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Submitted by: Mr.PURNA CHANDRA DASH Roll no:-CA25610, Regd No:-1835/2009 Under the Esteemed guidance of Mr. BALKRUSHNA NAYAK Faculty of Computer Science, CAC, Berhampur-10 Submitted to

Berhampur University, BhanjaBihar, Berhampur A project report for partial fulfillment of the requirement towards the award of B.C.A. Final yr. Course Through My College

College of Advance Computing Berhampur

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BERHAMPUR UNIVERSITY
Berhampur -760007, Odisha.
PROFORMA FOR THE APPROVAL OF BCA PROJECT PROPOSAL
(Note: All entries of the proforma of approval should be filled up with appropriate and complete information in italic font only. Incomplete proforma of approval in any respect will be summarily rejected.)

Project Proposal No:.. (for office use only)

Regd. No. : 1835/2009 Exam. Roll No. : CA25610 Name of College: CAC E-mail :p.ch.dash92@gmail.com Mobile/Tel No. : 7381620008
: Purna Chandra Dash S/o Goura Hari Dash R.C Church road Berhampur, Odisha (gm). : Hotele management system : Mr.Balkrushna Nayak CAC Ph.D* M.Tech.* B.E*/B.Tech.* MCA M.Sc.*

1. Name and Address of the Student

2. Title of the Project 3. Name and Address of the Guide

4. Educational Qualification of the Guide

(*in Computer Science / IT only)

5. Working / Teaching experience of the Guide** Five years


(**Note: At any given point of time, a guide should not provide guidance for more than 4 BCA students of BU in a Project )

6. Software used in the Project

Visual Studio.NET and MS-SQL Server 2005

Signature of the Student Date:

Signature of the Guide Date: .

For Office Use Only Signature, Designation, Stamp of the Project Proposal Evaluator Date: .

Approved

Not Approved

Suggestions for reformulating the Project:

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Hotel Management System

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am giving a tip of great pleasure to the outstanding and inevitable personalities who helped a lot in completing and submitting the project. I am thankful to CAC, Berhampur and especially to our course Coordinator for allowing me to do this project entitled Hotel management System using VB.NET and MS Access for fulfillment of BCA Final year Course. I express sincere gratefulness to Mr. Balkrushna Nayak for providing knowledge and his kind cooperation for making this project successful. In this context, I extend my heartiest regard to Mr. Balkrushna Nayak (Senior Faculty) of CAC, Berhampur for his valuable guidance, advice and constant encouragement during my project work. Last but not least, I in depth gratitude towards my parents for their valuable advice, encouragement and inspiration during the preparation of my project work.

With best regards, from our team Mr.Satya sanatana Rout Mr.Purna ch.Dash Mr.Sidheswar Padhi Mr.Sunil ku. Choudhury

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DECLARATION

I Sri Purna Chandra Dash Student of your college studying year, hereby declare that the particulars of the project i.e.

BCA

Final

HOTEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM submitted, is developed by me and I have not followed any unfair means to copy or purchase any part/components of the project from any other party.

Signature of student Date:

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CERTIFICATE OF AUTHENTICATED WORK


This is to certify that the project report entitled Hotel

Management System submitted to Berhampur University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor Of Computer Applications (BCA) is an original work carried out by Mr. Purna Chandra Dash Enrollment No. CA25610 under my guidance. The matter embodied in this project is authentic and is genuine work done by the student and has not been submitted whether to this University or to any other University/Institute for the fulfillment of the requirement of any course of study.

Signature of the Student: Date:

Signature of the External Guide Date:

Name and Address Of the student

Name, Designation and Address of the External Guide

Purna Chandra Dash S/o Goura Hari Dash R.C Church road Berhampur, Odisha (gm).

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Table of Contents
Chapters
Chapter# 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1. 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 1.1.6 1.1.7 1.1.8 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 2.8. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 Synopsis or Abstract of the project Title of the Project Theoretical Background Introduction To Hotel Management System Objectives And Scope Of The Project Necessity Of Computer Based Attendance System Scope And Benefits Of The Project Achievements Of The Project Organization Of The Report N-tier Application What Is Front End and Back End? What Led To .Net? Dot Net Platform And Features Front End Tool (Introduction to VB.NET) Back End Tool (About MS Access) Introduction to DBMS and RDBMS Normalization Hardware Requirements Introduction to Oracle Hardware Description Software used while developing the Project Software Requirement to Implement Design Methodologies Structured Design Dataflow Diagram System Design Diagram

Chapter# 2 : SURVEY OF TECHNOLOGIES

Chapter# 3 : REQUIREMENT AND ANALYSIS

Chapter# 4 : SYSTEM DESIGN

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4.1.4 4.1.5 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 7.1 Input Design Feasibility Study Software Engineering Paradigm UML PERT Chart Gantt Chart DFD Data Dictionary USECASE model ER Diagram Working with System Administrator User Screen Shots of the project Coding of the project Unit Testing Integrated Testing Black Box Testing White Box Testing System Testing Testing Objectives Implementation of the System Future Scope of the Project

Chapter# 5 : RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Chapter# 6 : IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING

Chapter# 7 : CONCLUSION Chapter# 8 : REFERENCES Chapter# 9 : GLOSSORY

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OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT


This project is an efficient one, which makes the work of many persons much easier than earlier manual way. This project helps the user in maintaining the records of the students in schools or colleges, employees in the offices, and many other places of workings where the attendances are being taken. Utilization of this project will enable the user in easy record maintenance, which can be used later for their use. The information that they will get will be saved in the database for further references. By using this project, the user can easily maximize their own profit in the works. Attendance records should be maintained properly for a reasonable period and should be subject to regular supervisory checks. To prevent falsification of records, front line supervisors should: check the daily attendance register. keep the attendance register at a secured location. Mark an attendance register, including quick default entry capabilities. Easy attendance edits functionality.

Why did we need a new computer based Attendance system?


The older permissions (Alternative Attendance Register guidelines) to use a computer for attendance were very loose and not being followed. The roll auditors frequently found serious anomalies while verifying the funding roll. EAR provides schools with assistance in clarifying attendance, absence and truancy terms. More valid data will be available, as a base for national strategies, to help school improve student participation in learning.

Scope and Benefits of the project:

Staff member can mark own attendance Multiple entries and exits on the same day allowed Attendance can be recorded by Card. In-time and Out-Time automatically recorded. Page: 12

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ACHIEVEMENTS OF EAR: EAR software has numerous built in statistical calculations to help you analyze trends and patterns of attendance. Attendance objectives can be measured and related back to organization targets. Over time, links can be made between attendance, behavioral and achievement data. The time taken per Leader to enter data is minimal. The attendance data operator in the organization has a clear set of guidelines informed by organization policy. Attendance information is available more quickly.

Organization of Report
This project report is organized into various Chapters. Chapter 2 : Deals with the survey of technologies. In this chapter you would get details about .NET technology, VB.NET and asp.net technology. It also describes about SQL SERVER 2005. In Chapter 3 : We have specified various requirement of the system (SRS) and also analyze them in order to meet the requirements. Chapter 4 : Deals with System Design that describes various features and operations including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams and pseudo code and other documentations.

