CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE PROJECT

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With the changing economic scchario factor such as globalization of markets. International economic integration and removal of barriers to business and trade and increased competition have enhanced the need of transportation it is one of the most important infra structure requirements which is essential for the expansion of opportunities and plays an important role in making (or) breaking competitive positioning. Transport volumes in India remain much less than these in the developed countries. India has still to go a long way in strengthening its transportation network. Transportation like all industries is largely influenced by information and communication technologies with the focus being on knowledge of customer needs and value added service surface transport is provided by the road and Indian railways.

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The road transport consist of three defined sectors
 Manufacture supplies and repairs of commercial vehicle including coaches and buses and their components.  Transport operators engaged in the movement of freight.  Public and private operators involved in the movement of passengers.

Road transport in India:
Road transport in India has a large and extensive transportation system. The country has one of the world largest railway and roadway network transporting millions of people every year however waste section of the countries transportation network remains underdeveloped.

Local transportation:
Local transport is predominantly by road with a small fraction by trains most Indian cities are connecter to surrounding towns by buses or train. The roads in most cities are poorly maintained and full of patholes while in villages. They are frequently non-existent and traffic generally moves slowly and exactly and traffic jams and accidents are very common. A Readers digest study of traffic congestion in asian cities ranked several Indian cities within the top ten for worst traffic.

Buses:
Buses are very cheep in most cities but also very crowed and have unpredictable timings frequently necessitating long waits in the big cities and towns of India buses are the major mode of transport. Luxury and Air-Conditional buses also service some cities.

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Vans:
Vans or mini – buses is a more prevalent form of transportation especially in remote areas and common route with consistent yet small transportation needs not mention. It’s presence in the cities where it is often traffic menance.

Cars:
The demand for cars in India is one of the highest in the world in 2012 more than 50,000 new cars were bought in delhi alone compact cars pre-dominate due to low cost Maruti, Hundai, Tata motors and ford are the most popular brands in the order of the market share.

Utility Vehicles:
The first utility vehicle in India was manufactured by Mahindra and Mahindra, the vehicle was an instant hit and made Mahindra corp one of the top companies in India. The India Army and police extensively used Mahindra vechicles for transporting personal and equipments.

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OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objective of the study is divided into primary and secondary objective.

Primary Objective:
To study the transportation sevice provided to the employes in various organization in Coimbatore.

Secondary Objectives:
 To study the types of transport facilities offered in the organization.  To study in which shift system transport facilities are offered in the organization.  To study the transport facilities that supports the employee job.  To analyses the transport facilities contributed to develop the organization.  To give suggestion to improve the transport facilities to the employees.

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SCOPE OF THE STUDY Employee Transportation Benefits are good for Business
Employees who provided transportation benefits for their work force again many rewards for their company providing there benefits can help your company  Attract and retain workers  Reduce pay roll taxes  Increases customer access to good and service  Expand service hours  Reduce gas emission and conserve energy  Demonstrate company support of work life balance  Enhance your corporate image as an environmentally and worker friendly company

Transportation as a tool kit
Transportation tool kit for the Business community give business the information they needs now to assist their employees in achieving timely, cost-efficient commutes that promotes their productivity and job satisfaction transportation to work for information how to access transportation related tax benefits, partner with local providers to final answers to employee’s and customers transportation needs, become part of a life of each and every people in the world and more.

Transportation benefits supporting employee
Companies interested in providing employee transportation benefits for their workers have a number of options when it comes to designing a program they can.

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Increase Your Business ability to recruit and retain employees  Compute and win hiring and retaining the most qualified workers by offering comprehensive benefits including a commuter benefit program.  Offer employees opportunities to compress their weekly schedules or tele commute or volatile gasolitic price which reached an all time high in 2008 have caused many companies to consider new ways to keep employees happy.  Present your company as an innovative and pro-active work place.  Build a more diversifying work force and create a more positive work environment by attracting workers who might otherwise not be able to commute to your companies facility. their job security threatened finding ways to save many workers significantly cut down on driving (or) given up their cars completely and chosen public transit other methods of ridesharing to commute to work.  Reduce employee strength and increase employee morale and employee job satisfaction by promoting compute options that are less burdensome. The economic Downtown brings increased opportunities for shared riding Over the last year. Participate in a qualified transportation fringe benefit program by allowing to set article pre tax rupees to cover transit or vanpool cost or by subsidizing the cost of their workers and deducting the cost as an employee benefit. working families have seen their savings shrink and in many cases. 6 .  Demonstrate your company’s support your work line balance which is increasingly to today’s work force.  Partner with local transportation provider to educate employees about alternative transportation option they can use to commute the work.

