck. A well-known problem with PTZ cameras is that the operator is forced to choose between overview image and detailed view. into the Panomera system. the video security system also monitors all the sensitive areas in and around the museum’s exhibitions of Tyrolean history. The Tyrol Panorama. +27 (0)11 867 6585. together with one overall CCTV Handbook 2013 111 . dates from 1896 and is one of only twenty artworks of its kind still in existence. Besides focusing on the giant panoramic canvas and its viewing gallery. technical director for local distributors MASS. It is thus possible to later reconstruct any event for use as evidence in court. has been designed to showcase both the dramatic. In contrast to PTZ cameras. recently restored.geutebrueck. the Inn Valley and the Alps beyond. The combined museum and gallery complex is run by Tyrolean State Museums which also manages the Tyrolean State Museum Ferdinandeum. The combination of sensors will all be viewed and recorded as one scene with the ability to access a single sensor during either playback or live viewing. 360-degree wraparound painting of the same name. In contrast to PTZ cameras. in the Austrian Tyrol.Panoramic views with Geutebrück New Innsbruck museum rounded off with Geutebrück it is able to isolate a single sensor/lens combination to focus on a specific area within the total field of vision.” said Swanepoel. which means there is no wear. The sensors are arranged with preselected focal length lenses to focus on close-up areas. Completed in 2011. www. 1000-square-metre. Its core exhibit.securitysa. at high Huge width and depth capability with high quality By Allyson Koekhoven. Although all operators are connected with the same camera. By implementing a number of megapixel sensors. life and culture. Ettiene Swanepoel. the Panomera always records the entire scene. charles@geutebruck. an unlimited number of operators can navigate across the entire scene independently of each other. one will see increasing pixellation of the image. over large distances. It is commonly accepted that with increasing distance. Court Church and the Folk Song Archive. regardless of where it took place. www. each with its own lens. irrespective of where specific lenses are deployed in the field of vision. explained that the main limitation with many megapixel panoramic cameras is the gradual degradation of picture quality as the digital zoom ratio increases. Over recent years the company has repeatedly chosen Geutebrück video solutions to safeguard its buildings and collections and the new Bergisel development was no different. Dallmeier’s Panomera system allows users to view wide

where Ferrero produces its all-time favourite Kinder Chocolate and the Raffaello praline in an 80 000-square-metre plant. the mining client will use IPSecurityCenter to expand their existing CCTV video surveillance capability while optimising the significant investment in currently installed legacy technologies such as access control. as well as the ability to be integrated into the existing IP network. “Building on the initial CCTV and access control integration the plan is to incorporate facial recognition.Smit@za. In order to store video files. In terms of Chocolate producer opens a secure facility in Russia. one of the most crucial factors to address was the security of the facilities. Access control. The scada software will later be integrated onto the same common platform. +27 (0)12 665 3158.ethele. guiding the response teams over vast areas both above and below ground. The cost of the IPSecurityCenter solution versus the estimated savings in preventing gold theft was a good security investment for the organisation. is not only a key component of the security operation. implementation and support of situational management and PSIM solutions will provide an integrated security management solution to one of the world’s largest producers of gold.South Africa & Sub-Sahara Africa. opened its first factory in Vorsha Sobinskiy. The camera control is coordinated by the Bosch Video Management System (BVMS). ZAO Ferrero Russia. It also takes into consideration changing light and environmental conditions. including surveillance of the exterior and interior 112 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. such as weather. consequently safety records can be influenced negatively by death or injury of illegal miners as they are legally recorded as if they were employees. +27 (0)11 651 9838. Bosch provided Ferrero with an integrated security solution that offers high-quality images. For evaluating the recorded scenes. which offers the reliable detection of suspicious behaviour. had to be excluded.” For more information contact E-thele . it was vital to have an expandable surveillance system. lighting conditions or aligned using an encoder. was in need of plant security when expanding its production in Eastern Europe and tools and equipment against theft through illegal mining activities by Zama Zamas (illegal miners) and by miners employed by the organisation. forensic investigation and evidence gathering purposes”.securitysa. For more information contact