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Hotel Management System Chapter 5 : Deals with Test results and reports based on the test cases, that show how this project is capable of facing any problematic situations and that it works fine in different conditions. This chapter also gives details about user documentations including how this project works. It also describes different functions, components. Chapter 6 : Deals with Implementation and testing of the system. In this chapter we have described the plan of implementation and the standards used in the implementation. Chapter 7 : Deals with Conclusion, including future scope of the project. The future scope describes new areas of investigation prompted by developments in Electronic Attendance Register system as well as parts of the current work that were not completed due to time constraints and /or problems encountered.

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Chapter # 2

SURVEY OF TECHNOLOGIES
First of all the technology here refers to the hardware and the software used in the preparation of the project. In the project mainly the front-end SOFTWARE CONSIDERATION used is VB.NET from the VISUAL STUDIO.NET package. As we have stated earlier of the information to be stored in the database so here the backend SOFTWARE CONSIDERATION used is MS-SQL Server 2005 So, in order to make the project run smoothly we have used the above technology smoothly. which will not put any importance in the system hardware configuration and will store the data in the database

N-tier Application
In software architecture there are many layers between the hardware and end-user. Each can be spoken of as having a front- and back-end. The "front" is an abstraction, simplifying the underlying component by providing a user-friendly interface. In software design, the Model-View-Controller for example, provides front- and back-ends for the database, the user, and the data processing components. The separation of software systems into "front-ends" and "back-ends" simplifies development and separates maintenance. N-tier application architecture provides a model for developers to create a flexible and reusable application. By breaking up an application into tiers, developers only have to modify or add a specific layer, rather than have to rewrite the entire application over, if they decide to change technologies or scale up. In the term "N-tier," "N" implies any number -like 2-tier, or 4-tier; basically, any number of distinct tiers used in your architecture.

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Advantages:
1. Reduce the business and the programming complexity. 2. Easy to process.

What is front-end and backend?


Front-end and back-end are generalized terms that refer to the initial and the end stages of a process. The front-end is responsible for collecting input in various forms from the user and processing it to conform to a specification the back-end can use. The front-end is a kind of interface between the user and the back-end. Microsoft launched .NET in July 2000 at PDC Orlando, Florida after spending 4 years of development. .NET is a new development framework with a new programming interface, integrating a number of technologies that emerged from Microsoft along late 1990s. It incorporates windows services and APIs, COM+ services and web development framework including web services.

What led to .Net?


Software industry today faced incompatibilities of languages.. Most of the compilers produce architecture dependant object code. Applications developed for different operating systems are built on incompatible APIs, making porting difficult. A new kind of incompatibility appears when focus shifts from stand-alone applications and client/server programs to applications that live and run on the Web. Instead of compiled languages, we have scripting languages. Instead of rich graphical user interfaces, we have HTML.

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Hotel Management System Instead of object-oriented programming, we have enterprise-class applications built with mixtures of procedural code, HTML, DHTML, XML, COM, and other unrelated technologies

Dot Net platform


.NET platform consists of Development tools o Microsoft VS.NET contains a set of development tools, languages like C#.NET, VB.NET, J#.NET, C++.NET, a comprehensive Class Library for building windows as well as web application. Specialized servers o A set of .NET enterprise servers, formerly known as SQL Server 2000, Exchange Server 2000, BizTalk Server 2000 , Host Integration Server, Internet Security and Acceleration Server 2000 and so on. Web services o An offering of commercial web services for building application that require knowledge of user identity. Devices New .NET enables non-PC devices, from cell phone to game box.

Features of .net
Distributed computing : o .NET simplifies the development of robust client/server application. o It provides a remote architecture that exploits open internet standards, including HTTP, XML and SOAP. Componentization o It simplifies the integration of software components developed by different vendors.

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Hotel Management System o It provides a simple way to build and deploy COM.

Enterprise services o Allows the development of scalable enterprise applications without writing code to manage transactions, security or pooling. Hence greatly reduce the development time and effort involve in building large-scale applications.

Web Development o Represent changes in web technologies to simplify the development of web applications. o .NET supports for standardization for data transfer through XML, SOAP, UDDI and WSDL.

Support for multiple platform o .NET has been designed with multiple platform support. It can run on all versions of windows which includes 95, 98, 98SE, NT, 2000, XP, 2003. Small devices with OS Windows CE can also run .NET application. o Microsoft is working on the CLS with HP, Intel, IBM and other companies. o Looking forward, it is expected that .NET will run on other platform such as UNIX.

Common functionality: o The CLR provides access to common base functionality for all languages via a Base Class Library (BCL).

Common Type System : o Different language has built-in primitive type, which make them difficult to interoperate. For Interoperability to be smooth between languages, the CLR has a Common Type System

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Front End Tool (Microsoft Visual Basic 2008)


The .NET technology provides a new approach to software development. This is the first development platform designed from the ground up with the Internet in mind. Visual Basic is one of the most popular programming languages of Microsoft. The ability to develop object models, database integration, server components and internet/Intranet application provides an extensive range of capabilities and tools for the developer. VB .NET is a programming language designed to create applications that work with Microsoft's new .NET Framework Previously, Internet functionality has been simply bolted on to a pre-Internet operating systems like UNIX and Windows. This has required Internet software developers to understand a host of technologies and integration issues. .NET is designed and intended for highly distributed software, making Internet functionality and interoperability easier and more transparent to include in systems than ever before. .NET was first introduced in the year 2002 as .NET 1.0 and was intended to compete with Suns Java .And .NET is very easy but the basics of the C language is required and if you know them then by step you can know and do it well. Unlike Java, .Net is not Free Software, yet source for the Base Class Library is available under the Microsoft Reference License. .NET is designed for ease of creation of Windows programs. Various other implementations of .NET exist, such as the Mono Project, and dot GNU. The .NET Framework introduces a completely new model for the programming and deployment of applications. .NET is Microsoft's vision of "software as a service", a development environment in which you can build, create, and deploy your applications and the next generation of components, the ability to use the Web rather than your own computer for various services.

Microsoft introduced great technologies like COM, DCOM, COM+ etc. to enable reuse of Software. Although these technologies are very powerful to reuse Software, they required a huge learning curve. According to this aspect, Microsoft realized that its time to come up with a new Technology, a better one, an easier one, a new Framework, within which each Programming Task is easy accomplished.

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Hotel Management System The .NET platform in turn aims at addressing many of the limitations of "classic" COM, Microsoft's Component Object Model, which provided one approach toward application and component interoperability. These limitations included type incompatibilities when calling COM components, versioning difficulties ("DLL hell") when developing new versions of COM components, and the need for developers to write a certain amount of code (mostly in C++) to handle the COM "plumbing." In contrast to VB, with its reliance on COM, VB .NET offers a number of new features and advantages. Let's take a look at some of these.

