-

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
• Reduce current by current transformer (CT).
• Reduce voltage by potential transformer (PT).
CURRENT TRANSFORMER
• Polarity
• Ratio
1S2
2 .·1··
,292
·P2:
Transformer with two secondary windings.
• Connection and star point.
06 Instrument Transformer
1
Current Transformer
• Accuracy class and burden.
I Class P I
Specified in terms of:
• Rated burden
• Class (5P, 10P)
• Accuracy Limit Factor (ALF)
Example: 15VA 1 OP 20
• A.L.F =Multiple of rated current up to which declared accuracy will be maintained with rated
burden connected.
Z
8
= Rated burden in ohms (!l)
=Rated VA /IN
2
Knee point voltage: Vk
Value of the voltage Vk applied to the secondary which, increased by 10%, causes amaximum
magnetizing current, lm.
VA *ALF
Vk=---
ln
06 Instrument Transformer
'J,o,;;;G
:,: :. : ;.:
:,
' ' ' ' , •" .: ', r
"''" --····
Magnetizing characteristics
2
Current transformer
• Equivalent circuit (normal/saturate)
CTcaution
• Don't open CT circuit during load.
--.,
'
'
'
'
, . _ _ _ _ . _ . ~ , . __ ----------------- --'
• Secondary CT that doesn't use, should be shorted.
• CT ratio > full load current.
06 Instrument Transformer
3
POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER
Type of PT
1. Electromagnetic PT.
2. Coupling Capacitor VT. (CCVT)
06 Instrument Transformer
4
Potential transformer
• Connection
y v Open Delta
• Location of CT's and VT's in Substations
Potential transformer
Ratio
Rated primary voltage Up phase-to-earth voltage:
Rated secondary voltage Us typical values:
5
06 Instrument Transformer
Potential transformer
Requirements for protection VT, according to IEC 186 standard.
Rated voltage factor kT:
• Defines the maximum primary voltage that the VT can withstand depends on the earthing
system and VT primary connection.
Typical values:
kT = 1.9 , 8 hours for phase-to-earth VT.
kT = 1.2 unlimited for phase-tophase VT.
• Accuracy class
3P or6P
3P: 3% error for U between 5% Up and kTUp.
6P: 6% error for U between 5% Up and kTUp.
Example:
Phase-to-phase VT used for protection : 230000V/1 OOV 1 OOVA cl 2P
VT caution
• Don't short VT circuit during load/
• Secondary VT thay doesn't use, should be opened.
• Choose VT burden properly to load.
• Ferromagnetic resonance
Phenomenon due to saturation of tha VT magnetic core during voltage fluctuations.
• Following switdhing operations
• Following a phase-to-earth fault (isolated neutral system)
CONSEQUENCES
• Voltage oscillations that may reach 2Un.
• Increase in the current in the primary of the VT.
06 Instrument Transformer
6