7 .  How for (kilometer) the transport facility is provided in the organization.NEED FOR STUDY  To find out the satisfactory level of the employee about the transport facilities provided by the various org.  To find how the transporting facilities supporting their job.  To know about the shift system followed in their organization in transportation basis.  How long the transport facilities is offered in the organization.

RESEARCH PROBLEM POPULATION In this study the population infinite. Secondary data TOOLS OF DATA COLLECTION Questioner 8 . The research design used in their. METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION 1.CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH DESIGN Research design in the conceptual structure with in which research in conducted. Here the sampling technique is non probability sampling ( convenient sampling ) as the samples will be chosen to convenience. The method used to choose the samples from the population is known as sampling technique. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE Random sampling technique is used. Primary data 2. SAMPLE SIZE In this study the selected sample size is 90.

2. Simple percentage method. 3. Pie – charts. 9 .ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE 1. Chi – square test.

45%of the respondents are 31-40. 16% of the respondents are 41-50.NO A B C D PARTICULARS 20-30 31-40 41-50 50 and Above TOTAL RESPONDANCE 31 40 15 4 90 Source: Primary Data INTERPRETATION: The above tables’ levels show that.44 44. taken for the study 35% of the respondents are of 20-30. out of the total respondents.44 16. 10 .66 4. INTERFERENCE: Percentage of the respondent belongs to greater category are 45percent. and 4% respondents are of 50 and above.CHAPTER 3: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION TABLE NO 1: AGE RSEPONDANT IN PERCENTAGE 34.444 100 S.

CHART NO: 1 50 and Above 5% AGE RESPONDANCE 41-50 17% 20-30 34% 31-40 44% 11 .

INTERFERENCE: Percentage of the respondent belongs to greater category are 68percent. 68% of the respondents are male.222 100 Source: Primary Data INTERPRETATION: The above tables levels show that. 32% of the respondents are female. out of the total respondents.NO A B PARTICULARS MALE FEMALE TOTAL RESPONDANCE 61 29 90 RSEPONDANT IN PERCENTAGE 67. 12 .TABLE NO 2: GENDER S. taken for the study.778 32.

CHART NO 2 GENDER RESPONDANCE FEMALE 32% MALE 68% 13 .

15% of the respondents are completed school level. 57% of the respondents completed UG. INTERFERENCE: Percentage of the respondent belongs to greater category are 57percent.NO A B C D E PARTICULARS PG UG SCHOOL LEVEL VOCATION OTHER TOTAL RESPONDANCE 25 51 14 0 0 90 RSEPONDANT IN PERCENTAGE 27. 14 .TABLE NO 3: EDUCATION QUALIFICATION S. out of the total respondents. 0% of respondents are of other. taken for the study 28% of the respondents are completed PG.556 0 0 100 Source: primary data INTERPRETATION: The above tables’ levels show that. 0% of respondents are of vocation.667 15.778 56.

CHART NO 3 EDUCATION QUALIFICATION RESPONDANCE SCHOOL LEVEL 15% PG 28% UG 57% 15 .

out of the total respondents. 40% of the respondents are single. 60%of the respondents are married. INTERFERENCE: Percentage of the respondent belongs to greater category are 60percent. 16 . taken for the study.TABLE NO 4: MARITAL STATUS S.NO A B PARTICULARS SINGLE MARRIED TOTAL RESPONDANCE 36 54 90 RSEPONDANT IN PERCENTAGE 40 60 100 Source: primary data INTERPRETATION: The above tables levels show that.

CHART NO: 4 MARITAL STATUS RESPONDANCE SINGLE 40% MARRIED 60% 17 .