Object Orientation
With the release of Version 8, Visual Basic added support for classes and class modules and in the process became an object-oriented programming language. Yet the debate persists about whether Visual Basic is a "true" object-oriented language or whether it only supports limited features of object orientation. The debate centers on Visual Basic's support for inheritance, an object-oriented programming concept that allows a class to derive its properties and its functionality from another class. Proponents of the view that Visual Basic is object-oriented point to Visual Basic's support for interface-based programming and the use of virtual base classes. Yet relatively few VB programmers take advantage of interface-based programming. And interface-based programming itself does not allow a derived class to inherit the functionality of a base class; only virtual base classes can be inherited using the Implements keyword. While the object-oriented character of previous versions of VB may be in doubt, there is no question that VB .NET is an object-oriented programming language. In fact, even if VB .NET is used to write what appears to be procedural code, it is object-oriented "under the hood," so to speak.

A Common Type System

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Hotel Management System Traditionally, one of the problems of calling routines written in languages from Visual Basic or of calling Visual Basic routines from other languages is that such inter-language calls presuppose a common type system. This is the case when calling Win32 API functions from Visual Basic, but it is also applies to attempts to call methods in a VB COM component from other languages or to call methods in a non-VB COM component from VB. For instance, until the addition of the AddressOf operator, which allows us to pass a pointer to a function or subroutine, there was no way to provide a callback function, which is required by most Win32 API enumeration functions. As another example, it is expected that members of structures passed to Win32 API functions be aligned on their natural boundaries, something that VB programmers had great difficulty accomplishing.

What Can You Do with VB .NET?


With its language enhancements and its tight integration into the .NET Framework, Visual Basic is a thoroughly modernized language that will likely become the premier development tool for creating a wide range of .NET applications. In the past, Visual Basic was often seen as a "lightweight" language that could be used for particular kinds of tasks, but was wholly unsuitable for others. (It was often argued, sometimes incorrectly, that you couldn't create such things as Windows dynamic link libraries or shell extensions using Visual Basic.) In the .NET Framework, VB .NET emerges as an equal player. Microsoft's claim of language independence that programming language should be a lifestyle choice, rather than a choice forced on the developer by the character of a project is realized in the .NET platform. This means that VB .NET can be used to create a wide range of applications and components, including the following: Windows console mode applications Standard Windows applications Windows services

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Hotel Management System Windows controls and Windows control libraries Web (ASP.NET) applications Web services Web controls and web control libraries .NET classes and namespaces

VB allows us to build 12 different types of applications/projects:


1. Standard EXE:-Project is used to create a standard executable project.(.Exe) 2. ActiveX EXE:-Project is used to create an out of process OLE server application. (.Exe) 3. ActiveX DLL:- Project is used to create an in process OLE server application.(.Dll) 4. VB Application Wizard:- Project is used for setting up the skeleton i.e. framework of a new application.(.Exe) 5. VB Wizard Manager:- Project is used to(.Dll) 6. Data Project:- Project is used to create database-oriented application containing reports using Data Objects.(.Exe) 7. IIS Application: - Project is used for creating application that can be published on an IIS web server. The IIS applications are commonly called as web classes. This allows us to create a server-slide ActiveX component that provides ASP like web application.(.Dll) 8. ActiveX Control:- Project is used to create your own ActiveX Controls.(.Ocx) 9. ActiveX Document EXE:- Project is used to create browser-based application.(.Exe) 10. ActiveX Document DLL:-Project is used to create browser-based application. 11. DHTML Application:-Project is used to develop Dynamic HTML pages that can be displayed in the client's browser window. This project type allows us to create client-side ActiveX component that provides dynamic web application. 12. VB Enterprise Edition Controls:-It is simply a standard EXE project with all the tools of the Enterprise edition of VB.

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Accessing application object models (such as those of the individual applications in the Microsoft Office suite) using COM automation Most importantly, for the first time with the release of VB .NET, Visual Basic becomes an all-purpose development environment for building Internet applications, an area in which it has traditionally been weak. This means that the release of this newest version should revitalize Visual Basic, allowing it to remain the tool of choice for developing state-of-the-art software for the next generation of software development.

Sql Server (Back End Tool)


Sql Server is a RDBMS (Relational Database Management System) package. It provides a platform for client/server technology i.e. it supports distributed databases and distributed processing. It provides for an application development language i.e. SQL (Structured Query Language).

What is SQL SERVER?


Microsoft SQL Server is a relational model database server produced by Microsoft. The code base for MS SQL Server originated in Sybase SQL Server, and was Microsoft's entry to the enterprise-level database market, competing against Oracle, IBM, and, later, Sybase itself. SQL Server 2005 SQL Server 2005 is an ORDBMS, released in October 2005 By Microsoft. It includes a number of features that any modern RDBMS contains.

Features of the SQL Server 2005


1. T-SQL (TransactionSQL) enhancements

T-SQL is the native set-based RDBMS programming language offering high-performance data access. It now incorporates many new features including error handling via the TRY and CATCH paradigm, Common Table Expressions (CTEs), which return a record set in a

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2. CLR (Common Language Runtime)

The next major enhancement in SQL Server 2005 is the integration of a .NET compliant language such as C#, ASP.NET or VB.NET to build objects (stored procedures, triggers, functions, etc.). This enables you to execute .NET code in the DBMS to take advantage of the .NET functionality
3. Service Broker

The Service Broker handles messaging between a sender and receiver in a loosely coupled manner. A message is sent, processed and responded to, completing the transaction. This greatly expands the capabilities of data-driven applications to meet workflow or custom business needs.
4. Data encryption

SQL Server 2000 had no documented or publicly supported functions to encrypt data in a table natively. Organizations had to rely on third-party products to address this need. SQL Server 2005 has native capabilities to support encryption of data stored in user-defined databases.
5. SMTP mail

Sending mail directly from SQL Server 2000 is possible, but challenging. With SQL Server 2005, Microsoft incorporates SMTP mail to improve the native mail capabilities.
6. HTTP endpoints

you can easily create HTTP endpoints via a simple T-SQL statement exposing an object that can be accessed over the Internet. This allows a simple object to be called across the Internet for the needed data.
7. Multiple Active Result Sets (MARS)

MARS allow a persistent database connection from a single client to have more than one active request per connection. This should be a major performance improvement, allowing

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8. Dedicated administrator connection

If all else fails, stop the SQL Server service or push the power button. That mentality is finished with the dedicated administrator connection. This functionality will allow a DBA to make a single diagnostic connection to SQL Server even if the server is having an issue.
9. SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS)

SSIS has replaced DTS (Data Transformation Services) as the primary ETL (Extraction, Transformation and Loading) tool and ships with SQL Server free of charge. This tool, completely rewritten since SQL Server 2000, now has a great deal of flexibility to address complex data movement.
10. Database mirroring

It's not expected to be released with SQL Server 2005 at the RTM in November, but I think this feature has great potential. Database mirroring is an extension of the native highavailability capabilities.

Database Design
Database design involves designing the conceptual model of the database. This model is independent of the physical representation of data. Once the conceptual model is designed, it can then be mapped to the DBMS or RDBMS i.e. actually being use. Normalization is a technique that is more applicable to record based data models i.e. relational database model.

Introduction to DBMS
Database management system is basically a software tool to create, maintain and manipulate a database. A database system is nothing more than a computer based record keeping systemize. A system whose overall purpose is to record and maintain information. Database system involves four major components:

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Hotel Management System Data Hardware Software Users Then we define, a database is a repository for stored data i.e. both integrated and share. In other words the software part of the database system is called database management system.

