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CCTV HANDBOOK 2013
Fisheye/Panoramic Cameras: When you want to see everything ......... 76 Fisheye/Panoramic Cameras: CatVision does panoramic views ............ 77 Intelligent Storage: IP surveillance and storage ....................... 78 Technology: Compression: Understanding compression technologies .................................................. 80 Hybrid Technologies: Does hybrid deliver analogue value and IP benefits? ...................................................... 86 Hybrid Technologies: Best of both worlds? ............................................................. 88 Management Platforms: PSIM: Why should I be interested? ..................... 89 Management Platforms: The platform must fit the business................. 91 Analytics: Video synopsis versus video analysis ............................................................. 94 Analytics: Product Overview: Intelligence management framework .. 95 Analytics: Intelligent systems in high motion surveillance ..................................... 96 Connectivity: Don’t ignore wireless ....... 99 Thermal: The expanding role of thermals ....................................................102 Analogue: Still going strong...................105
Editor’s comment .................................... 2 Technology trends Video surveillance trends for 2013.... 4 CCTV Round-table 2013........................ 6 Local CCTV guidelines revised..........14 The future of video: Use your eyes ..16 Syndicate foiled by cooperation ......18 Open platform video set to grow .....20 Surveillance trends for 2013 .............22 System Integrator Profile: Integrated central monitoring .........24 Line of sight and angle of view .......26 Understand the solution.....................28 Integrated proactive security solutions ...................................................30 Low-light cameras: Coming out of the dark .......................32 Wide dynamic range: Challenges and solutions ...................34 HD CCTV – hype or reality? ................38 High-definition/Megapixel: High-definition vs megapixel ...........40 High-definition/Megapixel: Define your definition..........................42 Remote Monitoring: Keeping tabs from a distance ...........66 Remote Monitoring: Remotely reactive .................................68 Remote Monitoring: Process and technology combined ................74
Storage technologies for video surveillance...................................................106 Camera Selection Guide An option for every requirement.....44–65 Case Studies......................................109–112
www.securitysa.com CCTV Handbook 2013
photocopying. Pinegowrie 2123 Tel: 011 543 5800 Fax: 011 787 8052 ISSN 1562-952X Editor Andrew Seldon: andrew@technews. Reg No.co. The IP installation has been going on for months with dismal results and poor visibility throughout the day. recording or otherwise.za. you will find information on a variety of issues pertinent to your surveillance installations. the publisher and its agents cannot be held responsible for any errors contained.co. without the prior written permission of Technews Publishing (Pty) Ltd. The crucial part is retaining people who know what they’re doing and have a track record to verify their skills.za Angie Beaumont: angie@technews. For the other project. In the pages that follow. their ability to offer good advice and to deliver. mechanical. e-mail address.za Laura Dorrington: laura@technews. 265 Kent Avenue. Get the wrong people and the most impressive IP systems will fail. orders.co. the success of your project depends on the skills and integrity of the people doing the installation work.za Subscribe online: www. adapted. or any loss incurred as a result. is running perfectly. 9 Grix Road. Articles published do not necessarily reflect the views of the publishers.za Advertising sales Tracy Wolter: tracy@technews. The analogue system. The great thing about the IP installation is that the client was prepared to pay whatever it cost to get what he wanted. Be sure to include your name. If you have any comments or criticisms.EDITOR’S COMMENT All about skills and experience Welcome to the 2013 CCTV Handbook. 2005/034598/07 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Letters to the Editor should be addressed to Andrew Seldon at andrew@technews. Published by Technews Publishing (Pty) Ltd 1st Floor Stabilitas.za Design and layout: Technique Design Printed by: Intrepid Printers (Pty) Ltd. inserts and company contact details are printed as provided by the advertiser. Articles submitted are deemed to have been cleared for publication. things didn’t work out all that well. Randburg Box 385.co. A case in point comes from someone busy with two smallish projects. Willowton. and none at night. All he really wants is a low-light system that will allow him to perform LPR and visually identify visitors in any light conditions. and cost a fortune. Technews Publishing (Pty) Ltd cannot be held responsible for the accuracy or veracity of supplied material.za. e-mail: subs@technews. It’s a How-To put together by a group of people leading the field in the South African CCTV industry. Pietermaritzburg Good news for locals The Consumer Goods Council has just released its updated CCTV Guidelines.securitysa. Get the right people on board and you can get an analogue system to shine.co. Make sure you get yours if you want your surveillance system to deliver results. please let me know at email@example.com .co.co. 2 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means. How many people get a client like that? Of course. the individual wanted a few bells and whistles. Sending material to this publication will be considered automatic permission to use in full or in part in our Letters column. The lesson here is that technology is only one part of a surveillance project. Andrew Seldon. renewal status or missing issues. a document that will be invaluable to installers as well as those people responsible for their organisation’s surveillance projects. Your choice of installer or integrator can be the make or break factor of your entire project. We’ve put together an interesting collection of articles from some of the leading minds in the surveillance world for your enjoyment.co. on the other hand.technews.za Contributors Allyson Koekhoven Craig Donald Business Manager Vivienne Dorrington: vivienne@technews. co. In one he hired an installer who knows his analogue systems backwards and the installation is going smoothly. We reserve the right to edit all letters. Advertisements. And I guess it wouldn’t hurt to do your own research beforehand to ensure you can separate marketing fact and fiction. while there is an almost endless selection of technology to choose from (don’t miss the Selection Guide on page 46 onwards). One of the interesting things I heard repeatedly while talking to people and putting this handbook together was that. Disclaimer While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained herein. I hope you enjoy the handbook and get value from it in whatever field you operate in. No part of this publication may be reproduced. so he decided IP was the route to take. city and postal code. The editor reserves the right to alter or cut copy.za Subscription Services For address changes. Editor All rights reserved. electronic.
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and easy to maintain. world shipments of megapixel resolution network security cameras are predicted to out-sell standard resolution network security cameras in 2012 for the first time. barriers to entry for foreign-owned suppliers are much lower. It could also provide assistance for lone workers on buses and trains. 2013 will be all about manufacturers making it more straightforward. Intelligent video surveillance Forums discussing this concept are not new. 2. 3. compared to other high growth markets. Ten trends to look out for are listed below. And quite rightly so. IMS Conferences ran an intelligent video conference in Los Angeles and the Embedded Vision Alliance has regularly been bringing together engineers from leading companies to discuss the industry. this brings a number of advantages. with the explosion of interest in intelligent video and the success of products such as Microsoft’s Kinect. will 2013 be the year of intelligent video? 4 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. In the coming year. recorded video on an on-board device is downloaded wirelessly when the vehicle returns to the station or depot. particularly for those responsible for smaller installations. despite this background. Mobile video streaming – the next gear of mobile video surveillance Traditionally. in the mobile video surveillance market. New battle ground in image quality The increased popularity of HD and megapixel resolution security cameras has been a hot topic in the video surveillance industry over recent years. Recently. there has been increased buzz around the capability to wirelessly stream video from a mobile video surveillance camera back to a control centre. 4. Keeping it simple in 2013 Many suppliers of network video surveillance are now targeting smaller installations to grow their businesses.TRENDS Video surveillance trends for 2013 What can we expect to see in the coming year in the surveillance market? IMS Research has released its fourth annual video surveillance trends for the year ahead.1 percent in 2012. However. it expects to see new technology developments and camera features that improve image quality become the key battleground as manufacturers try to establish their own USPs. 5. IMS Research does not expect higher megapixel resolutions to be a mass-market trend. IMS expects that GDP in Asia’s third-largest economy will grow by just 5. In 2011.6 percent in 2010. Instead. 1. For a control room operative. IMS Research predicts that there will be renewed emphasis on this type of solution. However.securitysa. the ability for a control room to view an incident live allows for an instantaneous assessment of the situation and more effective guidance for officers on the ground. IMS Research therefore predicts 2013 to be the year where suppliers focus on developing products that are easy to install. These predictions for 2013 and beyond serve to provide insight into key trends and opportunities in the video surveillance industry. Network video surveillance can be an overly complex topic. India to remain a high growth market Economic growth in India has slowed. spending on video surveillance equipment has remained resilient with the Indian market forecast to enjoy healthy double-digit growth in 2012. The unique characteristics of the Indian market make it an exciting place to do business.9 percent in 2011 and 9. easy to operate. For the police. However. down from 6. What is more.com .
Remote video applications ‘Remote’ has been a bit of a buzz word for video surveillance in 2012. There has been little debate on the potential for Chinese video surveillance vendors to take advantage of the growth opportunities in other regional markets. Private cloud – the future for enterprise video surveillance systems? IMS Research forecasts that private cloud being used for the infrastructure of enterprise video surveillance systems will become a trend over the coming years. niall. To date. Video surveillance service providers have used aspects of cloud computing in their solutions for more than ten years.6.imsresearch. 9. 8. has been keenly debated with opinion divided on whether it will be successful. design. IMS Research predicts a number of exciting new applications will enter the market in 2013.com www. Video content analysis and video meta-data as ‘Big Data’ ‘Big Data’ has been a hot topic for businesses in 2012. with installation. Video surveillance goes vertical System integrators and installers have been specialising in specific end-user industries for decades. and its ability to provide remote access.securitysa. remote video monitoring has become an increasingly important recurring monthly revenue (RMR) generator for many alarm receiving centres. the prevalence of enterprise video surveillance systems using private cloud is starting to gain some traction as IT managers increasingly take responsibility for the management of video surveillance systems. providing there is an Internet connection. Both of these examples relate to physical security. and shared use of data processing and storage resources. However. this is beginning to change with the emergence of key Chinese vendors on the world stage. Additionally. www. Chinese companies looking west It has been well documented that China is one of the largest and fastest growing markets for video surveillance firstname.lastname@example.org. 10. there are a number of applications that can leverage remote video surveillance in non-security applications. Private cloud offers the same advantages as public cloud. and that businesses looking to utilise Big Data will increasingly look at the potential to incorporate video feed meta-data streams into their data sets. however. +44 1933 402 255. Video surveillance as a service (VSaaS). For more information contact IMS Research. service and maintenance offerings targeted to the unique requirements of customers in that industry. IMS Research predicts that 2013 will be the year that video surveillance vendors and PSIM platform providers follow suit.com CCTV Handbook 2013 5 . 7. IMS Research predicts that the use and aggregation of analytics and video feed metadata as Big Data will continue to grow. However. While Big Data is not going to be a mainstream concept for video surveillance in 2013. which includes: remote access to data. identifying the leading local vendors and discussing how western companies can take advantage of this high growth opportunity. much of the narrative on this topic has centered on estimating the market opportunity.
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Analytics solutions will also mature and Malan expects to see different aspects taking centre stage. He also thinks this year is going to be tougher for business than before.” From a distributor’s perspective. What follows is a brief insight into the interesting discussion that followed. noting that SDXC cards already hold 256 gigabytes (GB). the cameras still fail to deliver when it comes to reliability and support. such as usability in LPR (licence plate recognition) and movement detection. I don’t think many other solutions will really make an impact this year. Rob Anderson from Rob Anderson Consulting.”We’re already seeing that happening in the low-light field. Alves agrees that edge storage will be important in the coming year. widedynamic range and so forth. To get an update on which technologies are at the value-adding stage and what users are demanding from their surveillance solutions. megapixel. Due to the economic conditions. If they lay out the money. “We’ll also be seeing cameras in the near future that are able to ‘see’ better than the human eye. these devices are cheaper. What’s up in the world of surveillance in 2013? Hi-Tech Security Solutions asked the experts. One of the most exciting things about the surveillance industry is the technology changes we see on a regular basis that create the potential for awesome advances in image quality and analysis. We asked our attendees what they thought would be the key issues in surveillance in the coming year or two. This is a very exciting time for camera technology.securitysa. which is a good move. Now they are starting to become a more aware of what they’re really getting and what they really need. Trends to watch Malan notes that there are many trends in the surveillance market at the moment. even to the point of counteracting the move to cloud-based storage to an extent. We started the debate by asking each attendee to tell us what they thought the key trend or technology would be in the surveillance market over the next year. past few years they’ve being inundated by salesmen selling the latest trick. On a positive note.com CCTV Handbook 2013 7 . Le Roux has even seen some larger users cutting costs by buying equipment for themselves and then making use of the ‘bakkie brigade’ for installation.” While there are still quality issues. More often than not. However. I think image quality is definitely going to be the focus.CCTV ROUND-TABLE 2013 Challenges in store for surveillance By Andrew Seldon. Hi-Tech Security Solutions invited a few people to join us in a surveillance round-table. Unfortunately. They are also looking at the whole solution and not simply the latest camera technology. not to mention what challenges are in store for the surveillance industry in general. He has also seen a leap in the quality of products from the East. no matter how fast technology moves. but clients still have problems as far as warranties and support are concerned.” Le Roux expects to see edge storage have an impact. which appeals to many people. “For the Cheap and nasty turns to cheap and quality Malan says Camsecure has also seen the impact of the entry-level ‘bakkie brigade’ getting into the market and punting the cheaper products from the East. “I also think vendors are coming under pricing pressure as manufacturers in the East increase the pressure in terms of quality and price. they want to see returns. but he is also seeing clients demanding more from their surveillance solutions. Malan sees this as a way that many people are finding their way into the world of IP surveillance. but has also seen that the client base is starting to become a lot better educated than they ever have been. but notes that even with great prices and improved quality. This will put more pressure on manufacturers and distributors to step in and provide on-site assistance – something they already do as a free value-added service. it is only when these solutions get to the maturity level that adds value to the end user that they really show their worth. “On the higher end. “In www. but we could see more of them changing their focus and charging for this in future. Alves agrees. this leads to problems as these installers don’t know enough about large-scale integration projects to deliver the quality desired. he sees edge storage as something that is going to be important over the coming year. Our attendees were Francois Malan from Camsecure.” Anderson agrees with the above. which will make a significance impact – and there’s already talk of two terabytes being available within the next twelve to eighteen months. Roy Alves from Axis Communications and Ernst le Roux from CCTV in Focus. “but we’ve seen the more mature markets staying away from that. Gordon Moore from ADI Global. “Facial recognition is going to be tried and tested in the upcoming year. such as high definition (HD). however. as will people-counting. the race for the highest resolution is going to slow down and we’re going to focus more on the image quality and storage. Moore thinks we’re going to see a lot of Asian products starting to make an impact in higher levels of the CCTV market instead of mainly at the lower levels. He also expects to see more VMS systems using edge storage to protect corporate networks.
Malan and Le Roux note that the industry is going to have to look at some form of skills development programme in the next couple of years if it wants to avoid paying exorbitant salaries for good technical skills or be branded as a bad service industry. The other issue is that we don’t have anything in place in South Africa to police standards and specifications. reliability and support they can count on. or there are bandwidth issues.CCTV ROUND-TABLE 2013 many instances you’re pushing HD video out of the unit and you want to stream it across the network. camera. “We also to only do business with companies that produce an annual due diligence or need to move out of the traditional practice of appointing physical security sustainability report to certify they follow the appropriate procedures.” A significant change he expects to see is more customers adopting a standard brand as they do in IT. Anderson says that the question of unqualified installers and cheap products is as much an issue there as it is Gordon Moore on our surveillance market. “Where we’re seeing the challenge for the system integrator is in the menus. the cost of the hardware is only a portion of the cost of a camera. Not only are top-notch skills in short supply.securitysa. they’re putting out products that have proper guarantees and but they need to understand what goes into selecting and installing an IP so on.” “As a consulting practice. such as the device losing its IP address. These experts into security manager roles without ensuring they are up to speed reports show that the company is sustainable financially.” Anderson also adds that to ensure projects are handled correctly and installations are done to the appropriate standards. These courses are part of the manufacturers’ branding attempts as the brand with the most and best-trained technicians have an advantage in a market where skills are in short supply. He says that image quality is easy to copy since they’re all using the same chips and processors. Customers are going to find they’ve got a far larger bill to pay when their installations are handled in an amateur manner and parts of it have to be redone. for example. Moore notes that many distributors are moving to the provision of added value services. the software and the viability of the software side of the products. The way companies deal with this is job and produce a solution that meets the company’s expectations. or it needs to be rebooted every day. Distributors are also finding themselves in the middle of the skills shortage. specifying that all cameras (or even all surveillance kit) on site will come from a specific vendor.” Moore adds that there is definitely a significant increase in Asian products. “They will accept a price premium for the certainty that they’re getting quality. slave labour. he also insists that the IT decision maker joins the initial planning meetings to ensure the technical side of things is covered. but problems still crop up far too often. they don’t employ on the relevant technology as well. They don’t need to be technical experts. but the end customer often comes to the distributor for help when frustrated with its implementation partner. we’re going to go the route and say no product will be supplied on our sites unless the manufacture has produced a regular sustainability report. As mentioned above. the leading companies are in a constant battle to attract and retain personnel. “We’re finding Continued on Page 10 Francois Malan 8 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. as not only do installers rely on them for advice and technical assistance.com .” Common sense standards The issue of standards is one that the UK light fitting industry has dealt with. As Alves notes. Le Roux adds that implementing standards such as those that are common in the IT world will also help the security managers to do a better The question on skills While all the participants agree on the need for more education of the security managers and others involved in the market on the customer’s side. Many of the manufacturers are actively pushing their training and certification courses in an effort to ensure that their installers have the knowledge of the product as well as other skills necessary to ensure the end customer gets a good deal. they also note the training opportunities offered to installers and integrators are crucial in ensuring a good implementation.
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Moore adds that VMSes provide the ability integrate an installation made up of cameras from diverse brands and with different capabilities. Moreover. management. One of the trends they mention is an increase in image quality rather than simply adding megapixels. maybe a lower frame rate. We should also expect to see more panorama cameras hitting the market in the coming year. Something the standards like ONVIF have not been able to accomplish. but the company will save on the hard drive capacity it needs. “The sensor manufacturers are doing some amazing things.CCTV ROUND-TABLE 2013 Continued from Page 8 While there are other compression options available.securitysa. Effective VMSes are also going to provide users with added intelligence to assist in implementing event-based surveillance. you pay the price in terms of frame rate and low light capabilities.” And the challenge is that as companies start skilling up their technicians and develop them. And on the other side of the coin. for instance. instead of buying more hard drive space for footage that isn’t needed in court or for specific reasons. and only transmit when there’s something happening at the camera in order to utilise your existing bandwidth as efficiently as possible. someone else poaches them and offers them a little more money. some companies are implementing strategies that sees high quality video recorded for seven days – since you will know if there was an incident you need footage from within seven days. low light cameras offering colour images in near total darkness and so forth. there may yet be room for more HD analogue systems. Already many management companies are including dewarping software in their platforms to cater for these systems (such as local platform developer. in fact. “The trick is really to get a good VMS that can down-sample the video to those different devices on request or per user requirement. lower light than your human eye. changing such a broadly used standard will take time. low-light capabilities are diminished. adds Alves. So you could. These technologies are getting very interesting. We need to support installers by providing them with the necessary training and knowledge to help them with their customers and on-site installations.” Rob Anderson that as a distributor we’re having to provide more and more on site support. The pixels are a lot smaller and there’s less ability to get light onto that sensor It seems that defining the role for the camera is more important than ever. like noise reduction. Anderson notes that we need to see more control rooms using HD monitors to make better use of the images available.264 seems to be the standard of choice for most systems. “What’s going to count is the processing power on the chipsets behind those sensors that enable the camera to do the necessary things. There are also standards in HD so you know there’s colour fidelity. Of course. wellstaffed integrators are downsizing and reducing their training and marketing budgets. taking some of the processing strain off the servers and management platforms. While you can obtain high megapixel cameras that provide excellent images. H. Alves says that since most of the top manufacturers use the sensors from a limited number of companies. and manage it from a single console. Looking at technology One of the articles running in the CCTV Handbook 2013 is from IMS.” Interestingly enough. Cathexis). giving more opportunity for ‘bakkie brigade’ services. the cameras are seeing things in pitch blackness that you can’t see with the human eye. Additionally. Malan says the HD sweet spot at the moment seems to be in the 720p or 1080 sensor. Roy Alves and Ernst le Roux Continued on Page 12 10 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Another critical area for Malan is the VMS (video management system) with many devices linking onto them and being able to rebroadcast at different requested streams. as you start going to bigger sensors to do 5 and 8 and 10 megapixels. We’ve seen sensors now that are very low light. which examines the research company’s top trends for the coming year. megapixels is not where the competition really is. broadcast quality and there’s going to be full frame rate when you adopt this technology.com . take a high quality stream and make it a lower quality stream. where the cameras raise the alarm when something happens. H.265 promises even better performance and should start appearing in the coming year. Anderson expects to see more intelligence in the storage arena. The details will still be there in sufficient quality for analysis should it be needed. the video can be stored at a lower frame rate to save space. while HD (and megapixel in the 2 MP range) seems to be accepted. the importance of Web interfaces and mobile access will become more important as extensions to high quality streams in control rooms. many of the larger. Intelligent platforms And while intelligence in the camera is definitely going to increase. For example. with most people expecting good growth in this market. wide dynamic managing. Yet. If the high quality footage is not needed within that timeframe. the fact that HD-SDR (or HDcctv) transmits images uncompressed with distances that are touted to reach 300 metres soon.
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The ability to accurately identify people and objects requires decent quality. “Basically we’ll be making the products more user friendly for the specific type of person on the other end. KISS your camera One final trend worth noting is the move to simplicity. One has to look at the different market tiers to identify what is taking place. they could encourage software developers to produce specific apps that are camera manufacturer independent. However.” says Alves. However. Alves notes that we could also see a situation similar to the mobile phone market at the moment where users pay a small amount to download the analytical or performance apps they want to use. Perhaps the integration project of the year will be integrating technology and human security services effectively. The same can be said of surveillance cameras and the complexity in setting them up and getting them to perform as one wants. This is also the case locally where price / performance and the aggressive sales strategy of the Chinese suppliers is increasing their market share. They. given the overall conversation. I don’t see that manufacturers looking at increasing the megapixel rating of cameras. Manufacturers across the board are working on making things as simple as possible to use their products. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: How are customers. However. In the mid tier of the market. “One of the initiatives that we’ve got going at the moment is to ask the question “Who’s installing it?” and based on that we will show the appropriate Web page. but the high end as well. Astute integrators. numerous manufacturers. Although analytics is still quite difficult to implement and is very reliant on accurate set up which can be very time consuming. an increase in edge analytics is to be expected to relieve processing stress on central servers. Given the continued economic uncertainty.CCTV ROUND-TABLE 2013 Continued from Page 10 As a sidebar. The largest manufacturer of video surveillance equipment is a Chinese company. as well as a bigger push on skills development in the security industry as a whole. more companies are likely to opt for more technology with a lower onsite guarding presence. The market is satisfied with the 1 to 2 megapixel range which gives up to 1080p resolution. This benefits both the installer and client in ensuring the proposed system is successfully implemented. integrators. I would say the market split is around 50/50 where customers are aware of IP surveillance solutions but are loathe to spend the extra money. Advanced analytics has become more prevalent and at much better prices which has seen more clients implementing this technology. both in terms of storage and intelligent analytics. and even less was usable in court.securitysa. One has to simply do a search on the Internet to find marketing releases from these Chinese surveillance equipment providers on large sites implemented with their products where this would have traditionally been done by Western suppliers. surveillance solutions but are put off by the price differential. Not only will this enable companies to set up their surveillance systems with people who are somewhat less technically skilled. clients are aware of IP surveillance solutions and most are implementing the superior technology. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What do clients want from their surveillance systems? Mel Labuschagne: Clients want what they have wanted. This will not only expand the intelligence capabilities tremendously. the best price / performance (most bang for their buck). as more systems are integrated with other components of a complete security installation. However. The low tier of the market is probably still in a 90% analogue to 10% IP scenario. If the camera manufacturers get it right. Apps for your surveillance camera? When considering the increased processing power within cameras. There will naturally be some resistance from VMS vendors as this concept would take away some of their core functionality.” A tough. only about 15% of recorded footage was of any use after an event. In the high-end tier of the market. installers. In the low end of the market. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Do you see a significant impact on the local market from quality Asian products? Mel Labuschagne: The Chinese products are having an impact on the traditional suppliers. Hopefully we will see both the simplification of the technology to make it easier to install. but you pay per use. in the main. are now offering plug and play IP solutions (in the up-to 16 camera system range) where the system offers near analogue ease of use. have the majority of the market in the East and are now targeting other regions. it tends to become complex and unwieldy to use. He says that in the Western Cape. Le Roux notes it’s important to note that quality is still the key issue when wanting to use surveillance footage for prosecution or even internal investigations. expectations are that the PSIM market will eventually find more traction. many clients may be aware of IP 12 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. The edge (on camera) is where we should see some action during the year. and other Chinese suppliers. his teams found that. the printed report only scratches the surface of what was actually discussed. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What do you think are the trends/technologies to look out for in 2013? Mel Labuschagne: The price of IP cameras and VMs platforms will continue to drop in 2013. the same as high definition TV. distributors and vendors handling the lack of high-level skills when it comes to IP surveillance installations? Mel Labuschagne: The IP surveillance market is in the early adopter phase so qualified manpower is still a scarce resource. In fact. we won’t see any decline in the need for management platforms. There will be a continued trend to plug-andplay IP (or easy to use) solutions in not only the low end of the market. exciting year As always happens in round-tables. As technology advances. this coming year should see some incredible improvements in image quality as well as some stiff competition in price in the lower and mid-level markets. distributors and vendors will be looking at the IT sector to attain these skills. Regal comments While the company was not able to attend the round-table.com . Mel Labuschagne from Regal Distributors added his comments to some of the issues raised at the round-table via e-mail. but it will also speed the time and reduce the cost of installation. although guards are not going to disappear any time soon. including cost-effective producers from the East. meaning that they can work on any brand or product. but create a new market for applications.
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For further information or to order a copy of the Recommended CCTV Industry Guidelines contact Selma Visser on (T) 0861 101 726 or email sv@cgcsa. This document also includes recommended checklists for operational requirements of the camera. • Existing infrastructure and layout of premises. recognition and identification with the specific purpose of generating video footage that will support investigations and successful prosecution. • Required result of a successful response to activities. • How to determine the standard of picture quality. However. The purpose of including the Legal and Evidentiary Aspects in Chapter 7 of this document is to guide the standardisation of protocols in the handling of video/DVD or other material that has evidential value that is in the possession of private persons employed by the industries. CCTV can assist the police in identifying the perpetrators and can also be utilised in various criminal justice procedures as evidence in a court to ensure fair and legal prosecution to all parties involved. the use of compression techniques may result in low-resolution images. Installation and Management Aspects are addressed in Chapter 5 and consists of: • Restrictions of installed cameras. Through the Consumer Goods Council of South Africa in partnership with Business Against Crime Western Cape (BACWC) working groups were formed to determine: A Recommended Industry Guideline for CCTV surveillance systems in South Africa. the visual footage. placement and picture quality. recommended basic formats for basic affidavits and a recommended general checklist for the CCTV system. • Quality and routing of cabling. • Power management. This includes: • Generic Operational Requirements. as this may include the detection of movement rather than identification.com . the latter can only be accomplished if CCTV systems are accepted as a reliable source of evidence. Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) plays a valuable role in combating crime through a combination of both proactive and reactive crime prevention measures. including staff. captured on CCTV equipment is of crucial importance during the investigation and procedures that could follow. training and system manuals and • Guidelines on the maintenance and management of the system. • System Provider. As the importance of competent operators and system users cannot be underestimated. The first version of this document was compiled in 2004. • How to identify target activities to be observed.za 14 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. • Software and other system related requirements. retailers and other business owners. • Camera selection. • Site layout. the aim was to limit specifications that might lead to the Recommended Guidelines being outdated in the near future due to technology developments. BACWC. Although Technical Aspects are addressed in Chapter 4. The experts who shared their expertise in compiling this document included representatives from the CGCSA. On the reactive side. SAPS. • The Justice System. black and white systems are insufficient for identification of clothing and vehicle colour. • Why these activities should be observed. CCTV industry participants. detection. CCTV Staffing and Development in Chapter 6 elaborates on: • Recruitment selection techniques • Training aspects of system operators • Requirements for training courses and training manuals. Chapter 3 explores the operational requirements (OR) that are fundamental to the design.co. This empowered business owners with knowledge to make informed business decisions before investing large amounts of money in a business solution. • General risk considerations. A classic example of this is the use of CCTV as deterrence to all potential perpetrators. During the investigation of offences committed and incidents in chain stores. The reviewed and updated third edition will be published in March 2013. thus implying that they will be aware of the fact that their actions are recorded.CCTV GUIDELINES Local CCTV guidelines revised Recommended Industry Guideline for CCTV surveillance systems in South Africa.securitysa. testing and operation of an effective CCTV system. • How to handle incidents are observed. NPA (National Prosecuting Authority). This document provides guidelines for optimisation of CCTV that will ensure appropriate/sufficient quality images under different physical and environmental circumstances in and around businesses for monitoring. The guidelines in this section include: • The selection of a suitable service provider. that will enable users to spec their needs at the right pitch. The Role Players and Responsibilities are guided by Chapter 2 and expand on the following roles: • The End User. • Industry Bodies and NGOs. • Training programmes.
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Analogue held one final advantage over IP regarding light sensitivity. there is the ability to see with absolutely no light at all – which no human can do. but be roughly estimated between 5-10 megapixels depending on the person’s eyesight. we talk of artificial intelligence. cameras are computers that can see. it’s a dead heat tie. light sensitivity. and are no longer just for military usage. the whole eye is said to have a total resolution of more than 100 megapixels.OPINION The future of video: use your eyes By Martin Gren. If compared to the best wide dynamic range network cameras on the market. For this we now have professional-grade. but also qualities where a surveillance system will never replace human intelligence or intuition. IP camera developers are using the evergrowing processing power in the cameras to look beyond pure resolution and improve overall image clarity with better light sensitivity. However. optical components like the lens do not follow Moore’s Law. If we compare this with current PTZ cameras.securitysa. So in the long run. the eyes will get very tired and a headache is likely on the horizon. and especially when fighting direct sunlight. the comparisons stopped at seeing. Thus. Yet in the analog CCTV world. IP security Seeing is believing Let’s start with the obvious comparison: the IP camera and the human eye. Axis Communications. The human eye is said to have a contrast range to 120 dB. all-digital thermal network cameras that can be integrated into an IP-based surveillance system. as humans couldn’t. The eye has a field of view of approximately 75-95° and a pan-tilt speed of roughly 900°/second. as CMOS sensor technologies evolve we now have the ability to be almost as light sensitive in 5 MP cameras as the human eye. Both of these cornerstones were passed during the last year with the introduction of colour-at-night Lightfinder technology. iris. So while lenses are taking longer to evolve. Here. but this is hardly usable for surveillance and it’s not the actual resolution that our brain (the VMS) computes. the eye. However. Since the invention of the first analogue video camera. since the human eye lacks optical zoom. when humans try to see during constant contrast change. Focus. and therefore the human eye: Moore’s Law.com . Also. it is a clear win for the human eye. improving focus will be the manufacturer focus for the coming years. given that lens Martin Gren technology is not on par with the higher resolutions in security cameras – maxing out around 5 megapixels for professional surveillance – and that most 10-20 MP cameras lack frame rate and image quality around the edges of the scene. the next comparison is with field of view and mechanical speed. While there’s no perfect calculation. How do we stack up today with our IP video devices. Today we can compare an IP video system to the human eye and the brain. Moore’s Law is really kicking in with sensor development and we can expect a lot of progress in low light video. But unlike our eyes. it was natural to compare these devices to the human eye. Thermal cameras can detect humans and objects in complete darkness as well as poor visibility conditions. In the world of IP video. Now that we’ve covered resolution and light sensitivity of the camera vs. Cameras in surveillance were created to see what we. We talk of memory. When we talk of computers. Unlike the IT components inside a camera. lens. While the eye wins outright for overall resolution. Wide dynamic range is another hot issue related to the sensor and image processing. There’s one main reason that lenses are not keeping pace with IP camera and sensor development. and much more light sensitive than the eye in HTDV and VGA resolutions. Humans and technology make a good combination. cameras have the ability to leverage IR wavelengths and produce a black and white image at night. focal length. the camera is better than the human eye without even the need to wear sunglasses. Then of course. one can argue that the usable resolution of the cornea or what the brain computes at a given time can vary greatly. the human eye is faster than the majority and still beats the autofocus algorithms of most cameras. Still. There are some areas today where the IP camera beats even our own human abilities. and aperture are all terms used to describe both. yet neither analogue nor IP could produce colour images in the dark. and where will we fall behind in the future? Many of us suffer with poor night vision. 16 CCTV Handbook 2013 www.
and humans must adapt to get the most out of the technology. monotonous tasks like people counting. the human element will be important for many years to come – even if CSI and other TV shows would like you to believe otherwise. The answer is simple: These cameras still need to be managed. anywhere video access and offsite storage has led to the emergence of hosted video. a similar need for anytime. Guards and officers in the field can scan quickly for signs of trouble. if configured properly. which are now available in 64 and 128 GB with more storage to come. Think about the patience you would have to have to sit on the side of a highway and make a note of all the licence plates that drive by. Here. After all. even the most advanced computers completely lag humans. there is the rising issue of potential patent lawsuits attempting to block the use of a specific algorithm. and what does this the best is a good VMS. So while humans can remember even our earliest memories. +27 (0)11 548 6780.securitysa. taller and. advanced analytics are working really well. but through Moore’s Law. This intelligent feature will not only play a big future role in access control.com How’s your long and short-term memory? We all have personal memories that we can look back on in an instant. www. but the IP camera is there to help with repetitive tasks without getting bored or falling asleep at the wheel. Until then. Unlike our eyes. the human brain and intuition wins over a security camera in most aspects. This trend may be even more disruptive when we combine good camera-edge-recording and analytics. Using analytics with increased edge storage capacities will be attractive because this solution does not require continuous Internet bandwidth. Face detection by a video surveillance camera in a crowd is something we all can dream of. but the camera never lies or misremembers. Dirt. Man vs. With the evolution of SD-cards. but the IP camera helps us see in difficult light and pure darkness. I’m not a neurology specialist. we as people will have an advantage over surveillance systems for many years because it’s not possible to patent humans (fortunately!). cross-line detection and licence plate recognition (LPR). This is happening in our industry as well as many others. dust and even spider webs affect the camera as much as they do our own eyes. an IP surveillance system has the most reliable long-term memory and its short-term memory growth is far outpacing our own. The key to the future is mining all the high-quality video data that IP cameras capture and consider new and novel uses for this information. Moore’s Law keeps on working to give us more processing power and usable resolution. fog. While advanced behavioural analytics are improving. Yet a question I often get when speaking about the growth of edge-based and hosted video storage is if these technology trends mean the end of the VMS. however. the one certainty is that we need to work together for maximum efficiency today and into the future. the user will never miss a single frame. in the same way the human eye can contract infections and obstructions. in a footrace. But remember. edge-based recording is then short-term memory – which is improving in the camera not through memory exercises. installation environment and housings are increasingly important and will see further development. But when it comes to more advanced analytics. We continue to see improvements in the evolution of optics and motors in PTZ cameras that Darwin can’t keep up with. When in controlled environments. so it’s astonishing how our brains can analyse the pictures/videos from our past and have the ability to record for many years. online banking. And as edge-based storage grows. Humans have higher pixel vision. Our long-term memories are unrivalled in the animal world. Edge-based storage in a small camera system environment has many benefits and it will continue to get better. when talking about analytics and software. That’s good news for police officers interviewing folks about a crime – even if eyewitness testimony is sometimes proven shaky. For more information contact Axis Communications. The real game changer will be in the smaller camera count market where we will see edge storage replace the DVR rather soon.com CCTV Handbook 2013 17 . roy. so too does Internet bandwidth and availability. Moore is much faster than Mr. but in more unique applications like retail customer reward programmes. machine When we compare man vs. yes. IP video will continue to improve. Without the ability to brush debris away from their lenses. The retail market will be the biggest winner in the future. personal storage. Today’s standard for a modern surveillance system is HDTV and. so do security cameras. while the latest human evolution seems to be that we are growing larger. while their colleagues in the command post use cameras to zoom in for a closer – and safer – look. we can easily store weeks of high quality video inside the camera or encoder in the coming years. Local. So too do surveillance systems. Analytics will continue to improve – especially as software developers from all walks of life are attracted to the surveillance industry with the goal to develop applications to run inside the camera itself – but a human will nearly always be required for this aspect of the industry to thrive.axis. One solution could be to pool patent fees amongst the patent holders in order to share these innovations with the world while keeping overall costs down for the end-user. Darwin. A third layer is when we combine edge recording with hosted video.com . Humans are said to have short-term and long-term memories. While edge recording is perfect for single site deployments. When it comes to detecting strange behaviour and forensics. the biggest leg up for the camera is that it never needs to sleep! From detection to analysis The no-need-for-rest feature of cameras means that video analytics is superior in the ability to perform around-the-clock. Just as our own human behaviour has dictated the rising use of Gmail. including the mobile phone market. However. Our brains can analyse a scene and predict behaviour thanks to human intuition. This will leave us free to innovate and drive business. Consider long-term memories as the server-based and NVR systems with the ability to download and store video for long periods. there is nothing like a guard or operator. wider – just like our old analogue TVs. it’s clear that Mr.alves@axis. www. machine in the surveillance world. movie streaming. but face detection in a controlled environment can be deployed successfully. file sharing and other cloud-based services. hosted video has seen success where the end-user has multiple dispersed sites to monitor.cameras have a major leg up.
even cashiers at work in the fact that when people cooperate. The help of a Peet van der Walt. He presented Their modus operandi was certificates to James Oosthuizen to use numerous members of as well as Juan Kotze. the gang as shields to prevent In her acceptance speech people from seeing what was Masiye encouraged all concerned happening. these people returned to their tills to some of the people who have made the effort to fight crime and do the right find thousands missing with no explanation of how it happened. followed by Brigadier Gina Palko. Moses Tsomele.CO-OPERATION GETS RESULTS Syndicate foiled by cooperation By Andrew Seldon. Gauteng Provincial Commissioner Central to the case was the Lt Gen Mzwandile Petros CCTV footage taken at the Vorna also received a Certificate of Valley Spar. It did. It also highlighted the the human shields involved in the operation.com . per month. in front of present additional Certificates of everyone. owner of high-level informant was also of the Super Spar. in North Rand was on hand to the middle of the day. before CEO. The efforts of Tsomele were also key to the success of the leader of the syndicate’s cut was between R400 000 and R800 000 the case and Masiye encouraged him to continue his efforts. with one informant claiming the prosecutor’s office. however. Advocate the manager of the Super Spar Juan Kotze played some of the for his quick and decisive action video shots taken and explained All the award recipients. Rassie Erasmus was next up to receive an Exceptional and no trauma.securitysa. and slick. no deaths Chief prosecutor. crime can be beaten. James Oosthuizen ceremony in February to pay tribute to a few people who had been opened the proceedings. the key perpetrators involved. Commander. although other Spar Appreciation. to continue to be alert and sometimes find the supervisor praised the cooperation between the various departments and the business on duty and other staff and distract them with questions. along with various towns and cities on a regular basis. simply a slick operation that netted millions in stolen Service Award. Gauteng detective head an easy task for this syndicate then received a Certificate of – and stealing money while Appreciation from the CGC. The two officers to receive Exceptional Service Awards were Warrant As explained by Spar’s Keith Alexander. and a little help from tills next to the targeted one were oblivious to the crime – it was that fast technology seals the prosecution. Due to thing in a tough and normally thankless environment. This brazen approach Excellence from Spar to various to their crime shows how well attendees in appreciation of their trained and confident these continued service to the retail criminals were of getting away industry. 18 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. it did hit multiple stores in cooperation and the sterling efforts of Mashiane and Nkathingi. MD of Spar high-value notes from a till. community. the operations of the syndiOfficer Mashiane and Sergeant Nkathingi from the Midrand SAPS. lead to some cashiers losing their jobs since The awards were a way for the CGC and Spar to thank and pay tribute to in stores without CCTV coverage. cate were streamlined and professional. Sergeant Nkathingi and Moses Tsomele. which was received stores were also involved in on his behalf by Maj. General Motsikile. for the gangs to remove all the Brett Botten. General Norman drawers in retailers – apparently Taioe. At the ceremony. specifically in the crime with their theft. his staff members. The criminals’ operation involved obtaining a skeleton key to the cash Maj. Tsomele then also received an This footage showed how it Exceptional Service award from would take less than 10 seconds Mangozhe. cashiers were on a break. Retail syndicate foiled through cooperation between NPA. targeting retailers. Vorna Valley was particular assistance in sealing on hand to pay tribute to one of the fate of this syndicate. while others would L to R: Warrant Officer Mashiane. General supplying footage to identify Masiye and Maj. There were no guns. Gwarega Mangozhe made the awards involved in thwarting the long-term operations of a crime syndicate to two police officers who have been key to the success of the investigation. Awards presented The Consumer Goods Council (CGC) of South Africa hosted an awards The CGC’s manager of the crime prevention programme. noting that the success of this case was a direct result of this While this operation did not involve guns. fighting arena. which led directly to the arrest the process underway to identify of certain syndicate members. SAPS and Spar. Gauteng Cluster money every month. the criminals.
securitysa.com CCTV Handbook 2013 19 .www.