Bosch Security Systems . this surveillance solution is equipped with Intelligent Video Analysis (IVA) from such as unauthorised access to restricted areas. Environmental influences. When its Russian subsidiary. “IPSecurityCenter will enable this gold mine giant to improve its security solutions while optimising currently installed.CASE STUDY Sweet surveillance with Bosch Security Food production today is not simply a business. illegally parked cars or changing aspect ratios of objects. business development manager at E-thele. body scanners and asset tracking as well as other security and operations systems. Christine. as well as intelligent analysis tools. perimeter intrusion detection and video analytics technologies. fire detection. By combining several products and One aspect of this standard is the protection of the production facilities. At the same time IPSecurityCenter will collect data for reporting. “IPSecurityCenter will provide the client’s operators with real-time situation awareness. The solution supplied by Bosch comprised cameras and storage capabilities. and a reduction in the total cost of the popular Italian chocolate manufacturer. www. explains Wolfgang Engling. the industry introduced the International Food Standard (IFS) in 2003 to support manufacturers and retailers in their striving for quality. Physical Security Information Management (PSIM) software developer CNL Software and E-thele SQD Networks a local company involved in the design. Additionally. disparate security technologies. Ferrero. 120 IP and analogue cameras were installed to provide comprehensive monitoring. in the Vladimir region northwest of Moscow. Zama Zamas meet PSIM IPSecurityCenter PSIM solution chosen to optimise protection of a gold In order to guarantee a globally comparable and accepted norm. Mining organisations have a duty of care to protect staff and visitors. and which created around 1 000 jobs. nine iSCSI arrays with a total capacity of 100 TB were installed. backed by video storage. equipped with four workstations and such features as the quick search function within video archives. www. As well as securing the mines themselves there is also a need to secure gold in transit. manica@ethele. “The key factor was the level of security they could expect from a solution and the expected level of return on investment”. which will be one of the first attempts at marrying operations with security onto a common operating system. To reduce the theft of assets and the number of injuries on . such as rain or snow. explains Manica Sanders. This specific mine in South Africa has the on-going challenge of protecting its gold. GIS. comfortable management. but also a major factor in the health and safety compliance policy. MD at E-thele SQD. therefore. As a result. making the operator’s work more targeted and efficient. A 24-hour access control and detection of suspicious behaviour were key requirements. physical alarm systems. 39 servision@git.108 IFC*.za 44* 24*.za 31* www.clearline.109 74 35*.za 11*.27 73* 75* 19* 94.5 33* 15* 13* * Denotes advertiser For more information on these and other suppliers please see 21* 78 85* 90* www.67* 27* marketing@securitywarehouse.28 101* 3* 83* 110 OBC* 71* 43* sales@multivid.21 www.77 9** 41* 5* 2013 Company ADI Global Distribution ADT ADT Business Solutions Avigilon Axis Communications Bosch Security Systems Camsecure Cathexis Africa CCTV Security Surveillance Clearline Crown Hyper World Dahua Technology Dallmeier Southern Africa Office Elvey Security Technologies E-thele Fibre Optic Services & Cabling Flir Commercial Systems Frank Street Geutebrück Graphic Image Technologies Grundig Security Hikvision HiTek Security Distributors Honeywell SA IAC IMS Research Inhep Digital Security IP Security Solutions Jasco Security Solutions Leaderware Milestone Systems Mimic Crafts PBS Technologies Pinnacle Security Solutions Progroup Radwin Reditron Regal Security Distributors Secequip Security & Communication Warehouse SmartProtect Technews Publishing TeleEye (South Africa) Tyco Security Products UTM Group Vision Consulting Wright Surveillance ZKTeco (SA) Telephone 0860 22 55 23 0860 100 911 086 12 12 410 +27 (0)72 584 4992 +27 (0)11 548 6780 +27 (0)11 651 9838 +27 (0)11 781 1341 +27 (0)31 240 0800 +27 (0)11 454 5440 +27 (0)11 848 1100 +27 (0)11 830 1452 +86 571 8768 8883 +27 (0)11 979 4540 +27 (0)11 401 6700 +27 (0)12 665 3158 +27 (0)12 993 2479 +32 3665 5100 +27 (0)11 496 2300 +27 (0)71 673 3005 +27 (0)11 483 0333 +49 2191 374 9883 +86 571 8807 5998 +27 (0)21 946 3344 +27 (0)11 695 8000 +27 (0)12 657 3600 +44 1933 402 255 +27 (0)31 705 1373 +27 (0)11 553 3300 +27 (0)11 894 7127 +27 (0)11 787 7811 +45 88 300 300 +27 (0)11 689 5700 +27 (0)11 805 6600 +27 (0)11 265 3000 +27 (0)11 493 1545 +27 (0)82 551 5600 087 802 CCTV (2288) +27 (0)11 553 3300 +27 (0)11 624 2815 +27 (0)12 653 1005 +27 (0)11 543 5800 +27 (0)11 557 9200 +27 (0)82 566 5274 0860 22 22 66 +27 (0)11 830 2688 0861 974 448 +27 (0)12 259 1047 E-mail quickfind Website 23* vivienne@technews.111 29* 69* 37* 24 79* 95 87* 45*.com 81* 97* 39* Page

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