24% of the respondents are of 31000-40000. INTERFERENCE: Percentage of the respondent belongs to greater category are 38 percent.778 24.778 100 Source: primary data INTERPRETATION: The above tables levels show that. taken for the study. and 7 of the respondents are under 41000 and above. 18 .444 7. 30% of the respondents are under 10000-20000. 38% of the respondents are under 21000-30000.TABLE NO:5 INCOME S. out of the total respondents.NO A B C D PARTICULARS 10000 TO 20000 21000 TO 30000 31000 TO 40000 41000 AND ABOVE TOTAL RESPONDANCE 27 34 22 7 90 RSEPONDANT IN PERCENTAGE 30 37.

CHART NO: 5 INCOME RESPONDANCE 41000 AND ABOVE 8% 31000 TO 40000 24% 10000 TO 20000 30% 21000 TO 30000 38% 19 .

24% of the respondents are using bus. 20 .556 7.6% of the respondents are using car and van. 29%of the respondents are using van.889 17.TABLE NO: 6 TYPE OF TRANSPORT S. 7%of the respondents are using bus and van. 9%of the respondents are using car. 8% of the respondents are using all the above INTERFERENCE: Percentage of the respondent belongs to greater category are 29percent.444 28.778 100 Source: primary data INTERPRETATION: The above tables levels show that.889 24. taken for the study.778 6.NO A B C D E F G PARTICULARS CAR BUS VAN CAR AND BUS BUS AND VAN CAR AND VAN ALL THE ABOVE TOTAL RESPONDANCE 8 22 26 16 6 5 7 90 RSEPONDANT IN PERCENTAGE 8. 17% of the respondents are using car and bus. out of the total respondents.667 5.

CHART NO: 6 TYPE OF TRANSPORT RESPONDANCE ALL THE ABOVE 8% CAR AND VAN 5% BUS AND VAN 7% CAR AND BUS 18% VAN 29% CAR 9% BUS 24% 21 .

444 6.TABLE NO: KMS-FACILITY S. INTERFERENCE: Percentage of the respondent belongs to greater category are 54 percent. out of the total respondents. 6% of the respondents are under less than 5kms.667 100 Source: primary data INTERPRETATION: The above tables levels show that. taken for the study. and 7 of the respondents are under 20kms and above. 54% of the respondents are of 10-20kms.333 54.NO A B C D PARTICULARS LESS THAN 5 KMS 5 TO 10 KMS 10 TO 20 KMS ABOVE 20 KMS TOTAL RESPONDANCE 5 30 49 6 90 RSEPONDANT IN PERCENTAGE 5. 22 .556 33. 33% of the respondents are under 5-10kms.

CHART NO: 7 KMS-FACILITY RESPONDANCE ABOVE 20 KMS LESS THAN 5 KMS 7% 6% 10 TO 20 KMS 54% 5 TO 10 KMS 33% 23 .

out of the total respondents.NO A B C D PARTICULARS FROM THE ESTABLISHED YEAR BEFORE 5 YEARS 3 TO 5 YEARS BELOW 3 YEARS TOTAL RESPONDANCE 0 90 0 0 90 RSEPONDANT IN PERCENTAGE 0 100 0 0 100 Source: primary data INTERPRETATION: The above tables levels show that. 24 . 0% of the respondents are under starting of the organisation. taken for the study.0% of the respondents are under below 3 years. 100 of the respondents are under before 5 years. INTERFERENCE: Percentage of the respondent belongs to greater category are 100 percent.0% of the respondents are of 3-5years.TABLE NO: 8 TRANSPORT FACILITY OFFERED S.

CHART NO: 8 TRANSPORT FACILITY OFFERED RESPONDANCE FROM THE ESTABLISHED YEAR BEFORE 5 YEARS 3 TO 5 YEARS BELOW 3 YEARS 25 .

10% of the respondents are under night shift.NO A B C PARTICULARS DAY SHIFT NIGHT SHIFT BOTH TOTAL RESPONDANCE 49 9 32 90 RSEPONDANT IN PERCENTAGE 54.TABLE NO: 9 SERVICE TIME S.444 10 35. INTERFERENCE: Percentage of the respondent belongs to greater category are 54 percent. out of the total respondents.556 100 Source: primary data INTERPRETATION: The above tables levels show that. 36% of the respondents are under both the shift system. 26 . 54% of the respondents are under day shift. taken for the study.