When considering the trends in the surveillance market. easy to deploy and easy to use. Instead. receiving feature updates that make it well suited as the technology foundation of a hosted video solution. But the bandwidth services have to be in place first and at reasonable prices. we see three trends today affecting Milestone and our marketplace in general: 1. The economy: With budget cuts across the board. and if war or terrorism threatens. In the low to mid-market. powerful and relevant client for the operators by XProtect Smart Client. Milestone does not want to be a hosting company ourselves – that is not our core competency. Changing requirements can also be driven by large public events like the Olympics. integrators and end-users alike are demanding ‘easy’ – easy to procure. to improving protection of energy supplies and natural resources. talking about it is getting too much hype. from the perspective of Milestone and the industry in general. from monitoring and tracking severe storms. These product offerings are built for ease of use.TRENDS Open platform video set to grow By Andrew Seldon. customers are under pressure. and we are working hard to continually improve on these products (installation. Features like Axis one-click connectivity. affecting the balance of power and the focus on physical. and Milestone Federated Architecture make XProtect Corporate an ideal hosted video solution platform. We hear a lot about cloud technology and VaaS these days.com . including the fast growing area of video management systems. our Web client and remote clients. Traffic control and management has become part of this trend. or impromptu ones like demonstrations or natural disasters. Milestone continually evolves our XProtect Smart Client to be the umbrella client interface for operational visibility in a security environment. Even the smallest upgrade in technology or thinking can become a catalyst for change. too. Ease of use. We work hard to provide a more flexible. Hi-Tech Security Solutions asked Milestone’s Peter Biltsted to answer four questions on what to look out for in 2013. but using new technology. Budgets are scrutinised as demands for a safer environment and affordable security constantly battle for priority. we want to make the software tools to enable others to address this type of business model whenever it does become viable. Offering video via the cloud is really like offering a traditional IT managed service. The environment: Another perspective deals with the increased emphasis on climate change.of-use in mind. setup and use) with ease. These will come in the future but until then.securitysa. data and other security improvements as countries reach election days. flooding and drought. Politics: Political changes can influence degrees of regulatory requirements. This can be addressed by the open platform approach from Milestone Systems to allow endless upgrades and integrated solutions that can be added over time. Consolidated operational user interface (UI). Our XProtect Corporate product continues to be future-ready. 3. cloud computing and video analytics require the most upto-date hardware and software. 20 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. high-resolution cameras. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What do you think will be the biggest trend or influencer in the coming year in the surveillance market sector? Peter Biltsted: Countless circumstances around the globe contribute to growth and innovation – even the smallest upgrade in technology or thinking can become a catalyst for change. hurricanes. Milestone’s low and mid-market products are designed to address this trend from XProtect Go through XProtect Professional. Basically. Technology: Technical advances are influencing new degrees of necessity for surveillance and monitoring: biometrics. Video as a service (VaaS). 2.
Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What technologies/technical implementations do you think will stand out in the coming year? Biltsted: In South Africa. It can deliver ongoing flexibility to respond to changing needs. The technology adds more value than customers initially expect before installation because no one is locked into one set solution for the future. improved algorithms (both at the edge and server levels) and data libraries are reducing false alarms and improving reliability across the board.milestonesys. and prove that open architecture is absolutely the best way to go for sustainable value in customer installations. and coupling this with integration of third-party alarm or other data (access control for example). Such opportunities underline the fact that an IP VMS with an open platform is more than security. a strong toolset for investigations. Milestone XProtect Smart Client continues to progress in this direction providing the operators additional visibility and interaction with multiple disparate data that when correlated with video provides the best levels of operational overview. production and logistics. These solutions are now affordable and on the cutting edge of the industry. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Do you expect to see your products integrated into third-party solutions or will customers opt for singlebrand solutions in 2013? Biltsted: Value-adding integrations continue to be a huge growth factor to offer efficiency advantages for customers.+45 88 300 300. challenges and innovations. Video analytics have come of age. It has improved the speed of innovation for diverse applications. finance. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: If there is one piece of advice you could give customers and potential customers as the year starts. for example. Access control or licence plate recognition. benefiting customers’ bottom line as they are able to lift their implementations to new levels of professionalism and sophistication.incorporating single client visibility to the video for live viewing. There is also increased use of video content analytics.com www. with interoperability to the video interface show people or vehicles on the move. such as access control. Milestone sees a growing acceptance for open platform video. handling more than just security matters – adding measurable long-term returns on investments (ROI) and lowering total costs of ownership (TCO). www. email@example.com. and larger installations and larger corporate entities are setting a surveillance policy for deployment of unified systems with increasing integration of multiple systems into one platform. IP video is still driving the convergence of digital systems across multiple areas. Single-brand solutions lock customers out of future options to build on their initial investments. what would it be? Biltsted: Adapting to change through openness – both today and with the future in mind – will have more positive results. These solutions are becoming more commonplace today.com CCTV Handbook 2013 21 . HR. adding real value to the industry rather than just hope. Open platform IP video is enabling business optimisations on a larger scale. The result of all of this is that the value of video is increased both in real-time and when viewing recorded video. effectively growing solutions parallel to the necessities of our world as they happen. For more information contact Milestone Systems. Today the ease of use.
frankstreet. queue management and retail security monitoring. Edge recording on SD cards will become common for users that need basic functionality and act as redundancy for larger VMS systems. +27 (0)11 496 2300. sales@frankstreet. The industry is taking to megapixel IP cameras because of many VMS (video management systems) available. In the camera market. Trends in the next five years I expect to see include 10 or more megapixel IP super-resolution cameras entering the market. low light and WDR (wide-dynamic range) optimisations. 22 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. at the moment. Security managers that have recently installed analogue cameras and want to expand are demanding hybrid solutions.za. by integrating software and high megapixel IP cameras into a business management system. however.co. resulting in clear crisp video pictures. This year will see the demand increase as prices get lower. I’m not too sure if security managers will be in favour of vital video data sitting in the cloud. cashier performance predicting customer flow patterns. Abie Ali discusses changes he noticed in the CCTV industry in 2012 and looks at what’s coming? How did the CCTV industry change in 2012? A very strong growth in IP video surveillance was the trend.za. With growing concerns in retail security on asset control. also reducing licensing costs by requiring only one licence instead of multiple cameras and licences to cover the same area. the future for the surveillance market looks strong with the fast-paced evolution of technology and the market adapting to it. Thermal cameras have been around for many years. and is sure to prove itself successful in the years to come. The strong demand for megapixel IP cameras has set the increase to almost 35%. Many VMS software packages have the functionality for dewarping and dividing the 360-degree panoramic camera into quad and dual 180-degree video pictures. In this regard. but still giving the flexibility to expand into IP technology. VMS will have a significant growth due to the migration from analogue to IP cameras. we will see development in the HD camera segment. POS (point of sale) integration solutions are now being used by retail giants like Woolworths to aid security with till transaction pilferage. operational management. due to price being high and limited recorder support compared to megapixel IP cameras. buddy transactions and preventing suspicious transactions like dubious credits. for effective management of sales. helping to lower costs.securitysa. Frank Street has been developing its own video analytics called ROM (Retail Operations Management). Hybrid systems have made a great impact in the CCTV market offering both analogue and IP connectivity. HD-SDI made very little progress. mostly deployed by the military. Edge recording onto SD cards is a great technology handling recordings directly onto the IP camera.SURVEILLANCE TRENDS FOR 2013 Surveillance trends By Abie Ali.co. government installations and high-level security companies. Added to that is the fact that costs are too high. ROM is an effective business management tool. Video analytics will certainly be a game changer in the surveillance market. Yet another trend will see video being recorded in the cloud. A single panoramic camera offers a 360-degree view providing a greater situational awareness than a single camera normally provides.com . This trend of super megapixel cameras will evolve as VMS servers will have faster processing power. These super resolution cameras will cover a larger viewing area. The ROM software uses CCTV cameras for POS interfacing and video analytics for shrinkage control. Thermal cameras will never replace IR or low light cameras in the foreseeable future due to price. The growth in IP surveillance will come from small to medium market size deployments. In conclusion. For more information contact Frank Street. The other trend in the next five years will see video analytics take on a new dimension in surveillance. Frank Street. with easier integration and intelligent video analytics. Panoramic cameras have gained attention of the CCTV market and will grow over the years. www.
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last year publicly launched its product offering. The SmartProtect system is currently a generic plug-in system for the Milestone video management platform. This is facilitated through SmartProtect.SYSTEM INTEGRATOR PROFILE Integrated central monitoring SmartProtect enables monitoring of multiple system events with video.co. but also about user activity. By thinking out of the box there is great value in combining data and linking video to data transactions. The system allows centralisation of data from multiple security systems into a database and is then displayed in the video management interface. Video can be searched for any event or transaction. Systems can be administrated remotely and can provide predefined automatic reports. Many end-users have preferred historical systems that they would like to link with video and this facility will effectively cater for this requirement.securitysa. For instance.za. For more information contact SmartProtect. allowing him to make the best decision in a fast expeditious manner. SmartProtect. a software development company. thus reducing the need to separately view multiple systems. There is a growing need to add business intelligence to systems. Initially there were two components – Integration and Reports. info@smartprotect. An added benefit of the integration is the ability to prompt the decision-making process with standard operating procedures (SOP).com .za 24 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. In addition. Other examples include weighbridge information or licence plates. a third component – custom integration – has recently been added. Once the operator has acknowledged these procedures a full audit trail is also in place. After a request from clients to be better able to manage multiple systems on a common platform. Because there is a great need for customised or client-specific solutions. www.co. The integration component centralises all events and transactions with relevant video feeds.smartprotect. the name of an employee who is listed in the access control system database can be used as a search item to view the relevant video footage pertaining to his movement throughout the facilities. All this data adds value to the video system. This gives the operator optimised situational awareness. The integration module allows for post-event investigations. the system adds superior business intelligence not only by providing pertinent information about the hardware health status of the systems that are linked. The report module was initially developed as a data mining tool to present data in a more refined manner.
experienced system integrators are the link between technology and solutions that work. transportation. Tel: +27 (0)11 555 4949 kevinm@bidvestmagnum. and a strong presence throughout RSA. Tel: +27 (0)11 894 7127 kleroux@multivid. We provide holistic security technology solutions that enable you to concentrate on your core business.za Honeywell Building Solutions Honeywell Building Solutions is a leading provider of integrated technology solutions that support innovative ways of working. universities. Tel: +27 (0)11 781 1341 firstname.lastname@example.org www. Tel: +27 (0)11 907 3192 cardcon@mweb. From design.za Firetech Projects Firetech Projects provides project solutions to many sectors of the market.SYSTEM INTEGRATORS’ PROFILES System integrators It takes appropriate knowledge and experience to create solutions that protect people. For details on how to include your company in this listing contact vivienne@technews. Tel: +27 (0)12 667 2338 firetech@firetech. It specialises in fully integrated fire and security systems both nationally and internationally. as well as parking control systems. priority alarms and embedding standard operating procedures to quickly prompt the operator to make the correct response.za www. upgrade. building management. Hi-Tech Security Solutions provides a list of system integrators end users can contact to discuss theirintegrated security solution requirements.za Jasco Security Solutions Jasco Security Solutions (incorporating Scafell and Multivid) designs. installation and maintenance to monitoring. along with a true understanding of the security challenges faced by organisations of all sizes.co. communications and time management solutions. engineering and maintenance services.co. hospitals.co.co.co.co.za www. design the required system and then install it based on clearly defined project guidelines as well as a detailed scope-of-work document.co.za www. including government. fire detection: audio evacuation and public address. profits and assets and deliver business benefits. Bidvest Magnum Technology does not have off-the-shelf security solutions. national key points.cardcontrolsystems. fire detection and offer a range of leasing solutions. install and maintain critical building systems that help keep customer workplaces safe.za Bidvest Magnum We design.za UTM Group UTM Group is a provider of end-to-end total security management services with integrated solutions. CCS can design and install systems to suit your needs and budget.eohii. video analytics. we provide turnkey solutions.co. access control.za www.co. We pride ourselves on quality. UTM delivers security management services by taking your entire risk value chain into consideration. financial institutions and the private sector. As a service to our readers.co. shopping malls. comfortable and cost-efficient. a global provider of intelligent IP video solutions. TVMS offers peace of mind with value for money solutions and exceptional service delivery.za www.camsecure. These include managed surveillance. install and maintain integrated security solutions.basixtech.co. CCTV. We develop. installation and support of products on the African continent.co.com CCTV Handbook 2013 25 .co. The business possesses great depth of skill and experience. As client requirements are unique.za www. and is responsible for sales. Tel: 086 022 2266 info@utmgroup. security system integrators and solution providers with over 20 years’ experience. Specialise in surveillance: access control and T&A.honeywell. advise on optimum solutions. Basix is the agent for March Networks.za Camsecure A network surveillance and electronic security company that has completed many large and prestigious projects throughout the continent. we analyse the client’s needs.co. Tel: +27 (0)11 210 3500 Head Office info@basixgroup. access control. secure.za EOH Intelligent Infrastructure EOH Intelligent Infrastructure is a wholly owned subsidiary of EOH. We pride ourselves on quality expertise and experience in building asset protection. Designing event-driven systems and centralising information through maps.tvms. serves government and private sector customers in the financial.co.securitysa.bidvestmagnum. expertise and experience. And we can evaluate.co.za TVMS Our solutions protect and enhance your investments and profits as well as reduce risk.jasco. Skilled. Tel: 0861 500 500 Fax: +27 (0)11 844 3500 www. Instead. Tel: +27 (0)11 695 8000 email@example.com www. repair and maintain your existing system. Global experience across diverse markets positions Honeywell as a technology leader renowned for delivering value.firetech.za Basix Group The Basix Group. EOH Intelligent Infrastructure supplies and installs security.za www.com www.utmgroup.co. Tel: 0861 867 8867 (TVMS) firstname.lastname@example.org Card Control Systems We provide total project solutions based on specialist design. Together with the Jasco Group’s expertise in the ICT and Energy sectors. data mining and meaningful business intelligence. commercial-industrial and infrastructure markets. installs and maintains security technology solutions.co. time and attendance.
Consoles that are inclined slightly forward. Distance is also a complicating factor. Good control room chairs are difficult to come by and the standard issues often have hydraulic functions that fail fairly quickly. light intensity changes are a common issue beside the daily shift from light into darkness. In one control room I visited recently. While one may think of monitors being too far away. The quality of lighting can change as it gets darker.securitysa. Not only this. the angle at which monitors are attached is also an issue. operators are sitting in the lowest position relative to the ground compared to what is expected. There are a number of issues relating to how the angle of view affects the quality of surveillance. One of the most critical design issues in any control room design featuring CCTV should be the line of sight and angle of view of monitors to operators. Physical issues Physical issues relate to where and how monitor screens are placed on desks. they are often neglected in the technical installation of the control room. with visual discomfort and eye strain an additional possible outcome. a simple aspect of ensuring that you can see past the desktop monitor clearly is often neglected.com . One can even find that monitors on desks would benefit from slight tilting or height adjustments up or down to make for more ergonomic viewing. it also presents potential problems for monitors. Yet despite the importance of these. 26 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. and viewing angles of the wall and desk monitors often change as a result. Ensuring line of sight and angle of view – basic essentials of control room viewing. consoles or walls within the control room. When mounting such displays. The other alternative for operators is just to disregard the monitors positioned too high and they cease to be a source of information. I find that darker images create more difficulty in viewing as soon as one changes the viewing angle from directly in front of the screen. Operators are looking around or even The screens themselves LCD/LED and plasma screens have their own limitations built in with their possible angles of view. a number of monitors mounted high on a console became unviewable Yet operators hadn’t commented on it and a number of screen views were being disregarded on a constant basis over a period of a couple of years because of the viewing angle. In situations where CCTV is viewing. the increasing use of big 40-inch and large TV type screens has suddenly brought things in too close. but the colour range displayed can change as the viewing angle becomes more extreme. and this can affect the colour intensity and the display contrast on screen. or monitors fixed to allow a tilting downwards allow an operator to have a more direct view of the scene displayed on screen and facilitate natural viewing. and one almost has to physically lean back in order to view some areas of the screen. Where desktop monitors are used in conjunction with wall mounted monitors. As camera viewing light conditions change. I’ve divided these up into a few different areas to facilitate looking at the related issues more easily. One of the most common issues is placing monitors too high so operators either have to tilt their heads uncomfortably upwards. leads to people dozing or ‘tuning out’. or lean back in their chairs to avoid muscle strain. A further part of the physical environment that is a common issue is the chairs upon which the operators sit. One can often find monitors placed high up and facing directly away from the wall – this creates a double problem as will be discussed in the section on LCD screens.OPINION Line of sight and angle of view By Dr Craig Donald. At this point with no hydraulic pressure. Leaning back creates the conditions for people to become too relaxed and together with tiredness. as soon as one sat down in the seat. The monitors and their angle of view effectively determines the usability of the interface for the operator in order to accomplish surveillance objectives. Besides the actual positioning. leaning to the side of their control screens in order to see what kind of effect changes or adjustments may have on the monitor wall. The problem with tilting monitors appropriately is further complicated by the fact that the mounting fittings are not standardised and just the process of attaching them to the console or wall is a complicated process that allows little flexibility or ongoing adjustment. Even on my notebook. this needs to be checked from typical seating and standing positions. Side views and those from the top and bottom reach points where the quality and contrasts of image deteriorate so much that it becomes difficult to see what is on the screen properly.
It amazed me at one stage where I sat down with a client and did a mock up on the proposed CCTV workstations to test line of sight and viewing angles. The line of sight and the angle of view issues also relates to use of communications equipment. Direct lighting and fluorescent lighting are also the primary problems in that respect and wherever possible.com www. He also runs CCTV Surveillance Skills and Body Language. this is most likely to happen when an incident occurs and the operator has to look away in order to make selections or adjustments to screen or to obtain information. Where supervisors are also involved in monitoring what is going on. Line of sight and angle of view issues are one of the most common problems in control rooms. yet they are the simplest to prevent and the most common sense one to get right. X-ray screeners and other security personnel in major operations around the world. and Advanced Surveillance Body Language courses for CCTV operators. resulting in key aspects of incidents being missed. This is especially the case with some monitors which have a more reflective surface. Where the operator has to look away repeatedly every time something is changed. that it was the first time that the client who was a major national installation company had even done such a thing. indirect lighting should be used. Another important part of this is that the control screens that are often used to manage camera selection and things like alarm screens should be in line of sight as much as possible. How the available workstation space is occupied by monitors should be based on a usability analysis and what the critical viewing needs are to do surveillance properly.donald@ leaderware. supervisors and managers internationally. Dr Craig Donald is a human factors specialist in security and CCTV. line of sight from the supervisor workstation is also an important element to bear in mind.com CCTV Handbook 2013 27 . Ensuring the design works well in the beginning will solve a lot of problems later. While I am a fan of natural lighting. and consults on CCTV management. He is a director of Leaderware which provides instruments for the selection of CCTV operators. never mind sunlight in the control room. he or she runs the risk of missing important surveillance information. Organisation One ideally wants the best line of sight to the most important monitor displays. There is no need for expert advice for the most part – simply sit in a control room chair at the workstation and see if the setup works for you. He can be contacted on +27 (0)11 787 7811 or craig. which should be positioned so operators can maintain a clear view of the CCTV monitors while handling an incident. Ironically. Yet all too often the monitors are mounted more in line with the fact that technicians want to place as many views as possible in one area.securitysa. this needs to be channelled or provision needs to be made to adjust the effect of direct light.Lighting Lighting reflections have one of the most potential disruptive influences on screen displays.
www. allow for individual camera naming and. each camera is assigned a unique IP address. Time is money so consider using cameras that incorporate features and technology that allow for easier installation and configuration. The best camera manufacturers listen to the voice of customer and the integrators’ perspective to improve on physical installation. Welldesigned camera configuration software is an indispensable installation and configuration tool. as multiple IP cameras are capable of running on the same physical network wire. Imagine you are installing 50 cameras. Cameras that focus on “installability” will pay dividends in the long run. PoE+ delivers higher power and is often used with 28 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Power supply All cameras need electrical power and connectivity to the recording system. In order for the network to distinguish one camera’s video stream data from another. and configuration of the cameras on the IP network. the best camera manufacturers look beyond simply delivering high quality video capture functionalities. power considerations. setup and connect the cameras to the recorder. A more efficient way is to use the smart configuration software provided by the manufacturer to manage configuration of multiple cameras automatically. A smarter design has the hole pattern in the back plate positioned to match common electrical gang boxes so the camera can be screwed directly onto the wiring box. 50 cameras connected to a single network means the video streams from all the cameras are moving on the same wires simultaneously. When manufactured. potentially making your operation more cost competitive and profitable. outdoor cameras that are warmed by heaters as well as most newer indoor HD PTZ cameras that require additional power to run the pan and tilt motors. each of which must be named and assigned a unique IP address. These vendors are also devoted to employing significant resources on product design. but must also understand the configuration and load balancing of IP networks. batch update camera firmware. PoE power has two standards – PoE (802.3af) and PoE+ (802. Installers not only have to physically mount. A well-designed indoor mini-dome will allow for surface mounting by simply screwing the back plate onto the surface. setup and configuration must be completed for each deployed device in order for the system to recognise and connect to the camera’s video stream. The task can be accomplished by opening each camera’s Web user interface and assigning a new IP address. batch assign IP addresses. so the installation environment and camera power/temperature ratings should be carefully considered before deciding on the power supply. Managing network connectivity Configuring each IP camera on the network is much different to configuring analogue cameras. For more information contact Tyco Security Products. When comparing camera features. For IP cameras both these needs can be fulfilled using a PoE (Power over Ethernet) network where only a single RJ-45 cable connection to the camera is necessary.securitysa. a camera can include the adaptor necessary to connect into the wiring conduit to meet the code requirements.com . the same camera can be flush mounted to a surface using integrated swing out clamps to secure it on locations such as a drop ceiling. Configuration software will scan and find the connected cameras on the network. if necessary. Ideally each camera should be named with a common identifier so that it is easy to understand the camera type and location of the camera within the system. PoE+ is inadequate and an AC power supply must be used to achieve the lowest operating temperature rating of the camera.tycosecurityproducts.com Physical installation Cameras that incorporate multiple installation options into the design of the core product save time and money by enabling faster and easier installation and by reducing or often eliminating the need to purchase mounting accessories or adaptors. wiring. all cameras are given the same default IP address and a unique MAC address. A well thought-out and designed camera can reduce the man-hours necessary for installation.INSTALLATIONS Understand the solution By Joel White. senior product manager. Camera installability. look beyond the high-level specs to understand the whole camera solution. The growing deployment of IP video systems has added new layers of complexity that the installer must master to be successful. In cases where building codes require plenum-rated flush mount installations. +27 (0)82 566 5274. Understand the whole camera solution. Tyco Security Products. In certain cases. With its back plate removed. and accessories to make the entire installation and commissioning process faster and more efficient. For example. It is important to note that the power supply used will directly affect the low temperature ratings of heated outdoor cameras. Joel White Integrators who use these manufacturers’ cameras realise the benefit through higher profitability and a competitive edge in time saved and fewer accessories to purchase. Camera installation. email@example.com). software. To aid integrators in these new challenges.com. Integrators and installers of video surveillance systems face tasks that are common across both analogue and IP video camera systems.
www.com CCTV Handbook 2013 29 .securitysa.
as they have the ability to deliver all-important visuals across all areas of operations to ensure health and safety regulations are adhered to.co. alarms and access control. such as alarms. enabling remedial action to be taken and processes to be improved to prevent similar problems from occurring in future. fire detection and suppression. however. which those with malicious intent can exploit.za. to ensure swift action to be taken.co. it can assist with closing loopholes in security and can help organisations to derive operational as well as security benefits from their solutions. along with access control solutions. there may be an overlap in their functionality or the independent running and variety of different rules may in fact leave vulnerabilities and loopholes in the security system.INTEGRATION Integrated proactive security solutions By Kobus le Roux. the process can become more complex as a result of legacy software and firmware issues. consistent set of rules can be applied across the board. in order to leverage maximum value from CCTV solutions. This master platform will ensure that a single. However. In order to derive maximum value and return on investment (ROI) from CCTV. www. they should also all be incorporated into a master management platform. CCTV. If each of these systems is run independently. CCTV solutions are part and parcel of modern security systems. This not only enables security personnel to see what is happening. and acts as a deterrent against unlawful or unethical behaviour within the workplace. that they are using dangerous equipment in a Kobus le Roux safe manner. to the right people. newer solutions built using a standards-based approach incorporate greater levels of integration capability. This allows for both proactive and reactive action to be taken. An integration partner and security specialist should have proven skills.com . This then alerts security to potential problems. which can be corrected. to ensure that alerts are sent out according to the correct parameters. not only from a security perspective. Solutions operating independently of each other can fail to deliver on the expected benefits. helping to identify perpetrators and backup other findings for swifter prosecution of offenders. that all solutions follow a single set of rules. including access control. +27 (0)11 894 7127. When dealing with a mixture of old technologies and a newer management platform. Control rooms can monitor that employees are doing their jobs. For more information contact Jasco Security Solutions. something which in the case of security can be detrimental as issues are typically only discovered when something goes wrong. often forms the bulk of modern security solutions. Upgrades may be necessary in order to ensure interoperability and a seamless solution. but they may not be correctly integrated. to all technologies. by integrating this solution into other areas of security. using a central platform or building management system. The knowledge that they are being watched also helps to incentivise workers to be more productive and efficient. While CCTV is often a grudge purchase. these solutions should be integrated with other security systems including fire. but also in terms of operations and even health and safety.za 30 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. However. CCTV solutions offer a number of benefits by providing a visual reference and evidence of incidents. it is important to integrate CCTV into other security solutions. using a central platform or building management system. offering greater value in an area which is often a grudge purchase. By integrating these solutions and incorporating proactive monitoring of the entire security system. or visual access to all areas at all times. Without the right partner with the necessary integration skills. Jasco Security Solutions. both in terms of security and operational benefits. Regardless of the mix of technology however it is advisable to obtain the services of a security and integration specialist. it also records this footage. fire and access control. with multiple reference sites across various industries to illustrate a track record of success. that they are not accessing hazardous areas and more. greater value can be derived for improved ROI. and that optimal security can be maintained at all times. In order to effectively manage these integrated solutions. CCTV is important. alarms and access control. Crime is an unfortunate reality in South Africa and. kleroux@multivid. or building management solution. it should be integrated with other security systems including fire. In the case of criminal activity. Integrated CCTV also ensures that loopholes and vulnerabilities can be eliminated. When it comes to integration.securitysa. assuming that the CCTV feed is monitored by a control room. as a result. This not only helps to ensure that all systems work together in harmony. in order to derive maximum value and return on investment (ROI) from CCTV. and alarms. recorded CCTV footage can be used to augment evidence in a court of law. appropriate action can be taken in the event of fire or theft and disasters can be prevented in many cases. all solutions may be installed correctly and may seem to be functioning in tandem.jasco. CCTV solutions have become an important part of any corporate or enterprise security solution. productivity is maintained and crimes can be prevented or more effectively prosecuted. Recording these feeds enables personnel to discover exactly what occurred in case of any type of incident. CCTV delivers the benefit of having eyes on the ground.
securitysa.www.com CCTV Handbook 2013 31 .
Thermal cameras function well in low light but are unfortunately not of much use as an identification tool. It is therefore critical to ensure a scene in which camera images can be recorded. External light sources work very well in conjunction with a low light camera and infrared can be used when the lighting needs to be unobtrusive.” he added. Thermal cameras have definite advantages because they do not rely on visible light for imaging. “The system integrator determines the quality and end results. In contrast to conventional day and night cameras that switch to black and white in darkness. most people prefer a low lux rating. “Low light cameras need to provide a high level of detail.” said Alex Bantjes. Unfortunately cameras with specialised sensors used to enhance their low light abilities (EMCCD for example).securitysa. This is especially useful where users require colour information in the video to enhance recognition and identification of objects. View-DR is a combination of Sony’s full capture Wide-D technology. Cameras with Lightfinder technology have all the advantages of other network cameras such as progressive scan. IP surveillance at Miro Distribution. product manager. Independent lighting (white or infrared) is essential to supplement the cameras in the provision of a clear and bright image under low light conditions” said Charles Volschenk. viewed and be subjected to later analysis. but do they actually produce the goods at the end of the day? There is no doubt that the need for low light cameras is important. “What the camera cannot see. “This new technology compensates for strong backlight and performs in an identical manner to the human eye in terms of being able to simultaneously see dark and bright scenes.com . “Sony’s View-DR utilises wide dynamic range technology to compensate for strong backlight. “There is a broad range of low light cameras available on the market. Some cameras have their own built-in LEDs but this has a limited range and images are rarely usable for identification past 15 metres. but they still share some basic limitations.” Volschenk continued. Geutebrück Southern Africa Roy Alves 32 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. but their customisation to the application needs to be considered for optimum results. according to Bantjes. Alex Bantjes Question of reliability Reliability depends on the implementation of the camera.” Volschenk said that most low light cameras are reliable. which include day/night with infrared and thermal imaging. The Exmor CMOS sensor captures images at four times the speed of previous DynaView and some other Wide-D technologies in the industry. while the opposite is true of outdoor applications. Video Security (IP and Analogue). He needs to ensure that the selected cameras can reduce false alarms and be integrated into existing systems. and can easily be integrated with numerous application software solutions. especially in low light or at night. but do they actually produce the goods at the end of the day? “In addition to the common camera offering low light technologies. cannot be recorded and therefore it cannot be used for later analysis or evidence. This is especially important when the colour of a suspect’s clothing or accessories could lead to apprehension and arrest. “There are some good low light cameras on the market. business development manager – MEA at Axis Communications. Broadcast & Professional Division at Sony. the high-speed Exmor CMOS sensor. where built-in illuminators are preferred.” said Edward Nyingeni. For indoor use. in fact more than what the human eye is capable of capturing.” said Roy Alves.LOW LIGHT CAMERAS Coming out of the dark By Allyson Koekhoven. Sony’s View-DR delivers a much clearer picture. and Visibility Enhancer (VE). MD of Geutebrück South Africa. product manager. There is no doubt that the need for low light cameras is important. Alves concurred with this view adding Charles Volschenk. are still quite costly. cameras incorporating the Lightfinder technology can maintain colour in very dark conditions. Lightfinder technology offers the perfect solution for indoor and outdoor surveillance. “Users need to remember that the low light capabilities typically decrease with megapixel cameras.” added Nyingeni.
camera.com CCTV Handbook 2013 33 . so users need to and the bandwidth required under back light circumstances where intensity request an on-site test before will reduce for high-quality of illumination can vary excessively. www. “The wide dynamic range (WDR) function of a However.securitysa. Alves said that imaging in low light cameras will improve to a What about WDR? stage where it is superior to “Wide dynamic range is the human eye and there will now almost standard issue. namely making any final decisions.” added Alves.” becomes more mainstream. pixel cameras to be competitive. but that low light cameras are playing a bigger role in proactive surveillance Bantjes said that low light cameras are typically used for intrusion detection and perimeter security.”– Wikipedia.” said Volschenk. also improve so the need to stream data will be reduced. with greater compensation and gain control. One will be able to when there are both very bright and very dark not simply accept technical store images on the camera areas simultaneously in the field of view of the datasheet stipulated lux levels so that if a DVR is used and or WDR claims. irrespecto the stored image in the tive of variances in brightness camera. although at an increased price. with the playing field between suppliers being lower light and ¾ or ½ inch sensors will allow the higher megalevelled. geous in terms of its ability to one will be able to revert view a scene clearly. we will likely see more accurate representation of colour and shading. “In-camera lighting capabilities are advancing but these will probably never be sufficient in extreme low light situations. WDR is advantagoes offline for any reason. not all WDR cameras camera is intended to provide clear images even “The storage requirements are equal. CMOS chips will get bigger to compensate for more of a commodity. I believe that thermal cameras will not only become more affordable. Prices will also start to reduce so that it becomes built-in IR LEDs. On-site analytics will within the scene. but that their image quality will improve” said Volschenk.” “WDR technology will continue to improve as the goalposts “There will be a move away from pure low lux ratings to constantly move.that not only can the footage be used as forensic evidence. Do images. be very little image noise.” Bantjes acknowledged this and added that as the technology Bantjes concluded. “Thermal cameras are useful in situations where smoke or fog is a problem as they allow the operator to see the outlines of people in visibility conditions that would not be suitable for other low light technologies.
Figures 1 and 2. perimeter surveillance and other outdoor applications. Parking garage. since both bright and dark areas might be present in the image. To the thereby losing details in right. Hence.com . thereby burning out the bright areas. security cameras will have a bit depth of 10 bits. clearly show details both in the well-lit entrance. for example 12 bits instead of 10 bits. The image to the left shows details that were A good WDR surveillance lost in the dark zone. Wide dynamic range imaging is a method used to produce images that try to recreate the full scene content in scenes that have a dynamic range that cannot be captured by standard cameras in one image. vehicles and activities in situations where there is a wide range of lighting conditions. but it cannot detect all the available photons. Thus a camera image is just an estimation of a scene. • In city surveillance. image – capture both these two extremes. There are many surveillance situations that offer difficult lighting conditions. and the dark shadows inside the parking garage. but in reality it will increase the image quality only if the sensor data is good enough. Figures 3 and 4 have insets showing data from the short exposure image in the long exposure image and vice versa.securitysa. but we can clearly see the limitations of the modest dynamic range image of a standard camera when compared with details provided by using the brighter image or a camera with WDR capability (Figure 6). Challenges Light. One particularly challenging situation is when there is a lot of variation in light levels simultaneously within a scene. the higher the number of photons per second are illuminating a scene. The noise floor is a combination of many noise sources within the sensor. The analogue-to-digital converter is another component that may limit the dynamic range. A camera can detect reflected photons from a scene. also with daylight outside and low light levels indoors. as shown to the left. The maximum length of the exposure time is limited by the frame rate – if the camera is a video camera. • Vehicles with strong headlights. Figures 3 and 4. the image is overexposed the dark areas. The pixel size in a digital camera affects the dynamic range of the camera. It is obviously a user requirement to be able to reliably identify persons. Below we can see an example of such a scene taken with two different exposures using a standard camera. In principle. pixels and dynamic range Light is made up of discrete bundles of energy called photons. driving directly towards the camera. as shown to the right. Typical situations include: • Surveillance of entrance doors with daylight outside and a darker indoor environment. Dynamic range is defined at pixel level to be the maximum signal divided by the noise floor. Axis takes us on a journey into the intricacies of wide dynamic range. The more intense the light. To the left. transportation. Bit depth The bit depth depicts the number of bits used to ‘capture’ the information in one pixel.WIDE DYNAMIC RANGE Wide dynamic range: Challenges and solutions Axis Communications white paper. If the sensor data is noisy. would theoretically increase the number of levels that can be detected. the image is underexposed. A higher bit depth. there is not Background Standard surveillance cameras (without WDR) encounter difficulties in scenes with great variation in light levels. Expressed differently. it is possible to extract some information from the dark areas (Figure 5). objects. This maximum exposure time might be both too long and too short simultaneously for the same image. there is a need for security cameras that are capable of detecting items in both dark and extremely bright areas. • Environments with lots of reflected light. Typically. it is shorter for pixels located in brighter parts of the image than for pixels in darker regions. referred to as wide dynamic range (WDR) scenes. WDR techniques facilitate the ability to assimilate information from all light levels in the scene at the same time. indoor. for example. indoor. Each of them is captured in a way that either makes the dark part visible. One limitation is that a camera can only cope with a limited number of photons per exposure interval. in office buildings with many windows or in shopping malls. Cameras usually accumulate photons for a limited time. or makes the bright part visible. for example. very common in retail and office applications. where parts of the scene are in direct sunlight and other parts are in deep shadows. • Vehicles entering a parking garage or tunnel. This is. Clearly both images lack information from the full scene. ie. called the exposure time. This white paper explains why standard cameras struggle with WDR scenes and how good WDR performance can be achieved in a video surveillance camera. The image to the right shows the details that were lost in the camera can – in one bright zone 34 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Parking garage. and therefore. The correct exposure time for a pixel is one that maximises the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).