(Client Server architecture)

It is common two-tier architecture having a server to which numbers of clients are connected. The client-server architecture was developed to deal with computing environments where a large number of PCs, workstations, database servers, web servers and other equipment are connected together via a network. The specialized server provides the user with the appropriate interface to utilize this server as well as with local processing power to run local application. This concept can be carried over to software, package being stored on specific server machines and being made accessible to multiple clients. The number of relational database management system products has taken this approach where a Sql Server or Transaction server is provided to clients. The Sql Server or Transaction server is the back end machine, where as the client passes a user query and decomposes it into a number of independent site queries and then sent to the appropriate server site. Each server processes the local query and sends the result to the client site.

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Hotel Management System Then the client site combines the result of the sub queries to produce the result of the originally submitted query. The communication software provides the communication primitives that are used by client to transmit commands and data among various sites as needed. The common examples of client-server architecture are LAN, WAN etc. Characteristics of DBMS 1. It represents complex relationship between data. 2. Keeps a tight control of data redundancy. 3. Enforces user-defined rules to ensure integrity of table data. 4. Has a centralized data dictionary for the storage of information pertaining to data and its manipulation. 5. Ensure that data can be shared across application. 6. Has automatic intelligent back up and recovery procedure for data. 7. Have different interfaces via which users can manipulate data.

Introduction to RDBMS
Database is an organized collection of several related information stored in the form of tables. The method of defining the database and the relation between the field items is called as relational database management system. Characteristics of RDBMS 1. It eliminates all parent-child relationships and instead represented all data in the database as simple row/column table of data values. 2. A relation is similar to a table with rows/columns of data values. 3. Each table is independent entity and there is no physical relationship between tables. 4. Most data management system based on relational model has built in support for query language. 5. Relational data management is based set theory.

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Hotel Management System 6. The user interface used with relational model is non-procedural. Relation A relation is a two-dimensional table. It consists of rows, which represents records and columns, which represents attributes of the entity. Relation is also called as file consists of a number of records, which are called as tuples. A record consists of a number of attributes, which are also called as fields or domains. Properties of a relation: No duplication: - No two records are identical. Unique key: - which can access the record. Order: - No significant order of data in the table. In order for a relational structure to be useful and manageable, the relation tale must be normalized. Normalization It is defined as the process of non-loss decomposing or simplifying the relationship between data elements in a record. Normalization is carried out for four reasons: 1. To structure the data. 2. To permit simple retrieval of data in response to query. 3. To simplify the maintenance of data. 4. To reduce the needs to restructure of recognize data for new requirements. The normalization process consists of three basic steps: 1. First Normal Form: A relation R is in first normal form (1st NF) if and only if all underlying domains contain automatic values only. That means removal of repeating group, fixing records length, identification of primary key etc. 2. Second Normal Form: A relation R is in 2nd normal form (2 nd NF) if and only if it is in 1 st NF and every nonkey attribute is fully dependent on the primary key. (Removal of data items which are not dependent on primary key)

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3. Third Normal Form: A relation R is in third normal form (3 rd NF) if and only if it is in 2 nd NF and every non-key attribute i.e. the nun-key attributes are dependent not only on the primary key but also on a non key attribute.(Removal of transitive dependencies) Key: - An attribute or set of attributes whose value uniquely identify each etui in an entity set is called key for that entity set. Super Key: - It is an attribute or set of attributes that identify an entity uniquely. In a table, a super key is a column or set of columns whose values can be used to distinguish one record from another. Candidate Key: - A candidate key is a super key such that no proper subset of its attribute is itself a super key. A relation has several candidate keys. Composite Key: - A key that consist of more than one attribute is called composite key. Primary Key: - It is a candidate key that is used to identify tuples in a relation. None of its attributes can have null values.
Unique Key: - It is a candidate key that uniquely identifies tuples in a relation. Some of its

attributes may have null values.


Foreign Key (Referential Key): - A field (attribute) or combination of fields in a table is

primary key of some other table.

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Chapter # 3

REQUIREMENT AND ANALYSIS


HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
To install SQL Server 2000, you should have the Intel or compatible platforms and the following hardware:
Hardware Processor Memory Requirements Pentium 166 MHz or higher 32 MB RAM (minimum for Desktop Engine), 64 MB RAM (minimum for all other editions), 128 MB RAM or more recommended 270 MB (full installation), 250 MB (typical), Hard disk space 95 MB (minimum), Desktop Engine: 44 MB Analysis Services: 50 MB minimum and 130 MB typical English Query: 80 MB

Oracle 9i supports Intel or compatible platforms, AIX-Based Systems, Compaq Tru64 UNIX, HP 9000 Series HP-UX, Linux Intel, Sun Solaris and so on. To install Oracle 9i under the Intel or compatible platforms, you should have the following hardware:

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Hardware Processor Memory Requirements Pentium 166 MHz or higher RAM: 128 MB (256 MB recommended) Virtual Memory: Initial Size 200 MB, Maximum Size 400 MB 140 MB on the System Drive Hard disk space plus 4.5 GB for the Oracle Home Drive (FAT) or 2.8 GB for the Oracle Home Drive (NTFS)

Price comparison
One of the main Microsoft SQL Server 2000 advantage in comparison with Oracle 9i Database is that SQL Server is cheaper. Other SQL Server advantage is that Microsoft includes the online analytical processing (OLAP) and Data Mining as standard features in SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition. So, you can save up to four times with SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition if you use OLAP and Data Mining.
SQL Server 2000 Standard Edition $4,999 $9,998 $19,996 $39,992 $79,984 $159,968

Number of CPUs 1 2 4 8 16 32

Oracle9i Standard Edition $15,000 $30,000 $60,000 $120,000 $240,000 $480,000

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Introduction of Oracle:ORACLE is a fourth generation relational database management system. In general, a database management system (DBMS) must be able to reliably manage a large amount of data in a multi-user environment so that many users can concurrently access the same data. All this must be accomplished while delivering high performance to the users of the database. A DBMS must also be secure from unauthorized access and provide efficient solutions for failure recovery. The ORACLE Server provides efficient and effective solutions for the major database features. ORACLE consists of many tools that allow you to create an application with ease and flexibility. You must determine how to implement your requirements using the features available in ORACLE, along with its tools. The features and tools that you choose to use to implement your application can significantly affect the performance of your application. Several of the more useful features available to ORACLE application developers are integrity constraints, stored procedures and packages, database triggers, cost-based optimizer, shared SQL, locking and sequences. This documentation will lead you through the main features and tools of ORACLE. It is intended to give you a partial view of what is available to you to use within the assignments. Oracle is a powerful relational database management system that offers a large feature set. Along with Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle is widely regarded as one of the two most popular full-featured database systems on the market today (Oracle Corporation, Redwood Shores, CA, www.oracle.com) The world's largest database and enterprise software vendor founded in 1977 by Larry Ellison. The Oracle database has been Oracle's flagship product, which was the first DBMS to incorporate the SQL query language. It became very popular due to its robustness and huge variety of platforms. In the mid-1990s, Oracle was a major promoter of the network computer, forming subsidiary Network Computer, Inc. to define the specifications for the platform. Although the network Page: 33