CHART NO: 9 SERVICE TIME RESPONDANCE BOTH 36% DAY SHIFT 54% NIGHT SHIFT 10% 27 .

56% of the respondents are under advantages for your job. out of the total respondents.NO A B PARTICULARS YES NO TOTAL RESPONDANCE 50 40 90 RSEPONDANT IN PERCENTAGE 55. 44 %of the respondents are under opposed INTERFERENCE: Percentage of the respondent belongs to greater category are 56 percent.444 100 Source: primary data INTERPRETATION: The above table’s levels show that.TABLE NO: 10 IT’S ADVANTAGE TO YOUR JOB S. taken for the study.556 44. 28 .

CHART NO: 10 ITS ADVANTAGE TO YOUR JOB RESPONDANCE NO 44% YES 56% 29 .

1% of the respondent is under other. out of the total respondents. INTERFERENCE: Percentage of the respondent belongs to greater category are 44 percent. 33% of the respondents are under regular in work. 44% of the respondents are under quality in work. 22% of the respondents are under punctuality in work.222 44.TABLE NO: 11 HOW FAR SUPPORTS YOUR JOB RSEPONDANT IN S.444 32. 30 . taken for the study.222 1.111 100 Source: primary data INTERPRETATION: The above tables levels show that.NO A B C D PARTICULARS PUNCTUALITY IN WORK QUALITY IN WORK REGULAR IN WORK OTHER TOTAL RESPONDANCE 20 40 29 1 90 PERCENTAGE 22.

CHART NO: 11 HOW FAR SUPPORTS YOUR JOB RESPONDANCE OTHER 1% PUNCTUALITY IN WORK 22% REGULA R IN WORK 32% QUALITY IN WORK 45% 31 .

nil of the respondents are under other.NO A PARTICULARS INCREASING THE PROFIT RETENTION OF EMPLOYEES BUILDING BRAND IMAGE REPUTATION TIME SAVING OTHER TOTAL RESPONDANCE 11 RSEPONDANT IN PERCENTAGE 12.556 0 100 Source: Primary data INTERPRETATION: The above tables levels show that. INTERFERENCE: Percentage of the respondent belongs to greater category are 35 percent. 12% of the respondents are saying increasing profit.222 B 32 35. 35% of the respondents are under retention of employees. 15% of the respondents are of time saving.TABLE NO: 12 TRANSPORT CONTRIBUTION TO DEVELOP THE ORGANISATION S. 32 .778 15. 18% of the respondents are of building brand image. taken for the study. out of the total respondents. 17% of the respondents are saying reputation.556 C D E F 17 16 14 0 90 18.889 17.

CHART NO: 12 OTHER 0% TRANSPORT IN DEVELOPMENT RESPONDANCE TIME SAVING 15% REPUTATION 18% INCREASING THE PROFIT 12% RETENTION OF EMPLOYEES 36% BUILDING BRAND IMAGE 19% 33 .

under nuutral. 9% of the respondents are under highly satisfied.333 100 Source: primary data INTERPRETATION: The above tables levels show that.333 13. 14% of the respondents are under satisfied.13% of the 34 .444 8.nil of the respondents are respondents are highly dissatisfied.63% of the respondents are of dissatisfied .889 63. out of the total respondents.TABLE NO: 13 TYPE OF ENTERTAINMENT FASILITIES S. taken for the study. INTERFERENCE: Percentage of the respondent belongs to greater category are 63 percent.NO A B C D PARTICULARS SATISFIED HIGHLY SATISFIED DISSATISFIED HIGHLY SATISFIED TOTAL RESPONDANCE 13 8 57 12 90 RSEPONDANT IN PERCENTAGE 14.

CHART NO: 13 TYPE OF ENTERTAINMENT FASILITIES RESPONDANCE HIGHLY SATISFIED 13% SATISFIED 15% HIGHLY SATISFIED 9% DISSATISFIED 63% 35 .