This means that the algorithm to translate from 10 bits in the sensor to the 8 bits in the display is critical in achieving good WDR performance. Subject taken from a standard camera with unchanged settings. Digital images are subject to a wide variety of noise types. There are several different kinds of noise that might be present in an image. depending on how the image is created. Detail from the parking garage scene. Extending the dynamic range to achieve WDR There are a number of ways to improve the dynamic range of a camera without improving the bit depth of the pixels.securitysa. One way to achieve WDR is to use different exposure times for different pixels. there will be noise. Noise When designing WDR cameras – or for that matter. resulting in increased noise www. but doing so can result in different types of artifacts (see below). or from a WDR camera much to win by increasing the number of bits. Subject is moved into darker and darker shade. Multiple exposure times. and the noise results in pixel values that do not reflect the true intensities of the real scene. introducing more electrical and advanced components and functions. will however affect imaging of moving Figure 7. Even with a perfect camera. This is because photon shot noise is due to the nature of light itself. Increasing meaningful bit depth above 12 bits is generally a very costly exercise both from a component cost perspective and from a complexity perspective. A camera can compensate for the noise in the image. extracted from the darker image Figure 6. It is also important to keep in mind that the display in front of the security manager normally only has a bit depth of 8 bits/colour channel to show the video images. as they are often implemented. i. So this means sacrificing something else. One way is simply to combine two or more full frame images obtained with different exposure times. The same detail taken from the brighter image.com CCTV Handbook 2013 35 .Figure 5. any camera – noise is a major challenge. This means combining signal in shadows from one image with signal from highlights in another. which is an expensive task as described above.e. This can be implemented in various ways.
value is calculated as the Image capture logarithm of the ratio (in Figure 9. Figure 8(b). Parking garage. A moving object will. Note noise. be more smeared in its darker parts than in its brighter areas and thereby generate ghosting. whether in terms of money since sensors or processors become prohibitively expensive. and you answered image 6 or higher to the question. of course. This might be that this is not the same aesthetically unpleasing.WIDE DYNAMIC RANGE Figure 8(a). The image is taken from an Axis camera that A WDR image might this case. The goal is to show as much detail in all shadows and highlights as possible and thus mimic what the human visual system is doing when the focus is moved from one object to another object. Applications and needs Not all applications require WDR. Which image is still acceptable? If your scene is closest to the type A in Table 1. Motion Motion blur can occur when the image being recorded changes during the recording of a single frame. Ghosting Multiple exposure times will affect imaging of moving targets since the motion blur will be different for objects with different brightness. A moving black and white football will. for example. but is generally a small which was used in Table price to pay for a much 1. Artificial illumination A related artifact comes from certain modulated light sources like fluorescent lighting. then a standard camera is still OK to use. or in terms of image quality. incorporates the WDR-dynamic capture technology 36 CCTV Handbook 2013 www.com . 3) times 20. artifacts like stripes and visible pulsing might be present. If your scene is closest to the very difficult type C. for example. Depending on the camera type. either due to rapid movement or if the exposure time is too long versus the movement in the scene. indoor. Measuring dynamic range In many cases. Artifacts When using information from WDR images. A number of different artifacts may exist in a WDR image. Image from camera with high dB targets since the motion blur and object location will be different for objects with different brightness. This is one example of artifacts in the image. some more common than others. This gives you an indication of when WDR technology must be used. The range. the slightest change in the scene can generate artifacts. In WDR cameras. See the next section for more information about artifacts. extended dynamic the dB value is 60 dB. the following image examples show what happens when a person is moved into darker and darker shade. you must be able to accept image 12 or higher to be able to use a standard camera. namely the ratio of smooth area like a wall the radiance of the brightwith only slight illuminaest and the dimmest tion differences might object that can be caphave areas with visible tured by the camera. Image from camera with low dB also look different due to the fact that the image is now so rich in reproduced tones that it is difficult to display it on a standard screen. the dynamic range capability of a camera is presented Visualisation in dB units. Such light is a challenge for all cameras since the camera is normally assuming a constant illumination. there will be a price to pay. If the ratio is 1000:1. then a standard camera should be able to cover your needs. One dB unit is a measure of a typical example is that a ratio. Regardless of how the dynamic range is extended. It is only an indication since standard cameras may. which dramatically limit the potential of the solution. vary in quality. If your scene is closest to type B and you answered image 9 or higher. Using a low dynamic range camera that is configured to avoid clipping the highlights. as various image artifacts are introduced.securitysa. be more smeared in its darker parts than in its brighter parts and will appear to be at two different locations. as the illumination ratio. This is sometimes also referred to as ‘cartooning’. It is a way to describe how well the camera can cope with Another visible artifact that might occur is that noise may appear in unexdifficult scenes containing both very bright and very dark objects. The pected places. these artifacts might look somewhat different due to the utilised capturing techniques.
and it is difficult to achieve good WDR performance without introducing image artifacts. When comparing product datasheets from different camera manufacturers. www. As with any video surveillance situation. As always.axis. Example A typical example is a sunlit train station with a part of the platform shielded from the sun. since any signal below this level is drowned in noise. The camera has captured the very high dynamic range of the scene. see the following links: • Axis Communications – ‘In the best of light – The challenges of minimum illumination’. To fully appreciate the new capabilities of the cameras. called Wide Dynamic Range-dynamic capture. Type of scene and matching illumination ratio Type of scene A: Sunlight/shadow.axis.pdf For more information contact Axis Communications. Figure 9 is an image of a parking garage scene taken with an Axis camera that incorporates WDR-dynamic capture technology. and the units typically used on product datasheets (such as dB) are not a reliable indication of actual WDR performance. The first picture was taken with a camera with a high dB value. Axis introduced its improved WDR technology. since they can increase the upper detection limit using techniques such as multi-frame exposures.securitysa. Some special sensors can extend this to readings above 100 dB. C: Dark indoor scene with opening. This will extend the dynamic range of the sensor. and using advanced image processing. do not be surprised if an Axis camera outperforms a competing camera even if the given ratio is slightly lower. Measuring how well a camera handles dynamic ranges in a scene www.com CCTV Handbook 2013 37 . but that will not necessarily always be the best solution to achieve WDR. roy. This presents a technical challenge for security cameras. com/files/whitepaper/wp_ccd_cmos_40722_en_1010_lo. Which one is the best from a video surveillance perspective? is difficult.alves@axis. which is a technology optimised for surveillance applications. www. Therefore. and which is available in AXIS Q1604 Network Cameras. the camera has further adapted the image to the modest dynamic range of a standard display screen. Axis is normally modest in the given ratios since a high quality WDR image also depends on the level of artifacts and the quality of the processing. With this definition. fully describe the WDR capacity. Axis’ latest solution is Wide Dynamic Range-dynamic capture.axis. which allow them to better handle difficult scenes. Axis recommends testing the cameras in the real environment before making a decision. Lobby with large windows. WDR-dynamic capture uses the latest developments in sensor technology.com/files/whitepaper/ wp_lighting_for_netvid_41222_en_1012_lo. however. 1:2000 The dimmest detectable level can be defined as the noise floor of the sensor pixel.com/files/whitepaper/ wp_light_sensitivity_41137_en_1011_lo.com.axis. The dB number cannot.pdf • Axis Communications – ‘CCD and CMOS sensor technology’. and the second picture was taken with a camera with a low dB value. a good image sensor can reach a dynamic range of about 70 dB. the most important question is: what do you want to see? And.pdf • Axis Communications – ‘Lighting for network video – Lighting design guide’. Useful links For more information.com Axis’ solution for wide dynamic range In 2011. Typical warehouse scene with door or opening to the sunlight outside. Illumination ratio 1:20 1:200 B: Window illumination indoor. how do you want to present the captured image? Conclusion There are many surveillance situations where there is great variation in light levels within the scene.Table 1. www. www. Some modern surveillance cameras use sensors with extended dynamic range. it is best to test them. image processing and Axis’ unique competence to build network cameras with WDR performance optimised for security and surveillance requirements. Figure 8 shows two other examples of pictures taken from a scene with wide dynamic range. it is important to know that the decibel unit is just an approximation of the dynamical capabilities of the camera. Image results from a WDR camera will differ depending on such aspects as the complexity of the scene and amount of movement. +27 (0)11 548 6780.
He continued: “An HD CCTV system does not have onboard analytics or storage and uncompressed video is sent in HD format to recorder to be captured and compressed. were analogue. but that there is still a long road for these systems to travel. overriding issues with HD CCTV: storage and lack of intelligence. you will need to change the recording platform. you get a realtime. This is because HD SDI (serial digital interface) is uncompressed video data that requires expanded amounts of storage. Bearing these factors in mind. uncompressed high definition picture. The problem is that HD over coax is not a cost-effective solution. combined with the lack of the majority of features of analogue or IP solutions. There are two main. and the technology on both ends of the solution needs to be compatible. “When you replace the existing camera with an HD solution. “HD CCTV is highdefinition over a coax cable. Is the positive buzz around HD CCTV cameras justified? Are they really the next best thing or just a passing craze? Is the positive buzz around high-definition CCTV (HDcctv or HD CCTV) cameras justified? Are they really the next best thing or just a passing craze? Tristram Borgmann.com .” said Oosthuizen. I do. “Until recently. where users are 38 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. This makes the system more expensive than analogue or even IP solutions where modular migration is possible. there is huge potential for HD CCTV. sales manager at Reditron. 80% of installations. In addition. that HD CCTV systems will become more intelligent and cost effective as the technology matures. In this arena. HD CCTV system installations require no training and no IT knowledge since anyone who can install an analogue system can readily install an HD CCTV system. believe however. with less than 12 cameras and within a range of 200 m.” According to MJ Oosthuizen.securitysa. as both camera and recording device need to be changed. believes that HD CCTV does offer definite advantages for the end-user. “Analogue is not yet dead. it’s a good idea to look at the client’s total solution rather than costing HD-SDI products individually.HIGH-DEFINITION/MEGAPIXEL HD CCTV – hype or reality? By Allyson Koekhoven.” Borgmann said that an increasing number of installers are becoming aware of the advantages of HD CCTV. account manager for Grundig.
within a single camera view of the HD-SDI DVR. on the other hand. if budgets permit.” “At least 65% of all analogue sales are for cameras that can record on a standard higher resolution DVR. PTZ dome. over long distances. thus placing it in a firm position to overtake the HD-SDI CCTV offering to the traditional market. However. retail shops. Users should be cautioned that they need to establish whether. cashier zones and banks. “The four channel. 8 and 16 channel DVRs. The four analogue video channels can be displayed in quad format.securitysa. it forms part of a hybrid solution.implementing HD CCTV into their existing analogue system. HD-SDI channel. Our larger system integrators. simple and cost effective. The demand for HD-SDI solutions are minor. “Each analogue channel is recorded as one quarter of the Full HD. This is especially true where it is critical to receive live pictures in areas like petrol stations. For more information on Grundig Security products contact +49 2191 374 9883 or visit www. explains. if they replace an existing camera. “The new 960H technology is fractionally more expensive than current standard 4CIF/D1 solutions but is higher-end analogue with built-in prediction capabilities. require a flexible solution that can be integrated into a feature-rich IP platform. Andreas Kronwald. 1920 x 1080p HD-SDI video channel. We have found that even in instances where there are requests for HD-SDI. but the offering on 960H platform or even D1.” Oosthuizen said. an 18x. streams four analogue D1 video channels into one. it will communicate with an HD-SDI system and assess the clients’ true requirement and budget. It allows installers to consider re-using existing analogue cameras and coaxial cabling within a new CCTV system. rather than a best-fit solution. the highest available for analogue video.” Borgmann concluded. analogue to HD-SDI converter makes upgrading existing analogue systems to HD-SDI quick. analogue to single channel HD-SDI converter to its HD-SDI product range. product manager at Grundig.com CCTV Handbook 2013 39 . The resulting video is of similar resolution to D1. Full HD. or each analogue channel can be displayed individually.grundig-security. the analogue cameras can be upgraded. if you need analytics or the installation is large. then IP is the route to go. Simple analogue upgrades Grundig has added a four channel.” Grundig’s full HD-SDI range includes a box camera. they are more focused on finding the most cost-effective solution. reducing costs. with IR LED options and true day/night functionality. fixed dome and vandal-resistant fixed dome. www. Oosthuizen added that installer education plays a large role in the system selection. perhaps in less critical positions on-site. The CVBS composite video converter.com. outdoor bullet. external. “Many installers do not understand the new technology. Later. is currently still popular and drives sales strongly.” said Oosthuizen. and 4. “HD CCTV is ideal where you need HD with awesome picture quality. GTH-C0041C.
Frame rates For video.com . and whether power will be create the image. etc. type of terminafootage. For example. Since each type of business varies. Cable selection and bandwidth go handin-hand. Considerations when selecting the Progressive scan cable media include number of cameras. used interlaced images to create megapixel distance to the server rooms. provides a powerful palette of imaging tools The HD standard requires that frames are for industry professionals. just less present will be lost. Until recently.1 megapixel). This is more expensive MJ Oosthuizen – Reditron better systems are a direct result of the superior but provides a much clearer and crisper image. It’s crystal clear that progressively scanned. the aspect ratio of viewing across multiple stations allows flexible HD cameras is 16:9 whereas other megapixel designs. 7. etc with the second frame Whether you prefer megapixel cameras or capture lines 2. per second. also weighed in on the 40 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. for example the US runs at 30 parameters. one second. Sub streams for Similar to the image size. 6. the format will need Image sizes to be updated to include higher and higher There are two main resolutions for the HD resolutions otherwise the extra detail possible at specification. This has largely been due to Frames per second (FPS) describes the number processing power available on IP cameras as of full video frames displayed or recorded within well as network restraints. his response on some of the differences between traditional HD and megapixel cameras. imaging possible with these high-resolution camera technologies. With HD televisions also conforming to the standard. At present. This can be manuits subset HD based on your specific needs. than 1 megapixel) and 1080p (1920×1080. the factured cheaply but often causes blurred wide range of high resolution cameras today images when fast-moving objects are in view.securitysa. Any one of these factors can be frame rates compared to low-resolution throttled back to reduce the network bandcameras. 5. applications. type of Megapixel camera manufacturers have often camera. Reditron’s MJ Oosthuizen commented that HD cameras are just a different form of megapixel cameras. frames per second while the UK runs at 25. there are three main fluctuating This is the biggest advantage to HD cameras factors that contribute to bandwidth hogging over megapixel cameras. These options provide system designers with a high degree of flexibility and Picture aspect ratios confidence in their designs. Conventional megapixel available today with selectable resolution and cameras often have a number of megapixel frame rates that are ideal for general surveillance resolutions to choose from.HIGH-DEFINITION/MEGAPIXEL High-deﬁnition vs megapixel Is there really a difference between high-definition (HD) cameras and megapixel devices? Is there really a difference between high-definition (HD) cameras and megapixel devices? We asked two technically-oriented people active in the CCTV camera industry to give us their opinion of the HD vs megapixel debate – if indeed there really is a debate. of an IP camera – frame rate. If IP camera manufacturers begin to adopt the HD format for their cameras. In the first frame. megapixel cameras. they caprunning through the cable (UTP). frames per second compared to 30 frames you can increase the resolution. while the highest resolution for reviewcameras offer a variety of formats such as 4:3. ing can be utilised through a distributed storage architecture. 4. location of the cameras (environment). high-end megapixel cameras can be up to around 8 megapixel. There’s a wide range of megapixel cameras 2. if you reduce the frame rate. such as frame rate. This essentially uses two frames to tion equipment. sometimes offering as low as four width. Why does the HD format exist? HD format was created to try and standardise the video transmissions of Miro comments Alex Bantjes. resolution and Alex Bantjes – Miro megapixel cameras have offered very low compression. The HD format has worked well in forcing camera manufacturers to increase processing power and the potential of their IP cameras but conversely it may also begin to limit the development of megapixel cameras. Below. video output can be made to any HDTV without cropping or resizing. ture lines 1. and vice versa. it The HD standard requires footage to be is important to determine what requirements are created at 25 or 30 frames per second dependneeded to sustain certain defined performance ing on location. 3. Miro’s brand manager for Vivotek. 720p (1280×720.
etc.3 megapixel) or higher.1 megapixel. For example.” High definition. Reditron www. These standards include image size. • Frame rate: 3-15 frames per second – can run up to 30fps on lower MP rated cameras. megapixel based system design allows for more flexible surveillance systems that can be viewed on many different types of devices at varying frame rates and resolutions. or HD. • Flexible resolutions: 1 to 10 megapixels (or more). there is in fact a distinct difference.HD/megapixel debate.9 megapixels. “High definition and megapixel are often mistakenly thought to be the same and the terms are used interchangeably. image resolutions. Definitions High-definition • Conforms better to multimedia systems. Although both terms are closely related. The term refers to any camera with a resolution of 1280x1024 (1. HD simply refers to a set of standards that are used to describe the image quality of a camera as displayed on a monitor.com CCTV Handbook 2013 41 . • 16:9 image format. • Maximum resolution: 2. measured by pixels of vertical resolution. HD on the other hand is often too restrictive to meet the requirements of today’s surveillance systems. • Flexible image formats: 4:3. The latest advanced technologies such as adaptive streaming. the description 720P refers to the horizontal resolution of the image (16:9) and the letter P indicates progressive scan. output streams are required in any number of aspect ratios. frame rates etc. • Progressive scanning: all lines in each frame are drawn in sequence. MJ Oosthuizen. where the frame rate is lowered when there is no motion in the image and then sped up to capture details of moving objects.securitysa. Bantjes says. • Two resolutions: HD (720p) and full HD (1080p). • Maximum resolution: 20 megapixels. • Frame rate: 25/30. Megapixel technology is much more flexible than HD in that each output stream can be defined to optimise video for slow transmission (such as the Internet) or smaller screens (table to cellphone). Megapixel • One million or more pixels of resolution. frame rate and scan type. Modern surveillance systems are not exclusively used to display images on monitors or television screens. In short. since 720P (1280x720) actually has an image of nine hundred thousand pixels or 0. will by definition not be available in an HD stream but only in megapixel. aspect ratio. 5:4. An image stream is defined as megapixel once the image exceeds a million pixels. is actually a result of the analogue broadcasting/CCTV camera industry. but resolution and image format choices are more limited. It should also be noted that the term 720P is not in fact the same as one megapixel.
with much higher resolutions. “With conventional One of the main arguments advanced by the defenders of high definicameras. HD cameras or megapixel cameras? wasted needlessly. the only way it stands apart from conventional cameras. and makes it posfewer details. But length. mulcompletely impossible to even tifocal sensor technology.com . the resolution drops off as distance increases. and individuals can be recognised. this information ing of the overall image or analysis also cannot be conjured out of in the past.HIGH-DEFINITION/MEGAPIXEL Deﬁne your deﬁnition Which surveillance option is best suited to today’s surveillance needs? The technological advances that have been made in the field of But real scenes seldom correspond to either of these two formats. The image is split efficiently without being capabilities. such as the sky. much less identify a impressively. locked into specific aspect ratios such as 16:9 or 4:3. so the infrastructure costs and subselong distances. since the resolution it offers is currently equivalent to about 32 times greater than a conventional HD camera. “Movies though they can reach higher or television series like CSI often pixel values than are possible with suggest to viewers that even HD cameras. but they quickly reach their limits precisely when it is important megapixel technology are in the to be able to recognise details field of static photography. the roots of options. past multiple cameras had to be With multifocal sensor systems all PTZ functions like panning and zooming are even available subsequently in the recording. which are equipped with system. for modern surveillance tasks. a new technology. so details are still clearly visible. They adapt the pixel for a whole range of hitherto inconceivable surveillance and analysis ratio to the situation at hand. team leader. that is not quent maintenance costs for multiple camera sites are enormous. In this and the question arose: Which are more suitable for professional video case. market a few years ago. in order to cover all areas of interest. explains Roland Meier.” So in order to obtain a single lens. megapixel cameras very soon reach “So you are aware that somethe limits of their capabilities in thing is happening here. the poorer the resolution is there. without being locked to given formats as 16:9 or 4:3. efficiently and analyse them sucbecause an HD or MP camera cessfully. other dimensions besides only represents a person at a disresolution are important. sible to record yet more information laterally as well. each of which has a different focal installed at different locations. Resolution on its own is not every“But pixels are still just pixels: thing. in the systems work with several lenses. Or to put it tion cameras is that HD uses the widescreen format with an aspect ratio another way: The farther a person or object is away from the camera of 16:9 compared with the 4:3 format of the megapixel cameras. person. it is often accepted that definition and megapixel cameras were introduced onto the market unimportant expanses. but it is these areas. Thus for example When the first HD and megapixel cameras were launched onto the aspect ratios like 5:1. This location. In order to be able to use the if there is no additional image With multifocal sensor systems the aspect ratio can be adapted to the images from surveillance cameras information present. This is where the new multifocal sensor technology can help. Whereas both HD and thin air after the fact. even even at long distances. network-based surveillance in the last few years are astounding. the multifocal sensor the desired information. Panomera Multifocal one point must be considered: Sensor Systems at Dallmeier. However. will be captured as well. even that discussion is already outdated: A new ing a scene for surveillance into a given format. On the other hand. so you are able to make out corresponds more closely to the human field of vision. blurry pictures can be transBut before any discussions formed into high-quality police begin as to whether HD or megawanted posters with just a few pixel cameras are more suitable clicks”.securitysa. not only close up but also at very at every individual installation site. preset aspect ratios. for example situation at hand. 10:1 or 3:4 can be used without any difficulty. known as multifocal sensor technology is paving the way systems there are no rigid. the camera can be adapted optimally to the area for surveilThe appropriate cabling for power supply and data transmission is needed lance. High However. 42 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. such as tance of 50 m with a collection effective image breakdown. Thanks to this new sensor this in turn involves higher costs: concept. pixels and the recording and storage capacity they take up are all surveillance. HD cameras are impressive Constant resolution over the entire object space because of a technology that is derived from the field of video – that It is true that HD and megapixel cameras use progressive resolution is to say relating to moving images. recordof coarse blocks. But there is a more elegant solution: instead of forcBut since then. It can be used from just a single instalEfficient image breakdown lation point to provide surveillance of a huge area. they were clearly superior to the predecessor SD cameras. And that is precisely the Unlike HD and megapixel objective of a professional video cameras. with multifocal sensor technology. performs recognise.
And if the operator is concentrating live on another area in the surveillance scene at the precise time. with the multifocal sensor system any number of users can connect to the camera and select their entirely individual views. and if an incident should occur at a given time. And finally: the recording takes place in the highest resolution.com . So if the user zooms in on a certain scene. “Even with PTZ cameras. Accordingly. This means: The video system runs. a multifocal sensor system always delivers total performance. Tilt and Zoom. This makes it possible to recognise people for example even from 160 m. unlike PTZ cameras multifocal sensor systems do not have any mechanical parts. So the resolution at 100 m is exactly as good as it is at 20 m. www. Meier explains: “Since the overall image was recorded at the highest possible resolution. this is not possible.” For more information contact Dallmeier Southern Africa Office. www. “Moreover. This opens up a wide range of analysis options. the solution is available with multifocal sensor systems. “Those are three important points straight away: the whole picture is recorded. In contrast. in the recording. And there is another advantage: Whereas with PTZ cameras only one operator can have control over the camera at a time. so no details are lost in the recording. Any additional incidents in the viewing range of the PTZ camera are lost and cannot be analysed or proven subsequently. not subsequently. since the whole picture (permanent and overall) is constantly recorded in the highest resolution.“In contrast. it is an essential requirement of modern surveillance systems that they are also able to zoom or pan even in the recordings. as described previously. Consequently. the entire incident will not be seen on the video images. which were simply not possible with the prior technology. “So video surveillance becomes a game of chance in the truest sense of the word. dallmeiersa@dallmeier. For example. the surveillance system is only as good as the user who is operating it.” states Meier. so no areas are lost.dallmeier. So in theory it would be possible to use these cameras to watch over a relatively large area and to pan or zoom to a location of interest if the need arises. With conventional HD or MP equipment. so there are no gaps in time. if you want to identify a car thief in a car park with a PTZ camera you would have had to zoom onto the car in question before the theft took place. +27 (0)11 979 4540.com. most analyses take place in the past. so constant resolution can be guaranteed over the entire area under surveillance. because all PTZ functions are fully available even in the past – even as the system continues recording images live. But PTZ cameras do have one critical disadvantage: They only ever record what the operator is currently seeing live. Permanent recording of the total picture in highest resolution Those who have no desire to install multiple conventional cameras over the area in question. it is only this scene that will be recorded. This total picture is recorded all the time. even if the operator is currently concentrating on a smaller inset. which extends the equipment’s operating life significantly.” says Meier. Analysis in the past Seeing live images from the surveillance cameras is one thing – but with professional video security systems. in order to record the crime in adequate resolution. can use PTZ cameras.” he adds.” says Meier. the recordings are searched later in order to reconstruct the course of events and identify the individuals responsible.com CCTV Handbook 2013 43 . a multifocal sensor system uses different lenses. As their name suggests. it is also possible to move within the image and to zoom in on pertinent details.securitysa. these cameras can Pan. these functions are only possible in live mode. So how likely is it that you would just happen to catch someone in the act like that?” Here too. so there is no wear.
however. 44 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. software and services. If you want to gain the value and returns possible from a good surveillance system. installer or integrator. When this happens it’s usually the camera that gets the blame. we already have 20 pages of options to choose from. Put them all together and you’re away. network. management system and so on. but for 2013 we have moved it to the CCTV Handbook to ensure the products highlighted have year-round visibility. but most often it’s a problem in one of the other areas. One bad link. but also the right advice. This is the second time Hi-Tech Security Solutions is running this guide.securitysa. but we’ve tried to highlight the main areas buyers will focus on. One of the issues highlighted in many places in this year’s handbook is that a surveillance solution requires more than a good camera. we have also opened the door to software and services to provide insight into other critical areas of a surveillance solution. We have also included the contact details of the various suppliers in case you want to find out more. Instead of only highlighting different cameras (although these are by far the majority of the entries). Now if we could get all our installers and integrators skilled up and registered. we couldn’t tell you everything about each camera or system listed. This guide has also been slightly expanded. South Africa has an almost endless al array of local and international options to choose from when it comes to surveillance products. One thing is sure. Welcome to the Surveillance Selection Guide 2013.CAMERA SELECTION GUIDE An option for every requirement The Surveillance Selection Guide 2013 is your one-stop shop for cameras. and the chain is broken. plan. you need to ensure you have the right camera. the surveillance market would be a shining light in the security industry as a whole.com . As is always the case.
com CCTV Handbook 2013 45 .www.securitysa.
WDR. MJPEG Description: Real-time Full HD video (1080p/30) using the H. HD (up to 1080p). The motor-driven megapixel vari-focal lens (F1. +27 (0)11 830 2688. camera name. L L sync. monitor type. +27 (0)11 830 2688. The basic version with 4 IP based video channels can be expanded by up to 20 further IP channels using a licence code. 3D DNR. exposure. image freeze etc.za 46 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. indoor box IR and indoor dome IR as well. Features automatic Day/Night operation supported by integrated ambient light sensing. 1pc third generation LED array.264. The camera comes with an LED array which has the smart IR function. MPEG-4.8 – 11 mm) is adjustable via Web browser. FC & ROHS Description: This is a wide dynamic range 700 TV line infrared bullet camera.com . indoor dome and outdoor vari-focal dome as well. day night setting. e-mail and FTP image upload.com Category: Analogue WDR 700 TV line bullet camera mera Brand/Range name: KEEPER CCTV V Supplier: Vision Consulting lting Camera name: VCIR3160WDR R Resolution: 700TVL Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes. which supports smart IR technology ( at night if a person approaches the camera the light will lessen so the face can be detected). MJPEG • Resolution SD (up to D1). high quality IR cut filter. HD (720p. dallmeiersa@dallmeier. Alarm notification via DaVid protocol. live display and playback with SMAVIA Viewing Client or via Ethernet (LAN / WAN) • One access licence for SMAVIA Viewing Client included (basic licence) • Video compression H. Comprehensive set of automatic image optimisation functions. low-light. integrated IR illumination IP Network Box Camera Brand/Range name: Dallmeier Supplier: DF4910HD-DN/IR Camera name: Resolution: SD (up to D1). OSD menu containing. Effects (digital zoom. Variations in range: The WDR series comes in a box type. white balance. automatic. ECLPS function. 3MP) Auto/Manual focus: Motor-driven (controllable via Web browser) Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Motion detection with selectable sensitivity. a removable IR cut filter and an integrated homogeneous IR illumination (semi-covert 850 nm high power LEDs). It has a single LED array. privacy masking. Contact: Ebrahim Choonara. Variations in range : The DIS range comes in a bullet IR. Standards supported: CE. with 600 TVL DIS Chipset. waterproof IP66.FC & ROHS Description: The DIS range has a new design. weatherproof Night 3MP. stabiliser. dallmeier. also supports OSD menu and has an 8 x digital zoom capability.co.com dallmeiersa@dallmeier. megapixel (up to 8 MP) • Recording of RTSP cameras optional • Compatible with management system SeMSy III • Configuration and recording of ONVIF compliant cameras in preparation • Connection to Active Directory via LDAP supported • Motion detection and SmartFinder for Dallmeier IP cameras • PRemote-HD in real-time Availability: Standalone: SMAVIA Recording Server (for Windows 7) Package: Preinstalled on SMAVIA Appliances (DMS 2400. BLC . Standards supported: H. sales@viscon. language. +27 (0)83 460 8015. 3. +27 (0)83 460 8015.securitysa.264 standard.264. streams designed designed i d for f the recording of IP-based installation on systems with Windows 7 operating system and suitable hardware equipment. 2MP.co. DLS 1600.) Standards supported: CE.).CAMERA SELECTION GUIDE Category: proof IP.264.com C Category: A Analogue 600 TV line D Camera DIS B Brand/Range name: K Keeper CCTV S Supplier: Vision Consulting Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: 5 VCDi 3155 nes 600 TV lines ocus Manual focus No Yes. 40M IR range. MJPEG Contact: Riaan Kruger. 1080p. excellent day & night picture. Day/Night switching.0 / 2.za Name of software: SMAVIA Recording Server Description: VideoIP server software for the d audio and video streams. IPS 2400) Cost: On request Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent application Standards the software adheres to: H. Variations in range: None Contact: Riaan Kruger. MPEG-4. Special (motion detection.6mm lens. all having the same functionality. sales@viscon. Features/functionality: • Up to 24 video channels (SD-IP / HD-IP) • Simultaneous real-time recording and real-time streaming • Simultaneous remote access. lens control. Contact: Ebrahim Choonara.
264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • 25/30fps@1080P (1920×1080) • DWDR. AWB. AWB.6mm fixed lens • White LEDs length 10m • PIR sensor range 6m • Micro SD memory Wi-Fi Variations in range: Micro SD memory. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer.com CCTV Handbook 2013 47 . speed up. Max 32GB Onboard intelligence : No Standards supported: ONVIF Ver.3 MP Auto/Manual focus: Auto/manual focus Onboard storage: Yes. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3. PoE Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer.2. Windows Phone and BlackBerry. CMS(DSS/PSS) & DMSS firstname.lastname@example.orgMP Auto/Manual focus: Auto/manual manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: ONVIF Ver. 6mm. support remote control Dahua devices.com www. 8mm optional) • Max. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS Contact: overseas@dahuatech. PoE Variations in range: 3. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer.securitysa. Wi-Fi.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max email@example.com fixed lens (2.3 megapixel progressive scan Aptina CMOS • H.8mm. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS Contact: overseas@dahuatech. 2DNR. PoE (802.Digital Mobile Surveillance Software(DMSS) f Dahua Surveillance Software DMSS.2.0 Cost: Free/charged Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent application Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org • 1/3-inch 2 megapixel progressive scan Exmor CMOS • H.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 15fps@1. supports Android. Day/Night.3M (1280×960) & 25/30fps@720P (1280×720) • Day/Night (ICR).6mm. 2. 6mm.3af). Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. AGC. 2DNR. AGC. iOS. IR LEDs Length 20m • IP66.0 Description: • 1/3-inch 1. 8mm optional) • Max. • Favourite group • Relay out function • Device & channel configuration setting Availability: iOS v4. symbian.3 megapixel Aptina CMOS • H.com Name of f software: f Description/purpose: Category: IP Brand/Range ge name: Dahua Technology Supplier: Dahua Technology nology Camera name: DH-IPC-HDW2100 W2100 Resolution: 1. Auto iris.com Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Category: IP Brand/Range name: Dahua Technology Supplier: Dahua Technology Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Model: DH-IPC-HFW3200S 2 megapixel Auto/manual focus No No ONVIF Ver. AGC. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3. AWB. single frame play function in the playback panel • Emap view • Colour setting • Image playback function.0 Description: • 1/3-inch 1. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 6mm fixed lens (3. Day/Night (ICR).6mm fixed lens (2. 2DNR. Android v3. Features/functionality: • Individual menu selection • Add devices through DDNS • Alarm push function • Recording locally in Live preview and playback • Implement slow down. 8mm optional).8mm. IR LEDs Length 20m • IP66. DC12V. Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer.3M (1280×960)/25/ 30fps@720P (1280×720) • DWDR.3.IPC-K100/ K100A / K100W Resolution: 1.com IP Dahua Technology Dahua Technology Model: DH.
264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding and JPEG image capture • Max 25/30fps@1080p resolution • WDR (DWDR).CAMERA SELECTION GUIDE Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: IP Dahua Technology Dahua Technology Model: DH-IPC-HFW3200C 2 megapixel Manual Yes. PoE PoE (802. Wi-F i (-W only) • SD memory Variations in range: CC470 Dahua IP camera 1/2. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS uatech. Day/Night (ICR). IP Filter. +27 (0)11 553 3300. RTP.0 • 1/3-inch 2 megapixel progressive scan Exmor CMOS • H. PoE Variations in range: CC432 Dahua IP camera 1/3-inch 1.com . AGC. Bonjour Description: • 1/3-inch 1. Day/Night (ICR). +27 (0)11 553 3300. DNR (2D&3D). QoS. RTSP. max 32GB Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: IPv4/IPv6. NTP.3 megapixel progressive scan Aptina CMOS • H.0M (2048×1536) & 25/30fps @1080P (1920×1080) • DWDR. QoS. 8mm optional) • Max.0 megapixel Sony Exmor CMOS Professional 1080 Resolution: 3. DDNS. AWB. IGMP.BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. ICMP. DDNS. +27 (0)11 553 3300. 360° endless pan rotation • Up to 255 presets. SNMP. HTTPS. info@ipsecuritysolutions. DNS.0 megapixel Sony Exmor CMOS Professional 1080 Contact: Mel Labuschagne.co.7mm ~ 94. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • Max 240°/s pan speed. UPnP.3–12mm vari-focal lens • Built-in 2/1 alarm in/out • Max. HTTPS. UDP. FTP. DHCP. Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. FTP. NTP.za C Category: B Brand/Range name: Su Supplier: IP Dahua ty IP Security s Solutions C hua Camera name: CC434 Dahua IP camera Re pixel Resolution: 1. Day/Night (ICR).Auto iris. email@example.com & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • 25/30fps@1080P (1920×1080) • DWDR. SMTP.com overseas@dahuatech. SSL. DNS. IR LEDs length 20m • Micro SD memory. PPPOE. ICMP.2.za IP Dahua IP Security Solutions P Camera Camera name: CC465 Dahua IP Resolution: 2.za 48 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. SSL. PPPOE. max 32GB Onboard intelligence: No P. IR LEDs Length 20m • IP66. NTP. DHCP. TCP/IP. UDP. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • Built-in 1/1 alarm in/out • PoE (not for –W series). SNMP.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 15fps@1. IGMP.8-inch 3 megapixel progressive scan Exmor CMOS • H. 2DNR. IP Filter. . ICMP. Bonjour Description: • 4. 5 auto scan.com tegory: Category: and/Range name: Brand/Range Supplier: Camera name: IP Dahua IP Security Solutions CC471 Dahua IP camera 1/2. AWB.co. UDP. Bonjour Description: • 1/2.264 Dome Contact: Mel Labuschagne. DNS. max 32GB Micro SD. RTP. UPnP. 2DNR. TCP/IP. DHCP. DDNS. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. Standards supported: IPv4/IPv6.0mm (20x) optical zoom • H.8mm. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3. SMTP. SMTP. RTP. RTSP. IP Filter.6mm fixed lens (2. HTTP.3 megapixel A ocus Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus O Onboard storage: No O Onboard intelligence: No St Standards supported: IPv4/IPv6.8-inch 3. 8 tour. AWB.8-inch 2. Auto iris. Auto focus. IGMP.3 megapixel CMOS 3. IP66. HTTP. RTSP. PPPOE. AGC. HTTPS. 6mm. QoS.0 megapixel Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: Micro SD.0 megapixel Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: Micro SD. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3. TCP/IP. SSL. SNMP. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. AGC.co.6mm Mini Indoor Dome.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 20fps@3. 2DNR. UPnP. MP. FTP. 5 pattern • IR LEDs up to 100m Variations in range: CC464 Dahua IP Camera PTZ 20x 2 MP Full HD H.securitysa. max 32GB ONVIF Ver. HTTP. AGC.3M (1280×960) & 25/30fps @720P (1280×720) • Day/Night (ICR). 720p Contact: Mel Labuschagne. AWB.3af). info@ipsecuritysolutions. P. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer.