Hotel Management System computer did not take off, the principles it embodied are widely used in today's thin client architectures and are ever increasing. After the turn of the century, the company greatly enhanced its application offerings by acquiring world class software companies such as PeopleSoft in 2004 and Siebel Systems in 2005. In 2010, Oracle acquired Sun Microsystems to become a full-fledged computer systems company as well as master of Java, one of the Internet's most widely used software platforms. See Oracle database, Sun, Java, PeopleSoft and Siebel software

Internet Information Services (web server)


Internet Information Services (IIS) is a web server application developed by Microsoft for its windows environment to host web sites. IIS brings the power of Web computing to Windows. With IIS, you can easily share files and printers, or you can create applications to securely publish information on the Web to improve the way your organization shares information. IIS is a secure platform for building and deploying e-commerce solutions and mission-critical applications to the Web. Using Windows XP Professional with IIS installed provides a personal and development operating system that allows you to:

Set up a personal Web server Share information within your team Access databases Develop an enterprise intranet Develop applications for the Web.

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Hardware Description
This Electronic Attendance Register developed in a system having the following hardware configurations: Pentium-IV 1.7 MHz processor. 2GB RAM. 320 GB Hard Disk. Hard Disk drive (Generic IDE DISK TYPE 74) 1.44 MB floppy disk drive (Generic IDE FLOPPY DISK) AGP 16MB SDRAM 52X COMBO DRIVE (LG- COMBO DRIVE SW-252B) PS/2 Compatible Mouse(Optical) 19 AOC 56V color monitor. INTEX Multimedia keyboard(108/120 keys)

Software used while developing this project


Windows 2000 or higher Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 Sql Server 2005 mCore .NET SMS Library (Version 1.2) POP3EMAIL COMPONNET Software Requirements to implement Windows x (95,98,98se , 2000,XP sp 1,2 ,NT, or higher) Microsoft .net Framework ver. 2.0 Sql Server 2005 mCore .NET SMS Library (mCoreLib.dll)

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Hotel Management System Chapter #4

SYSTEM DESIGN
Software design is the first of three technical activities: design, code generation and testing. System design involves the development of logical and physical design for an information system that meets the system requirements developed by the system analysis process. System design involves the detailed design of input documents, output reports, database & processing procedure. Analysis phase focus on what needs to be done independent of how it done. Design is the highly creative phase in the software development where the designer plans how a software system should be produced in order to make it functionally reliable and easy to understand, modified and maintain. Each element of analysis mode provides information that is necessary to create the four-design model required for a complete specification of design.

System Design
System design involves the development of logical and physical design for an information system that meets the system requirements developed by the system analysis process. System design involves the detailed design of input documents, output reports, database & processing procedure. Analysis phase focus on what needs to be done independent of how it done. During design decisions are made about, how the problem will be solved? The design process is performed through the following phases: Data flow diagram External Design Internal Design Detailed Design

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Hotel Management System Software design is the first of three technical activities: design, code generation and testing. System design involves the development of logical and physical design for an information system that meets the system requirements developed by the system analysis process. System design involves the detailed design of input documents, output reports, database & processing procedure. Analysis phase focus on what needs to be done independent of how it done. During design decisions are made about, how the problem will be solved? Design is the highly creative phase in the software development where the designer plans how a software system should be produced in order to make it functionally reliable and easy to understand, modified and maintain. Each element of analysis mode provides information that is necessary to create the four-design model required for a complete specification of design.

Design methodologies The logical methods for developing system that meet user requirements should be clearly designed. This led to Improve the productivity of analysis and programmers, Improve documentation and subsequent maintenance and enhancements, Cut down drastically on cost overruns and delays, Simplify design by segmentations

Modularization details The above s/w tool is meant for analyzing the Attendance Electronic composition of number of modules to reduce the complicity of the entire system. The term complicity is closely related to the program or project work, as the complicity go on increasing. It leads and more difficulties in understanding the problem structure and process logic, so it is good practice to divide the whole program into number of modules. Structured Design which is

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Hotel Management System It is a data flow based methodology. The approach begins with a system specification that identifies inputs and outputs and describes the functional aspects of the system. The system specifications then are used as a basis for the graphic representations. Data Flow Diagram: Data flow gram is the starting point of the design phase that functionally decomposes the requirements specification. From the DFD, the next step is the definition of the modules and their relationships to one another in a form called a structured chart. Structured design partitions a program into small independent modules. The partitions can be organized as a hierarchy that approximates a model of the system in a top down manner as detained below. Structured design is an attempt to minimize complexity and make problem manageable by decomposing it into smaller segments, which is called modularization. System Design Diagram
6 1 7 8

Data Strurcture
2

Design Specification

Design Phase walkthough

Implementation

Allocation of Resources

Program Design
3 4 5

System Test

Program Test Requirement

System Interface Speci.

Input Design Once the output requirements have been finalized, the next most important step is to find out what data are need to produced the desired outputs. Inaccurate data are the most common cause of the errors in data processing. Errors entered by data entry operators can be controlled by input design. Input design is the process of converting the user-originated inputs to a computer-based format. The main objectives of input design are: Identifying the basic document Controlling amount of input Avoiding delays

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Hotel Management System Avoiding error in data Avoiding extra steps Keeping the process simple

Feasibility Study The main aim of the feasibility study activity is to determine whether it would be financially and technically feasible to develop the product. Feasibility studies are preliminary investigations into the potential benefits associated with undertaking a specific activity or project. The main purpose of the feasibility study is to consider all factors associated with the project, and determine if the investment of time and other resources will yield a desirable result. The feasibility study activity involves analysis of the problem and collection of relevant information relating to the product such as the different data items which would be input to the system, the processing required to be carried out on these data, the output data required to be produced by the system, as well as various constraints on the behaviors of the system. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING PARADIGM Software engineering process includes all the stages of system development staring from conceptualizing the system until it is implemented, tested and delivered to customer. The software development life cycle composed of several phases. Each of these phases results in the development of either a part of the system or concepts associated with the system. Software engineering approach is appropriate for developing systems in industrial settings. It incorporates a development strategy that encompasses the process, method and tools, which are often referred to as a process model or software engineering paradigm. A process mode for software engineering is chosen based on the nature of the project and application methods, tools to be used, and the controls and deliverables that are required. The followings are a set of process models that are used in software development.

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Hotel Management System Developments of project process models are: Linear sequential model/waterfall model Prototyping model Rapid application development model Incremental model Spiral model Component based development model Concurrent development model

The linear sequential model has been adopted for this project work as the software tool has been developed through different phases in an systematic manner.