556 33. out of the total respondents. taken for the study. 21 of the respondents are under highly satisfied. INTERFERENCE: Percentage of the respondent belongs to greater category are 46 percent. nil of the respondents are of dissatisfied .NO A B C D PARTICULARS HIGHLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL DISSATISFIED HIGHLY DISSATISFIED TOTAL RESPONDANCE 19 41 30 0 RSEPONDANT IN PERCENTAGE 21. 36 .TABLE NO: 14 SATISFACTION-SEATING ARRANGEMENT IN VEHICLE S. 46% of the respondents are under satisfied.nil of the respondents are highly dissatisfied.33% of the respondents are under neutral .111 45.333 0 0 90 0 100 Source: primary data INTERPRETATION: The above tables levels show that.

CHART NO 14 SATISFACTION-SEATING ARRANGEMENT IN VEHICLE RESPONDANCE HIGHLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL DISSATISFIED HIGHLY DISSATISFIED 37 .

TABLE NO: 15 SATISFACTION-TRANSPORT TIMINGS PROVIDED IN THE ORGANISATION S.556 68. taken for the study. 38 .1% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied.889 12. 69% of the respondents are under satisfied.NO A B C D E PARTICULARS HIGHLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL DISSATISFIED HIGHLY DISSATISFIED TOTAL RESPONDANCE 14 62 11 2 1 90 RSEPONDANT IN PERCENTAGE 15. 16% of the respondents are under highly satisfied.12 of the respondents are under nuutral. INTERFERENCE: Percentage of the respondent belongs to greater category are 69 percent.111 100 Source: primary data INTERPRETATION: The above tables levels show that.2of the respondents are of dissatisfied . out of the total respondents.222 1.222 2.

CHART NO: 15 SATISFACTION-TRANSPORT TIMINGS PROVIDED IN THE ORGANISATION RESPONDANCE HIGHLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL DISSATISFIED HIGHLY DISSATISFIED 39 .

111 0 100 Source: primary data INTERPRETATION: The above tables levels show that. out of the total respondents.34% of the respondents are under neutral. taken for the study. 15% of the respondents are of dissatisfied .889 35. 40 .TABLE NO: 16 SATISFACTION-TRANPORTING FACILITY PROVIDED BY THE ORGANISATION S.556 34. 35% of the respondents are under satisfied.444 1. INTERFERENCE: Percentage of the respondent belongs to greater category are 35 percent. 29% of the respondents are under highly satisfied. 0% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied.NO A B C D E PARTICULARS HIGHLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL DISSATISFIED HIGHLY DISSATISFIED TOTAL RESPONDANCE 26 32 31 1 0 90 RSEPONDANT IN PERCENTAGE 28.

CHART NO: 16 SATISFACTION-TRANPORTING FACILITY PROVIDED BY THE ORGANISATION RESPONDANCE HIGHLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL DISSATISFIED HIGHLY DISSATISFIED 41 .

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REGULAR TYPE OF SHIFT AND GENDER: OBSERVATION FREQUENCY: Type of shift/ Gender 49 20 69 4 0 4 Day shift Night shift Day & night shift 8 9 17 61 29 90 Total Male Female Total Expected frequency = Row total x Column to Grand total 42 .CHI-SQUARE TEST-1 NULL HYPOTHESIS: Ho: hypothesis is that there is a significant relationship between the type of shifts and gender. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS: Ha: hypothesis is that there is no significant relationship between the type of shifts and gender.

08 20.4 0.5 Total 64.52 19.29 -4.01 0.51 5.99 25.51 3.63 0.5 (O-E)2 Calculated value = --------------------E Degree of freedom Y= (r-1) x (c-1) = (3-1) x (2-1) = 2X1 =2 Degree of freedom = 2 O-E 0.49 3.01 90 Total Male Female CALCULATION: O 49 4 8 20 9 E 48.25 TOTAL (O-E)2/E 0.5 (O-E)2 0.22 1.76 19.01 2.22 4.52 0.71 0 Day shift Night shift Day & night shift 12.06 0.71 12.52 5.EXPECTED FREQUENCY: Type of shift/ Gender 48.24 12.24 0.09 43 .76 3.