0M (2048×1536) &25/30fps@1080P (1920×1080) • DWDR. IGMP. ICMP. PoE Variations in range: CC418 Dahua IP camera 1/2.3 megapixel Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: IPv4/IPv6. DDNS. +27 (0)11 553 3300.3~12mm vari-focal lens • Built-in 2/1 alarm in/out • Max. AGC.co. DHCP.Category: egory: Brand/Range nd/Range name: Supplier: plier: Camera name: IP Dahua IP Security Solutions CC418-1 Dahua IP camera 1/2. IP Filter.3 megapixel Aptina CMOS 20m IR Bullet 720p Resolution: 1. SNMP. info@regalsecurity. QoS. +27 (0)11 553 3300. DHCP. Bonjour Description: • 1/2. BLC PAL video standard Indoor dome camera. SMTP. ATW. SSL. AGC. N/A Mel Labuschagne. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. TCP/IP. AGC. Bonjour Description: • 1/3” 1. RTSP. DNS. RTSP. AWB. ICMP. UDP. 8mm optional) • Max. NTP.za IP Dahua IP Security Solutions CC417 DAHUA IP CAMERA 1/3” 1.za Category: ory: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue nalogue Dahua ahua Regal gal Security CC280 280 600TVL Fixed focus No Standard DSP with AGC. FTP. HTTPS.securitysa. IR LEDs length 20m • IP66. IR LEDs length 20m • Micro SD memory.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 20fps@3. RTP. 2DNR.0 megapixel Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: Micro SD. DNS. SNMP. HTTP.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 15fps@1. IP Filter. QoS. HTTPS. PoE Variations in range: None Contact: Mel Labuschagne. Auto iris.8-inch 3 megapixel progressive scan Exmor CMOS • H. SSL. PPPOE. BLC PAL video standard 50 metre infrared HDIS camera with 6mm lens. 2DNR. UDP. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. UPnP.za www.8-inch 2. DDNS. ATW and BLC.co. firstname.lastname@example.org megapixel Sony Exmor CMOS IR 30M vari-focal Resolution: 3. NTP. FTP. info@regalsecurity. IGMP. UPnP. 3.0 megapixel Sony Exmor CMOS IR 30M vari-focal Contact: Mel Labuschagne. AWB.za Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue Dahua Regal Security CC270 600TVL Fixed focus No Standard DSP with AGC.6mm fixed Lens (6mm. TCP/IP. +27 (0)11 553 3300.3Megapixel progressive scan Aptina CMOS • H. RTP.co.6mm fixed lens with 600TVL HDIS chip and DSP that supports AGC. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3.3M (1280×960) & 25/30fps@ 720P (1280×720) • Day/Night (ICR). +27 (0)11 553 3300. SMTP. Day/Night (ICR). N/A Mel Labuschagne.com CCTV Handbook 2013 49 . info@ipsecuritysolutions. max 32GB Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: IPv4/IPv6. PPPOE. Weatherproof IP66 housing with bracket. ATW and BLC. ATW. HTTP. IP66.co.8-inch 3.
0 megapixel vandal dome camera Resolution: 2 MP – 1600x1200 Auto/Manual focus: Auto iris.1x. 8 tours. SMTP. HTTPS. network disconnect. DDNS. The SD6436-H feature ¼-inch Super HAD CCD II. FTP. to provide the reliable video surveillance that’s needed in large outdoor sites. DNS. DDNS. 1-ch 3. SMTP. CR. TCP/IP. true Day/Night Infra-red.co.za rudieo@pinnacle. AGC. Variations in range: Standard on this model: 2 alarm in. PPPoE. 600 Ω) Contact: Rudie Opperman PinnSec / Devtrade Distribution +27 (0)21 550 0247 e. IPv6 optional) A small discreet vandal proof mini dome camera with fixed lens. 2. This model includes a cable managed bracket and sun shield for all weather conditions. NTP. network disconnect ONVIF. Maximum IR distance is over 60m. PSIA. 5 auto scan. DNR. HTTPS. Continuous pan rotation to 360º and tilt movement to 90º. IPv6 optional) Description: An all-purpose outdoor cylindrical camera with IR illumination and a vari-focal lens.co. NTP.802. SNMP. tampering alarm. CGI.5mm audio out (line level. 802. 5 patterns Standards supported: DH-SD. DNS. PPPoE. CGI. PSIA. Up to 24 different sized privacy zones. RTSP.7-9mm @F1.1x. FTP. SIP. DHCP. vari-focal cylindrical camera Brand/Range name: DS-2CD8253F-EI Supplier: Hikvision Camera name: IR Bullet Camera Resolution: 2 MP – 1600x1200 Auto/Manual focus: Auto iris 2. DS-2CD7153-E (2 MP option) DS-2CD7133-E (VGA option) Rudie Opperman PinnSec / Devtrade Distribution +27 (0)21 550 0247 rudieo@pinnacle. SRTP.co. Support a one cabled solution with POE. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Rudie Opperman PinnSec / Devtrade Distribution +27 (0)21 550 0247 email@example.com. CGI. DNS.2 Onboard storage: Built-in SD/SDHC slot. The SD6436-H can also be controlled remotely via RS-485. AWB. storage exception Standards supported: ONVIF. PSIA. NTP(SNMP. RTP. RTP/RTSP. TCP/IP. HTTPS (SIP. SRTP. built-in Web server. This camera is versatile with its adjustable lens and would fit into a professional setup because of the onboard storage and supported protocols. Very cost effective and perfect for retail surveillance and similar well lit conditions. HTTP. Pelco-P/D. storage exception Standards supported: ONVIF.5 mm audio MIC IN / LINE IN 1-ch 3. tampering alarm. IPv6 optional) Description: A well balanced mini dome HD camera for multi-purpose indoor surveillance. up to 32 GB Onboard intelligence: Motion detection. RTSP. 255 presents.za Indoor 2 megapixel vari-focal me infra-red mini dome Brand/Range name: DS-2CD753F-EI Supplier: Hikvision d l Infra-red f d network k Camera name: 2. Surprisingly good image quality and unrivalled in its price range. QoS. Support 1 cabled installation with POE.za 50 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. RTP.2 Onboard storage: No Onboard Intelligence: Motion detection. IP address conflict.7-9mm @F1. BLC.securitysa.CAMERA SELECTION GUIDE Category: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: mi ini i Dome Dome camera with 4mm 4m lens Indoor mini DS-2CD7164-E Hikvision Mini dome 1. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Elvey Security Technology Tasha Smith. ICR. SNMP.com . SRTP. 2 alarm out. DDNS. DHCP. FTP. WDR. TCP/IP.za t Category: Analogue Dahua Elvey Security y Technologies Camera name: DH-SD6436 network IR PTZ dome camera Resolution: 600TVL 25/ 30fps@D1 Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Advance DSP. IP address conflict.1x. network disconnect.co. SMTP. +27 (0)11 401 6700 tasha. Integrated day-and-night with 36X optical zoom. Qos (SIP. PPPoE.za Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: O td t D /Ni ht I f d Outdoor. DHCP.smith@elvey. B. HTTP. HTTP. 802.3 MP – HD720p Manual No Motion. auto recognition of general protocols Description: SD6436-H is based on 600TVL.
DNR (digital noise reduction). privacy zone selectable. anti-headlight. 16mm Lens IR Distance = 60m. NTSC: 510(H) X 492(V). Digital image stabiliser. Standards supported: IP66.5mm/f9~22mm). E-zoom function (1~256x). The camera’s 26X optical zoom and 15 privacy zones. motion adaptive digital noise reduction (3DNR) technology. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Elvey Security Technology Tasha Smith. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Crown Hyperworld. 600 TVL (television lines). IP66 rated for outdoor and indoor use. 8 tours and 8 pattern modes.co. B B/W:700TVL A Auto/Manual focus: Auto N No Onboard storage: Y Sony S WDR Wide Wid Dynamic D i Range R e.8~9.3 MP (1280×960). PAL: 500(H) X 582(V). no need to run a separate power wire.za Category: Analogue Dual CCD with 600TVL Brand/Range name: Trend Tech Supplier: Crown Hyper Camera name: TT-65 Resolution: 600 Auto/Manual focus: N/A Onboard storage: N/A Onboard Intelligence: N/A Standards supported: PAL Description: 1/3-inch Sony CCD (Colour).com CCTV Handbook 2013 51 .co. This camera also features PoE to allow for single cable connection. Automatic Gain Control WDR.smith@elvey. Effio WDR. Onboard intelligence: Yes. Standards supported: Conforms to the ONVIF standard. SBLC (super backlight compensation). Powerful 512X WDR (54dB. BLC. Digital Noise Reduction. and WDR.za www. Sense Up. 680TVL. Colour. 1. +27 (0)11 830 1452 sales@crownhyperworld. including 8 auto scan modes. +27 (0)11 401 6700 tasha.3 Megapixel Aptina CMOS image sensor is capable of HD Resolution up to 1.co.za Category: IP Camera Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Category: Analogue Brand/Range name: Shany Supplier: lo ogies Elvey Security Technologies M MTC-WDL713EF-C Camera name: C Resolution: Colour: 680TVL. 0. High Light Compensation. CMS (PSS/DSS) and DMSS. Super Back Light Compensation. Built-in aspherical D/N Lens (f3. Tasha Smith. IEC 60529 (2002). 600 TVL. +27 (0)11 401 6700 tasha. flickerless On/Off. Variations in range: Lens Option: Default: 6mm (3. 1/3-inch Sony (B/W).Dahua Elvey Security Technologies IPC-HFW2100P 720p (1280x720). Sense Up (512x). D1 (704x576 / 704x480) Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: Yes Onboard intelligence: Built-in Web server. Standards supported: N/A Description: 1/3-inch car licence plate pro camera (Sony Effio WDR). 0. privacy zone selectable. Flickerless On/Off. Description: 26X optical zoom. digital image stabiliser. NVR. Advanced motion detection function. 360-degrees of rotation.za Category: Analogue Brand/Range name: Bosch Supplier: Elvey Security Technologies es Camera name: VEZ-413-EWCS Resolution: 600 TVL Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: No Onboard Intelligence: Mechanical D/N filter.0001Lux (IR LEDs on at 2 Lux). Maximum pan range of 360°/s and prepositioned pan speed of 360°/s and offers up to 210 firstname.lastname@example.org /8mm optional) PoE Contact: Elvey Security Technology Tasha Smith. Description: With a 6mm lens this high-definition IP camera with a 1/3-inch 1. B/W:700TVL. high light compensation.securitysa. IEC 60529 (2001). Mechanical D/N Filter. 2D/3D noise reduction.2 (LED OFF). water resistance: IP66 Variations in range: N/A Contact: Elvey Security Technology.3 MP (1280x960). high resolution 600TV lines.5 Lux/F1. mechanical IR cut filter.smith@elvey. +27 (0)11 401 6700 tasha. quadrangle mosaic privacy mask. Range. 0 Lux (LED on).co.
auto white balancing. auto white balancing. RS-485. +27 (0)11 830 1452 email@example.com. dynamic noise reduction 2D. wide dynamic range. 4-9mm Manual VF Lens. IP66. backlight compensation.1LUX. auto gain control.6mm / 6mm Lens. motion detection.co. on screen display. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 firstname.lastname@example.org. PAL 4mm / 6mm / 8mm. auto iris control. backlight compensation. IP66. 30m night vision @ 0 LUX. LED array and 25M IR distance. IP66. backlight compensation. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Crown Hyperworld.CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE Category: Analogue A l 700TVL. face list. privacy masking. 4-9mm Brand/Range name: Trend Tech Supplier: Crown Hyper Camera name: TT_VD230 Resolution: 700TVL Auto/Manual focus: Manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: PAL Description: 1/3-inch Sony CCD 700TVL.co. auto gain control. vandal-proof casing. DNR.co. face detection. auto face detection. dynamic face zoom.za Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue ZK – SIR222 ZKTeco IR bullet 420TVL / 752x582 Manual No No IP66. 30m @ 0. OSD.001 LUX. white balance and mirror function. OSD operation function.za Category: gory: y: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera Name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue a ogue ZK-SMD222 ZKTeco IR dome 700TVL / 1020x596 (Effio-E) Manual No No PAL 3. vandal proof dome. wide dynamic range.za Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range : Contact: Analogue ZK-SIR283F ZKTeco Dot Matrix Face 650TVL / 752x582 Auto No Yes. RS-485.za 52 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. DNR3D. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. PAL Wide dynamic range.6/6mm lens option. 25m night vision @ 0. privacy masking. HDNR. 3.com . auto gain. on screen display.
BLC. backlight compensation.za : Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue ZK-SIR283 ZKTeco Dot Matrix 1 700TVL / 1020x596 (Effio-E) Manual No No IP66. auto white balancing. wide dynamic range. dynamic noise reduction 2D.Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue ZK-SIR288 ZKTeco Dot Matrix 4 700TVL / 1020x596 (Effio-E) Manual No No IP66. wide dynamic range.001 LUX. backlight compensation.co. 10x optical zoom. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. privacy masking. on screen display. PAL 12mm/16mm. PAL 6mm / 8mm / 12mm. 12V DC power.001 LUX.za C Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: A l Analogue ZK-SIR285 ZKTeco Dot Matrix 2 700TVL / 1020x596 (Effio-E) Manual No No IP66. on screen display.za ory: Category: Rang ge name: Brand/Range er: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue ZK-SSD ZKTeco IR PTZ 650TVL / 1020x596 Auto No No PAL. wide dynamic range. 80m night vision @ 0. privacy masking.5mm – 55mm Lens. Pelco-D. dynamic noise reduction 2D. auto white balancing. RS-485. 50m night vision @ 0.za www. auto gain control N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 email@example.com LUX. on screen display. auto white balancing. Pelco-P 5.co.com CCTV Handbook 2013 53 .securitysa.co. PAL 4mm / 8mm / 16mm. 30m night vision @ 0. IP66. dynamic noise reduction 2D. IP66. 255 presets. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. bac light compensation. 10 – 20m @ 0 LUX. auto white balancing. IP66. privacy masking. auto gain control. RS-485. 360° Infinity Pan. RS-485. RS-485 N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 firstname.lastname@example.org. auto gain control.
32 GB No ONVIF 4 – 9mm vari-focal lens.264 MPL3. BiDi audio. PoE.CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP ZK-NVR ZKTecoSA NV 720P @ 25fps Yes – 10TB N PAL. RJ45 Input (10/100). USB for backup and mouse control.co. H. motion detection.264 MPL3.za 54 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. bi-directional audio. 20m night vision @ 0LUX. dual stream.za Category: Cat Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP ZK – IP 3 ZKTeco Box IP 720P / 1280x720 Manual Yes – SD.securitysa. DDNS. 4 channel / 8 channel Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 59 1047 0 andrew@zkteco. HDMI. Pelco-P. Pelco-D H. auto IR cut filter. 15 ~ 30m night vision @ 0 LUX.711. IP66 6mm /12mm fixed lens. dual stream. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. auto redundancy recording.co. auto redundancy recording. PoE. VGA.za C egory: gory: Category: B d/R Brand/Range name: S Supplier: C Camera name: R Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP ZK – IR 3 ZKTeco IR Bullet IP 720P / 1280x720 Manual Yes – TF 32 GB No ONVIF.com . H.264 MPL3. motion detection. G. motion detection. alarm input and output.za Category: : Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP P4 ZK – IP o ZKTeco P Cube IP 720P / 1280x720 Manual Yes – TF 32 GB No ONVIF 6mm fixed lens. CVBS. eSATA. wide dynamic range.co. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. dual stream. IP66. onboard bi-directional audio. alarm input + output.za w@zkteco. BNC Spot. PoE. H. wide dynamic range. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. RS-485 for PTZ control.264. auto redundancy recording.co. wide dynamic range.co. RS485. auto IR cut filter.
Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description:
Variations in range : Contact:
IP P ZK K – MD 3 ZKTeco ZK KTeco IR R Dome IP 720P 20P / 1280x720 Auto Au uto Yes – TF 32 GB No ONVIF, IP66 4 – 9mm vari-focal lens, H.264 MPL3, dual stream, wide dynamic range, bi-directional audio, PoE, motion detection, 15 ~ 20m night vision @ 9LUX, auto redundancy recording, auto IR cut filter, IP66, RS-485, alarm input + output. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 email@example.com
Category: Ca C Brand/Range name: Bra B Supplier: Su S Camera name: Ca C Resolution: Re R Auto/Manual focus: Au A Onboard storage: On O Onboard intelligence: On O Standards supported: Sta S Description: De D
Variations in range : Contact:
IP ZK – MD4 ZKTeco Mini Dome IP 720P / 1280x720 0 Manual Yes – TF 32 GB No ONVIF 6mm fixed lens, H.264 H 264 MPL3, MPL3 dual d l stream, t wide dynamic range, bi-directional audio, PoE, motion detection, auto redundancy recording. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 firstname.lastname@example.org
Name of software: ZKiVision Description/purpose: IVision Software is used to view all ZK cameras, DVRs and NVRs in an easy to use, one seat software. Features/functionality: iVision brings great functionality to the market. The key feature of iVision is the facial recognition analytics. Paired with this is the ability to compare these recognised faces to a black list. Another key feature is the linkage ZKTeco have introduced which allows it to combine access control features like granting access to a facility based on their face as the credential. With the blacklist active, alarms and/or events can be generated. Some other features regarded as industry standard are also present, like Emap, independent 4-zone motion detection, backup scheduling, full camera control including PTZ control, footage history searching and camera setting manipulation. Footage history can also be searched by facial events using the relevant search filters. Availability: Available with any ZK surveillance product Cost: No per channel fee, but there is a charge for advanced analytics functionality such a facial recognition. Runs in browser or as an independent application? This software is a standalone application Standards the software adheres to: N/A Contact: Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 email@example.com
Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard Intelligence:
IP 3 IP. 3.1 1 megapixel/high definition/digital definition/digital Pelco Sarix Pelco Sarix IX30 IP Camera Up to 3.1 megapixel resolution (2048 x 1536) Auto back focus Local storage (micro SD) for alarm capture Yes, camera sabotage detects contrast changes in the field of view. Adaptive motion detection tracks objects that enter the field of view. Standards supported: TCP/IP, UDP/IP (unicast, multicast IGMP), UPnP, DNS, DHCP, RTP, RTSP, NTP, IPv4, SNMPþv2c/v3, QoS, HTTP, HTTPS, LDAP (client), SSH, SSL, SMTP, FTP, and 802.1x (EAP) Description: The Sarix IX30 is a 3.1 megapixel, day/night camera with advanced lowlight technology and a mechanical IR cut filter for increased sensitivity in low-light installations. Sarix technology defines the next generation of video security imaging performance, delivering high definition (HD) resolution, advanced low light capabilities, consistent colour science, and fast processing power. The H.264 compression video files are considerably smaller, making HD video more affordable. Variations in range: The IX30 support two simultaneous video streams. The two streams can be compressed in MJPEG and H.264 formats across several resolution configurations. The IX30 features built-in Power over Ethernet (PoE) IEEE 802.3af, which supplies power to the camera over the network, eliminating the need for a separate power supply. If PoE is not available, 24 VAC can be used to power the camera. Contact: Abie Ali, +27 (0)11 496 2300, firstname.lastname@example.org
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CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE
Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description:
Variations in range: Contact:
Analogue ZK-DV ZKTeco DVR CIF @ 400fps / DI @ 50fps N/A Yes, 5 TB No PAL H.264, G711, RCA audio output, audio input, VGA + BNC video out, video backup, RJ45 Out, USB mouse + backup ports, mobile preview support, DDNS support, RS-485 for PTZ control, 4ch, 8ch, 16ch N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 email@example.com
Category: IP. 3.1 megapixel/ high definition Brand/Range name: X-Gen IP Supplier: Gen Security Camera name: Resolution:
GEN HD IP 3 megapixel i l IR outdoor d camera Up to 3.1 megapixel resolution, 2144(H) x1588(V) Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes, this latest line includes the latest WDR (Wide Dynamic Range). These cameras are progressivescanning to handle moving objects. Standards supported: TCP/IP, UDP/IP, RTP, RTSP, RTCP, NTP, HTTP, DHCP, FTP, SMTP, DNS, DDNS. Streaming RTP over RTSP, Unicast RTP, Multicast RTP, ONVIF ver2.0 support, DDNS A&T DDNS support (iplinker.net) Description: GEN HD IP camera has a resolution of 2144 x 1588 and is almost 10X better than an image of D1(704 x 480i) which is the max resolution of an analogue camera recorded DVR. It has the best sensitivity in the world with 0.0002lux. Sens-up 60X in B/W with an HD image sensor and various streaming. Variations in range: Various streaming: H.264 /MPEG4 /MJPEG triplex streaming (Individual streaming simultaneously). Contact: Abie Ali, +27 (0)11 496 2300, firstname.lastname@example.org
Name of software: ROM – Retail Operations Management Description/purpose: ROM is a software package designed for Retail Operations Management. It uses existing cameras, traditionally used for loss control, for the dual purpose of operational management. This is done by using video analytics to monitor queues and customer flow through the retail operation. Features/functionality: ROM consists of three function modules. CPM is the Cashier Performance Monitoring module which monitors the performance of the cashiers and scores them relative to a performance index. QM is the Queue Management module which monitors queue lengths and customer progress through the queue. CFM is the Customer Flow Monitoring module which monitors customer flow patterns through the establishment. These modules combined provide an effective management tool which enables the retailer to plan and monitor cashier staff, customer service staff and store layout for maximum effectiveness. An advanced graphical reporting system provides an automated report service which allows the retailer to measure store performance automatically and at a glance. Availability: Standalone/network based software package. Operates as an added feature on Nuuo or Pelco CCTV systems. Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent Application Standards the software adheres to: N/A Contact: Abie Ali, +27 (0)11 496 2300, email@example.com
IP Dynacolor W2 Dynacolor Dynacolor W2 2MP IP Dome Resolution: 1920X1080 (Full HD). Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus, P-Iris allows for better depth of field. Onboard storage: Yes, removable SD Card (up to SD card max capacity). Onboard intelligence: Yes, motion detection, network failure, smart IR detect (auto). Standards supported: ONVIF compliant, H.264 and MJPEG encoding. Description: A versatile IP66 rated PoE dome with audio channel fit for service in any condition. The high quality 2MP image sensor with motorised zoom gives great detail while wide dynamic range compensates for changing light conditions. ONVIF support allows for easy integration and quad streams allow for multiple resolutions to be broadcasted. An SD card can be used for on-board recording. Variations in range: Available in 3.6mm fixed lens with no IR, 3.3-9mm vari-focal with no IR, and 3.3-9mm vari-focal lens with 25m onboard IR LEDs. Vandal proof also available Contact: Security Warehouse Tel: +27 (0)12 653 1005 firstname.lastname@example.org
Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name:
CCTV Handbook 2013 www.securitysa.com
Name of software: Digi-IT NVR/DVR software Description/purpose: Digi-IT’s recording software is suitable for both analogue, IP and hybrid systems. The software runs on the Windows operating system, with easy installation and an easy–to-understand interface. Analogue decoding is done through Digi-IT’s analogue cards. As an open platform NVR a wide range of IP cameras are supported by default. Features/functionality: The software comes standard with recording (video, audio, POS and limited VCA), event (motion, audio, POS etc.), search, point of sales, and scheduling (for recording) functionality. Remote login and viewing is possible via Web browser or free bundled RMS software for Windows or smart phone (for all the popular OSs including Android, Symbian, Windows Mobile and iOS). The software can further be expanded with licences for full VCA (video content analytics), LPR (licence plate recognition) and CMS (central monitoring system). Multiple resolutions are supported, with multi-streaming available for IP cameras. PTZ control is integrated in the software allowing the user to control the PTZ as well as set up multiple touring sequences. Availability: The software is free bundled with Digi-IT analogue cards, IP cameras require a licence per video channel (available in 4,8,16,32 and 64 channel packages or a combination thereof). Digi-iT IP cameras do not require any licence keys and have the full NVR capability. Cost: For IP systems: 4 Channel: R3600 (Retail excl. VAT) 8 Channel: R5600 (Retail excl. VAT) 16 Channel: R9800 (Retail excl. VAT) 32 Channel: R18000 (Retail excl. VAT) 64 Channel: R34000 (Retail excl. VAT) Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent software Standards the software adheres to: Software adheres to: FCC rules: Class A digital device. Contact: Security Warehouse +27 (0)12 653 1005 email@example.com Name of software: Axis Camera Families for Autodesk Revit Description/purpose: It provides 3D camera models to illustrate what the camera set-up will look like in real life and which areas the surveillance system will cover once installed. Features/functionality: The software allows them to see exactly how the cameras fit into the building layout and to easily detect if views are obstructed by columns or walls, to help reduce unexpected blind spots. This means security system planning can now be completed as an integrated part of the building design, integrating into the same tool flow that is used for the rest of the building design. Users of the CAD system can also access information about each camera such as the model number, mounting accessories, power consumption and resolution. Availability: The Axis Camera Families for Autodesk Revit are available free of charge for existing Axis Partners. The vast majority of Axis Network Cameras are included. Cost: N/A Runs in browser or as an independent application? N/A Standards the software adheres to: N/A Contact: Roy Alves, Axis Communications +27 (0)11 548 6780, firstname.lastname@example.org
IP. Maximum 1.3 IP 1 3 MP resolution (1280 x 1024), multiple streaming Brand/Range name: Samsung LiteNet Supplier: ADI Global Distribution Camera name: SND-7011 Resolution: Maximum 3 MP resolution (2048 X 1536) Auto/Manual focus: Manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Tampering alarm, motion detection Standards supported: ONVIF 2.1 Description: This cost effective 1.3 MP high definition network camera is a great fit for applications which require high resolution video. The SNB-5001 features contrast enhancement and day/night capabilities for challenging lighting conditions, and is equipped with high-end functionalities such as tampering detection and motion detection. Variations in range: Central management software NET-i viewer , 12V DC, PoE (IEEE802.3af, Class2) Lens Type: Manual / DC Auto Iris Contact: ADI Global Distribution email@example.com
IP, SD PTZ, TZ, y/night true day/night Brand/Range name: equIP Supplier: ADI Global Distribution Camera name: HDZ30X Resolution: 720 x 576 Auto/Manual focus: N/A Onboard storage: N/A Onboard intelligence: N/A Standards supported: IPv4/v6, TCP/IP, UDP, RTP, RTSP, HTTP, HTTPS, ICMP, FTP, SMTP, DHCP, PPPoE, UPnP, IGMP, SNMP, IEEE 802.1x, QoS, ONVIF. Description: Camera tamper detection. Video motion detection. Digital Noise Reduction. PSIA Support Progressive scan. Variations in range: 0,08 lux (colour) 0,005 lux (B/W) @F1.6, 30IRE. 24 VAC ± 10%, en PoE+, (IEEE 802.3at-2009). Contact: ADI Global Distribution firstname.lastname@example.org
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07 lx (B/W) • Motion detection on. DHCP. PSIA Support Progressive scan 0. and PoE+ (IEEE 802. 976 x 494 (NTSC) Contact: Edward Seaborne. off (4 programmable zones) Variations in range: 976 x 582 (PAL). Camera tamper detection. TCP/IP.3 MP high definition network camera is a great fit for applications which require high resolution video.com Category: Thermal analogue PTZ camera Brand/Range name: Bosch Thermal Supplier: Bosch Security Systems P Camera name: MIC-612TIALG36P Resolution: PAL: 320 x 256 PAL: 640 x 512 Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No ce Onboard intelligence: High-performance ultancamera with simultantical eous thermal/optical video output.3 MP resolution (1280 x 1024). RTP. the MIC camera becomes an IP-enabled device with extra features such as intelligent video analysis (IVA).05 lux (colour)/0. @F1. UDP.1 Description: This cost effective 1.com . Standards supported: Composite: 1 Vpp.bosch. including Bosch “Biphase (OSRD). 12V DC.12 lx (colour) 0. 30 IRE. off (4 programmable zones) • Privacy on. motion detection Standards supported: ONVIF 2.1x. Maximum 1. Variations in range: Analogue and IP versions Contact: Edward Seaborne. edward.seaborne@za. The optional hybrid operation provides video and control of the MIC camera over both analogue and IP. and the ability to record video on a network-attached RAID iSCSI storage device or locally on a user-supplied SD or SDHC card (32 GB maximum). PoE (IEEE802. The SNB-5001 features contrast enhancement and day/night capabilities for challenging lighting conditions. UPnP.com IP. Variations in range: Central management software NET-i viewer .moore2@adiglobal. QoS. s. SNMP.3af. Video motion detection.moore2@adiglobal.” Description: When powered by a MIC IP power supply. ICMP. IGMP. ADI Global Distribution gordon.CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE Category: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP equIP ADI Global Distribution HDZ20HDX 1920 x 1080 N/A N/A N/A IPv4/v6. RTSP.email@example.com). HTTPS. +27 (0)11 651 9898.” “Bilinx.” and Pelco “P” and “D. FTP. Class2) Lens Type: Manual / DC Auto Iris Contact: ADI Global Distribution gordon. IEEE 802.01 lux (B/W).com Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard iIntelligence: Analogue mini dome Bosch outdoor mini dome advantage line Bosch Security Systems VDC-242V03-1 650TVL Manual focus No Privacy zones and motion detection functions can be set up in the camera menu system. Standards supported: Multiple protocols. ONVIF. Digital Noise Reduction.securitysa.com 58 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. 24 VAC ± 10%. multiple streaming Brand/Range name: Samsung LiteNet Supplier: ADI Global Distribution Camera name: SND-7011 Resolution: Maximum 3 MP resolution (2048 X 1536) Auto/Manual focus: Manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Tampering alarm. edward. SMTP. HTTP. and is equipped with high-end functionalities such as tampering detection and motion detection.bosch. PPPoE. +27 (0)11 651 9898.6. 75 Ohm Description: • Static analogue mini outdoor dome camera (720TVL sensor) • Day/Night camera (VDN) 0.
co. Market size addressed: SME/mid-size companies/ large companies/ enterprise Products supported/promoted: All electronic security systems are able to carry a maintenance contract.seaborne@za. Products supported/promoted: All electronic security systems are available on a full replacement and repair rental option.za Name of company: CCTV Security Surveillance Description of services provided: CCTV Security Surveillance is a South African company. servicing the markets nationally. access control. servicing the markets nationally. and the systems are serviced quarterly. Intelligent Tracking feature and Wide Dynamic Range Standards supported: Bosch (OSRD).264 and M-JPEG. CCTV. In addition to the above. access control. CCTV services the commercial and industrial market.1x. UDP. A random selection is downloaded by CCTV and the footage is reviewed. not only in the area of security but also in production. The company specialises in electronic security systems including. IP.za Name of company: CCTV Security Surveillance Description of services provided: CCTV Security Surveillance is a South African company. with specific requirements. productivity and reviewing. H. but not limited to. Market size addressed: SME/mid-size companies/ large companies/ enterprise. Special skills/features/functionality available to customers: CCTV offers full replacement and repair rental contracts on all new electronic security systems installed by CCTV Security Surveillance. SNTP. Special skills/features/functionality available to customers: CCTV reviews client’s footage. offsite. +27 (0)11 651 9898. not only in the area of security but also in production.bosch. Each client is seen as an individual.co. CCTV offers an offsite reviewing service whereby the client is able to download footage which can be independently reviewed. This includes all call out and labour fees. DHCP. and after consultation the client would then determine what search criteria is to be concentrated on. Telnet. the rental fee of the equipment.IP Autodome HD Bosch IP HD Autodome 800 Series B h Security S it Systems S t Supplier: Bosch Camera name: VG5-836-ECEV Resolution: 1920x1080 Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: The AutoDome utilises the built-in Intelligent Video Analytics (IVA) to continuously follow an individual or an object. DynDNS.264 (ISO/IEC 14496-10). and as such each system is developed around the client’s needs. Special skills/features/functionality available to customers: CCTV offers maintenance contracts on all electronic security equipment. They include installation fees. Each client is seen as an individual. HTTP. Each client is seen as an individual. access control. SMTP. RTSP. IGMP V2/V3. 086 100 2288 cctv@cctvsa. RTP. servicing the markets nationally. SNMP. configurable frame rate and bandwidth. Contact: CCTV Security Surveillance. and as such each system is developed around the client’s needs. FTP. fire detection and alarm systems. ICMP. CCTV. HTTPS. CCTV services the commercial and industrial market. Advanced Networking IPv6. Variations in range: Indoor/outdoor Contact: Edward Seaborne. JPEG Description: Individually configurable streams in H. UPnP. Contracts are offered over 36. and as such each system is developed around the client’s needs. Case studies / references available: • Minimise shrinkage • Additional security • Assistance with human resources • Monitors health and safety regulations Contact: CCTV Security Surveillance.securitysa. fire detection and alarm systems. CCTV offers maintenance contracts on all electronic security equipment. productivity and reviewing. with specific requirements. CCTV services the commercial and industrial market. Contact: CCTV Security Surveillance.com CCTV Handbook 2013 59 . all call out and labour fees. 48 or 60 months. 086 100 2288 cctv@cctvsa. edward. The client can pinpoint which positions / areas need more care. CCTV offers full maintenance and repair rental contracts on all electronic security equipment. Loan equipment is provided while repairs are being undertaken. and provides a detailed report on activities. loan equipment for while your equipment is in for repairs and quarterly servicing of your system. iSCSI. ARP. The company specialises in electronic security systems including. 086 100 2288 cctv@cctvsa. not only in the area of security but also in production.com Category: nge name: Brand/Range Name of company: CCTV Security Surveillance Description of services provided: CCTV Security Surveillance is a South African company.za www. M-JPEG. The company specialises in electronic security systems including. TCP. but not limited to CCTV. ONVIF. with specific requirements. but not limited to. fire detection and alarm systems. In addition. 802.co. In addition to the above. productivity and reviewing. Market size addressed: SME/mid-size companies/ large companies/ enterprise.
low-maintenance and with concealed cable duct • Weatherproof from -30 to +60 °C (-22 to +140 °F). Software: (inclusive) MxEasy. Automatic: mouse click focusing. 1. exposure.264 (in combination with third party systems). Contact: Hitek Security Distributors.3af. Full-HD. External storage: Directly on NAS and PC/Server without additional recording software Contact: Raine Sadie. internal DVR O R (up to 64 GB). Motion detection Standards supported: HD SDI Description: The DI-390HDVF is a dome HD SDI camera with 1080P resolution and a vari-focal lens of 2. I4-390HDVF features 2. VoIP. I2-390HDVF features 2. MJPEG and MPEG4 for Geutebrück systems. Standard H.264CCTV (Geutebrück). y info@hiteksecurity. 3. horizontal angle 90° to 15°. 2D DNR.264CCTV.co.com g Category: Category: Analogue HD SDI Brand/Range name: Provision ISR Supplier: Hitek Security Distributors Camera name: DI-390HDVF Resolution: 1080P or 2. electronic PTZ function.9. Full-HDplus. IEEE 802. 2 & 5 megapixel resolutions Contact: Carmen Lahr. raine@iacontrol. Description: Vandal proof 1/3-inch CMOS full HDplus Day/ Night IP fixed dome with AF vario-focal lens 2.8-10mm Mega Pixel lens and IR range of 25m.8-12mm Mega Pixel lens with IR range of over 40m. auto focus. High resolution IP65 camera for day and night operation Brand/Range name: Mobotix Supplier: Industrial Automation And Control Camera name: MX-M12D-SEC-DNIGHT-D43N43 Resolution: 3 MP (2048 x 1536) 36) Auto/Manual focus: Auto Au Onboard storage: Yes. info@hiteksecurity.CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE IP.com . mirror-function. It Features 22X optical zoom. The DI-390HDVF belongs to the analogue HD technology which is equivalent to a 2.1 MP if we compare it to an IP camera.net 60 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. EN55024.1 MP Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus 2.8 mm to 10 mm and dual-streaming in H. PIR Standards supported: EMC (EN55022.3. 1/3-inch CCD.AS/NZS3548). SIP. temperature sensor.net Category: IP. FTP. Contact: Hitek Security Distributors 087 625 0810. Vandal proof 1/3”CMOS full HDplus Day/ Night IP fixed dome me Brand/Range name: TopLine cameras Supplier: Geutebruck GmbH H Camera name: TopFD-2233 Resolution: 160 x 120 up to 1920 x 1440 pixels Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus (One push AF function) Onboard storage : 32 MB Flash Onboard intelligence: Multimedia video processor. pan and tilt • Integrated microphone. BX-390HD – Box camera with 1080P resolution. ONVIF compatible with firmware version 3.812mm. FPGA. water proof and with 1080P Resolution. POE. It also comes with a 3-year swap out guarantee. Variations in range: In the analogue HD we have another 3 models: 1. Including: text overlay.za Category: Analogue Brand/Range name: Provision ISR Supplier: utors Hitek Security Distributors Camera name: BZ-472CSX22 Resolution: 650TVL Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus X22 zoom 3. video motion analytics. Onboard intelligence: Yes. water proof and with 1080P Resolution. Variations in range : In the zoom camera range we also have the BZ-371CSX22 which has a 1/3-inch Sony Effio 650TVL sensor with a True ICR. FCC St part15B. electronic shutter. flickerless and automatic gain control. -30 to +60 °C (-22 to +140 °F) Description: • Two separate image sensors for day and D night-time operation • Integrated DVR with HiRes video recording • Permanently fixed lenses at factory for extremely simple installation • Robust. +27 (0)12 657 3600. 1/3-inch CMOS and ½-inch CMOS sensors • 720p. motion detection.Control room software MxControlCenter. +49 26 45 137 0 carmen. recording without network load. onboard microO phone. back light compensation. 2. privacy masking. HLC and OSD. speaker.7-81.4mm Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: RS-485 Description: The BZ-472CSX22 is a professional zoom camera from Provision ISR. EN61000-6-2. Class 0 IP65 (DIN EN 60529). white balance. Variations in range : This range of German-made cameras includes box and dome formats with the following options • colour only / day/night cameras • with AF / without AF • with housings for different environments • 1/1. 087 625 0810.8-100mm lens Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes. speaker and PIR motion detector Variations in range: Lenses: 22 to 135 mm format. 256 MB RAM Standards supported: H. without need for heating (IP65) • Digital continuous firstname.lastname@example.org CCD. MJPEG (multiple compression levels).