SPIRAL MODEL
The spiral model is an evolutionary software process model that couples in iterative nature of prototyping with the controlled and systematic aspects of the linear sequential model. It provides the potential for rapid development of incremental version of the software. Using spiral model, software is developed in a series of incremental releases. Spiral mode is divided into a number of framework activities, also called tasked regions. Generally it consist three and six regions. A spiral model that contains six tasks regions are: Customer communication Planning Risk analysis Engineering Construction and release

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Hotel Management System

Project Profile
There has been continuous effort to develop tools, which can ease the process of software development. But, with the evolving trend of different programming paradigms todays software developers are really challenged to deal with the changing technology. Among other issues, software re-engineering is being regarded as an important process in the software development industry. One of the major tasks here is to understand software systems that are already developed and to transform them to a different software environment. Generally, this requires a lot of manual effort in going through a program that might have been developed by another programmer. This project makes a novel attempt to address the issued of program analysis and generation of diagrams, which can depict the structure of a program in a better way. Today, UML is being considered as an industrial standard for software engineering design process. It essential provides several diagramming tools that can express different aspects/ characteristics of program such as Use cases: Elicit requirement from users in meaningful chunks. Construction planning is built around delivering some use cases n each interaction basis for system testing. Class diagrams: shows static structure of concepts, types and class. Concepts how users think about the world; type shows interfaces of software components; classes shows implementation of software components. Interaction diagrams: shows how several objects collaborate in single use case. Package diagram: show group of classes and dependencies among them. State diagram: show how single object behaves across many use cases.

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Activity diagram: shows behavior with control structure. Can show many objects over many uses, many object in single use case, or implementations methods encourage parallel behavior, etc. The end-product of this project is a comprehensive tool that can parse any vb.net program and extract most of the object oriented features inherent in the program such as polymorphism, inheritance, encapsulation and abstraction.

What is UML?
UML stands for Unified Modeling Language is the successor to the wave of Object Oriented Analysis and Design (OOA&D) methods that appeared in the late 80s. It most directly unifies the methods of Booch, Rumbaugh (OMT) and Jacobson. The UML is called a modeling language, not a method. Most methods consist at least in principle, of both a modeling language and a process. The Modeling language is that notation that methods used to express design. Notations and meta-models: The notation is the graphical stuff; it is the syntax of the modeling language. For instance, class diagram notation defines how items are concepts such as class, association, and multiplicity is represented. These are: Class Diagram: The class diagram technique has become truly central within object-oriented methods. Virtually every method has included some variation on this technique. Class diagram is also subject to the greatest range of modeling concept. Although the basic elements are needed by everyone, advanced concepts are used less often. A class diagram describes the types of objects in the system and the various kinds of static relationship that exist among them. There are two principal kinds of static relationship: Association Subtype

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Class diagram also show the attributes and operations of a class and the constraints that apply to the way objects are connected. Association: Association represent between instances of class. From the conceptual perspective, association represents conceptual relations between classes. Each association has two roles. Each role is a direction on the association. A role also has multiplicity, which is a indication of how many object may participate in the given relationship. Generalization: A typical example of generalization evolves the personal and corporate customer of a business. They have differences but also many similarity. The similarities can be placed in generalization with personal customer and corporate customer sub type. Aggregation: aggregation is the part of relationship. It is like saying a car has engine and wheels as its parts. This sounds good, but difficult thing is considering, what is the difference is aggregation and association. Interaction: interaction diagrams are models that describes how groups of objects collaboration in some behavior. Typically, an interaction diagram captures the behavior a single use cases. The diagram shows a number of example objects and the messages that are passed between these objects in use cases. These are following approaches with simple use case that exhibits the following behavior. Objects can send a message to another. Each message is checks with given stock item. There are two diagrams: Sequence and Collaboration diagram. Package Diagram: One of the oldest questions in software methods is: how do you break down a large system into smaller systems? It becomes difficult to understand and the changes we make to them.

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Hotel Management System Structured methods used functional decomposition in which the overall system was mapped as a function broken down into sub function, which is further broken down into sub function and so forth. The separation of process data is gone, functional decomposition is gone, but the old question is still remains. One idea is to group the classes together into higher-level unit. This idea, applied very loosely, appears in many objects. In UML, this grouping mechanism is package. The term package diagram for a diagram that shows packages of classes and the dependencies among them. A dependency exists between two elements if changes to the definition of one element may cause to other. With classes, dependencies exist for various reasons: one class sends a message to another; one class has another as part of its data; one class mentions another as a parameter to an operation. A dependency between two packages exists; and any dependencies exist between any two classes in the package. State diagram: State diagram are a familiar technique to describe the behavior of a system. They describe all the possible states a particular object can get into and how the objects state changes as a result of events that reach the objects. In most OO technique, state diagrams are drawn for a single class to show the lifetime behavior of a singe object. There are many form of state diagram, each with slightly different semantics. The most popular one used in OO technique is based on David Harels state chart.

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Hotel Management System

PERT CHART (Program Evaluation Review Technique)


PERT chart is organized for events, activities or tasks. It is a scheduling device that shows graphically the order of the tasks to be performed. It enables the calculation of the critical path. The time and cost associated along a path is calculated and the path requires the greatest amount of elapsed time in critical path.

Design Database Part

Code database Part

Integrate and Test

Specification

Design GUI part

Code GUI Part

Implementation Write User Manual

Figure2: PERT Chart representation

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GANTT CHART
It is also known as Bar chart is used exclusively for scheduling purpose. It is a project controlling technique. It is used for scheduling. Budgeting and resourcing planning. A Gantt is a bar chart with each bar representing activity. The bars are drawn against a time line. The length of time planned for the activity. The Gantt chart in the figure shows the Gray parts is slack time that is the latest by which a task has been finished.

1-19 MAY 10 20-3 JUNE 10 6-25 JUNE 10 26-15 JULY 10 JULY 16 AUG 31 Specification Design Database Part Design GUI Part Modulation
CODE DATABASE PART

CODE GUI PART

BLACK BOX TESTING

INTEGRATE AND TEST IMPLEMENTATION

WRITE USER MANUAL

FIGURE 3: GANTT CHART

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DATA FLOW DIAGRAM


Data flow diagram is the starting point of the design phase that functionally decomposes the requirements specification. A DFD consists of a series of bubbles joined by lines. The bubbles represent data transformation and the lines represent data flows in the system. A DFD describes what data flow rather than how they are processed, so it does not hardware, software and data structure. A data-flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data through an information system. DFDs can also be used for the visualization of data processing (structured design). A data flow diagram (DFD) is a significant modeling technique for analyzing and constructing information processes. DFD literally means an illustration that explains the course or movement of information in a process. DFD illustrates this flow of information in a process based on the inputs and outputs. A DFD can be referred to as a Process Model. The data flow diagram is a graphical description of a systems data and how to Process transform the data is known as Data Flow Diagram (DFD). Unlike details flow chart, DFDs dont supply detail descriptions of modules that graphically describe a systems data and how the data interact with the system. Data flow diagram number of symbols and the following symbols are of by DeMarco.

p ro c e s s

D a ta

s to re

S o u rc e /s in k D a ta D e M a rc o Y o u rd o n s y m b o ls & F lo w G a n e & S a r s o n s y m b o ls