Hence we conclude that there is a relationship between type of shifts and gender. is lower than the table value 12.Level 0f significance= 5% Total value= 12. So we null hypothesis is accepted. 44 .09.592 .592 The calculated value 4.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REGULAR AGE AND SEATING ARRANGEMENT: OBSERVATION FREQUENCY: Age /seating arrangement 18 20 4 20-30 31-40 41-50 50 and above 0 42 Total Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied Total 4 3 0 0 20 10 0 0 3 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 27 21 0 0 25 50 15 0 90 45 . ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS: Ha: hypothesis is that there is no significant relationship between the Age and seating arrangement.CHI-SQUARE TEST-2 NULL HYPOTHESIS: Ho: hypothesis is that there is a significant relationship between the Age and seating arrangement.

42 0.28 1.25 25.6 23.0 2.5 3.9 20-30 31-40 41-50 50 and above 0 42 Total Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied Total Calculation: O 18 20 4 4 20 3 3 10 8 7.3 -3.6 3.40 TOTAL (O-E)2/E 3.46 1.68 14.25 8.4 3.0 -1.9 -1.14 0.9 11.3 7.5 (O-E)2 36.99 46 .6 7.5 1.5 15 4.6 4.6 0 0 4.0 7.48 10.5 -2.0 -3.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 27 21 0 0 25 50 15 0 90 E 11.Expected frequency= Row total x Column total Grand total EXPECTED FREQUENCY: Age /seating arrangement 11.56 16.41 2.89 9.63 1.0 12.5 5.9 0 0 15 11.5 O-E 6.5 5.22 4.5 5.66 0.5 5.

47 . So we null hypothesis is accepted.592 The calculated value 14.592. Hence we conclude that there is a relationship between Age and seating arrangement.99. is lower than the table value 16.(O-E)2 Calculated value = --------------------E Degree of freedom Y= (r-1) x (c-1) = (5-1) x (4-1) = 4X3 =12 Degree of freedom = 12 Level 0f significance= 5% Total value= 16.

21000 to Rs. o Majority 50% of the respondent say yes to the advantage offered to the job. o Majority 35% of the respondent interested in retention of employees. o Majority 54% of the respondent prefer KMS facility to 10 to 20 Kms. o Majority 63% of the respondent are dissatisfied with type of entertainment facilities offered in the organization. o Majority 45% of the respondents satisfied with the satisfaction-seating arrangement in vehicle o Majority 69% of the respondent satisfied with satisfaction-transport timings provided in the organisation o Majority 36% of the respondent satisfied with transport facilities provided in the organisation o Majority 61% of the respondent satisfied with the other facilities with the organisation.CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS The following are the findings of the study: o Majority 45% of the of the respondent belongs to category of 31 to 40 age.30000. o Majority 29% of the respondent prefers to the van transport. o Majority 40% of the respondent prefer quality in work supports the quality of the job. o Majority 54% of the respondent prefer day shift. o Majority 100% of the respondents prefer transport facility was better before 5 years. 48 . o Majority 90% of the respondent voted the transport facility was before 5 years. o Majority 68% of the respondent belongs to Male o Majority 57% of the respondent belongs to under graduate o Majority 38% of the respondent belongs income of Rs.

 Some transport facilities are offered in the organization should be changed slightly  Transport facility should supports the employee job satisfaction. 49 .CHAPTER 5 SUGGESSIONS  Transport facility should increase at every once in a year what they offer.

Finally the findings and suggestions is presented.CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION The project was successfully completed within time span allotted. All the departments are analysed separately. Thus the project has fulfilled the entire objective identified. 50 .

Prasant Sarangi Ph.) BOOKS REFFERED:1. Written by.) 3.) 4.com www.MBA (marketing) M.KOTHARIv 51 .DCA.d (eco).com 2.BIBILOGRAPHY REFFERED WEBSITES:1.sendspace. C.com www. Dr.scribd.MA www.net www.oppepers.) 2.) TAXMANN’S Research methodology With live case studies.R.phill (eco).) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Methods & Techniques Revised version Written by.slideshare.

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