IP round view fo IP. Hemispheric 360° all all-round for complete room monitoring Brand/Range name: Mobotix Supplier: Industrial Automation And Control Camera name: MX-Q24M-SEC-D11 Resolution: 3 MP (2048 x 1536) Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: Yes, Internal DVR (up to 64 GB), recording without network load. Onboard intelligence: Yes, video motion analytics, on board microphone, speaker, VoIP, SIP, FTP, Temperature Sensor Standards supported: EMC (EN50121-4, EN55022, EN55024, EN61000-6-2,FCC part15B, AS/NZS3548) IEEE 802.3af; Class 0,IP65 (DIN EN 60529), -30 to +60 °C (-22 to +140 °F) Description • Complete panorama view, ideal for access control • Quad view to show images from four different angles simultaneously • Digital, continuous zooming and panning • Robust and maintenance-free, without mechanically moving parts • MxAnalytics: heatmap, people counting and fully automatic reports • Alarm function, speaker and microphone integrated Variations in range : Lenses: L11 (hemispherical), L22 (90° x 67°) Software: (inclusive) MxEasy, Control room software MxControlCenter External storage: Directly on NAS and PC/ Server without additional recording software Contact: Raine Sadie, +27 (0)12 657 3600, email@example.com Name of software: Vivotek VAST Description/purpose: Vivotek provides a feature-rich central management software platform that has been developed specifically for Vivotek products. VAST allows for centralised management of multiple cameras on one central platform. Additionally Vivotek VAST provides a fully featured user interface that is easy to use. Features/functionality: Vivotek VAST utilises a client/server structure which allows for multiple servers and clients to be combined into a single platform. Vivotek VAST is the ideal cost effective surveillance solution that has been designed to scale up to any requirement while still remaining user friendly and flexible. Utilising features that would normally only be available on very costly VMS platforms, VAST is the ideal solution for any surveillance application. Availability: Vivotek VAST is a software-based platform primarily, but is also available on Vivotek’s ND range of NVRs. Cost: VAST has a once off price structure that does not require any annual fees or upgrade costs. Runs in browser or as an independent application? VAST operates as a Windows application. Standards the software adheres to: ONVIF, PSIA and a broad range of standards that make integration possible. Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, firstname.lastname@example.org
Category: 2 MP Full HD P-iris focus a assist WDR network camera Brand/Range name: 8000 Series fixed camera ek Supplier: Vivotek Camera name: IP8162P Resolution: 2 megapixel (1920x1080) Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2 TB max. Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection. Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/ RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description : The Vivotek IP8162P camera offers 2-megapixel resolution (1080p full HD @ 30fps). The camera can capture a much more comprehensive area than a standard VGA camera, significantly reducing the number of cameras required. It is especially suitable for monitoring wide-open indoor spaces such as building entrances, airports, or applications requiring accurate identification. With a P-iris lens, which controls the iris with extreme precision with its built-in stepping motor, it maintains the iris opening at an optimal level at all times, resulting in superior image clarity and depth of field as well as image quality. Variations in range: IP8172P, IP8162P, IP8151P, IP8152, IP8133 Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, email@example.com Name of software: Milestone Software Description/purpose: Milestone Software has been developed to be a complete surveillance platform that supports a large variety IP cameras and devices. Milestone also provides a complete management platform that allows for the integration of hundreds of different devices while using a flexible and easy to use user interface. Features/functionality: Milestone is an IP video management software platform that has been designed to allow for maximum flexibility and integration. With an open platform design, Milestone software allows for hundreds of different devices from multiple vendors to be integrated into a single platform. A flexible rule-based system combined with powerful video motion detection allows for a vast number actions to be taken based on user-selected conditions. Milestone has been developed specifically to scale up to any size and in hundreds of different layouts. From home based solutions to enterprise environments, Milestone is the VMS to use. Availability: Milestone Software is a complete software package that relies on a Windows platform for operation. Cost: Milestone has a broad pricing structure that stretches across a wide range of products and which will meet any demand. Runs in browser or as an independent application? Milestone can be used in a Web-based environment but the core software has been developed to function as an independent application. Standards the software adheres to: ONVIF, PSIA and a broad range of standards that make integration possible. Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, firstname.lastname@example.org
www.securitysa.com CCTV Handbook 2013
CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE
20x zoom, 2 MP full HD WDR, 60 fps PoE Plus camera a
Brand/Range name: 8000 Series Speed Dome Supplier: Vivotek Camera name: SD8362E Resolution: 2 megapixel (1920x1080) Auto/Manual focus: Auto & manual focus ocus Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2 TB max. Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/ RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description: The SD8362E is part of the Supreme series product line offering 2 megapixel or 1080p resolution with superb image quality (up to 60 fps @ 720p and 30 fps @ 1080p). Integrated WDR technology, the SD8362E can also cope with challenging lighting conditions. Adopting a 20x optical zoom lens, the SD8362E is able to capture details at top-notch quality. The camera is especially suitable for monitoring wide-open indoor/outdoor spaces such as airports, high ways and parking lots where high-level reliability and precision are always required. Variations in range: SD8323E, SD8322E, SD8321E Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, email@example.com
Category: Ca 5 MP 360° surround view, vandal proof Fisheye fixed va dome camera do Brand/Range name: Br 8000 80 Series FishEye Supplier: Vivotek Su ot tek Camera name: FE8172V Ca 72V Resolution: 5 megapixel Progressive Sensor (1920x1920) Re Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2TB max. Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description: Vivotek FE8172V is the latest fisheye fixed dome network camera, featuring a detailed 5 megapixel resolution sensor with superb image quality. Equipped with a fisheye lens for 180° panoramic view (wall mount) or 360° surround view (ceiling/floor/table mount) without blind spots, the camera is able to provide coverage of wide, open areas, such as airports, shopping malls, parking lots, retail stores, offices and more. Variations in range: FE8171V, CC8130 Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, firstname.lastname@example.org o.co.za Category: C 5 MP full HD, Smart Focus System, fixed dome S network camera n Brand/Range name: B 8000 Series Dome 8 Supplier: Vivotek S Camera name: FD8372 C Resolution: 5 megapixel R pixel (2560x1920) 92 20) Auto/Manual focus: Remote focus (auto A ( t focus) f ) Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2 TB max O Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description: Vivotek FD8372 is an IP67 rated indoor/outdoor dome camera offering 5 megapixel resolution with up to 30 fps (1080P) and built-in IR illuminators. The Smart Focus System allows for easy installation and adjustment by adopting a lens with a built-in stepper motor that can remotely control the focal length and precisely adjust the camera focus, offering hassle-free installation and maintenance. The IP8372 is also equipped with a mounting bracket that conceals all cables within. Variations in range: FD8362E, FD8162, FD8335H, FD8134V, FD8134, FD8151V, FD8136 Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, email@example.com
Category: 5 MP bullet network camera, a, a , 30m IR, Smart Focus System, m m, WDR, IP67 Brand/Range name: 8000 Series Bullet Supplier: Vivotek tek Camera name: IP8372 72 2 Resolution: 5 megapixel g gapixel (2560x1920) 0x1920) 1920) Auto/Manual focus: Remote focus (auto focus) Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2 TB max. Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/ RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description: Vivotek IP8372 is an IP67 rated outdoor bullet camera offering 5 megapixel resolution with up to 30 fps (1080P) and built-in IR illuminators. The Smart Focus System allows for easy installation and adjustment by adopting a lens with a built-in stepper motor that can remotely control the focal length and precisely adjust the camera focus, offering hassle-free instal lation and maintenance. The IP8372 is also equipped with a mounting bracket that conceals all cables within. Variations in range: IP8362, IP8352, IP8335H, IP8332, IP8330, IP8331 Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, firstname.lastname@example.org
CCTV Handbook 2013 www.securitysa.com
tegory: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description:
Variations in range:
IndigoVision 2MP IP bullet camera IndigoVision BX Range IndigoVision BX600HD 2MP Remote zoom and focus Yes up to 32GB Micro SD card not included Motion detection H.264/Mjpeg. Audio G.711, ONVIF The BX range cameras are IndigoVision’s HD and full HD range of ONVIF conformant cameras supported by the reliable SMS4 software management platform. Includes wide dynamic range with IR and a true day/ night mechanical IR cut filter. The unit is IP66 rated with a 3mm-9mm vari-focal lens. BX 500 the full HD PTZ option with 20x optical zoom. BX400 is an indoor/outdoor mini dome option with vandal proof models rated at IK10 Kershia Kistan, Reditron, 087 802 CCTV (2288), email@example.com
Category: IP 360° megapixel camera Brand/Range name: AV365CO Supplier: Arecont Vision Camera name: H.264SurroundVideo Resolution: 8 megapixel xel Auto/Manual focus: Manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes. 360° view, extended motion detection grid. Privacy masking. Standards supported: H.624 and MJPEG Description: An area typically requiring multiple PTZ cameras or multiple fixed cameras can be covered with a single panoramic camera. It delivers comprehensive coverage with forensic detail – all without the need for an operator or control software. A cost efficient solution, SurroundVideo panoramic cameras virtually obsolete the need and related expense of PTZ cameras. For applications that require critical detail like licence plate recognition, combine the panoramic camera with single sensor megapixel cameras at entrance and exit points. Variations in range: 180° versions, 360° versions, 8 MP or 20 MP Day/Night versions Contact: Kershia Kistan, Reditron, 087 802 CCTV (2288), firstname.lastname@example.org
Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description:
Variations in range:
IP bullet cameras Rediview IP bullet Reditron RVIP-IRB-Mini 1.3Megapixel Manual Vari focal Lens Yes. Micro SD/HC 64 GB Yes. Masking 5 user-defined areas. H.264 / MJPEG – ONVIF V2.1 Latest sensor technology with 720p resolution. 100% fully functional IP camera with browser support, ONVIF compliance, and embedded Flash technology inside. Offering 3-axis movement. High Powered IR LED for night vision. Supporting PoE or 12V for the most simple of installation. Safari, Chrome, IE, Firefox, Opera: all browser compatible. 1.3 MP HD 30-50m IR 2 MP FHD 30-50m IR 3 MP FHD 30-50m IR Kershia Kistan, Reditron, 087 802 CCTV (2288), email@example.com
C Category: S D PTZ Sony SNC-EP550 IP HD with 28X optical zoom Brand/Range name: Sony Ipela n Supplier: Reditron 50 Camera name: SNC-EP550 Resolution: 720p Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: Yes up to 32 GB Onboard intelligence: Intelligent motion detection. Filters out normal false alarms normally associated with motion detection. Standards supported: MPEG4, H.264, JPEG. ONVIF. Description: The EP550 is a cost effective HD network PTZ that supports 28x optical zoom. It includes Wide D technology from sony @ 86dB. The PTZ has a 340°-pan area. SD card slot for local stor age is also present. Variations in range: EP-521 – 4sif IP PTZ with 36X optical zoom EP-580 – Full HD IP PTZ with 20x optical zoom ER range support full 360 degree pan Contact: Kershia Kistan, Reditron, 087 802 CCTV (2288), firstname.lastname@example.org
www.securitysa.com CCTV Handbook 2013
12X digital • Electronic image stabiliser • 120-150m IR range with 72 IR LED • Programmable IR schedule.co. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. Intelligent IR PTZ camera a Brand/Range name: COP PTZ speed dome Supplier: COP Security Camera name: 15-CD60W-1020 Resolution: High horizontal resolution 530TV lines.com . Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150.za Category: Analogue. Pattern tours. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150.vandermerwe@secequip. 32 GB Yes. speed 0.vandermerwe@secequip. iPv4. external super high speed dome 432x power zoom – 36X optical.co.za Category: Analogue. Extreme long-range IR camera PTZ Brand/Range name: COP PTZ speed dome Supplier: COP Security urity Camera name: 15-AS55L L Resolution: High horizontal izontal resolution n 550TV lines nes Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus us Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: N/A Description: • Extreme long-range IR positioning high speed PTZ camera 432x power zoom • ¼-inch progressive scan CCD • Super high power Infrared Length LEDs @ 200m • Electronic image stabiliser • WDR support • 8 privacy mask zones • 3D co-ordinate • 128 pre-set positions • Pan range 0˚ ~ 360˚.za 64 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. 4 pattern tours. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan.CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP megapixel NetFocus NS Series ForeTech NFTI-H2100 Real-time HD video streams of 1080p – 2. analytics.za Name of software: NetFocus Description/purpose: Hybrid recording / display Features/functionality: • Image enhancement by Intelligent noise filtering • Intelligent video analytics • Dual monitor • Thumb nail preview search • Digital camera zoom • CMS/Web/mobile viewing and e-Map monitoring • Wide range of IP camera options and NetFocus IP camera integration Availability: PC based/embedded Cost: No licence fee Unlimited cameras Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent application and browser Standards the software adheres to: ONVIF/CAMS Contact: Riaan van der Merwe.0 MP Auto focus Yes. each 180s memory • 8 Cruising tracks with 32 pre-set positions each • 8 Privacy Mask Zones • IR LED service life >30000 hours Variations in range: N/A Contact: Riaan van der Merwe. iPv6 • X20 HD IP outdoor camera • Real-time HD speed dome camera • Triple email@example.com. IR distance • Programmable 220 pre-set positions. PoE high power. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. Standards Supported: N/A Description: • Colourfirstname.lastname@example.org˚ ~ 60˚/s • RS-485 multi-protocols communication Variations in range: N/A Contact: Riaan van der Merwe. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150. speed 300˚/s • Tilt range +45˚ ~ -50˚.co. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No Onboard Intelligence: Yes. simultaneous multi streaming • Local SD card backup • PoE N/A Riaan van der Merwe.za email@example.com. pattern tern tours. Y-WDR.co. masking. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150.
Masking.co. +27 (0)82 556 6565. H/V mirror. Description: • 2 mega-HD IR bullet camera • Real-time high definition dome camera • Triple codec. with ultra-high resolution colour CCD and a highly tuned thermal imager for true 24/7 performance. Standards supported: N/A Description: • High sensitivity/resolution HDR Wide Dynamic ICR camera in external water proof housing with high power IR LEDs. OnVIF. 32 GB SD Card. 17μm pixel pitch. iPv4.5mm129. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. freeze. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150. • Challenging high lighting condition. PoE high power. PoE high power. Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes. All of this is integrated into an IP 66 housing constructed of strengthened aluminium with alloy treated anticorrosive coating. and rapid deployment scenarios. megapixel Brand/Range name: NetFocus NS Series Supplier: ForeTech 00ATIR Camera name: NFIB-H2000ATIR Resolution: Real-time HD video streams of 1080p – 2. privacy marking. iPv6. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. • Built in video. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150. IP streamer available. and identification of intruders. Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus.co. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150. Integrating these two sensors provides unparalleled performance resulting in accurate detection.securitysa. • Motion detection. cross line. Simultaneous multi streaming • Local SD card backup • Day & night by ICR • PoE • Bidirectional audio • 90˚ tilting • Vandal & weatherproof design • Auto focus PoE / 12V.za Category: IP. Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: COP Camera COP Security 15-CO43RVIC Super High resolution CCD with Star-Light more than 600TV lines (D/N) video digital signal processor (SOC) IC. negative. Description: The system boasts a 37X optical 3. megapixel es NetFocus NS Series ForeTech NFIN-H2000ATIR Real-time HD video streams of 1080p – 2.com CCTV Handbook 2013 65 . Standards supported: ONVIF.0 MP Auto focus Yes. Masking. simultaneous multi streaming • Day & night by ICR • PoE • Auto focus • Weatherproof design Variations in range: N/A Contact: Riaan van der Merwe.com Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP. Optional: • Various fixed thermal lenses • Optical zoom thermal lenses • 336x256 FLIR thermal imager • 640x480 FLIR thermal imager • Radar integration • Image stabilisation • Heater or blower • Wiper • Pelco D. advanced protocol • Analogue to IP converter Contact: Sam Lessing.vandermerwe@secequip. analytics.0 MP. firstname.lastname@example.org IR corrected continuous zoom lens. HDR. Riaan van der Merwe. analytics. Suitable for fixed installations as well as portable. iPv6 • 2-mega HD fixed IP dome camera • Real-time HD definition • Triple codec. Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: PTZ communication via RS-485 / RS-422. Y-WDR. rotation. recognition. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. iPv4. Pelco-P/D standard protocol.co. • Auto/manual electronic shutter speed adjustable. Securitell. Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: Yes. 32 GB SD Card Onboard intelligence: Yes.vandermerwe@secequip. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Riaan van der Merwe.za www. • 2X digital zoom with manual pan/tilt.Category: Analogue Street surveillance all-in-one camera. Yes.vandermerwe@secequip. Variations in range: Customisable to suite your requirements. • OSD setup menu. • S/N radio with auto 3D-DNR.za Category: Customisable dual sensor optical and thermal integrated PTZ system Brand/Range name: Ascendent (Canada) Supplier: Securitell Camera name: Ranger-37X-TI: Electro-Optic PTZ Camera Resolution: Optical: 600TVL (day) / 700TVL (night) Thermal: FLIR Generation 2.
We suggest that companies install a separate firewall for business-critical data that only the client can access. “Often companies only realise after an incident has occurred that physical guarding or technology on their own are simply not a sufficient security tool. “There is definitely a place for hosting on the cloud. offsite footage and incident reports provide customers with a chain of evidence for prosecutory purposes. Decisions on whether the client requires hi-res cameras. “It is critical to match the customer’s requirements with the correct system.com . “The vast choice of remote surveillance companies is starting to become a real issue.” Policies and procedures are only as good as the employees implementing them. with low-cost emerging companies dominating the market. one increases the operational costs. the practice also allows the company to employ a covert health and safety watchdog. or a number plate identification system. do local companies believe that this is a viable option for Africa? “On the current model. MD of Graphic Imaging Technologies (GIT). companies are able to save thousands of rands. Unfortunately. in addition to the monetary benefits derived from instituting remote offsite surveillance. Unsafe operating practices and behaviours that infringe the health regulations of an organisation are quickly identified by an independent operator and tagged for immediate resolution. the likelihood of the service providing a return on investment are highly unlikely. “By moving monitoring of surveillance offsite. one is able to sidestep collusion.securitysa. Any possible tampering with footage is eliminated.” said Roy Wyman. The biggest stumbling block at present is the lack of knowledge around the benefits of cloud/hosted solutions and remote monitoring. unless these companies do a full needs analysis of customer needs. one could feed only event-driven footage onto the cloud and download it offsite. Visit working sites and establish whether the company you are entrusting the security of your assets to is able to provide you with the system and service you really need. 66 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. one can gain a completely objective overview of onsite activities from anywhere at any time. but the extractable operational benefits of remote surveillance are manifold. which are capable of providing eight times more visibility due to their constant coverage of areas. The international market is not faced with the same high levels of crime and collusion that Africa does. MD of Remote Offsite Monitoring (ROM). There will be instances where remote offsite monitoring is not the solution. How do you decide when a remote surveillance service is the solution for your application? Is there scope for cloud-based solutions for remote surveillance in Africa? How do you decide when a remote surveillance service is the solution for your application? Is there scope for cloud-based solutions for remote surveillance in Africa? Some may see CCTV as a grudge purchase. There is an overriding fear of systems being hacked.” said Du Toit. so by pushing footage onto the cloud. “However. By adopting remote offsite surveillance.” Remote surveillance removes collusion and intimidation once one eliminates the human element from the onsite security equation. or even cameras with night vision will be made once their advantages and applicability to the environment are determined.REMOTE MONITORING Keeping tabs from a distance By Allyson Koekhoven. Around 95% of alarms received by armed reaction companies are actually false alarms.” said Jacques du Toit.” said Wyman. CEO of Vox Telecom. By moving footage offsite into the cyber realm. A bona fide remote offsite surveillance operator will spend time with the client discussing and establishing specific risk areas. “The bottom line is that customers need to be educated on these benefits in an objective manner. Finally. one pays for bandwidth. Customers are advised to ask prospective remote offsite monitoring companies to provide them with references. Remote surveillance will confirm the extent of a security breach and provide the armed reaction company with accurate information on the number of intruders and their positions within the premises. This also releases capital that can be invested in installing surveillance cameras.” said Chertkow.” Floating on a cloud Given the mixed response to the advantages of cloud or hosted surveillance internationally. Only by talking to an experienced and reputable company will this be determined. However.” Wyman concluded. according to Mark Chertkow.” “The management of companies tends to be wary about having critical business data and footage hosted remotely.
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It is not enough to just insure the availability of lines but also question the speed and amount of data utilisation on these lines. Most bigger businesses have got IT departments that look after all the communication issues and have often got several configurations that they can use to get video and alarms through to the control room with some sort of fail over as well. including the hardware are cheaper than manned guarding services.REMOTE MONITORING Remotely reactive By Andrew Seldon. it is recommended that nothing less than a 1 Mb DLS is made available for the video streaming. In most cases these links are of higher quality and come with the required SLA. Realistically the service provider has to ensure that they have as many fail-over communication options as is 68 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. VoxOrion Telecom: There are a few key issues to take into consideration. The client side will need to be planed based on the client requirements. with video coverage of your premises. It’s of no use having 10 lines running at 100% capacity all the time as data will be lost. When visiting the control room ask to see the server room handling the control room communications. you will have less chance of false alarms as every alert can be verified before dispatching armed response or calling the police. Dusty Van Den Berg. The obvious alternative is having a separate back-up ADSL service provider to combat failovers on the lines. bearing in mind the costs of 3G data. • If full redundancy is required. firstly the control room and secondly the clients side. this can often be a large obstacle to overcome.? Gary Stephenson. Continued on page 70 Hi-Tech Security Solutions: The issue with any communications activity in South Africa is bandwidth and the reliability of your connectivity. Many commercial and private organisations are opting to have video surveillance protecting people and assets 24x7 in the hope that cameras manned by remote operators are less likely to succumb to intimidation or collusion. question the availability of incoming and outgoing lines and question the backup or fail over strategy as well.com . this is susceptible to lightning and breakdowns. such as: • Customers need to understand what kind of connectivity comes with the SLA. Broadband services such as ADSL is best effort and highly contended and there is no time in which network operators are forced to maintain within a specific time. MD. most communication networks in SA run on a copper backbone and or through Telkom. • If safety and security is really important for a customer. Our suggestion is that a company uses its primary data service that is not used during the day for security monitoring at night. fibre communication is far preferable. MD. In many cases. and depending on the risk to be protected a fail over line will need to be added to this. What should customers expect to get from their service providers in terms of connectivity when they sign up for remote surveillance? Failover/different service providers/ wireless and wired etc. the remote service providers claim their services. For smaller business the list is endless. a customer must make peace with fact that he needs an exact copy of the primary service. which could be a 3G data card. Just how effective is this? And what do the people in the industry see happening in the market? Will growth continue or are we seeing a levelling off with larger organisations developing their own in-house remote services? And what are the best practices to follow when looking at a remote service? reasonable. sales manager. Also keep in mind that most larger corporation also have strict IT policies that govern the data communications. that it is uncontended and that there is a guaranteed mean time in which to prepare. Question the stability of the lines. then it is important that one applies for a service that comes with an SLA. within pricing constraints. but through another vendor using other technologies. Jacques Du Toit.securitysa. Wright Surveillance: Customers will obviously expect to be connected at all times. I would recommend getting the IT department involved from the inception of the project as they will be able to advise what can and what may not be done. What makes a remote monitoring service work? One of the key growth areas in the surveillance market in South Africa is the remote monitoring industry. Daytona Electronics: There are two sides to connectivity. In addition. Wireless options are also available. Still others are using remote video monitoring to support their business processes and health and safety procedures.
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As much as the controllers are there monitoring the site. Van Den Berg: All security staff need to be registered with PSIRA. the control room must be secure and have an acceptable level of redundancy – from power to security. overall (not connectivity). So when an alarm is triggered. recruits high quality CCTV controllers that undergo further specialised in-house training programmes. The systems behind the technology (such as incident management reporting software) must be foolproof – this is the heartbeat of the system. is the quality of the control room. but as long as you ask plenty of questions you will not come short. see for yourself. the ability to communicate to both the stakeholder and the armed reaction company. The list of questions is almost endless.e. the same person. and remote monitoring of the incoming signal/image by experienced and qualified operators. sleeping on duty or physical patrols. and can offer an end-to-end solution. The system must guide the operator on what actions to take and not allow for any shortcuts. computer skills. what is the remedy. Keep in mind this is an evolving industry so question on-going training programmes. or should they stick to their knitting with surveillance? Stephenson: In order to ensure the highest quality of service delivery and minimise the potential for collusion. Du Toit: It must be independent. and communication is key. If and when there is a technical issue after hours. Du Toit: The first question to ask is what function one is fulfilling and differentiate between armed reaction. Monitoring is reactive. Continued on page 72 Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Security skills are always an issue in the industry. It is vital for potential customers to look for service providers with a proven track record. For this function one needs an operator that can operate IP-based technology. Successful service providers in this industry are those with extensive experience in the security industry.REMOTE MONITORING Continued from page 68 Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What services and capabilities. Our business is monitoring. which equips them to identify potential threats pro-actively. In addition. ‘Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?’ which means ‘Who will guard the guards themselves?’ Having the guarding company monitored by an independent remote monitoring centre who will engage an independent armed response company ensures the client has three layers of protection. i. It is not enough to take the word of a salesman. Our business is not about surveillance. This entails developing a bespoke security solution for each client. they will be more than willing to also guide you and offer you advice on what to look for and warn you of potential problem to look out for. It still surprises me how many calls we get from clients that have just experienced an incident and their remote surveillance service was found lacking. then when they come and see how we do things and it becomes clear that the wool was pulled over their eyes. armed response. and availability of spares. Du Toit: Most importantly here. surveillance. and it is also crucial that he be suitably capable of dealing with a tense situation. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Should remote surveillance operators provide a full security service – as in guards. a mention must be made to the technical staff in the background. the situation is properly assessed and the correct communication steps are followed. Other factors to be taken into account include whether the required escalation capabilities are in place. For example. another good question is the availability of technical staff as connections and technical issues do not only occur during office hours. installation of the appropriate technology best suited to that client’s operating environment. the higher the grade of the operator’s certificate the better. For the service to be successful the remote monitoring station must be receiving the appropriate alarm signals and CCTV images. and request references of existing clients to verify the quality of the service delivery. Go through and see a few suppliers. ask to see all the control room staff as well as the company’s PSIRA certificates. etc. the same gate. our philosophy is that the perfect security service scenario is where the guarding. Question other qualifications achieved by the controllers. armed response and off-site monitoring services are supplied by different service providers. – in addition to their remote work. i. etc. We provide valuable information to the customer – for example: response time to react from the armed reaction company or actual onsite guard activity.e. We are talking about world-class automated communication. monitoring. keep calm in a tense situation and communicate with customers and armed reaction companies in an appropriate manner. and additional product specific training. as we are all aware things will go wrong at the oddest times.securitysa. must customers look for in their remote service providers? With many people offering remote monitoring. most of the more reputable companies will be very willing to show you their infrastructure and control rooms as they are proud of it. One of the benefits of being independent is that one cannot hide one’s dirty washing. our controllers undergo training in kinesics (understanding body language). people and systems. The agent must be appropriately and adequately trained and graded.e. It is critical to the success of remote surveillance that the monitoring company does the design and installation of the client’s CCTV system. What skills does your remote provider need to have on board? What skills (or people) should they be hiring for what different functions? Stephenson: The quality of the remote monitoring station personnel is integral to the level of service delivery to the client.e. looking at a live screen 24-hours a day trying to identify suspect behaviour. Look out as well for the ability to report on trends. Wright Surveillance 70 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Van Den Berg: Vet all your suppliers. how can a potential customer separate those who are capable and those who are trying to cash in on the trend? Stephenson: Establishing and operating a CCTV surveillance control room is a specialised security service. the accuracy of the physical incident report of the event – from the armed reaction company to the customer. installation etc. The success of the service is in lowering the customer’s risk.com . guarding or CCTV installation and maintenance. i. i.
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IP PABX. Wright Surveillance’s extensive experience in the field of remote monitoring means that we’re well aware of what technology delivers the right results in the control room. and calling the appropriate authorities such as armed response and SAPS. we analyse the risk and custom fit a remote video monitoring package to the clients specific requirements. redundancy from a connectivity perspective. to ensure that all incoming signals are appropriately managed. This could include notifying the other security services on site. I would recommend that the client looks at his entire security risk profile and do a full risk assessment. Van Den Berg: Daytona Electronics is a company that specialises in remote video monitoring for key clients. Wright Surveillance consultants have the experience and expertise to offer the WRIGHT solution that is tailored to customers specific needs. he is now left with an ethical dilemma. It’s about ensuring that the customer knows he is not just a number to your bottom line. ensuring that the service will benefit the client and minimise the risk he is experiencing. challenging the intruders via onsite speakers. it is a proactive measure to prevent and limit the criminals time on site. it is attention to detail that is going to set you apart from your opposition. 72 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. We offer full time or event-based surveillance plus the option of virtual guard tours and supervision. if the operator sees a guard or armed response officer doing something that they are not meant to be doing. We have an experienced and well-motivated team that is driven to ensure customer satisfaction. Van Den Berg: As with any specialised service such as remote video surveillance. Continued from page 70 Van Den Berg: I believe that the remote surveillance services are only a small part in the bigger picture. as remote video surveillance is only small part of the entire risk. It is imperative to have the correct ratio of control room operators to number of clients. and our vast experience ensures that our CCTV security systems deliver as promised. image quality. and what doesn’t. Our experienced surveillance team operates in a secure. offering CCTV planning. Du Toit: The biggest difference is that our remote monitoring offering fits into our existing folder of converged communications products being provided No additional connectivity is required – it’s just another IP service offered on top of the client’s data services. for when there is an incident. It is in that your customer knows that you are there looking out for their best interests. that’s when the questions get asked.REMOTE MONITORING Du Toit: A good relationship with and a clear understanding of the SLA that the armed response company provides to the customer. we’ve found affordable products and installation techniques that supersede all others on the market. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What are the control room specialities a successful remote service provider needs to have on board? Stephenson: A successful remote monitoring station provides an instant response to received alarms and CCTV footage. Immediate evaluation of the activity/event by experienced control room operators is followed by the necessary corrective action. After using various products over the years. and have learned through experience the that this is not a one-package-fits-all-industry. access control and energy management. installation and maintenance through to remote monitoring in our technologically advanced control room. properly trained and reliable staff and a fully comprehensive incident management report system. Full onsite assessments facilitate delivery of optimised solutions to offer a total integrated security package. speed and reliability – all essential components when looking to ensure the delivery of a superior security solution. or does he tell his employer and put the client at risk? Hi-Tech Security Solutions: How does your company differentiate itself in a crowded market? Stephenson: Wright Surveillance is an end-to-end CCTV security solution partner. offsite central monitoring station allowing optimum effectiveness. which includes an automated occurrence book and reporting system that is integrated into the software platform. It’s in having audibility on everything that happens in and around the control room. and provide the best integration. We have been doing remote video surveillance for more than seven years. Wright Surveillance is among the pioneers of remote CCTV monitoring in South Africa.securitysa. Technologically advanced IT infrastructure is necessary. does he tell the client and put his company’s name in a bad light and risk getting into trouble. hosted e-mail or any other cloud base service offered – simply another piece of the converged communications puzzle. it’s not just offering a service at the cheapest price.com . With over 20 years in the security industry and over 10 years in remote monitoring. I would not recommend that the client puts all his eggs in one basket so to speak.
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On the other hand a TeleEye remote monitoring video recording server provides a BS:8418 (British Standard) compliant alarm management system. One of the most important points that prospective CCTV clients need to know is that many video alarm verification and video management systems are cut and pasted together by installers using different standards and manufacturers. In the country’s cities. This standard specifies a Code of Practice outlining how TeleEye as a manufacturer. it is important to state that site installation is absolutely critical in terms of security monitoring. This means they don’t affect each other yet one unified system has been deployed. www. simply. should develop critical features in compliance with this standard. The former is concerned with protecting the client’s people and assets. event distribution to operators. whilst the Philip Smerkovitz client would often engage in their own management monitoring. While there is a shortage of bandwidth in South Africa’s outlying areas that would benefit most from remote CCTV monitoring.com 74 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. It is also interesting to note that even our HD CCTV solutions use 50% less bandwidth than systems utilising the H. An example of this would be a company providing a separate alarm panel. how the site should be installed and how the control room should operate. TeleEye has managed to develop a compression protocol called SMAC-M that provides higher quality images and faster frame rates than products using the H. The mining industry. lightning and surge protection and most importantly the available bandwidth at a client site. in particular.securitysa. Closed circuit television (CCTV) systems have become another effective weapon in South Africa’s anti-crime arsenal. where there are bandwidth limitations in rural areas. TeleEye can quote numerous examples of CCTV installations not properly taking into account critical factors such as backup power.REMOTE MONITORING Process and technology combined HSS asked Philip Smerkovitz. That being said. It is important to point out at an early stage that there are two distinct aspects to CCTV remote monitoring – alarm monitoring or video alarm verification and video management. TeleEye’s sureGUARD video alarm verification software then provides a complete integrated control room solution providing the necessary features such as remote recordings. This means total cost of ownership is lower. Remote CCTV monitoring is currently one of the fastest-growing sectors in the security industry. We are able to offer both CCTV alarm and management abilities via true multi-stream technology. yes. SMACM. TeleEye clients can remain on SD as we offer highly-efficient remote monitoring solutions no matter what the bandwidth available in the client’s area. Remote management monitoring works as a service because it has the obvious advantage of allowing the client to virtually be in multiple locations at one time. increasing reliability and efficiency. while the latter is essentially a management and control function. high end video recording functionality and a TCP/IP video server from a single device. While CCTV remote monitoring is an effective security solution. one management operator can monitor several cameras at one time.264 protocol.com . You have a massive dispersed workforce to manage and highvalue assets to protect. instead of physically watching one individual. MD of TeleEye (South Africa) if CCTV as a service works? The short answer to the question is. DVR and IP encoders and/or cameras to form a remote monitoring solution. sophisticated event management and operator and site logging. Both halves of the equation work in symphony to ensure a complete remote monitoring solution. This is especially relevant to certain industries that are feeling the pinch of rising costs coupled with declining productivity. where bandwidth and user functions are separated from each other on different data streams and video channels.teleeye. The twin halves of the remote monitoring equation – video management and alarm verification – are perfectly designed for this industry and many others. For more information contact TeleEye (South Africa). In conclusion. it is only as good as its installer and equipment used. comes to mind. which has the disadvantage of lower image quality. In this regard. +27 (0)11 557 9200. This makes more advanced high definition remote monitoring applications highly challenging. An effective remote monitoring solution should allow for both security and management function to take place concurrently without affecting each other. These include mobile telecommunications where remote base stations require protection and banking where ATMs have become prized targets among criminals who are longer able to crack bank safes or reliably prey on cash-in-transit vehicles.264 protocol. This ensures that local expertise operates according to global best practice with all the associated benefits for clients. the customer would subscribe to services of a remote video response centre (RVRC). It has often been said that technology will be South Africa’s saving grace in the war against crime and CCTV is an example of one of those anti-crime technologies that work exceptionally well. TeleEye adheres to the UK CCTV standard known as BS8418. more bandwidth is becoming available which means now is the time to consider HD CCTV remote monitoring instead of SD CCTV. In addition. It is commonplace that for the security or alarm handling aspect.
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The FullSight 180 versions offer a 180-degree view from a surfacemountable dome for both indoor and outdoor usage. The immersive imaging technology allows you to see.securitysa. technical director at Natech Universal Technology.com . camera mapping and placement. The camera has a resolution of 2 to 8 MP. Axxonsoft.3 to 10 MP are available in the FullSight 360 series cameras. continuous or a combination of these. Arteco. advanced storage optimisation. This would typically be at stadia. All the de-warped views support e-PTZ.FISHEYE/PANORAMIC CAMERAS When you want to see everything By Allyson Koekhoven.” said Sichelschmidt. providing more views and per-channel recording.” Lattuca explained. “The camera is also integrated with our Digi-iT open platform NVR software. The camera can be mounted on a wall or ceiling and h has a built-in microphone and speaker. utilising the Digi-iT NVR software allows for 360-degree de-warped view. the company also markets Video-Insight and ArtecoLogic software for panorama cameras. said that the Dynacolor fisheye cameras come with free bundled software that can record and view camera data. record and playback the full 360-degree field-of-view. In addition. combined with high-resolution optics. event. Resolutions of 1. Both the Sentry360 and Sentry180 FullSight cameras are supplied with free SentryCore VMS software. 2 x 180-degree de-warped in one channel. Teleste. “However. The software also offers digital zoom in the live view and playback using t the full power of megapixel c cameras. The Digi-iT NVR software records all the possible channels on motion. Infinova. Dynacolor Pasco Lattuca. These cameras provide a 360-degree vantage point with no blind spots and no moving parts. Both FullSight camera types utilise a single multi-megapixel sensor.2 lux) functionality and work well with infrared illuminators. All models in the range come with day/night IR capabilities. 360degree de-warped. Viasys. a director of Security Warehouse.” The Dynacolor camera provides both 180-degree and 360-degree viewing using the Dynacolor NVR software. there are seven possible views: normal 360-degree fisheye. What’s happening in the world of fisheye/panorama cameras? What’s happening in the world of fisheye/panorama cameras? What functionality do they have and do they have today’s ever-popular low light capabilities? The following companies have integrated with Sentry360: Milestone. Both cameras are supplied with VMD and full video content analysis with ArtecoLogic. Video-Insight. 180/360 de-warping. but performs optimally where resolutions of less than 3 MP are required. Genetec. the company’s FullSight range offers panoramic cameras in the 360-degree and 180-degree categories. In total. and 4 x 90-degree views. This software is fully featured with remote viewing. each on its own channel. Alnet and a further 20 VMS partners. On-board storage enables full redundancy should the NVR lose power supply. “The best applications for these cameras include larger areas where users require coverage with fewer cameras. enabling the user to customise all the fields of view for the different channels. storage facilities and petrol stations. ensuring that activity is recorded anywhere in the scene at all times. FullSight According to Dean Sichelschmidt. “The Dynacolor is a true da day/night camera featuring ICR (infrared cut) function and a bu built-in IR illuminator with a Smart IR function to provide an 76 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. NICE. They have low light (0.
make it suitable for shop fronts.” said Ryno van der Vyver.co. In the image. The Dynacolor is a 5 MP camera with quad stream capability. 720p HD.” he said. This enables the system to receive 180 degree and 360 degree video feeds from fisheye cameras and then transform them into normal views from within the CatVision software. “ACC records and manages audio and video from Avigilon’s broad range of multi-megapixel IP cameras (from 1 to 29 megapixels) and other leading manufacturers’ equipment. while efficiently managing bandwidth and storage. Another advantage of this feature is that the CatVision archive player can also perform the transformations. including WDR. At full 5 MP resolution the camera provides 10 frames per second and at full 1080 HD real-time it provides 25 frames per second. The camera can also run on 3 MP. For more information contact Cathexis Africa. info@cat. full 1080p HD.za. The feature is available as standard in all of the CatVision software packages. reception areas and over aisles in retail stores. Cathexis has included spherical and rectangular transformation algorithms in its latest CatVision software.cathexis. CatVision does panoramic views Cathexis offers completes 180 degree and 360 degree fisheye camera transformation algorithms. ACC is also ONVIF compliant and we support numerous integrations with third-party providers.excellent low light image.” said Lattuca. POS transaction engines.co. bookmark and export functionality. The JPEG 2000 HD panoramic dome cameras feature four 2-MP sensors for a total resolution of 8 MP.securitysa. This is contrary to many available VMS systems where the transformation has to be performed by the camera itself demanding that the system receives multiple video streams. you can see the original source feed and transformed views of the same video feed rendered from the CatVision software. rather than multiple streams. integrated graphic mapping. www. banking.com CCTV Handbook 2013 77 . Avigilon Avigilon panoramic cameras use the Avigilon Control Center (ACC) with High Definition Stream Management (HDSM). accommodation and hospitality or for any location where installation points are limited. +27 (0)31 240 0800. so only the source video need be recorded. The software comes with several advanced features including alarm monitoring. motion detection.” added Van der Vyver. “The JPEG 2000 HD panoramic dome camera is ideal for monitoring indoor and outdoor environments for sectors such as education. regional sales manager southern Africa. The predominant differentiating factor is that the CatVision software can provide multiple transformed views from a single video feed. manage and store HD multi-megapixel surveillance video data. system status and security management. D1. retail. VGA and CIF.za. The camera’s powerful light management settings. The advanced 3D noise reduction function also assists in providing a clear image at night and eliminates the noise (snowiness) caused by motion recording. “Our JPEG 2000 HD panoramic dome cameras feature four 2 MP sensors which provide 180-degreeor 360-degree coverage in high definition from a single camera. to effectively capture. www.