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There are seven rules for construct a data flow diagram. i) Arrows should not cross each other. ii) Squares, circles and files must wears names. iii) Decomposed data flows must be balanced. iv) No two data flows, squares or circles can be the same names. v) Draw all data flows around the outside of the diagram. vi) Choose meaningful names for data flows, processes & data stores. vii) Control information such as record units, password and validation requirements are not penitent to a data flow diagram. Additionally, a DFD can be utilized to visualize data processing or a structured design. This basic DFD can be then disintegrated to a lower level diagram demonstrating smaller steps exhibiting details of the system that is being modeled. On a DFD, data items flow from an external data source or an internal data store to an internal data store or an external data sink, via an internal process. It is common practice to draw a context-level data flow diagram first, which shows the interaction between the system and external agents, which act as data sources and data sinks. On the context diagram (also known as the Level 0 DFD), the system's interactions with the outside world are modeled purely in terms of data flows across the system boundary. The context diagram shows the entire system as a single process, and gives no clues as to its internal organization. This context-level DFD is next "exploded", to produce a Level 1 DFD that shows some of the detail of the system being modeled. The Level 1 DFD shows how the system is divided into sub-systems (processes), each of which deals with one or more of the data flows to or from an external agent, and which together provide all of the functionality of the system as a whole. The level 1 DFD is further spreaded and split into more descriptive and detailed description about the project as level 2 DFD.The level 2 DFD can be a number of data flows which will finally show the entire description of the software project.

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Hotel Management System

0 - LEVEL DFD

USER / ADMINISTRATOR

SYSTEM

OUTPUT

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Hotel Management System

1 LEVEL DFD

LOGIN PROCESS

TEACHER ENTRY

STUDENT ENTRY

ATTENDANCE ENTRY

REPORT GENERATION

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Hotel Management System 2 LEVEL DFD FIG. 2.1

ADMINISTRATOR

LOGIN PROCESS

LOGIN

STUDENT ENTRY

TEACHER ENTRY

STUDENT

TEACHER

ADMINISTRATOR

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Hotel Management System FIG- 2.2

USER

LOGIN PROCESS

LOGIN

REPORT GENERATION

ATTENDANCE ENTRY

ATTENDANCE USER

DATA STORED

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Hotel Management System

INTRODUCTION TO DATA DICTIONARY


A data dictionary is a collection of descriptions of the data objects or items in a data model for the benefit of programmers and others who need to refer to them. A first step in analyzing a system of objects with which users interact is to identify each object and its relationship to other objects. This process is called data modeling and results in a picture of object relationships. After each data object or item is given a descriptive name, its relationship is described (or it becomes part of some structure that implicitly describes relationship), the type of data (such as text or image or binary value) is described, possible predefined values are listed, and a brief textual description is provided. This collection can be organized for reference into a book called a data dictionary. Major Symbols Used In Data Dictionary: = Equal to + And [ ] Either/ or Rules for Data Dictionary Entries: i) Words should be defined to stand for what they mean and not the variable name by which they may be described in the program Ex: - s_name not ABCD or ABC05 ii) Each word must be unique; we cant have two definition of the same s_name (Client name) iii) Aliases or synonyms are allowed when two or more entries show the same meaning. A vendor number may also be called a customer number. However, aliases should be used only when absolutely necessary. iv) Self defining words should not be decomposed. Data dictionary allows analysis to define precisely what they mean by a particular file, data flow or process. Some commercial software packages usually called Data Dictionary Systems, help analysts maintain their dictionaries with the help of their computer. There are two types of data dictionary (a) Integrated (b) Stand alone.

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Hotel Management System When developing programs that use the data model, a data dictionary can be consulted to understand where a data item fits in the structure, what values it may contain, and what the data item means in real-world terms. A data dictionary, also known as metadata repository, as defined in the IBM Dictionary of Computing, is a "centralized repository of information about data such as meaning, relationships to other data, origin, usage, and format." The term may have one of several closely related meanings pertaining to databases and database management systems (DBMS):

a document describing a database or collection of databases an integral component of a DBMS that is required to determine its structure a piece of middleware that extends or supplants the native data dictionary of a DBMS .

Database users and application developers can benefit from an authoritative data dictionary document that catalogs the organization, contents, and conventions of one or more databases. This typically includes the names and descriptions of various tables and fields in each database, plus additional details, like the type and length of each data element. There is no universal standard as to the level of detail in such a document, but it is primarily a weak kind of data. Most data dictionaries contain different information about the data used in the enterprise. In terms of the database representation of the data, the data table defines all schema objects including views, tables, clusters, indexes, sequences, synonyms, procedures, packages, functions, triggers and many more. This will ensure that all these things follow one standard defined in the dictionary. The data dictionary also defines how much space has been allocated for and / or currently is used by all the schema objects.

Other information defined in a typical data dictionary which is related to database implementation also include default values for database columns, names of the database users, the users privileges and limitations, database integrity constraint information, and many other general information. Page: 57

Hotel Management System

A data dictionary is in fact a database implementation as well as they contain data information about data. It is typically structured in tables and views just like other data in a database. Most data dictionaries are central to a database and are very important tool for kinds of users from the data consumers to application designers to database developers and administrators.

A data dictionary is used when finding information about users, objects, and schema and storage structures. Every time a data definition language (DDL) statement is issued, the data dictionary becomes modified.

Every DFD model of a system must be accompanied in by a data dictionary. A data dictionary lists all data items appearing in the DFD model. It includes all data flows and contents of all data stores appearing on all of the DFDs in the DFD model. A DFD model typically consists of several DFDs namely level-0 DFD, level-1 DFD and level-2 DFD so on.

The tables that are presented in the ELECTRONIC ATTENDANCE REGISTER that is most probably used in the backend database to store the data related to the mentioned project are mentioned below. These are the main tables of the database to store and retrieve the data.

Administration Table Field Name unm pwd uty Data Type Text Text Text Width 50 50 50 Key Constraints Not null Not null Not null

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Attendance Register Field Name Student_id month Year Subject code Student name Data Type Number Text Number Number Text Width 50 20 30 40 100 Key Pk Constraints Not null Not null Not null Not null Not null

Student Table Field Name Student ID Student Name Student Course Student Year Data Type Text Text Text Number Width 50 20 30 40 Key pk Constraints Not null Not null Not null Not null

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Subject Table Field Name Code Subject Name Year Data Type Text Text Number Width 50 20 30 Key pk Constraints Not null Not null Not null

Teacher Table Field Name Teacher ID Teacher Name Data Type Text Text Width 50 20 Key pk Constraints Not null Not null

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USE CASE MODEL


The use case model for any system consists of use cases. Use cases represent different ways in which the system can be used by the user. A simple way to find all the use case of a system is to ask the questions What the user can do using the system? The use cases partition the system behavior into transactions such that each transaction performs some useful action from the users point of view. The purpose of the use case to define a piece of coherent behavior without reveling the internal structure of the system. An use case typically represents a sequence of interaction between the user and the system. These interactions consists of one main line sequence is represent the normal interaction between the user and the system. The use case model is an important analysis and design artifact (task).Use cases can be represented by drawing a use case diagram and writing an accompany text elaborating the drawing. In the use case diagram each use case is represented by an ellipse with the name of use case written inside the ellipse. All the ellipses of the system are enclosed with in a rectangle which represents the system boundary. The name of the system being moduled appears inside the rectangle. The different users of the system are represented by using stick person icon. The stick person icon is normally referred to as an Actor. The line connecting the actor and the use cases is called the communication relationship. When a stick person icon represents an external system it is annotated by the stereo type<<external system>>.

