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INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
Reduce current by current transformer (CT).
Reduce voltage by potential transformer (PT).
CURRENT TRANSFORMER
Polarity
Ratio
1S2
2 .1
,292
P2:
Transformer with two secondary windings.
Connection and star point.
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Current Transformer
Accuracy class and burden.
I Class P I
Specified in terms of:
Rated burden
Class (5P, 10P)
Accuracy Limit Factor (ALF)
Example: 15VA 1 OP 20
A.L.F =Multiple of rated current up to which declared accuracy will be maintained with rated
burden connected.
Z
8
= Rated burden in ohms (!l)
=Rated VA /IN
2
Knee point voltage: Vk
Value of the voltage Vk applied to the secondary which, increased by 10%, causes amaximum
magnetizing current, lm.
VA *ALF
Vk=---
ln
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Magnetizing characteristics
2
Current transformer
Equivalent circuit (normal/saturate)
CTcaution
Don't open CT circuit during load.
--.,
'
'
'
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, . _ _ _ _ . _ . ~ , . __ ----------------- --'
Secondary CT that doesn't use, should be shorted.
CT ratio > full load current.
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POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER
Type of PT
1. Electromagnetic PT.
2. Coupling Capacitor VT. (CCVT)
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Potential transformer
Connection
y v Open Delta
Location of CT's and VT's in Substations
Potential transformer
Ratio
Rated primary voltage Up phase-to-earth voltage:
Rated secondary voltage Us typical values:
5
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Potential transformer
Requirements for protection VT, according to IEC 186 standard.
Rated voltage factor kT:
Defines the maximum primary voltage that the VT can withstand depends on the earthing
system and VT primary connection.
Typical values:
kT = 1.9 , 8 hours for phase-to-earth VT.
kT = 1.2 unlimited for phase-tophase VT.
Accuracy class
3P or6P
3P: 3% error for U between 5% Up and kTUp.
6P: 6% error for U between 5% Up and kTUp.
Example:
Phase-to-phase VT used for protection : 230000V/1 OOV 1 OOVA cl 2P
VT caution
Don't short VT circuit during load/
Secondary VT thay doesn't use, should be opened.
Choose VT burden properly to load.
Ferromagnetic resonance
Phenomenon due to saturation of tha VT magnetic core during voltage fluctuations.
Following switdhing operations
Following a phase-to-earth fault (isolated neutral system)
CONSEQUENCES
Voltage oscillations that may reach 2Un.
Increase in the current in the primary of the VT.
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