In some cases the storage can be more expensive than all the other components. This is all excellent technology. We need to ask ourselves if high frame rates are necessary. The standard for most television or movies we watch is around 24fps. Anyone with experience in high-resolution IP surveillance will agree that one of the most difficult (and often most expensive) components of the solution to manage is storage. The only time that high resolution is an advantage is if there is a need to use digital zoom capabilities.com Resolution for resolutions sake Don’t think that higher resolution is necessarily better. alison. Intelligent recording by effectively managing your surveillance system. we want it to appear smooth and lifelike and with the exception of a few highly detail-oriented individuals we get our wish here. Integration with access control or intrusion alarm systems may also be employed to assist with this. Here are some techniques that can assist you with this. and even recording specifically when there is motion in a particular area of the screen. For more information contact Inhep Digital Security. Intelligent recording Possibly the most underutilised technique to save on storage space is making use of intelligent recording. Another problem is trying to accurately predict storage requirements when using H.264 since it then becomes not only how often there is motion. with external arrays which allow us to add large numbers of drives. this is only going to become more of a challenge.g. This is however only 78 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Sometimes. With the way the cameras are dropping in price and giving higher resolutions. they show each picture twice creating an effective 12fps. Remember that a “jerky” image due to low frame rate may not be cosmetically nice. relevant as a point of reference since the only similarity between video surveillance and television is the moving picture on the screen. For example. and high resolution video footage can be a huge consumer of this. In fact with some animated movies. A video management system can provide you with the flexibility and intelligence to ensure you achieve your goals with the ideal balance between the volume/ detail of stored images and the storage space required. +27 (0)31 705 1373. with some of the IT manufacturers even creating products to address the specific needs of surveillance (e.com . due to the need to write away multiple streams of high resolution video. an object disappearing and more. mirror and RAID techniques which help with data redundancy (as well as performance) and even differential backup techniques to make the creation of offsite backups viable. but can also reduce load on the network. Even the most basic analogue systems allow for recording on motion. Seagate surveillance drives). Even if the camera has high resolution capabilities (but may have been selected for other reasons such as WDR). is the cost. don’t be afraid to drop the resolution in the configuration of the camera. in the detail you need and when you need it. you may choose to have a few days’ short-term storage at high frame rates and then long-term storage at low frame rates. however. As well as being able to configure multiple motion based recording zones. So we all know that storage can get expensive. The fundamental purpose of television is entertainment while the fundamental purpose of video surveillance is security (mostly – even though sometimes the footage can be quite entertaining). The problem though. The key thing is to remember what the solution was designed for and to only record what you need. good disk access speeds are required. Promise storage arrays. and sometimes high frame rates are needed (for example licence plate recognition on moving traffic). fibre channel and serial attached SCSI (SAS) which help with the access speeds.securitysa. not to mention the value of time saved when retrieving footage. intelligent video management software allows for the triggering of recording (as well as alerts) using more intelligent detectors. but how much motion there is. It will not only help for storage.r@inhep. we still need to look at how we can minimise the storage requirement. Information technology has given us numerous ways to provide the large amounts of storage required. the cost saving (in terms of storage) can be higher than the price of the video management software. Although most significant sized projects will more than likely require the leap from simple PC hard drives to enterprise storage systems. The other challenge is that. CCTV product manager at IDS. you can look at detectors such as line crossing (in a specific direction maybe). The human eye struggles to discern any difference between 1 MP and 5 MP. and this has been used for many years to reduce storage requirements (and help when it comes to searching for footage). but may be practically perfectly good for the job. Sometimes just a single frame per second may be adequate (for example when looking at a wide area for general activity). loitering (we don’t care if someone walks past but if they hang around for more than a few minutes we want to know). The fast frame rate fallacy When watching a movie or sport on TV. It can also be useful to have a video management system that provides the flexibility to record at various frame rates.INTELLIGENT STORAGE IP surveillance and storage By Richard Hepplestone.
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For example. Frame-by-frame compression Frame-by-frame. in size. First. As a result. In the most demanding sion technology. to compress the information in an image and reduce its file size. The centralised compression of DVRs typically meant that all rapid access improves investigation effi ciency and can improve the cameras in the surveillance system had to use the same compresforensic viability of the recorded video. JPEG2000 is designed to preserve as much detail and evidence as possible within the image while greatly reducing file sizes. Compression technology selection by application ated through frame-by-frame (NVR). These block artifacts can sometimes obscure image details technologies when JPEG images are heavily compressed. how to compress and store video comes into question Application Resolution Image rate Compression technology compression is a series of individually compressed frames again. Understanding compression technologies for HD and megapixel surveillance. JPEG2000 has become a widely used standard in many different industries. implementations of a particular technology may vary JPEG from one vendor to another.TECHNOLOGY: COMPRESSION Understanding compression technologies An Avigilon white paper. the compression technologies available. success. location. rently used in video surveillance are discussed in more detail in the There are now a wide variety of compression technologies following sections. and system designers to have a clear understanding of by the compression process. installers think only of file and JPEG compression is most widely used for static image compression disk size and how that determines the number of days video is in digital cameras and on the Internet. While IP camera video Casino 1 MP 30 H. typically 8x8 efficiency of investigations. diagnostic medical images. the question of Video that is compressed using a frame-by-frame compression how to compress and store video became a top consideration for technology presents a number of benefits over the more complivideo surveillance system designers. and the speed. by a camera. technology impacts the choice of hardware for client workstations. As the industry moves from cated inter-frame compression technologies discussed later. challenged as valid evidence due to incomplete frames generated integrators. Based on a compression technique known as a ‘discrete cosine what transmission systems can be used. Knowing when each should The two main frame-by-frame compression technologies curbe used will create the best results in a system design. tapes to hard disks for video surveillance storage. Continued on page 82 80 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. At the same time. and in the capture and transmission of images from satellites and other military applications.’ JPEG compression relies on blocks of pixels.securitysa. recorded video can be accessed more quickly. analogue cameras and digital video recorders (DVR) to IP cameras the resulting video generand network video recorders Table 1. because each frame compression is performed acts as an independently accessible frame and is not built up from inside the camera then transmitted to the NVR in the compressed multiple frames. video comLobby 3 MP 7 JPEG2000 be compressed and transmitted pression is performed inside Doorway 2 MP 15 H.264 reduce latency. it is critical for end-users.264 out of a camera more quickly to the recorder unit at a central Hallway 1 MP 15 H. or intra-frame. JPEG2000 is used in digital cinema. and transform. available on the market. Understanding these differences will allow the system designer to choose the right compression technology to best meet the project’s requirements and performance objectives. The end result is a series of individually compressed When the security industry began the transition from using VHS images. There are two broad groups of compression technologies currently used in video surveillance: frame-by-frame compression and interframe compression.com . providing all recorded video as a series of design of hybrid systems that can use multiple compression techindependent video frames ensures that video integrity cannot be nologies on the same system. on the other hand. IP cameras. Often. Each technology group incorporates different formats and in turn has its own trade-offs. Parking Lot 16 MP 3 JPEG2000 that do not require information When analogue cameras are Cafeteria 5 MP 7 JPEG2000 from other frames – they can connected to a DVR. This block-based transformation typically introduces blocking Frame-by-frame and inter-frame compression artifacts. have allowed for the high security situations. neglecting the fact that video compression can also impact after the Joint Photographic Experts Group and was initially introa video surveillance system design. JPEG compression is named stored. For example. video compression duced in 1992. document archiving. but no clear standard has emerged. This format.264 Second. compression technologies compress video by applying a compression algorithm to each frame captured JPEG2000 Since its introduction in 2000.
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Another feature of H. (P-Frames) are coded with reference to the Two additional features of JPEG2000 previous image. One JPEG2000 advantage and how Avigilon has combined it with High example is motion compensation using motion vectors to compress Definition Stream Management (HDSM) for even greater results is video to a smaller size. This allows systems to be configured with a higher level of compression while maintaining more detail in the images. P. The two main inter-frame compression technologies currently used in video surveillance are discussed in more detail in the following sections: MPEG-4 MPEG-4 compression is an umbrella term used for many different technologies defined by the Moving Picture Experts Group. frame rate. Networks and servers should be Continued on page 84 82 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. but encode As a wavelet-based compression technology. Frame-by-frame The ability to capture dynamic range is able for higher resolution surveillance cameras. The technologies used for inter-frame encoding are also often referred to as temporal or ‘time-based’ encoding because they rely on information spread out over time. of capturing more than 256 intensities of light and more information than even the human eye H. The result is a stream of video that is compressed over multiple frames rather than a series of individual frames.264 that extends beyond standard MPEG-4 is the availability of de-blocking filters. Most compression techSimilar to JPEG. MPEG-4 compression in surveillance are limited which means it can describe 256 different to 8-bits of dynamic range. Typically. The sensors loss of information if the camera is capable of used in surveillance cameras are often capable capturing a wider dynamic range. This variability depends on the compression being used – if it is configured to use a constant bit rate (CBR) or a variable bit rate (VBR). Most surveillance systems implement a variant of MPEG-4 Part 2. This can add compression artifacts to the image and degrade image quality. Intra-Frames (I-Frames) are complete encoded images JPEG image of the same visual quality. and adds similar to the images generated using JPEG additional features for effective streaming and or JPEG2000 compression. Though this technique can result in bandwidth efficiencies. but relies on more advanced coding technologies. MPEG-4 compression is limited season.264 is the newest compression technology JPEG2000 was designed to preserve the used in the security industry. When configuring a system for a constant bit rate. This results in a intensities of light within the image. it can also lead to the loss of information because the whole frame is not retained. compression expressed in bits. However. Variability in the size of the compressed stream presents important challenges in system design. Bidirectionaldynamic range and its ability to scale to higher Frames (B-Frames) are sandwiched between resolutions. further reducing the information required to represent video. and can introduce variability in the size of the compressed data stream that is generated. Dynamic range is an important I-Frames and P-Frames. It uses the same Figure 2. there are many different MPEG-4 compression technologies available and few are alike. De-blocking filters can smooth artifacts created by large amounts of compression. When variable bit rate compression is used. which was introduced in 1999. Inter-Frame Compression compression to efficiently allow the transmisbasic concepts of I. which can be either another compression are its ability to capture a wide P-Frame or the previous I-Frame. rather than as independent images. The JPEG2000 compression process generates images that are A GOP is typically composed of three different frame types: I. discussed in the ‘Streaming and Network Effects of Compression’ H.securitysa. and B Frames to encode sion and display of very high resolution images. The second dard. the size of the compressed stream is allowed to vary to maintain consistent image quality. Predicted-Frames transmission.264 compression allows frames to be inserted between section. vary dramatically throughout the day and by Typically. lighting and activity with inter-frame compression Inter-frame compression technologies rely on scene changes as part of its compression methodology.264 can see.264 compresextra information that the sensors generate and sion is actually a variant of the MPEG-4 stanmaintain it in the compressed video. 30 percent smaller in file size and bandwidth than a conventional and B frames. the amount of compression applied increases as more activities occur. H. to VGA resolutions and isn’t commonly availFigure 1.TECHNOLOGY: COMPRESSION Continued from page 80 compression for reducing the file size of a digital image. I-Frames in a GOP to describe the relative movement of information Inter-frame compression Inter-frame compression technologies rely both on compressing data within a single frame and on analysing changes between frames. H. an inter-frame compression technology will attempt to store only incremental changes between frames and store whole frames only on periodic intervals. P. most implementations of nologies capture 8-bits of dynamic range.com . Information on the video. Stream size. and contain information topic in surveillance because many cameras are on the changes calculated between the previchallenged to record bright and dark areas that ous and subsequent frames. MPEG-4 compression incorporates the same basic technology as JPEG from a reference frame. JPEG2000 allows different types of frames within video as a group of pictures (GOP) for additional compression with fewer artifacts in the image. commonly referred to as MPEG-4 Part 10 key feature of JPEG2000 is its use of progressive Advanced Video Coding (AVC).
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Instead of dynamically adjusting. For example. bandwidth. full resolution. example. Often in low light scenes. the most current of the frame-by-frame and inter-frame compression technologies. a camera manufacthe client instead of the 45 MP of information. This means that as soon as video is sent over low bandwidth connections. First. JPEG2000 can effectively and progressively compress the video and enable advanced functionality for retransmitting and managing the compressed video. Streaming high resolution details with Scene lighting will also impact the maintaining the ability to digitally zoom JPEG 2000 ability of inter-frame compression and pan within the original image at algorithms to efficiently compress video. JPEG2000 progressive compression transforms an image into packets that allow a portion of the image to be transmitted and decompressed without requiring the rest of the image. as the frame rate is decreased. This allows HDSM over a frame-by-frame compression to reduce the bandwidth between the technology.264 multi-streaming for bandwidth management. Storage must also that the user is interested in. and sends the lower resolution stream to the client for low bandwidth live monitoring while an alternate resolution is recorded on the NVR. In the compression algorithm. If a user is zooming in on a specific region to access Frame rate will also have a dramatic impact on the level of activity full image detail. as is possible with JPEG2000. is no longer available. HD and megapixel IP cameras come with their own unique challenges for storage.264 compresses multiple streams of video within the camera at different resolutions. nine 5 MP cameras JPEG 2000 However. and substantial savings in server and client compared to other bandwidth could be achieved by only compression technologies.264. This results in a drachange between individual frames could matic reduction in bandwidth between be very small. However. there is no lower resolution stream available to view over low bandwidth connections. it two seconds and rely on changes in the can also tailor the size of the video scene to describe the other 58 frames stream being sent to the resolution of in between. These additional streams add to the bandwidth transmitted from the camera but are typically much smaller than the full resolution stream being recorded to the server. detail are sent. The second drawback is apparent when viewing recorded video. This ensures that feature to only transmit and decompress the portions of the video on higher activity. Figure 3. server and client by 23 times while Figure 4. So can increase substantially. Streaming situational awareness with storing scene changes for those frames. there the video stream on a standard 1080p may be so much incremental change monitor with a total resolution of 2 MP. Avigilon’s HDSM technology offers a unique way of working with 84 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. H. In addition to reducing client bandwidth. the ability to dynamically adapt the resolution. between frames that an inter-frame only 2 MP worth of video information compression has little or no benefit is sent to the client. and cause bandwidth to increase. At this rate. JPEG2000 and high definition stream management When used with high definition and multi-megapixel surveillance video. and review their respective strengths and weaknesses related to streaming within a network. multiple layers of that specific area for viewing. only 2 MP of information is received and decompressed by when implementing a compression technology.TECHNOLOGY: COMPRESSION Continued from page 82 visualised in the cube displayed in Figures 3 and 4.264 can only be streamed in the original Streaming and network effects of compression By increasing camera resolution. Without a low resolution stream. Avigilon has designed High Definition Stream Management (HDSM) within the Avigilon Control Center Network Video Management Software (NVMS) to deliver these key features. For example. Alternatively. and efficient video surveillance management. such as the licence plate in Figure 4. it can view a scene in overview but cannot zoom in to see detail. This can be compressed resolution and the resolution cannot progressively adapt after compression. while storing the entire image on the be chosen carefully to ensure that the required retention times can server. If a low-resolution overview image is needed. the amount of the monitor used. HDSM uses this designed for the worst case bandwidth demands. Here. There are two important trade-offs to remember when using H. Since video management servers are typically configured to record the higher resolution stream from the camera. a camera running at 30 frames per Because HDSM can dynamically second may use a single I-Frame every access the video in layers of detail. generate 45 MP of video information the amount of change between frames that is sent from camera to server. when the remote client is only receiving a very-low resolution stream. the higher resolution stream must be sent at a reduced image rate if limited bandwidth is available. Video compressed with H. HDSM will send perceived in video by the compression technology.264 the scene. only the front be met under all conditions.com . additional layers of stream size and therefore allow for simpler system designs. These issues can be addressed by the choice of compression technology and camera resolution. When runif a connected client were viewing ning below 10 frames per second. as shown in Figure 3. frame-by-frame compreslayer of the cube is sent.securitysa. sion technologies offer a predictable (constant) compressed data If a more detailed overview image is needed. turer can optimise their motion detection algorithm to prevent the algorithm from interpreting noise in low light images as changes in H. a network is not overwhelmed. we will compare JPEG2000 and H. HDSM also noise within the image will be interpreted as a scene change by the greatly reduces the processing load on the remote client.
Choosing the right compression technology Choosing the right camera for each point in a system is critical to a successful video surveillance system design. and investigative needs will all influence the selection of compression technology.4 MP of information if one stream is viewed in detail and eight streams are viewed in low resolution. frame rate. When multi-streaming is enabled for H. When viewed on the client. You can choose to bias video display for low resolution decompression at a higher frame rate.264 video without using the resources of the main processor. For lower resolution. or smaller scenes of moderate activity with high frame rates.3 MP for lower resolution streams. HDSM will adaptively manage both a full resolution and a lower resolution stream to the NVR and viewing client.264 can help minimise the required network bandwidth and storage. Avigilon’s HDSM also employs unique technologies to help minimise the demands placed on the client PC for decompressing H. The lower resolution stream will be used for any overview streams where detail is not required. an inter-frame compression technology like H. Available online tools that include pixels on target calculators are instrumental in helping select the most appropriate camera. This allows details to be viewed from one video stream while keeping the overall streaming bandwidth low. activity level. When available. with nine 2 MP H.securitysa. For scenes on a site that require large multi-megapixel IP cameras. HDSM will make use of the advanced processing unit available on NVIDIA graphics cards to decompress H. or full resolution decompression at a lower frame rate. allowing efficient viewing of large numbers of H.264 compressed video streams simultaneously.multiple streams of H. HDSM also dynamically adapts the resolution and methods used in the decompression of H. As resolution increases. This greatly improves the efficiency of decompression and can allow multiple streams of HD video at 30 image per second to be decompressed simultaneously without using resources from the main processor. If the end-user’s goal is to cover a larger scene by using a high resolution camera above 2 MP.264 video.264 video. it is important to select a compression technology suited to the application. users can effectively generate 9 x 2 MP of information for the full resolution streams and 9 x 0. Resolution.264 video to reduce the demands on the client machine. For example. The first factor to consider will always be resolution.264 compressed video to overcome many of these trade-offs. A four step control of display quality is also available to enable the manual optimisation of the viewing client. JPEG2000 compression is required to manage the high resolution information effectively. www.com CCTV Handbook 2013 85 . the benefits of JPEG2000 and HDSM increase. Once resolution has been determined.264 cameras and multi-streaming enabled. the total 21 MP of information is reduced to 4. then a frame-by-frame compression technology like JPEG2000 may be the only effective option. that stream will be automatically sent in full resolution while other streams are kept in low resolution for an overview version of the image. When a single stream is zoomed in for more detail.
the addition of IP security cameras to analogue networks allows control room staff to quickly and accurately analyse images and video footage for specific data such as behaviour patterns and perimeter violations. says the technology in this particular arena has progressed at a rapid rate in recent years. too. “The use of analogue and IP cameras simultaneously is a tailormade solution for a country like South Africa. in fact. is that it essentially future-proofs one’s business. tested. An analogue RG59 cable is vulnerable to picture interference. Research has shown that the efficiency level of the average CCTV operator drops dramatically after about 20 minutes. will easily bridge that gap while saving the end user a lot of money. IP cameras produce crisper. the reduction of stock shrinkage and the monitoring of specific high risk areas. notes Greeff. where the small business sector is growing rapidly.co. Such growth will lead to the natural expansion of properties. as a result of which many customers question the need to upgrade their systems to IP when their existing infrastructure supports analogue. higher resolution pictures as a result of the terminology having moved away 86 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. he adds. Video analytics.smith@elvey. is being used throughout the world by government. Chip set technology is behind the number of megapixels in a picture and accordingly the sharpness required to identify criminals and solve crimes. one can look forward to the ever-increasing quality of facial recognition and other video analytics. “From people counting and licence plate recognition to the ability to adjust automatically to lighting and discriminatory conditions. This is especially relevant when it comes to the natural expansion of properties. Analogue CCTV has long delivered acceptable results in the areas of basic staff and visitor surveillance. as is the case for analogue cameras. IP also outperforms analogue when it comes to distance. Simple and cost-effective to add to pre-existing networks. It also enables digitised audiovisual streams to be sent to and viewed from anywhere in the world. “The starting point to making sense of the subject is to recognise that while IP (Internet protocol) technology is being exalted as the ultimate in image quality. “Hybrid systems. For more information contact Elvey Security Technologies. thereby removing the need for a power supply close to the camera source. is therefore to opt for a hybrid DVR. leaving the average person confused and frustrated.za Future proof One of the many benefits of moving over to IP. tasha. With the debate on the merits of analogue versus IP cameras showing no sign of abating. to the point where they are only taking in about five percent of the information on screen. he suggests hybridising pre-existing installations. offer the best of both worlds. on the other hand. And because IP megapixel quality is constantly being improved. warehouses and office space.” from television lines to megapixels. it’s understandable that many consumers are anxious about committing to new or upgraded CCTV systems. never tire. business.” says Greeff. technical director at Elvey Security Technologies.co. Sensitive to the need for businesses to watch their bottom lines in the current economic downturn. according to Greeff. Zane Greeff. industry and manufacturing sectors.HYBRID TECHNOLOGIES Does hybrid deliver analogue value and IP beneﬁts? Hybrid steps to IP saves money and boosts results. this technology.com . who have limited concentration spans. retail. All that’s required for power. and in use by the majority of end users. analogue technology is tried. warehouses and office space. “Hybrid video analytics are far more reliable than human beings. IP cameras are also the answer to the need to transmit video in digital form to and from the Internet and other e-mail clients.” Further.” he says.za.securitysa.” His suggestion to owners of existing analogue systems. www. which will in turn create a gap in existing security installations. which would likely comprise an existing CCTV analogue system and infrastructure with IP cameras that would operate through a hybrid DVR. “End users need to be able to distinguish between the various benefits and shortcomings of their current analogue systems in order to be able to make the right upgrade decisions going forward. video and sound is a PoE (Power over Ethernet) cable. A hybrid system. which can severely hamper security operations. whose DVRs (digital video recorders) need replacing due to functionality problems or insufficient recording space. Hybrid DVRs are capable of using both analogue and digital cameras. which also reduces data storage requirements and costs.elvey. One of the shortcomings of analogue installations is distance. +27 (0)11 401 6700. IP benefits Hybrid technology is also being used with great effect in control rooms. he continues.
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As the technology improves. ADI product manager CCTV/Access. It is critical. Common questions that come to the fore are whether they really do offer the best of both technology worlds.” notes Brecher. Are hybrid solutions the ideal solution for those who want the best of the IP world and the best of analogue? Hybrid solutions are touted as the ideal middle ground solution for users who either cannot or do not wish to replace their entire analogue system with IP. This will be affected by what resolution is i required and how many frames per seco second are recorded. if cost is an issue then hybrid solutions do provide the best of both worlds but. A noisy image is always difficult to compress. such as high-speed area domes. Gordon Moore. “If you are happy with your analogue camera-to-video quality. according to Mutinelli. converting it to IP with an encoder will make the image worse because of the way the compression engine works. “One should also consider the limitations such as what kind of infrastructure is a available in terms of the network capacity capacity. then it would be foolish to change to IP. adds that there are three ways of achieving a hybrid solution: • Hybrid DVRs: these are purpose-built recorders that will have a combination of composite video inputs for the analogue cameras and an Ethernet port for the IP cameras. where one can migrate across to IP over a period without having to start from scratch. • Encoders: this is probably the most common solution in larger projects where there have already been large investments with analogue cameras in the infrastructure. when the industry started with IP. It is important that one be able le to use them together on a platform to ensure maximised aximised operability. it is 88 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. but simultaneously retain existing analogue cameras. This may present problems with future upgradeability of systems. Currently. IP is ideal where the user is operating in a remote or very large location. Let’s go “One needs to consider the implementation costs versus the future relevance of the solution when considering a hybrid solution. simultaneous operas tion of both analogue and IP video streams should be the goal of any installation. one would make use of IP encoders to convert the analogue images to IP so that they can be incorporated into a full IP solution. while retaining your existing investment. “So.” Moore concludes. there are traditional DVRs which h have the ability to accommodate IP cameras.” says Moore. However. IP image quality has now improved significantly a and there is an IP solution for every possible scenario. There where many instances m where analogue was required for specific wh areas or functionality. “Only if both analogue and IP cameras on a site are being monitored from a common control room or management platform can one truly say that it is a hybrid solution. he adds.” says Mutinelli.securitysa. Ultimately. When implementing a hybrid solution one needs to understand that you will not get the same image quality as a full IP solution. in most cases. until bandwidth issues have been resolved. would be software developed by the manufacturer to allow end-users to view cameras from their older DVR and their newer NVRs. However. it is often a good idea to stick with analogue systems. “There are two basic considerations when converting to hybrid solutions.com .” Is hybrid the solution? In the beginning. “ the only consideration for a hybrid solution now would be instances where there has been significant investment in analogue and there are budgetary constraints that restrict one from instituting a full upgrade. Therefore. there was a requirement st for hybrid solutions because IP had not fo matured.” “Hybrid systems are essentially analogue ue and IP solutions.” says Ingo Mutinelli. MD at Cathexis Africa says it is important to define a hybrid solution.” says Brecher. With hybrid. This. national sales manager for Elvey Security Technologies. IP becomes more affordable. then you need to consider IP. “Hybrid solutions allow for cost-effective upgrade paths. but also to determine whether the system can be supported and integrated ten years down the line. Firstly. • CMSs: central management software designed to be able to connect to both DVRs and NVRs. you can simultaneously embrace the latest technology. however. “There are some solutions that transmit HD video along co-axial cables. if you need higher image resolution. what are the storage requirements? Secondly. nothing beats a full IP solution. necessary to perform a needs analysis to guarantee not only the ability to upgrade a system. and then hen there is the option to insert IP encoders to convert the analogue video stream to IP. These solutions are common in smaller installations ranging from 16 to 32 inputs. A middle road is to offer an upgrade with some IP technology. at the end of the day. This has changed. which analogue cameras would you need to convert into IP and how will this signal scale from point A to point B. Seamless. In this case. or do they simply offer median performance levels? Gus Brecher. but I believe that this is not a long-term solution as it normally requires proprietary hardware which is not compatible with all open systems. to have a centralised management system. If the image quality of the analogue camera has deteriorated.HYBRID TECHNOLOGIES Hybrid: Best of both worlds? By Allyson Koekhoven. thermal cameras and areas where dome large zo zoom lenses were required. on one common platform.
It is therefore essential that the PSIM vendor is not tied to any manufacturer of the underlying systems. by Several studies have been carried out in this area by research companies including Frost and Sullivan and IMS. These key points define a PSIM product. access control and building management systems. This means a large number of organisations are using lots of systems in their control room which cannot work with each other. increases effectiveness and provides evidence of compliance for auditing and risk mitigation. It should provide the ability to integrate events and alarms from these systems along with information such as time and geography. which have highlighted some of the features that distinguish a PSIM solution from other physical security and event management products. How does PSIM differ from other forms of integration? How does PSIM help? Firstly. • Data collection: Device level information is collected from all connected systems. such as 9/11 and 7/7. it can perform intuitive prioritisation and escalation according to a range of predetermined criteria that might include chronology. As a result. Security breaches and challenges Following several large security breaches. the physical security world has been much slower to adapt to change. www. including both legacy systems and new technology. Whilst system integration might not seem much of a challenge in the world of IT where standards have been around for decades. the security industry is now in transition. Secondly. and have been collated below: • Open platform: It provides easy integration with a variety of systems from leading manufacturers. it uses workflow technology to provide operators with guidance and intelligence for situation management. it has been widely accepted that critical information from numerous sources is left to system operators to interpret and act upon consistently and correctly. such as bespoke turnkey solutions offered by some integrators. priority and prevailing threat. This enforces all policies. Physical Security Information Management (PSIM) software enables security departments to manage an enterprise’s exposure to security risk. security professionals have recognised the need to bring together this information in a format that can be visualised and distributed. Physical Security Information Management (PSIM) software aids in decision-making and deployment planning.com CCTV Handbook 2013 89 . This is far more cost-effective than other forms of integration. Most end-users have video surveillance.securitysa. It is designed to aid decision-making and deployment planning within an organisation. These systems are not integrated together and work independently with no communication with other systems in the ecosystem. connecting them together through a single interface. Within physical security operations. location. For example. PSIM provides an off-the-shelf platform to manage all of these systems. allowing it to automatically identify situations and then dynamically update them as they unfold.MANAGEMENT PLATFORMS PSIM: Why should I be interested? CNL Software white paper. moving from disparate systems to integrated and interoperable systems.
www. people and alarms – and shows what is happening in real-time within a given situation or globally across all situations. • Geospatial engine: Dynamically locating and creating relationships between devices.MANAGEMENT PLATFORMS • Data aggregation: The PSIM software should have the ability to evaluate the information that is gathered to identify and priorities real incidents and situations. alarms.ethele. Are all PSIM solutions the same? There are several true PSIM vendors in the market place who have been deploying their PSIM solutions for more than five years now. giving them vital experience that only comes from successfully deploying a number of large scale installations.com .co. This flexibility is key when selecting a PSIM solution. there are also a large number of companies who are now marketing their old products under the PSIM banner. • Visualisation and collaboration: It should provide the ability to visualise a situation as it evolves and to share this intelligence with response teams. Organisations should research the product and ensure the PSIM solution is futureproof and can adapt to the organisation’s changing security needs. These vendors are several versions into the development of their software. emphasising added organisation value through hardened security and increased efficiency or reduced ongoing costs. including all operator actions. audio).securitysa. and results into one folder for compliance and investigative analysis or post situation training. to aid compliance management. True PSIM solutions have become more sophisticated. It should gather all information (videos. policies. For example. • Reporting: All activity should be monitored.za 90 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. It should provide a set of easyto-use visual tools to generate policies that are automatically imported into the system for use in the identification and resolution of situations. +27 (0)12 665 3158. tools and contact information needed for resolution – all within a single user interface. For more information contact E-thele. devices. This should offer the ability to display situations. along with the information. manica@ethele. ensuring responses are fast and appropriate.co. This has enabled them to understand the challenges and create products that are mature enough to meet the wide number of applications seen in PSIM today. Unfortunately. and reporting while the system is running and support a distributed architecture for high availability and disaster recovery. The crucial factor being that the customer can decide what their priorities are and implement all or just a few modules of a PSIM according to their unique situation. situations. This will reduce the risk of purchasing a system that will need replacing if the organisation’s circumstances change a few years down the line. It should enforce standard operating procedures to an operator. it may automatically identify the nearest cameras to a situation’s address or locate the security person closest to a medical emergency.za. configurations. people and assets relationships is essential. which is creating confusion in the market place as these products do not have many of the features essential to a PSIM solution. • Modular platform: It should dynamically adapt to changes in devices. provide training scenarios and as an auditable record of activity subsequent to a security incident. • Incident resolution: The PSIM system software should facilitate the presentation of logically displayed and clearly communicated actions. actions taken.
as well as the business operational requirements. Web clients are more streamlined for faster access. and to provide the relevant stakeholders with real-time. we have expensive management systems that can do almost anything. etc. however. whether their video management needs are relatively simple or highly complex. you can’t use it in your system. End-users should ensure that the management platform of choice is not specific to a particular brand of technology. and with intuitive. to be able to add cameras from any manufacturer. so the functionality of their offerings are more www. It should bring together the people. with multiple languages if necessary. so using them means you always have to use that brand of cameras. keeping on top of the latest innovations. they should be open to be able to work with and interface/integrate with other existing and disparate systems. For example. customisable in a structured manner. who should be configuring them according to the organisational policies and procedures. and may include OHS. easy to use by the daily operators. This brings the best return on the investment. others say it depends on what your requirements are. how many users will there be of the system and what are their skill levels. What do users want from their management systems? We asked one local and one international platform developer for their take on management platforms. supported. The next thing to look for is ease-of-use. whether they would benefit from analytics. also remotely available from home or when travelling. including the CEO who is ultimately responsible. How many locations need to be monitored. Milestone Systems says every installation has to be evaluated from the needs of each customer. and will ultimately be replaced by systems that comply with industry standards. Buret says.securitysa. but also not just an open source ‘freebie’ that has no business continuity and is not sustainable.com CCTV Handbook 2013 91 . helping to find the cameras automatically. “The paid-for VMS platforms are developed by companies who really focus on VMS. logical navigation to get the job done. operational information.” The most important thing to look for is an IP video management platform that is truly open to ensure the widest options for now and the future. local or both? “And don’t just plan for today’s requirements. have no future roadmap. for example. number and type of cameras desired. open management systems users can obtain for little or no cost. VMS wizards are a great tool for fast installation and hook-ups with the cameras on the network. This locks you into their product road map limitations over time. to upgrade with new software versions. “My definition of a security management platform is not just a CCTV head-end system. The first question we have to ask is what a management platform is. but we also have a growing number of smaller. The VMS should be easy to install.? Peter Biltsted Do they need central management. Today. to integrate with other systems. and will most certainly have a roadmap for future features and expansion.” Biltsted adds that the free video management systems offered by some camera manufacturers only work with that company’s cameras. What should an enduser be on the lookout for when considering implementing a management platform? Kevin Buret from Sukema Integrated Solutions says. “These systems are implemented by professionals. “Although they are not open source. which poses future risk for the business. Middle East and Africa. Choose a user interface (UI) that’s customisable. Free. Look for multiple clients to interface with the VMS: stationary at a PC. process and procedures and disparate technologies. Customisation can be conducted in order to best fit the client’s requirements.” One should ensure that any system is compliant with existing IT standards and protocols within the organisation. as in trouble? It seems the VMS industry is also under pressure from free software. “Free. invariably these are quite the opposite in the longer term. These systems are mostly not sustainable. these paid-for platforms do not have to be expensive. open systems seem attractive when considering often limited budgets in organisations. as long as they meet the requirements and future requirements of the client. maintenance. surveillance and many others. easy to maintain and upgrade. Some argue the free systems can’t match the features and functionality of paid for (or some would say “professional” systems). director. if a great new thermal or backlight-capable camera comes out in a year from another company and you need it for a critical security location.” Buret adds. Peter Biltsted. good online help and other documentation. as most often an incident will affect multiple stakeholders. without the need to strip out existing equipment. mobile through smartphones and tablets.The platform must ﬁt the business What do users want from their management systems? What is selling today and what is being avoided? By Andrew Seldon. The paid for systems are sustainable. easy to configure and add cameras. but rather a software solution that adds value to these and other disparate platforms.” He adds that the stakeholders are not only Kevin Buret security. just as the IT industry had to learn to deal with open source systems and applications. not supported.
For example.” A professional supplier of VMS will give the installer advice and recommendations on how to optimise the use of hardware to be installed with the software. access rights. by means of a business requirement study. who need to buy into the process of utilising the system. it is the resistance to change form personnel.” Biltsted has a another approach. the stakeholders. Those who have more complex needs can have them while those who don’t. work within the budget. then identify the gap between these and the management system/s being considered. phase the implementation. costly mess? “Planning. won’t. and allow for additional budget requirements in the next few financial years to scale the system.securitysa. Failing to plan. Milestone XProtect Smart Client is an interface that is adaptable to different skill levels. Be sure to look for after-sales support as well: a pure VMS manufacturer has dedicated support for customers and ensures that the latest technologies can be utilised. what bandwidth capacity is needed. languages. “Traditional security management systems are fast working themselves out of the pricing bracket of many organisations. camera views. If you also choose an open VMS.” Complexity not needed Traditional security management systems are large. cumbersome and expensive systems that integrate every single component within the organisation. and do not require expensive integration at a component level..MANAGEMENT PLATFORMS comprehensive. etc. or any system is potentially doomed for failure before it starts. especially if it’s an open platform solution that allows integration with the widest choice in hardware and other software like access control. analytics. identify the required operational outcomes. Mobile devices are becoming increasingly important as a source for capturing information in real-time. Integration can be accomplished on a database level due to most IP-based systems. not to mention the giant task of ensuring what you implement is suited to your actual needs and not the vanilla installation your integrator wants to supply. there is still a technical and skills gap that needs to be overcome.com . storage 92 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. This gives the best total cost of ownership. but the majority of smaller installations would be lost with such complex systems. you have all the options you could need both today and tomorrow. Assuming a company has decided they need a professional management platform with all the bells and whistles. “This needs to be driven from the top management downwards. Are they worth it? Very large installations may be able to get a reasonable return from this investment. otherwise it is a complete waste of time and money. No matter where or how a company starts implementing a management platform.” says Buret. One cannot shoehorn and alter the business requirements into a free system so that the system works.” “A really good VMS can provide comprehensive features without every user needing to use them.” One needs to. “A well-planned system that is based on the required outcomes of the client is the starting point of any professional system. the existing disparate systems and technology. and can focus on dealing with the resultant outcome. how does it go about planning and starting the installation to prevent it ending up as a complex. Each user can tailor the look and functionality to their own needs to optimise their daily tasks and performance. thereby optimising the solution. which may not exist as an off the shelf product. “It is unnecessary to implement large. the business requirements and processes need to determine the best-suited management system.. integration should only be conducted if it is going to add value to an operational challenge. management systems should be focussing on providing effective and efficient operational systems to ensure that staff are only required to have minimal input.” he says. planning and more planning. cumbersome and expensive. you can upgrade to the higher versions with more capability as your needs grow. What’s more. rather than hours spent compiling reactive reports. etc. not to mention money. the management system is the rules engine and information disseminator providing stakeholders with decision-making knowledge. they require a significant investment in skills. noting that there is a full range of VMS offerings available today and if you buy a company’s lower end product to start out. “Management should have real-time information at their fingertips to allow them to focus on managing. “The most important factor with any system is not the system itself.” states Buret.
The PSIM platform should be open. It must be capable of developing customised reports that allow for analysis of multiple events in order to optimise policies and response. For example. and the wide set of proven third-party integrations possible. as well as any customisation required by the client. Visualisation: A PSIM software platform must be able to visualise the actual situation independently from active events. as well as enterprise versions for global mining size organisations. etc. Web enabled/browser-based platform that is accessible to authorised users from any location around the world. based on pre-determined rules and policies. XProtect Smart Wall is the go-to choice for our customers with big command centres. to medium hospital type size. The rules based workflow should be sufficiently complex as to adapt to escalating situations. 5. Features and functionalities in most modern day systems are very similar. data warehouses. 3. and is supported and maintained by ourselves. the implementation and training. etc. Whether it is sold through a channel partner or directly from Sukema. or do you start small. Biltsted says that if these services are not offered. using a system that can grow with your needs? Biltsted says evaluations about what is important can only be made by each customer. to respond.” Buret says Sukema’s platform “is developed by ourselves in South Africa.). Our search and export tools are praised. “Our systems cater for clients from a residential estate size. multi-site (even cross-national) implementations that want centralised control with local access. 4.” IMS Research: What is PSIM software? IMS Research believes that a PSIM software platform must meet the seven following criteria: 1. intrusion. “The Milestone open platform is not just about our software. to the diversity and number of hardware devices supported. the reseller/end-user should look at what services are offered with the product and if it is enough for you. servers. Availability/resilience: A PSIM software platform must have capability for redundant functionality (eg. Milestone has beneficial archiving capabilities such as pruning or grooming the video to different levels and storage types which saves on bandwidth. Source: http://imsresearch. access control. This includes the ability to integrate backup systems to automate transfer of control room capabilities. The PSIM platform should be capable of integration with other business systems within a corporate IT-infrastructure such as ERP systems. to large corporate size. Real-time policy/configuration management: A PSIM software platform must be able to define and change policies and parameters related to various connected devices in the underlying subsystems (such as access control. too. examples include (but are not limited to) video surveillance. php?pr_id=1779. Post-event reporting and analysis: A PSIM software platform must provide an audit log that allows for post-event forensic review detailing the event situation and the action taken. this only forms about 20% of implementing a successful management system that meets the client’s requirements. in addition to setting compression of the data as desired. provisioning systems. Clients can add onto the core in a modular fashion according to their increasing requirements and budget constraints. It must be able to integrate real world information as a geo-spatial representation. mass notification and building automation.XProtect_ clients efficient. etc.” He adds that the global network of partners and customers in the Milestone ecosystem which all contribute inspiration and continued innovation is also important. Milestone Federated Architecture is a huge benefit to large. support and maintenance is quick. A rules-based workflow for response: A PSIM software platform must be able to immediately offer a step-by-step action plan. therefore upgrades. the location and the scope of the threat it presents. and capable of connecting to any input sensors and external applications. it’s our way of doing business. In case of an event. 6. “Partners and end-users testify to the ease of installing and working with XProtect: the wizards for fast camera connections.” The Sukema platform consists of a core Microsoft compliant. Connectivity and integration: A PSIM software platform must connect and manage multiple disparate security systems.securitysa. “The determining factor in the Milestone VMS open platform is the broadest ability to choose: from the range of functionality in our portfolio of products that are regularly upgraded.” requirements. Making the right choice Seeing that there are many options when it comes to management platforms. Correlation and verification: A PSIM software platform must be able to automatically connect and cross-reference multiple events from multiple disparate security systems in real-time and give the ability to flexibly set rules. the PSIM platform must be able to graphically display situational information in a manner that provides responders with a picture of the nature of the event. therefore hardware and vendor agnostic. alerts and reporting. perimeter protection. communication gateways and databases) to support continuity of business and disaster recovery.com/news-events/press-template. fire and life safety. we are always directly responsible for the BRS with the client. 2. 7. working together to make IP video surveillance the best that it can be. video. in complex solutions utilisation of 64-bit OS technology should be considered for optimisation of the solution. whose needs vary from type of organisation to size to geography and over time. “Another thing is a dedicated VMS manufacturer will use the latest programming tools and technologies. No software resides on a user’s PC.com CCTV Handbook 2013 93 . We are open in our collaboration with our partners and the customers. comprehensive management features. It must be able to watch and monitor the functionality and integrity of the underlying subsystems and detect possible threats on the network. manage/ counter the threat and control response operations. easy and www. what should users be looking for when considering a management platform? Do you go for a system that can do everything and set it up to meet your needs.
In fact. as sifting through hours and hours of footage is typically not feasible. any user can gain real value from hours of otherwise meaningless CCTV footage. markc@git. This does not necessarily mean that it will make the task of finding those critical seconds any easier. the human eye gets tired and is prone to missing incidents that appear on camera. technology called video synopsis can prove far more useful and efficient. In the retail environment. Video synopsis enables the viewer to summarise hours of footage into just a few minutes. a form of forensic video analysis. and identify which aisles and shelves are most frequented by customers. One of the major challenges facing any user of CCTV is the sheer volume of recorded events that occurs every day. www. The areas of exclusion can help to remove movement which is irrelevant. By enabling hours of footage to be viewed in a matter of minutes. GIT.ANALYTICS Video synopsis versus video analysis By Mark Chertkow. short circuiting the lengthy process of identifying key events.git. VS creates a snapshot of events that summarises hours of footage. provide evidence in case of an incident. Video synopsis (VS) is the simultaneous presentation of events that happened at different times. Sifting through hours of mundane footage for seconds of useful video is an almost impossible task without specialised analysis tools.co. this information can be used to modify behaviours in any scenario.co. for behavioural analysis and more. for example. such as trees waving in the wind. However. Surveillance has become an essential element of modern security solutions as it delivers the ability to monitor areas of operation. +27 (0)11 483 0333.securitysa. Video synopsis works by detecting movement in the field of the video. One of the obvious applications of this is to identify criminals. however. However. highlighting incidents or suspicious behaviour and allowing the potential of CCTV footage to be fully utilised. casinos can use video synopsis technology to monitor tables for suspicious behaviour and ensure that cheating can easily be detected and the perpetrators identified. However. Forensic video synopsis technology increases the accuracy of video analysis and dramatically decreases the time required to browse footage. forensic video synopsis enables real value to be leveraged from hours of footage. For example. and often simply acts as a deterrent to those with malicious intent. any organisation can use the software to improve staff productivity. leveraging value out of CCTV is often a challenging task. When looking for a video analysis solution. identify incidents and improve service levels. Hospitals can utilise the technology to monitor patient care. turning hours of footage into synopses of just a few minutes. It is also possible to apply areas of interest and areas of exclusion to either home in on a specific area or exclude areas of footage that are not relevant. To put it simply. enables the viewer to summarise hours of footage into just a few minutes. stores can use this technology to analyse and identify shopping behaviours and patterns. focus exclusively on a door that was broken into or a shelf from where an item was stolen. With the power of this forensic technology. For more information contact Graphic Image Technologies. users can rapidly review and index full-length footage and create synopsis videos that overlays multiple objects and activities that occurred at different times. reducing the time and cost of manpower. and by combining these movements into a single video with time stamps for each individual event.za. to allow for more specific focus and less distraction. and assist with improving store layout. Using advanced video analysis tools such as video synopsis. These snapshots can then be used for identifying suspicious behaviour and perpetrators of incidents. Video analysis tools can assist in this scenario. Video synopsis software allows users to index and view original event videos with a single click and combine multiple clips into a single summary review. It enables users to obtain better quality evidence faster. the power of video synopsis goes beyond crime prevention and has applications in a number of different areas. reducing review time even further.com . and videos can be exported to create evidence files. Video synopsis. as once problem areas have been identified and trends have been picked up. replacing the fast forward function with an intelligent solution that enables all video footage to be reviewed every day for better security. The ability to home in on specific areas allows the viewer to. Events can be browsed through frame by frame. video analysis is simply a generic term to describe computerised processing and analysis of video streams.za 94 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. This can help to ensure optimal product placement for maximum revenue. and even if the manpower exists to do this. and the deterrent that such a system provides can go a long way towards preventing theft and helping law enforcement agencies to identify and prosecute offenders. the type of analysis used is critical in ensuring the success of the solution.
enabling effective management of operational concerns within an organisation. Cengence Pulse is the heart of the Cengence product line and is the platform to roll out Cengence throughout an organisation. It integrates information into a centralised system. the support and maintenance of devices and staff tracking within an organisation.pbstechnologies.com CCTV Handbook 2013 95 . All the Cengeance Essentials modules can be procured separately as required by the client.ANALYTICS: PRODUCT OVERVIEW Intelligence management framework Local management platform puts everything in front of operators. integrated and holistic view of their business. increased market share. Data is then captured in a centralised data repository from where various analytical algorithms. The system utilises a process flow system which will allow for the creation of complex tasks in line with pre-defined outcomes. update and manage all documentation within an organisation. monitoring and management. documenting. Business Intelligence reports and task progress reports will also allow for more accurate and real-time management of the tasks. as prevalent in the Cengence Complexis package. Cengence Scribe is a user friendly Web based tool used to store. monitoring and notification of incidents and faults. This interface allows for the creation of structured data from a series of unstructured or unsorted data. Specific task outcomes and tasks can be linked to specific person or groups for execution thereof. will then extract user requested information and display it in a format that is easy to understand and fully customised. reduced costs. Cengence provides intelligent business solutions across multiple industries. assets and documentation used during the investigation. the creation.com www. It drives proper functioning and reporting of system performance and service delivery in an auditable manner. Cengence Threat is primarily a data capturing and result rendering interface that affords the user the ability to automatically or manually capture data in a prescribed and customisable format. analyses and draws associations to the incident and reports on a possible outcome based on patterns thereby enabling management decision making.securitysa. Cengence Complexis is an advanced analytical tool that can process and analyse vast amounts of data in extremely short times. It manages the information of persons. The persons or groups will then be automatically notified of the pending task as well as track and monitor the progress. billy. It is an end to end system which not only automates the management of task but also aids in strategic. operating entities and areas of operational efficiency. to allow for accurate and user required result sets from the analysed data. Incidents logged are processed and analysed in real-time in order to generate fast and efficient results. Cengence Essentials has a variety of modules which are added to Cengence Pulse thereby providing a comprehensive management system. Results can then be rendered within the Cengence Threat or any other interface and automated actions executed through the use of the Cengence TaskMaster package. Tasks are created manually using a front-end screen (either in Pulse self. Cengence is a locally developed Complex Intelligence Management Framework (CIMF) comprising multiple products created to meet the requirements of complex intelligence. These incidents can also be raised anonymously thereby reducing victimisation. www. Cengence Customer Portal is the gateway through which a channel partner is able to execute and control a range of activities which will manage the administration of their clients’ activities with respect to the use of purchased products. Cengence Incident Management is a Web-based tool for registering. Cengence integrates into all brands of product and systems thus making it non brand specific. enhanced communication.gilbert@pbstechnologies. Result sets can be pre-defined and thus force specific analytical data to be produced in line with the client’s specific needs and requirements. All data gathered is compiled into an identikit that is saved for further analysis. Cengence Gatekeeper is an access control device software application used for management of visitors and staff access with their related and/ or allocated assets. a comprehensive knowledge base and better results. acceptance and escalation of job cards. Data is collated and read from the access control database which maintains records and keeps a history of all movement within the environment. and reporting of staff performance. reporting and investigating any incidents on a single or across multiple sites. This complex intelligence management framework provides clients with an intelligent. Cengence Tricorder is a mobile tool used on a cell phone or smart phone in conjunction with Cengence Pulse to facilitate stock control. +27 (0)11 805 6600.com. Cengence TaskMaster is a complex tasking system that allows the user to define and manage required tasks in line with requirements. Its privilege system together with document inscription ensures secure access to sensitive information. retrieve. mitigation/eradication of risk. or on a Web page accessible from any Internet capable device). For more information contact PBS Technologies. operational and tactical business decision making in order to achieve improved efficiencies. Cengence Essentials is an analytical and efficiency tool effective in the monitoring and managing of all systems and related services. It allows for the real-time management of devices.
So what should be the criteria for a good street surveillance solution? In order to define solutions. it is important to consider the critical aspects of street surveillance.com . 96 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. It therefore assumes that cameras are placed such that they cover areas where incidents are expected to happen and where the surveillance operator has jurisdiction to monitor. may trigger investigation. Humans are particularly good at these tasks but suffer from human frailty (lack of alertness. When these systems are evaluated. According to the SAPS forensic department. etc. Detection An important technical parameter when it comes to detection is the ability to recognise possible events. as motion in large spaces are analysed. Detection is often a question of recognising behaviour or anomalies. • Presenting evidence to courts for prosecution. it appears that where systems are successful. incidents or even actions. Let’s briefly explore each of the above characteristics and the contribution of intelligent systems in each. Some factors are relevant with regards to the technology used. Street (CBD) surveillance consists fundamentally of: • Detecting possible events. not the least sharing of cameras between multiple monitoring agencies – a possibility that has become significantly easier with the advent of digital cameras and networks. specific recognition such as facial or ANPR does require much better resolution. specific people) or out-of-place behaviour such as movement in dead spots. limited concentration and others). control room diligence overcomes the shortcomings of technology. In most cases their diligence overcomes the shortcomings of technology. • Managing these incidents remotely from a control room. preferably pro-actively. Thus. Secondly. Covering an area is a subject where many strategies can be deployed to reduce cost. In some control rooms the operation is efficient. • Investigating incidents post-incident and gathering evidence. (This discussion will be limited to CCTV and its options but other aspects of street surveillance are obviously also important). When it comes to camera coverage for this purpose. the success of such systems is often touted to be high but ends up mediocre. intelligent systems can perform mundane tasks without supervision such as searching intelligently through video material for objects. While behavioural analysis does not necessarily require high detail. The cost of covering an area has reduced dramatically in the recent past but it is still costly when one considers installation. this has often more to do with the control room operations than the technical systems themselves. running. such as street surveillance environments. the appearance of objects (specific vehicles. cameras are everywhere and placed anywhere. a number of aspects are clear. more than 95% of video footage analysed by them turns out to be unusable for investigation purposes and even more are less useful for prosecution. the quality of technology is often not fit for purpose. they operate without or with minimal human intervention. Clearly it would be a waste to simply place cameras everywhere. • Identifying real incidents and selecting actual incidents from false alarms. When considering the application of CCTV in high-motion areas. maintenance and so on. but sufficient resolution to perform adequate detection is also required.securitysa.ANALYTICS Intelligent systems in high motion surveillance By Dr Bennie Coetzer. suitable and trained staff is used. Protoclea Advanced Image Engineering. Secondly. Firstly. In most cases. Furthermore. System components often fail and there is often neither the will nor the resources to maintain sophisticated Dr Bennie Coetzer systems. broad area coverage is required. Intelligent systems automate tasks. What would be the characteristics of a system capable of delivering the above functionality and how can intelligent systems offer a contribution? In order to investigate what such systems can offer a brief definition of the characteristics of intelligent systems in this context would be in order. they can perform intelligent interpretation of events automatically and in context with the present scenario.
Here identification becomes paramount and therefore resolution is critical. But to be useful it must be able to offer some capabilities such as continuous detection. because machines can work in parallel and process a lot of information simultaneously. (When cameras with resolution higher than the screen resolution are used. Identification When it comes to identification. some pixels are simply not displayed and no one can observe what happens unless you zoom in – an action that will only be performed when something has been detected in the first place. immediate facial recognition or number plate recognition can identify objects specifically assisting an operator in knowing who he is dealing Continued on page 98 www. But when it comes to identification they can zoom in to any object and because of their narrow view the camera is essentially subject to a very even illumination spread. With wide area sensing illumination becomes a real problem as cameras have notoriously low dynamic ranges and special care must be taken to offer constant level illumination or support illumination. Last but not least. improved detection. even to some extent. the use of pan/tilt/zoom cameras have also become much cheaper and their capabilities have also increased dramatically. resulting in significant cost saving. In this context. filtering true alarms from false/ nuisance alarms and so on. ANPR. Behavioural analysis is a hot topic today and. In addition. These cameras are very poor in their ability to monitor as they have essentially tunnel vision and have to be directed if used in the monitoring sense. intelligent systems strive to improve detection and. shape recognition). assist humans and reduce reaction time in addition to potentially lower the cost of providing security and indeed even of hardware required. Analysis of historic events and time-line analysis can create pro-active trends and contextual analysis can be used to create priorities in detected events. Fortunately. These include rapid pointing of the camera by pointing at a position on the static (wide area) scene and automatically designate the camera to slew to this point.com CCTV Handbook 2013 97 . combining information into single events. the requirements change dramatically. providing at best. intent of the action. All of this serves to improve the quality of service. automated detection. very good identification can be achieved. or support illumination. while still in its infancy. by using sophisticated analysis and cross-correlation techniques. in particular. it can be used to create tracks of movement and predict destinations. humans offer at present by far the best abilities. With the use of low-light capabilities.) This means that fewer cameras can be used to achieve the same result. Modern image processing techniques can support this function successfully by offering both behaviour detection (motion and tracking analysis) as well as specific object detection (facial.securitysa. analysis of detected events can. a time sliced view of any area. significantly reduce false alarms. time to reach possible targets and. Such analysis in conjunction with scenario analysis can offer very powerful incident detection capabilities. higher resolution cameras can be used with no loss of information. What can intelligent systems offer? In the detection arena.Wide area detection sensing will therefore probably consist of wideangle views to cover most of the area with specific high-resolution (narrow angle) views on specific places monitored for specific events. so what can intelligent systems offer? A number of automated tools can be used to assist humans in this detection. This will assist human operators by taking over the mundane and boring tasks of continuous monitoring. These do not have to be from single views but can be achieved in a combination of multiple camera views. Similarly.
The task requires amongst others the following of the command and control system: • Presentation of visible views of all views that are relevant to the incident and removal of irrelevant views. understanding what resources are available to manage the incident. One of the most obvious tasks would be to search through available historical events of both the incident and the pre-incident information. addresses and prior suspicions. This ability to bring scenario analysis into decision making is an area that promises huge advances in security provision and particularly in high dynamic environments such as street surveillance control rooms. ie. Given that the above was achieved. camera dynamic range. identifying people. predicting possible scenarios and monitoring these potential spots. It is probably safe to say that cameras and video recording equipment are mostly sold on their ability to compress video streams into narrow bandwidths. • Understanding the environment and location by presenting the team with maps/building layouts of the relevant areas.securitysa. Frame rate – a parameter which is often overstated to the detriment of resolution. • In addition. Post-event analysis Once the excitement has died down the real work often starts. high-motion systems will be the use of intelligent systems. but more than that. would need at least three pixels per metre on the object. important that evidence is managed in a way that is conducive to successful prosecution. the incident. Video resolution – this must be such that the type of object is recognisable at the distance seen. 98 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Whenever identification is important resolution should not be sacrificed. also assist in contextualising the incident and managing it appropriately. other than packaging of the evidence and the way it is packaged. as well as access to historical information such as names. when it comes to incident management. in shadows as well as in bright areas. Dynamic range – this is difficult to define as it is seldom specified by manufacturers. It is. To recognise the shape and model at least 10 pixels per metre. This requires access to historical information and this is also where many systems fail. resulting in improved security at a lower cost. etc. a company specialising in the development of products such as those described in this article. controlling the camera to search for subjects. While this is clearly a human task. Incident management Up to this point. • Evidence is treated in such a way that it cannot be tampered with or be lost. However.com . communicating with these resources and so on.facebook. the use of intelligence is somewhat limited to that of the lawyers and advocates. immediate access to relevant recordings of the incident. • Offering additional information. Evidence for prosecution While the prosecution effort is generally not part of the command and control system and at this point. This requires amongst others: • Evidence be packaged in formats that prosecutors can easily access and present. For most views frame rates of less than 8 fps is adequate to determine behaviour and if less of an eye strain is important due to long viewing periods. These have the potential of reducing human workload. to identify its number plate at least 500 pixels per metre.com/protoclea). Using track analysis. Most of these functions. This could include a variety of image enhancement to allow for detection of weapons.com or www. machines could offer a significant contribution to the surveillance process. Dr Coetzer can be contacted at Protoclea Advanced Image Engineering (benniec@protoclea.ANALYTICS Continued from page 97 with based on prior information. Storage period – the general rule of thumb is that the storage period need not be longer than the period required to recognise the crime. Consideration should be given to video resolution. required frame rate. humans are in a class of their own. combined analysis from multiple sources and so on they can assist in powerful analysis of information creating very good evidence for prosecution. it has the potential of using humans in a way where their unique and powerful abilities are best used. most cost effective solution that will still achieve this should be acquired. but if objects are to be identified over the image a contrast difference between subject and background of at least 0. Intelligent machines can locate sightings of people. or their low storage requirement resulting in long storage periods. look into dark spots. Thus. Once this is done relevant information can be extracted and saved into long-term storage. the best. how would intelligent systems assist at the post-event analysis level. Similar specifications for identifying all objects must be calculated and appropriate camera specifications be used. frame rates of 10 fps to 12 fps are usually sufficient. Whether the incident was contained or not the analysis of what led up to the event and what happened during the event must now take place. • Be in constant communication with resources and offering them useful information as well. • Evidence can be stored securely until the trial is complete. It is sad to say that in most cases the actual use of the information is disregarded to save money.5 dB (for simple processes) is required throughout the scene. storage period and so on and at the risk of stating the obvious some aspects should be re-stated. The automatic identification of objects allows operators to rapidly classify an event into an incident and also to prioritise incidents according to historical information that may have been gathered. This is clearly a big job and is often handled by an incident management team. such as other events that are happening in the area that may be affected by. Incident management includes a number of functions such as continuously monitoring the event itself. intelligent systems can greatly assist in the following way: • Enhancing the views that operators have of the incident. • The presentation of relevant views can be automatic by the use of scenario planning and analysis. are primarily the responsibility of the prosecution agency. to recognise that an object is a car one Conclusion It should be clear that the next wave in security systems and in particular. An intelligent system should be able to treat recorded video as live video and perform all the same detection and recognition functions on historical information – often faster than real-time. Frame rate is only required to be high if the possibility of missing an action exists. or influence. vehicles and other events prior to the incident and it can do this automatically. however. The design should consider what the information is to be used for and once this is defined. Such plans could have foreseen certain disasters and initial war room views could be pre-set to speed up reaction.
securitysa. ie. which equates to dedicated bandwidth per CCTV surveillance camera in a Point-toMultipoint (PtMpt) environment. your surveillance solution is going to be a disappointment. The nature of the WiFi 802. Moreover. Graham Duxbury. WiFi: Due to the cheap nature of these solutions. but with the right technology. If you forget to ensure there is enough bandwidth over the network technology you choose. “Wired solutions. CEO of Duxbury Networking says it’s a question of horses for courses.11ABGN (and future releases) are cost-effective and can be built to reliably carry video and other data traffic in the last mile. Radwin SADC Region is naturally a supporter of wireless solutions.” Peter Turvey.” He adds that there may also be additional considerations. we have a few options when it comes to connectivity. Not that the right wireless technology can’t handle video streams. Not only that. with a growing trend to using wireless networks in support of surveillance streams. Fortunately. • Fixed and low latency for zero video hiccups. as found in a multi-service environment. With all the planning and preparation that goes into buying surveillance cameras and the supporting software. • Enough bandwidth per sector in PtMpt to handle at least 50 x 3MP cameras. typically they are intended for the low end of the market. he says: Any wireless technology that has tick boxes next to the following: • A wireless portfolio that includes Point-to-Point (PtP) as well as a solution for Point-toMultipoint where dedicated bandwidth is allocated per subscriber unit. while meshing type technologies also make the technology more resilient.11 CSMA/SA Mac protocol does not allow for Looking at wireless When it comes to wireless networking. including copper and fibre-optic. and how you build the overall solution that matters more than the individual components and technologies. always provide the best in bandwidth. When it comes to selecting the solution for your project. use them – but they may not always be suited to the environment. Duxbury says most data-oriented wireless technologies are well suited to CCTV applications. video. So. By Andrew Seldon. it is how you use and integrate all the communication systems. Their security is robust and reliable and shared media solutions such as 802. • Enough bandwidth per PtP link. • Sophisticated Media Access Control (MAC) protocols and Air Interfaces/ Frames which cater for the un-interrupted delivery of time sensitive data. but there seems to be a tendency for installers to prefer wired systems. which is quite different to technologies like Internet access where most of the traffic is one way in the direction of downlink. Turvey notes that some wireless technologies are not suited for CCTV surveillance. such as other traffic to cater for. point-to-point and point-to-multipoint solutions in both the licensed and unlicensed frequencies provide for measurable and reliable video backhaul. over 200 Mbps per sector for a typical large CCTV deployment. Thus. one can be forgiven for forgetting another vital component of the mix. the experience and expertise of the reseller or installer comes to the fore. not designed for dedicated high bandwidth traffic. When asked what wireless technology is suited for surveillance solutions that require reliability and constant throughput. • Robust performance in dense urban areas in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) and near-line-of-sight (nLOS) situations. economies of scale cannot be reached. wireless technologies (mostly WiFi) are significantly more flexible. “In my opinion. the connectivity. if you can.com CCTV Handbook 2013 99 . many IP cameras support built-in WiFi. It’s a shared media solution. “In addition. but again may not be the perfect option. Likewise. it has a typical one-third uplink and two-thirds downlink ratio. MD. In addition. the jury is still out. www. remote locations can also be connected to live streams at very low bandwidth requirements – which is perfect for our unreliable cellular networks. eg. due to the 35 Mbps per sector limit on bandwidth.CONNECTIVITY Don’t ignore wireless The networking technology chosen for surveillance projects is a crucial component of the final success of the solution. In a similar vein. • Outstanding interference mitigation mechanisms in unlicensed wireless frequency bands.” • Configurable uplink and downlink – remember video surveillance is mostly one way in the direction of uplink. these include: WiMax: Due to technology being designed for home-user Internet access traffic.
installers typically turn to wireless networking. a variety of wireless communication. However. implementations are offering faster speeds and even more reliability than ever before. converged CCTV/data networks are headed in this direction. serve larger geographic areas. brand manager. are able to transmit data much faster.” He adds that it is an alarming issue that a chief finance officer (CFO) or a chief technical officer (CTO) is being asked to make decisions on technologies that could be foreign to them. And while in a perfect laboratory environment a vendor might be able to reproduce its marketing specifications. etc adds excessive costs to the deployment. that where fibre is already installed it is very good option and should be utilised if possible. simply cannot rely of a cable-based solution. then an integrated fibre option was selected.” Certain wireless technologies are also suited for long distances without the hassles associated with laying and maintaining cable. Carrier grade products are a far better option. Miro IP surveillance. as long as the right product is used. which offers great throughput and great reliability. as the cost of trenching. the less bandwidth is available for the video surveillance solution. and some of the best-designed surveillance systems do not purely rely on one data transport medium. and said product is installed properly. which means that the more 3G phones. “That said. Now that so many different IP-based connectivity options are available. they began to engineer end-to-end solutions that used a single transport medium. as well as leading-edge storage. has no real distance limitations for CCTV. which are constantly changing. tablets. distribution and analytics solutions capable of recognising potential security breaches without human involvement. “What’s more. Due to the collision nature of the protocol. there are some circumstances where a cable infrastructure simply isn’t viable or even possible. and no longer are installers compelled to use coax cable. being IP based means that a number of different connectivity options are available. due to it not being specifically designed for surveillance applications. Carrier grade wireless equipment manufacturers such as Radwin and Linkra. Although CAT5 is great for the task. making them much more suitable for surveillance applications. splicing. etc. They are typically presented with marketing material that is similar between vendors even though the underlying technologies are very different. “When the significant cost and performance benefits of fully converged networks was realised. “Customers/installers face the challenge of incorporating these new systems into existing networks and integrating them with information management systems. Standard outdoor WiFi equipment has been used successfully in many of these applications. software. It is advisable 100 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. is quick and easy to install and very costeffective when compared to fibre. Wireless. dongles. it must be understood that if a fibre installation is one metre short.1 Mbps downlink).CONNECTIVITY the dedicated delivery of traffic and it cannot guarantee low latencies.” He does note.” Connectivity: cable or wireless? By Chris Sutherland. “However. management of these infrastructures becomes critical. however. In short. WiFi cannot guarantee the timeous delivery of video traffic. sometimes it might stretch the truth somewhat. with fluid recordings and no dropped frames. 3G: Has a ratio of one-third uplink and two-thirds downlink for data traffic (3G HSDPA+ standard – 5. even on a campus or in building. control and management systems.securitysa. It’s a shared media solution. it begs the question. more efficiently.11n). therefore there is no dedicated bandwidth. which one is best? The truth is. underlining the fact that sheer bandwidth is no guarantee of ultimate performance. who do not conform to standard WiFi protocols. there isn’t a single best method of connectivity. and with less interference. Each connectivity method usually has its own unique set of characteristics that make it ideal for certain applications. to always do a proof of concept (POC) to ensure that a solution will operate as marketed. are used in a 3G cell. will ensure a reliable surveillance system. it typically can never be reproduced in a real-live field environment. but having a carrier grade wireless solution.com .” Turvey says that one must also exercise caution and not just believe what one reads when presented with a vendor’s marketing documentation. and is therefore intended for applications that most downlink in nature. time. if the fibre does not exist then costs will soar. when dealing with converged multiservice networks. the market teems with new high definition IP camera options. end-to-end solution – from the camera to the disk drive. can be installed in a day. on the other hand. organisations built separate surveillance networks alongside their regular corporate networks. unlike fibre. Gated communities and estates also tend to have issues with cable systems. but a combination of many. Packet loss. as this requires digging up pavements and roadways in order to lay trunking for the cables to use. Wireless is typically not an in building solution but can be deployed to cover a campus wide CCTV deployment. Today.” says Duxbury. Internet access. and with the introduction of the latest wireless standard (802. How get connected Technology is not the only issue to consider when deploying a surveillance solution. it is too long a distance for fibre. Duxbury notes that one of the issues one needs to focus on is finding a supplier that knows how to offer the best advice. as with analogue CCTV systems. If the corporate or campus network was fibre based. with the proliferation of wireless networks today. the nature of wireless is obviously untethered and can be delivered over long distances (up to 120 kilometres) as long as the above criteria is met. high latencies. view clearer images and automatically analyse large amounts of data. For these scenarios. They therefore need to source from suppliers who understand the connectivity requirements of an overarching. CAT5 networking cable is typically the preferred medium for IP surveillance as it provides great speed and very few hassles once installed. “Traditionally.7 Mbps uplink and 21. “The CCTV market is being advanced by users’ needs to monitor more locations. eg. However. combined with cable infrastructure where possible. Mining environments. standard WiFi IP surveillance systems are indeed possible. Turvey says that. standard WiFi equipment is still not the best option for wireless transmission. and dropped links are always a possibility when using standard WiFi.
www.securitysa.com CCTV Handbook 2013 101 .
who then want to use this technology on their own property. Today the image sensors have much higher resolution giving us farther detection ranges as well as cleaner and crisper imaging. This has allowed the technology to be accessed and tested by a greater number of potential customers. Thermal manufacturers have been at pains to be to point out cost benefits and point to the fact that although undoubtedly thermal cameras are more expensive than conventional CCTV. director of C3 102 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. MD of MASS Brendon Cowley. Many corporate managers still view the technology as somewhat ‘over the top’ Fortunately. there is still the challenge of trying to properly communicate the advantages of thermal imaging in the commercial security arena. • Their capabilities of detecting intrusion through heavy fog / mist are improving. Couple that to PTZ units and you have an all-encompassing solution.securitysa. MASS Price decline has been the prime mover in helping thermal technology break into the mainstream CCTV market. as with any military pedigree. MD of TeleEye (South Africa): Security installers and design engineers have historically considered such state-of-the-art technology as thermal imaging to only be suitable for military applications. Hi-Tech Security Solutions asked a few people in the know for their views on this market and where they thought it was heading. larger areas can be protected using a far less number of thermal cameras. • Thermals are being used far more as a 24/7 surveillance camera and not just used for night-time viewing. Jason McGregor. 320x240. The first thermals launched had lower resolution sensors which made detection ranges fairly limited. than using conventional video cameras. (180x120. However. • Thermals are being manufactured to include intelligent video analytics for surveillance purposes. innovative engineering has seen thermal imaging now well integrated into security applications throughout the civilian sector.THERMAL The expanding role of thermals Thermal cameras are still a popular addition to the security arsenal of many organisations. it has made thermal technology more accessible and available to every day use.com . John Loftus. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Apart from price declines and more companies becoming involved in manufacturing thermal cameras. C3: • Thermals are becoming more IP orientated and able to integrate to IP surveillance solutions. However. Another major driving factor has been the take up of premium motor manufacturers utilising thermal technology for nighttime driving. Axis Communications sales manager for Africa John Loftus. history shows that many applications designed for use in the world’s militaries have the potential to cross over into the civilian space with just a few clever tweaks. • A variety of detectors can be found nowadays. Axis Communications: There has been a definite change in the market from analogue to IP thermal cameras. 384x288. this thinking is gradually giving way to a realisation that South Africa is indeed engaged in a war of sorts. While not related to the CCTV arena. Philip Smerkovitz. With the price shift. how has the thermal market changed over the past few years? Jason McGregor. Brendon Cowley. We need to bring military applications to bear against the country’s hardened criminals. Similarly. The introduction of dual thermal imaging cameras has increased the appeal of thermals dramatically. Thermal cameras are still a popular addition to the security arsenal of many organisations. General Motors’ Hummer is an excellent example of how a vehicle with a military pedigree can perfectly appeal to civilians following a well thought-out makeover. 640x480). many of whom – somewhat ironically – have a military background.
process control. TeleEye. thermals offer a far more reliable detection medium than conventional video cameras due to the high contrast of the images relayed. One must remember that thermal cameras are not only suitable for night-time illumination. they make pictures from the minute differences in heat between objects. Without a doubt. and enough contrast to create usable images. and corporate organisations. The vast majority of thermal cameras are sold alongside a video camera as a complimentary technology. gold mines. can convincingly demonstrate that the total cost of ownership of thermal cameras is much lower over long distances compared to traditional surveillance cameras. Day/night cameras/IR devices and night vision devices work by detecting reflected light energy. This ability also means they can transcend security applications and also be ideal for traffic monitoring. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What are the primary functions people are using thermals for? Where are they best suited? McGregor: We are seeing thermal being used across the board into varying segments. generate their own contrast because they generate their own heat. precious metal refineries and classified national keypoint sites. Cowley: Best suited for low light conditions and large open spaces where intrusions with a normal day/ night camera become difficult to detect. Is this true? How do your thermals differentiate themselves? McGregor: Whilst sensors themselves can be quite similar. But the amount of reflected light they receive is not the only factor that determines whether or not you’ll be able to see with these cameras: image contrast matters. They also have the ability to cover long ranges meaning they have traditionally been deployed in the protection of large perimeters found in mines. Wherever there is a high risk or high value area that requires a sophisticated surveillance system. albeit different resolution are available our differentiating factor is the ability to stream multiple colour palettes from the same camera which enables www. Few people realise that thermal cameras are not blinded by sunlight making them an excellent daytime option as well. health and safety. With the increased use of unmanned analytics. Industrial requirements remain high and we contain to see healthy growth in this area. Potential thermal camera applications are limited only by the creativity of the installer. Within corporate South Africa we are seeing excellent uptake when it comes to reliable perimeter protection at an affordable price. Outdoor applications where long range recognition. automation. Everything you see in normal daily life has a heat signature. residential estates. Perimeter monitoring remains one of the most popular applications for thermal cameras. estates and office parks. thermal cameras are the best 24-hour imaging option. might order 100 000 thermal imaging systems. An army might order 10 000 thermal imaging devices whereas a civilian population. Primary use is detection rather than surveillance. tunnels of the Gautrain. Thermal cameras don’t have these shortcomings as they detect heat/ energy and not reflected light.securitysa. nature conservation. Many of the objects you could be looking for. Flir Systems distributors. They need enough light. detection or identification is required. not cost effective or environmentally restricted when it comes to white light or IR illumination. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: A thermal camera is a thermal camera. Smerkovitz: Applications include areas where it is impractical. areas where there is little or no additional or ambient lighting.The crossover of military technologies into the civilian arena has the advantage of price decreases being able to be realised as uptake increases. C3 has installed thermal cameras at a variety of places such as power stations. Thermal cameras also have the distinct advantage of being able to see through smoke and fog and this makes them ideal for marine. they just have different lenses for different distances. and law enforcement applications.com CCTV Handbook 2013 103 . Loftus: Perimeter detection. like people. which has been eagerly adopted by many residential estates. wide open spaces. Thermal imagers can see them well because they don’t just make pictures from heat. preventative maintenance and so on. thermals are suitable. too.
exact positioning devices. Loftus: The vast majority of thermal cameras are sold alongside a video camera as a complementary technology. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What advances in thermal technology can we expect to see in the next year or so? McGregor: More analytics. Cooled thermals calibrated to a known temperature which means they are more sensitive to minute temperature changes. Less than 50 mK is ideal and will result in higher sensitivity of the thermal sensor which will result in better detection of intrusions and higher image quality (less noise). in some cases very similar in quality achieved from a monochrome video camera. • Micron Pitch (μm): The smaller the micron pitch number is . As one would imagine. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Some manufacturers offer dual thermal/visual cameras that allow operators to zoom in when an alert is raised. Oculus offers three different thermal cores (from three different core manufacturers) each with different pricing. 320x240 and more recently 640x480 thermals modules are now available and these provide excellent images. Alternatively. Smerkovitz: These dual function cameras are already widely used and will remain popular since they offer all the benefits of long-range thermal detection. • Hertz: This is the frequency at which the camera operates and is directly related to frame rate. whereas a camera with a 20 μm using the same 50 mm lens. Smerkovitz: Image quality will continually improve in leaps and bounds as advanced software becomes available. better quality products will become available at lower prices. Cowley: No. Product ranges will be expanded to include dome-type multi-sensors. Different lenses are indeed offered for different distances with one particular lens being able to detect a human being at a staggering 18 kilometres.securitysa. Let’s talk about a few of them: • Sensitivity of the thermal sensor: As you review published camera specifications you will see thermal sensitivity specifications range between 0. Loftus: Yes. a camera that has an Micron Pitch 50 μm using a 50 mm lens may detect intrusions at a distance of 300 m. These are still popular and are used generally as a detector with analytics. red-tape requirements and resolutions. the farther the field of view (FOV) is. image quality is crucial and several different resolutions are available. Due to this increased resolution these modules are suitable for identifying and surveying areas in their own right. light permitting. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Are we going to see more intelligence built into thermals in the future? McGregor: Axis will continue to support and promote our ACAP (Axis Camera Application Platform ) offering. offer many lens variants which. coupled with stronger processors and higher resolutions. 104 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Smerkovitz: Absolutely. will detect intrusions at a much farther distance (450 m). multiple camera options on one platform. Cowley: Temperature monitoring / flame detection / intelligent video analytics. many thermal cameras are now available with builtin analytics. • NUC: As the number of pixels increases and their sensitivity improves the quality of image is increasingly dependent on a process called Non Uniformity Calibration or NUC. which will continue to drive development of edge analytics providing the customer with an array of applications which can be installed on the camera. For example. such as Flir. TeleEye always recommends that clients ensure their thermal imaging systems use the DDE software algorithm for optimal image quality. The mainstream security market is using uncooled thermal modules and the first of these introduced to the mainstream security market were general low resolution 160x90 pixels. is another in a long list of advantages of these devices. Oculus currently offers an IP option with a DRS core. Perhaps most importantly. Smerkovitz: Leading manufacturers in thermal imaging. The higher the frequency the higher the frame rate the better the quality of the image. Oculus offers an industry leading hi-res 640x480 option. verification and recognition of targets in the absence of light. this statement is not true.05°C (50 mK).com . While you might consider a quarter of degree to be adequate thermal sensitivity as soon as you look at a low contrast scene you’ll discover the image quality adversely effects the image quality as noise begins to dominate the image. again. analogue units with an additional encoder. Loftus: Higher resolutions. will these solutions become the norm? McGregor: This is becoming an offer from many manufacturers but is very costly so will remain a niche requirement. the thermal being used to detect a threat and the video camera to identify. Megapixel sensors are now available but are very expensive and will not reach the mainstream market in the foreseeable future. they are particularly suited for very long-range applications and are generally only used by military or government in high risk areas where the cost can be accepted against the protection required.THERMAL better detection in changing environments. Greater analytical capability will be built into future camera systems further reducing reliance on human operators who are by nature never 100% reliable or accurate. This calibration process results in greater image quality and improved camera performance. depending on client requirements. There are quite a few factors that differentiate one thermal camera from another. Loftus: Thermal cameras are split into two main categories cooled and uncooled modules. We also offer either 9 Hz or 25 Hz units.25°C (250 mK) and 0. Cowley: At present there is only one high end manufacturer of thermal cameras for the commercial market that has the zoom capability on both the thermal and visual / CCD camera. The rest of the dual thermal / CCD with zoom capabilities offer the zoom on the CCD only. Edge storage as well as the ability to load third-party analytics directly onto the camera gives the end user flexibility and scalability to customise each camera to their required application. Operators can also make use of the optical zoom camera to further interrogate the target.
Analogue cameras send analogue signals to a DVR (digital video recorder) or other platform (smartphone. While IP (Internet protocol) cameras have appeared on the market. There are many areas of safety that concern us. We’re moving away from the current entry level 420 and 480 TVLs and making our entry level 600 and 700 TVLs.com CCTV Handbook 2013 105 . the number of interlaced even and odd lines define the quality and resolution of the picture. offering a higher overall reliability as a time-proven surveillance system. although the signal needs to be converted via a video capture card in your computer. to box camera sets with interchangeable lens configurations to best suit the solution required. The manufacturers are still improving their analogue ranges with such concepts as WDR (Wide Dynamic Range) allowing a camera to filter intense back light and enhancing the ability to distinguish features and shapes by scanning the same frame twice and then processing the image pixel by pixel into a single frame. CP Plus entry-level DIY kits are also available for the B2B market from Syntech for a retail price of around R5999. Today it’s a different story. As each picture is made up of horizontal lines. Analogue CCD cameras also manage motion well. while retaining sophisticated technology. the pricing of the equipment is substantially lower and more cost-effective than it has ever been. which is either a charge coupled device (CCD – the digital microchip which produces the picture signal) or a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS). in a warehouse (where consumable products may go missing). but needs to be monitored to protect your assets). Both IP and analogue cameras employ an analogue image sensor. Analogue CCTV has become readily available to the public. primarily around how well each sensor type works in low light conditions. Syntech. ensuring peace of mind in the safety of our homes. to encapsulate quality images benefiting people in security conscious environments. There are some significant advantages in CCD image quality over CMOS. and meet many application requirements for cost-effective surveillance systems. and are generally compatible with different types of surveillance equipment.ANALOGUE Analogue: still going strong By Michelle Marais. CP Plus systems are technically easy to install. 4 CMOS 600 TVL cameras. These digital recordings are often compressed in order to save the footage regularly. year on year www. This allowed images from existing analogue cameras to be recorded and stored on hard disk drives with images being a much higher quality 2013 The analogue system is KING. DIS cameras have become very competitive in the analogue market. As home-owners. either within a retail environment (at the till point or in store). Initially. Analogue signals can be recorded on your PC as a digital recording. Most CCTV setups run on a time lapse basis (around twenty-five frames per second (PAL). manufactured and technically improved. we feel the need to have a security system. Analogue has and does perform exceptionally well at night. It’s the quality of the analogue cameras which make all the difference. When analogue cameras entered the market a few decades ago. the market was abuzz. there are shortages that occur. cables and a DVR.co. 18 metre cabling per camera. For more information contact Michelle Marais. In South Africa.securitysa. a monitor. Analogue CCTV manufacturers have a vast range of camera specifications. from fixed and varifocal lenses. analogue CCTV cameras have a relatively low cost up front. sizes and looks. Businesses and home-owners alike steered away from the expensive ‘élite’ option of having closed circuit television. A standard analogue CCTV surveillance system includes the cameras. the pricing of the equipment is substantially lower and more cost-effective than it has ever been. and thirty frames per second (NTSC). and have a very easy to use system.za CCTV TIMELINE 1942 First used by the US Military to monitor the testing of the V2 missiles 1953 Used in the UK for the first time for the Queen’s coronation 1960s Started appearing in public places to monitor crowd behaviour during rallies and public figure appearances 1980s VCRs (Video Cassette Recorders) came onto the scene making CCTV more popular enabling its users more storage of their video surveillance 1990s The DVR (Digital Video Recorder) was born. The image detail of analogue cameras is measured in TVL (TV Lines). As a business owner. These DIY kits include a DVR. the cost of implementing a surveillance system is now relatively small compared to the cost of not having that system in place – a major factor in the decision to install a CCTV system. models. Syntech. and DIS (Digital Image System) boasting advanced features in terms of image quality. where IP cameras can use either CCD or CMOS sensors. with features capable of performing in extremely low illumination areas. a four-way power supply and a 4 channel DVR with a 500 GB hard drive. or within a business (where deviant behaviour has a better disguise. All analogue cameras employ a CCD sensor. and in dark areas. allowing digital broadcasting of the video signal. which enables Syntech to offer resellers scalable solutions according to their requirements. energy-efficiency capability and overall system stability. Analogue CCTV has become readily available to the public. cameras were released at 320 and 340 TVLs. Most DVRs act like a network camera. Replacement of a damaged or broken camera has become far easier. celebrating over 70 years of existence. michelle@syntech. laptop or desktop computer). The pricing at the time was sky high and the perception of installing CCTV into certain sectors of the market was perceived as a negative.
mirroring and striping. For example. Striping with parity extends the process of breaking up a file and storing it across multiple drives to include a calculated value – parity information – in addition to the original data that rebuilds data if some portion of it is later lost. With striping. to distribute data across multiple hard drives. The unique demands that result from the transition from analogue to digital image capture are largely driven by the fact that digital images can exceed the resolution limits of analogue cameras. Along with the reliability and resiliency improvements that are gained with the elimination of moving parts. Because of this. The most important technology that will impact any storage system involving multiple hard drives is called RAID – redundant array of independent disks. The way surveillance images are stored has also changed from analogue-based recording solutions – like VHS tapes and film – to digital storage on hard drives. Though the fundamentals of HDD technology haven’t changed. RAID 1 mirrors all data to two drives and uses no striping or parity. This change resulted in a dramatic capacity increase while costs continued to decrease. and have no 106 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. most surveillance systems use multiple disks in redundant configurations (see the next section on RAID for more detail). RAID 0 is the simplest form and provides no redundancy or fault tolerance. although multiple pairs of mirrored hard drives can be striped together in a RAID 10 or a RAID 1+0 array. playback and manage. Striping improves performance of a RAID system by writing data to a large number of drives simultaneously so that the duration of a single write operation is greatly reduced. Hard drives have the possibility of failure – especially when using moving components – so redundancy is a critical consideration to ensure data won’t be lost and systems will continue to operate in the event of a drive failure. and rarely as the RAID level for large amounts of storage like surveillance video. Storage technologies Disk drives The hard disk drive (HDD) is the central component to the digital storage of surveillance video. A conventional mechanical hard disk operates using a series of spinning rigid plates that store information using magnetism. HDD technology has evolved incrementally from the same basic concept pioneered in 1956 – a stack of spinning platters and scanning heads. Solid state drives (SSDs) are another option. The most common RAID levels in a surveillance system are 0. One shortcoming of HDD technology is its reliance on mechanical moving parts. surveillance storage is less expensive. With hard drive capacity doubling approximately every two years and the cost per unit shrinking by 50%. Redundancy – RAID The fundamental technology of digital surveillance storage – the hard drive – is only the beginning of the hardware involved in a storage system. As a result. the typical price per gigabyte of raw HDD storage has decreased from $56. However.50. RAID levels 5 and 6 are more commonly used for large amounts of storage for surveillance video. For example if you had eight hard How you store your video footage impacts your ability to make optimal use of it. Mirroring is the simplest form of redundancy and simply copies the data on two drives – as any data is written. it’s created in both places. data can be spread out at a low level across multiple hard drives. The surveillance industry continues to transition from analogue to digital. RAID 5 uses striping with distributed parity. essentially microchips. 5 and 6. These demands require integrators and customers to have a deeper understanding of the storage technologies available and the impact that each storage option has on their surveillance system. more efficient and progressively powerful. search. Higher resolution and higher definition images mean more detail and better evidence in surveillance video but also mean each camera has the potential to generate larger images that require appropriate technology solutions to efficiently store. This is the most fault tolerant RAID setup since all data is mirrored fully. The trade-off for improved speed and reliability is increased cost.securitysa. the cost per gigabyte of SSD technology was $1. Using striping without parity or mirroring. This transition is taking place on two fronts – how the images are captured and how they are stored. RAID 0 allows a group of hard drives to act as a single usable storage array with increased performance of distributing load across all hard drives. Innovations in speed and interfaces have also allowed HDDs to handle larger amounts of incoming data and quickly provide that data back to applications enabling advances like HD and megapixel surveillance. Moving parts always come with some risk of failure over time. the ability to increase the density in which data is stored has allowed HDD size to shrink tremendously. implementing RAID also increases the performance of a storage system by increasing the throughput beyond what could be accomplished with a single hard drive.053 per gigabyte in 2011. In 2011. Though declining rapidly – at 30 times more than current HDD prices – the cost of SSDs are too expensive for the large storage capacities needed for most surveillance systems. 1. however since it requires twice as many hard drives to provide the needed capacity it’s typically used only for operating systems or programs. To help understand these concepts better its best to review how they’re implemented in real surveillance systems and the different RAID levels used. SSDs rely on a large amount of solid-state memory. this means that data is both spread out over multiple drives and additional information is stored to allow data to be rebuilt after failure. SSDs also offer substantial increases in speed for both reading and writing data over mechanical HDDs. Beyond redundancy and fault tolerance.30 per gigabyte in 1998 to $0. The data is read from the spinning platters using scanning heads positioned over the spinning disks.com .STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES Storage technologies for video surveillance An Avigilon white paper. the part of the analogue to digital surveillance transition – how images are captured – is placing unique demands on surveillance storage technology. moving parts to store information. most surveillance systems in place today make use of hard disks to store surveillance images digitally. This white paper explores available surveillance video storage technologies and the impact of each solution on video management software performance to arm security and IT professionals with the information to make the best storage decisions when designing a surveillance system. RAID provides redundancy by grouping multiple hard drives and employing different techniques.
playback. Since RAID 5 distributes the parity information. and scalability. or network attached storage (NAS). Rebuild time increases with array size. users and groups. and organise files. A VMS will also use a database to provide these features. The next important topic is how the surveillance system communicates with that storage. DAS is the simplest and most economical for storage that needs to be accessed by only a single server. while file level access limits performance but can provide easier concurrent access to multiple users in non-surveillance applications like file sharing. In the event any one of the eight drives fails. resources. www. file level access and the use of network attached storage is typically limited to applications with very few cameras. no data is lost and the system can rebuild the contents of the failed drive once it’s replaced by using the data on the other seven drives. Video management software (VMS) simplifies the process by storing data between files and databases based on its nature. Implementing RAID at the software level relies on system resources and introduces additional overhead and delays that impact performance of your storage and make it unsuitable for video surveillance storage. For the performance needs of surveillance and truly enterprise class storage a hardware RAID controller is a requirement for any surveillance video storage. The methods of attachment vary but for enterprise class storage it’s done via a serial attached SCSI (SAS) cable from a dedicated hardware RAID card. accessed infrequently and does not present high demands on speed of retrieval. Storage communication We’ve already discussed the basic technologies commonly used for surveillance storage – a collection of hard disk drives most likely grouped in a RAID 5 or 6 configuration. a VMS will typically store this data within a structured database. and system logs. As the name implies DAS provides storage directly attached to a server. The difference between block and file level access translates primarily to performance: block level access provides higher performance by allowing lower level access. this allows the system to tolerate the failure of two drives in an array without losing data but costs an additional drive per array. The simplest form of software used by any surveillance application is a file system. however modern SANs used for surveillance most often use either Fibre Channel or iSCSI. A wide variety of technologies are available for communication in SANs.com CCTV Handbook 2013 107 . metadata and surveillance video – that need to be stored and pose unique challenges. RAID 6 becomes more important as array size grows and to ensure storage isn’t vulnerable in the event of a rebuild process. Configuration data does pose some unique demands because it has to be encrypted and only modified when proper security checks have been performed. Storage architecture The final layer between a surveillance application and storage is the software technology and architecture used to structure and index stored video. An important thing that differentiates the storage communication technologies is whether they provide block level or file level access to the storage device from the connected servers and applications. alarms. RAID 5 provides fault tolerance to a single drive failure. Usually it’s a very small amount of information. RAID is implemented either at the hardware or software level within a server or storage enclosure. so RAID 6 ensures data is not vulnerable during the rebuild process. NAS provides only file level access to a storage volume while DAS and SAN provide block level access.securitysa. write. This can be information on recording schedules. iSCSI is more cost effective because it uses standard network cabling and switches when compared to the more expensive and complex cabling and switching that Fibre Channel requires. and managing the complex event and video related information that’s part of a surveillance system. Relational databases play a key role storing and indexing data for video surveillance systems. In surveillance. rules. A surveillance system could make use of a simple file system for everything from configuration files to the video itself – typically however performance needs require the use of a relational database in addition to a basic file system to provide the necessary performance of writing. and export to happen efficiently. events. configuration data and events. block level access is required by most systems. SAN will typically be used for very large amounts of storage that require access from multiple servers while centralising management. A fundamental operating system feature. including Avigilon Control Center (ACC). backups. VMS storage and impact on surveillance design A typical surveillance system generates four types of data – systemrelated configuration data. indexing. the parity information won’t always be written to the same drive with every file. the file system provides the basic functionality to read. increased performance of spreading disk operations over multiple hard drives and only costs an additional hard drive in each array of disks. Generally this communication will fall into one of three categories – directly attached storage (DAS). RAID 6 extends RAID 5 by distributing parity information for each file to two drives. NAS is the final category for connecting storage to a surveillance system.drives in a RAID 5 setup each file would be spread out over seven drives and parity information about the file written to the eighth drive. They also allow features like search. The choice between the two protocols is based on the needs of the network in terms on interconnectivity and performance. The smallest and simplest type of data is system-related configuration data. As a result. For these reasons. In the following section we’ll explore how video surveillance software stores video in more detail. storage area network (SAN).
Conventional off the shelf database technologies are unable to provide the efficiency and power required to quickly search and playback HD video. performance becomes limited – external databases require data be passed between processes from the main VMS process to the process running the database.com. Avigilon Control Center’s purpose built approach to using the best available storage technologies and architectures provides users with a system that is highly scalable and provides rapid access to the best evidence and reduced investigation times. When fragmentation is not managed properly in a video surveillance environment. external databases are subject to separate management of licensing. The amount of video generated by a single server will vary based on number of cameras. The most important and significant type of data generated by a VMS is the surveillance video itself. Two important demands must be carefully accounted for by the VMS when storing metadata: speed of searching and time synchronisation to the video. How does Avigilon store video? Now that we’ve covered the technologies. Embedding the database means data and queries are quickly handled and database resources can be more actively managed by the VMS process.vandervyver@avigilon. it’s important to understand how Avigilon Control Center (ACC) has been architected to minimise storage requirements and maximise performance despite the higher storage demands of high-definition surveillance.com 108 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. the database plays a key role in a surveillance system. Fragmentation is ignored by most conventional computer applications and systems rely either on user-initiated applications or periodic tasks to defragment a disk. As well. For motion detection and analytics applications this will include the location of motion within video as well as object location and direction. Events also require rapid indexing and searchability – functionality that is also best supported by a database. As a result. Other VMS will typically use an external database. data from a camera can become widely spread out over a disk. The physical position of data on disks impacts performance tremendously. device input and output events. allows JPEG and JPEG2000 compressed video to be automatically managed to store video at half the original frame rate after a set period.STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES Another data type generated by a VMS for storage is events. For this reason. The type of events generated and stored will range from user audit events. Because this data must be stored in an indexed fashion that’s rapidly searchable. if the data can’t be easily and rapidly searched – it will not enable the effective handling of investigations. For example. For more information contact Avigilon. Typically the data generated by video is much too large for storage within a database so it is usually stored separately in a file system and indexed in a database. it must be stored in a database. and amount of motion. The use of these buckets allows ACC to strictly manage fragmentation while enabling technologies like data ageing and backup of HD video in highly efficient ways not possible with other systems. or Postgres SQL. or external events from an integrated system. Summary Advances in storage technology are accelerating the transition from analogue to digital in surveillance and enabling security enhancing technologies like HD surveillance systems. www. Over time – as different amounts of data are written. MySQL. The video itself poses the largest challenge to a storage system. Disk fragmentation is a key concern.avigilon. the downtime needed to defragment a disk after fragmentation has occurred is unacceptable. which has several disadvantages. but can be several terabytes per day. First. resolution. Second. Beyond understanding the technologies involved. The high performance embedded database used in ACC is tuned to ensure the industry’s fastest HD searching and a responsive time line that allows intuitive jog and shuttle playback controls. storage is performed on hard disks comprised of rapidly rotating disks. Data ageing.securitysa. +27 (0)72 584 4992. and challenges related to surveillance video storage. or accessed insecurely than one embedded and managed by the VMS. As outlined previously. knowing how a VMS uses storage is necessary to understanding how the VMS can affect the quality of evidence a surveillance system stores. if the free space or regions being written are spread far apart. writing video may also take longer which can limit system capacity. An external database can easily be patched incorrectly. motion events.com . implementations. such as Microsoft SQL Server. it’s important that the VMS be aware of and manage fragmentation as it writes and overwrites video on a disk. upgrades. The type of database used and how it’s managed also impacts the speed of playback and searching. The high volume needs of managing event storage are met well by a database. Unfortunately – in the case of surveillance systems – the storage system is required 24x7 to write high volumes of data generated by video. The file system used to store the video content in ACC makes use of files broken into different intelligent buckets whose content and structure are managed by ACC and indexed within the embedded high performance database. general system events. ryno. Metadata is any additional information that describes or adds to the content of the video. Therefore. Another core technology Avigilon Control Center uses is a unique file system architecture to manage storage efficiently for HD video surveillance system. corrupted by another application. A full understanding of these technologies empowers security professionals to understand the options available when purchasing or designing video surveillance. Metadata that’s inaccurately sequenced relative to video becomes useless. potentially higher in data rate and contains more information than conventional video leading to users doing more searching and reviewing as the value of their stored video increases. deleted and overwritten on a disk – fragmentation can occur and related data is no longer located on the disk close to other related data. This results in cumbersome investigations and limits an operator’s ability to realise the value of high-resolution cameras. and then at a quarter the original frame rate after a further point of time. how a VMS stores video significantly impacts the performance and features of a surveillance system. These features greatly reduce investigation time and allow security professionals to quickly access all the additional information captured by HD and multi-megapixel IP surveillance cameras. Searching and playback of that data can become very slow. a high definition stream management (HDSM) technology. index and search. As outlined earlier. The use of a database embedded into the VMS is unique to Avigilon and delivers considerable advantages. For this reason Avigilon Control Center makes use of a high performance embedded database that is tailored for HD video surveillance storage. if related data is all physically located in one place the speed to read access the data is greatly reduced. HD video places unique demands on a storage system as the video generated is higher in resolution. Events will typically be small in size but can be high in volume and place significant demands on a system to store. In addition. The unique file system used by Avigilon allows data ageing to be applied at different times for different cameras on a single server allowing finer control of storage allocation then other VMS that only rarely offers any ageing settings and typically only has a global value. and in large corporate environments may require involvement of other departments tasked with managing all external databases on site. Tightly related to the video and generating at an equal rate but in smaller size is metadata.
Previously this open area was responsible for continuous trespassing and the removal of large quantities of valuable stock. “Picture quality and ease of installation were just two of the many 3.alves@axis. IU: manufactures and supplies a range of polyurethane products. Creating images based on the heat that is generated by any object. The versatility of the Axismoplastic compounds to a diverse range of industries. reliability or long-term stability. SLA Group. entrance and exit needs to 4.” specialty chemicals to a broad range of industries. that offers complete perimeter coverage and extensive internal monitoring capabilities. Plastamid: plays a leading role in the manufacture and supply of therbe accessible by the surveillance cameras.” remarks SLA Group’s Alexandre Teixeira. Axis P1344 ensures that control room personnel are able to view 2. The main entrance control room maintains centralised control of the entire system. Its site at Chloorkop. This sustained involvement allows SLA Group to offer best value for money solutions without compromising on quality.axis.com CCTV Handbook 2013 109 . The Axis PTZ network cameras provide a visual of what security can expect to encounter during these responses. roy. Africa. Thanks to the installation of Axis thermal network cameras. Seasoned IP CCTV and systems integration provider. “Every single corridor. polymers and plastics. The vacant land that borders the north and west sides of the Chloorkop AECI’s site no longer poses a threat to the security of the premises.” says Teixeira. Chemsystems: provides are monitored by Axis P1344 chemical products Mike van Schelt. mainly in High definition images South Africa and in southern The main entrance to the Africa. Chemserve Systems. dust and light fog. “It is imperative that warehouses. person or vehicle and requiring no additional light source. This ensures that our customer has complete control of the entire site at all times. even complete darkness cannot offer criminals a place to hide. Chemfit: has 30 years’ experience in supplying traded and blended The system has paid for itself in terms of efficacy. “We realised that AECI– Chempark’s perimeter was a major security issue that required careful attention and meticulous product investigation. mining. however. “Any movement after working hours will automatically trigger an alarm that security officers can react to immediately. workshops and storage tankers are under 24-hour surveillance. making effective security surveillance extremely difficult. Protecting essential stock AECI–Chempark divisions supply an extensive range of specialty chemical products and related services for industrial use across a broad spectrum of customers in the manufacturing and mining sectors.” Axis Q1910-E uses thermal imaging to detect people. thereby reducing the risk of an incident or intrusion failing detection by security personnel. intersection. petrochemical. thermal cameras are ideal for securing perimeters and dark or shadowed areas. iron and steel and chemical industries. For a long time thermal imaging was too costly for any application outside of the military. Akulu Marchom: supplies chemical raw materials and value-adding video surveillance of the highest possible resolution in the zones services to the cosmetics.” says technologies.” 5.com. financial director. based solution makes this entirely possible. soil fumigation. “The Axis Q1910-E Thermal Network Camera presented itself as the most intelligent option. was being monitored by four different analogue camera systems. while the IT server room records and acts as a main buffer for the whole system. Teixeira.securitysa. using Axis network cameras. a small industrial town just outside of Johannesburg. AECI’s Chemserve Systems provides chemical products to a diverse range of industries. site and the internal roads 1. www. haze. as price is driven down by improved technology. It has been a pleasure dealing with such a professional system integrator.com www. Network Cameras. it is rapidly becoming a force to be reckoned with in the security and surveillance industry. systems and solutions in southern Africa. administrative buildings. A decision was taken to consolidate and upgrade the existing solution. For more information contact Axis Communications. +27 (0)11 548 6780.” A fortified boundary SLA Group has over 24 years’ experience in the design. designed and installed a cohesive solution. toiletry and detergent industries in South where clarity and detail are critical. manufacture and installation of CCTV and automation systems for the power generation. The firstto a diverse range of rate HDTV image quality of industries. including water treatment. reasons that we selected Axis as our IP partner for this project.CASE STUDY Perimeter protection at its most effective AECI’s Chemserve Systems goes thermal to secure its Chloorkop site. objects and incidents in complete darkness or challenging conditions such as smoke. lubricants.
securitysa. What would you say are the success factors of this case? Close cooperation of ADT. the CCTV system is installed for security as well as process and production. The customer is also guaranteed of a future-proof solution fully upgradable should they require growth or changes. Two monitoring control rooms were required. DRA. On the access side. short house and diamond export areas. This use of technology for both security and process is fairly unique. Cameras were placed at all critical process areas to monitor the process flow. mpaynter.za@adt. What were the client’s needs? The project scope was to supply a fully-integrated security solution for a diamond mine in Botswana. mining and materials handling. Security and Integrated Systems. the customer received easy and fast implementation and ease of use. Martin van der Westhuizen. has been integrally involved with the implementation of security solutions for a diamond mine in Botswana.com . The biometric system used was the Morpho Access fingerprint biometrics.za What were the customer benefits? Using a full IP system. to and from the security areas and within the high-risk diamond recovery building. There are also cameras mounted inside the vacuum chambers of the cyclone sorting units to monitor a process that is normally impossible to see. ADT was able to integrate it into the security system for monitoring and secure mustering of staff during a fire. What solutions did ADT Security put in place? We applied the Tyco C-Cure 9000 access control system with full IP Edge door controllers. Johannesburg. The security system was the latest in digital security with virtual matrices and content analytics. This is a very innovative use of the integrated power of the security system to support operations without interfering with it. Access to work areas was granted per area and per duration and loaded into the system. crushing and flotation. For more information contact ADT. recovery and process areas. one for security and one for process control.CASE STUDY Watching the diamonds Integrated security installation keeps diamonds in the right hands. Should the staff member deviate from this. What was unique about this particular solution? CCTV and access control was used to manage high risk areas without the hindrance of physical barriers. He provides the following information on the project. the engineering contractor.co. smart card technology with Morpho Access fingerprint biometrics and full IP PoE door controllers were used. Staff can now proceed to working areas through virtual barriers to the approved and disarmed areas. connected back to network switches with a single cable for data and power. The IP intercom system delivered was the Aiphone IP intercom system. the security provider. Minimal cable runs were required as all devices 110 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. The system needed to provide full biometric access control into the mining area. Further to this. Any other comments you want included? Although the fire system was delivered by another vendor. What was the timeframe in which you implemented the solution? The project ran over a sevenmonth period (starting in February 2012 and ending in Sept 2012) and coincided with the civil construction of the mine and plant. What technology was used? All systems implemented were full IP systems with power over Ethernet connections. The video system installed is the Tyco American Dynamics Video Edge Network video recorders with the Illustra 400 Series IP dome and bullet cameras as well as VideoEdge IP Speed dome PTZ cameras. 0860 100 911. and the mine staff ensured the system was designed and implemented to be efficiently applied and supported all disciplines on the mine. ADT Security. the CCTV system will register the intrusion and immediate action can be taken. business development manager Fire. We were able to utilise the fibre ring network around the mine and plant to connect all systems to the servers and control rooms. Focused surveillance was needed on all mining areas included in perimeter.
into the Panomera system. recently restored.com CCTV Handbook 2013 111 . In contrast to PTZ cameras. It is thus possible to later reconstruct any event for use as evidence in court.. www. 1000-square-metre. one will see increasing pixellation of the image. Its core exhibit. By implementing a number of megapixel sensors. “The engineers at Dallmeier tackled this issue and developed a technology that utilises a multi-focal sensor system. www.” Swanepoel said.co. The combination of sensors will all be viewed and recorded as one scene with the ability to access a single sensor during either playback or live viewing. in the Austrian Tyrol. the vast. A well-known problem with PTZ cameras is that the operator is forced to choose between overview image and detailed view. while the other sensors are deployed to provide an overall panoramic view and recording. the Panomera always records the entire scene. over large distances. irrespective of where specific lenses are deployed in the field of vision. as well as the modern day panoramic outlook over Innsbruck. has been designed to showcase both the dramatic. In contrast to PTZ cameras.” said Swanepoel.Panoramic views with Geutebrück New Innsbruck museum rounded off with Geutebrück video. technical director for local distributors MASS. canvas panorama depicting the local battles of 1809 against Napoleonic and Bavarian forces.za. it is able to isolate a single sensor/lens combination to focus on a specific area within the total field of vision. each with its own lens. the three-storey. with Panomera. Dallmeier’s Panomera system allows users to view wide vistas. a new purpose-built museum in Innsbruck. “The Panomera camera overcomes this and is capable of recording up to 30 frames a second with viewing and recording in real-time. and to recognise all persons involved. charles@geutebruck. mid-field areas and longer distances. where only one operator can control the camera. 360-degree wraparound painting of the same name. the Zeughaus (Armoury). The combined museum and gallery complex is run by Tyrolean State Museums which also manages the Tyrolean State Museum Ferdinandeum. Ettiene Swanepoel. dates from 1896 and is one of only twenty artworks of its kind still in existence. at high resolutions. over large distances. life and culture.geutebrueck. Completed in 2011. The sensors are arranged with preselected focal length lenses to focus on close-up areas.securitysa. Dallmeier’s Panomera system allows users to view wide vistas. For more information contact Geutebrück. Court Church and the Folk Song Archive. the video security system also monitors all the sensitive areas in and around the museum’s exhibitions of Tyrolean history. Panomera has no movable mechanical parts. Besides focusing on the giant panoramic canvas and its viewing gallery. It is commonly accepted that with increasing distance. The Tyrol Panorama. However. regardless of where it took place. an unlimited number of operators can navigate across the entire scene independently of each other.com Huge width and depth capability with high quality By Allyson Koekhoven. the Inn Valley and the Alps beyond. high-tech concrete and glass construction is set into the hillside next to the Tyrolean Imperial Infantry Museum at Bergisel to the south of the city. which means there is no wear. together with one overall view. and installed more than sixty Sony cameras. Innsbruck installer Fiegl & Spielberger supplied the alarm and video solutions including Geutebrück re_porter-16 video systems. Although all operators are connected with the same camera. each of the individual users can select their view individually and zoom or pan as they desire. at high resolutions. the Museum of Tyrolean Folk Art. +27 (0)11 867 6585. thus extending the camera’s lifetime and drastically reducing maintenance. explained that the main limitation with many megapixel panoramic cameras is the gradual degradation of picture quality as the digital zoom ratio increases. Over recent years the company has repeatedly chosen Geutebrück video solutions to safeguard its buildings and collections and the new Bergisel development was no different.
Mining organisations have a duty of care to protect staff and visitors.za. Additionally. the mining client will use IPSecurityCenter to expand their existing CCTV video surveillance capability while optimising the significant investment in currently installed legacy technologies such as access control. equipped with four workstations and such features as the quick search function within video archives. By combining several products and technologies. www. Access control. Bosch provided Ferrero with an integrated security solution that offers high-quality images. consequently safety records can be influenced negatively by death or injury of illegal miners as they are legally recorded as if they were employees. The solution supplied by Bosch comprised cameras and storage capabilities. but also a major factor in the health and safety compliance policy. For evaluating the recorded scenes. the industry introduced the International Food Standard (IFS) in 2003 to support manufacturers and retailers in their striving for quality. One aspect of this standard is the protection of the production facilities. was in need of plant security when expanding its production in Eastern Europe and Russia. opened its first factory in Vorsha Sobinskiy. This specific mine in South Africa has the on-going challenge of protecting its gold. the popular Italian chocolate manufacturer. physical alarm systems. therefore. which will be one of the first attempts at marrying operations with security onto a common operating system. As well as securing the mines themselves there is also a need to secure gold in transit. explains Wolfgang Engling. such as rain or snow. As a result. comfortable management. “IPSecurityCenter will enable this gold mine giant to improve its security solutions while optimising currently installed.bosch. “IPSecurityCenter will provide the client’s operators with real-time situation awareness. implementation and support of situational management and PSIM solutions will provide an integrated security management solution to one of the world’s largest producers of gold.com .ethele. forensic investigation and evidence gathering purposes”.com. aligned using an encoder.za 112 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. one of the most crucial factors to address was the security of the facilities. nine iSCSI arrays with a total capacity of 100 TB were installed. had to be excluded.co. In terms of cameras. “The key factor was the level of security they could expect from a solution and the expected level of return on investment”. +27 (0)12 665 3158. backed by video storage. in the Vladimir region northwest of Moscow. The cost of the IPSecurityCenter solution versus the estimated savings in preventing gold theft was a good security investment for the organisation. In order to guarantee a globally comparable and accepted norm. “Building on the initial CCTV and access control integration the plan is to incorporate facial recognition. such as weather. as well as the ability to be integrated into the existing IP network. To reduce the theft of assets and the number of injuries on duty. including surveillance of the exterior and interior premises. www. lighting conditions or leaves.CASE STUDY Sweet surveillance with Bosch Security Food production today is not simply a business. GIS.za Chocolate producer opens a secure facility in Russia. and which created around 1 000 jobs. tools and equipment against theft through illegal mining activities by Zama Zamas (illegal miners) and by miners employed by the organisation.” For more information contact E-thele . where Ferrero produces its all-time favourite Kinder Chocolate and the Raffaello praline in an 80 000-square-metre plant. making the operator’s work more targeted and efficient.Smit@za. business development manager at E-thele.boschsecurity. as well as intelligent analysis tools. is not only a key component of the security operation. The camera control is coordinated by the Bosch Video Management System (BVMS). body scanners and asset tracking as well as other security and operations systems. perimeter intrusion detection and video analytics technologies. +27 (0)11 651 9838. In order to store video files.co. When its Russian subsidiary. ZAO Ferrero Russia. A 24-hour access control and detection of suspicious behaviour were key requirements.securitysa. manica@ethele. illegally parked cars or changing aspect ratios of objects.South Africa & Sub-Sahara Africa. this surveillance solution is equipped with Intelligent Video Analysis (IVA) from Bosch. and a reduction in the total cost of ownership. Ferrero. guiding the response teams over vast areas both above and below ground. Environmental influences. 120 IP and analogue cameras were installed to provide comprehensive monitoring. It also takes into consideration changing light and environmental conditions. explains Manica Sanders. disparate security technologies. For more information contact Bosch Security Systems . such as unauthorised access to restricted areas. Christine. fire detection. Physical Security Information Management (PSIM) software developer CNL Software and E-thele SQD Networks a local company involved in the design. it was vital to have an expandable surveillance system.co. MD at E-thele SQD. The scada software will later be integrated onto the same common platform. which offers the reliable detection of suspicious behaviour. Zama Zamas meet PSIM IPSecurityCenter PSIM solution chosen to optimise protection of a gold mine. At the same time IPSecurityCenter will collect data for reporting.
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