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ADD INFORMATIO N STUDENT INFORMATIO N TEACHER INFORMATIO N USER YEAR ADMINISTRATOR

ATTENDANCE

USER

SHORTLIST

STATUS
Electronic Attendance Register

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Hotel Management System

ER DIAGRAM
Entity Relationship Diagram E-R Model is a popular high level conceptual data model. This model and its variations are frequently used for the conceptual design of database application and many database design tools employ its concept. A database that confirms to an E-R diagram can be represented by a collecton of tables in the relational system. The mapping of E-R diagram to the entities are: Attributes Relations o Many-to-many o Many-to-one o One-to-many o One-to-one Weak entities Sub-type and super-type

The entities and their relationshops between them are shown using the following conventions. An entity is shown in rectangle. A diamond represent the relationship among number of entities. The attributes shown as ovals are connected to the entities or relationship by lines.

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Hotel Management System Diamond,oval and relationships are labeled.

Model is an abstraction process that hides super details while highlighting details relation to application at end. A data model is a mechanism that provides this abstraction for database application. Data modeling is used for representing entities and their relationship in the database. Entities are the basic units used in modeling database entities can have concrete existence or constitute ideas or concepts. Entity type or entity set is a group of similar objects concern to an organization for which it maintain data, Properties are characteristics of an entity also called as attributes. A key is a single attribute or combination of 2 or more attributes of an entity set is used to identify one or more instances of the set. In relational model we represent the entity by a relation and use tuples to represent an instance of the entity. Relationship is used in data modeling to represent in association between an entity set. An association between two attributes indicates that the values of the associated attributes are independent.

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Hotel Management System

Working with the System


The ELECTRONIC ATTENDANCE REGISTER SYSTEM keeps data related to students records, number of classes attended by each of the student in specified month etc. It also can be used to take the attendance electronically. The system handles the daily attendance sheet to mark ticks of the specified classes and also to add the new students and the teachers those who have joined etc. It contains 10 forms to manipulate the project. At first it has got a SPLASH SCREEN, which consist: The project title Project developers Project guidance Project logo Project version

After the splash screen the LOGIN form will appear. It contains: Two text boxes Two buttons as Accept & Cancel One combo box for the options for Administrator and User

One text box entering the user name & another for password. After entering proper username and password then select the specified Administrator or the user and then press the Accept button to access the software.

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SplashForm1.Vb

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LoginForm1.Vb

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LoginForm1.Vb

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AddInfoForm2.Vb

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StudentInfoForm3.Vb

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StudentInfoForm3.Vb

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StudentInfoForm3.Vb

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TeacherInfoForm4.vb

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TeacherInfoForm4.Vb

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Userform.Vb

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YEARFORM.VB

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AttndanceForm.Vb

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AttndanceForm.Vb

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AttndanceForm.Vb

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shortListform3.Vb

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shortListform.Vb

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StatusForm.Vb

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Class1.Vb

Imports System.Data Imports System.Data.sqlClient Imports System.Drawing Imports System.Windows.Forms Public Class Class1 Private conn As sqlConnection Private comm As SqlCommand Private adpt As SqlDataAdapter Private dset As DataSet Private dtbl As DataTable Public Sub New() conn = New SqlConnection(("server = om-a499f8ce6e2a; database = ETS; uid = sa; pwd = pradip") End Sub Public Function CheckUser(ByVal userid As String, ByVal password As String) As Boolean Dim sqlstmt As String = "select * from administrationtable where unm='" & userid & "' and pwd ='" & password & "'" generatetable(sqlstmt) If dtbl.Rows.Count > 0 Then Return True Else Return False End If End Function Private Sub generatetable(ByVal sqlstmt As String) adpt = New OleDbDataAdapter(sqlstmt, conn) dset = New DataSet MsgBox("generatetable=" & sqlstmt) adpt.Fill(dset) dtbl = New DataTable dtbl = dset.Tables(0) End Sub Public Function SaveData(ByVal tablenm As String, ByVal valuelist As String, ByVal columnlist As String, ByVal condition As String, ByVal querytype As String) As String Try Dim sqlstmt As String = "" Select Case querytype.ToLower Page: 87

Hotel Management System Case "insert" sqlstmt = "insert into " & tablenm If columnlist.Length > 0 Then sqlstmt += " (" & columnlist & ")" End If sqlstmt += " values(" & valuelist & ")" MessageBox.Show("insert statement=" & sqlstmt) Case "update" sqlstmt = "update " & tablenm & " set " & valuelist If condition.Length > 0 Then sqlstmt += " where " & condition End If MessageBox.Show("update statement=" & sqlstmt) Case "delete" sqlstmt = "delete from " & tablenm If condition.Length > 0 Then sqlstmt += " where " & condition End If End Select comm = New OleDbCommand(sqlstmt, conn) conn.Open() comm.ExecuteNonQuery() conn.Close() Return "DATA SAVED" Catch ex As Exception Return ex.Message End Try End Function Public Function getTable(ByVal tblnm As String, ByVal colu As String, ByVal condit As String) As DataTable Dim sqlstmt As String = "select " & colu & " from " & tblnm If condit.Length > 0 Then sqlstmt += " where " & condit MessageBox.Show("getTable statement=" & sqlstmt) End If generatetable(sqlstmt) Return dtbl End Function Public Function getItem(ByVal tblnm As String, ByVal colu As String, ByVal condit As String) Dim sqlstmt As String = "select " & colu & " from " & tblnm

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Hotel Management System If condit.Length > 0 Then sqlstmt += " where " & condit MessageBox.Show("getItem statement=" & sqlstmt) End If generatetable(sqlstmt) Return dtbl.Rows(0).Item(0) End Function End Class

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Module1.Vb

Module Module1 Public yr As Integer Public s As Integer Public month As String Public yer As Integer End Module

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SplashForm1.Vb
Public Class SplashForm1 Private Sub Timer1_Tick(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Timer1.Tick LoginForm1.Show() Timer1.Enabled = False Me.Hide() End Sub Private Sub Label2_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Label2.Click End Sub Private Sub PictureBox1_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles PictureBox1.Click End Sub End Class

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LoginForm1.Vb
Public Class LoginForm1 Private Sub Button1_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button1.Click Dim x As New Class1 If TextBox1.Text = "" Then MessageBox.Show("USER NAME CANNOT BE BLANK ") TextBox1.Text = "" TextBox1.Focus() Exit Sub End If If TextBox2.Text = "" Then MessageBox.Show("PASSWORD MUST NOT BE LEFT BLANK") TextBox2.Text = "" TextBox2.Focus() Exit Sub End If If x.CheckUser(TextBox1.Text, TextBox2.Text) Then If ComboBox1.Text = "ADMINISTRATOR" Then AddInfoForm2.Show() Me.Hide() ElseIf ComboBox1.Text = "USER" Then UserForm.Show() Me.Hide() End If Else MessageBox.Show("INVALID USER NAME AND PASSWORD , TRYAGAIN !!!") TextBox1.Text = "" TextBox2.Text = "" TextBox1.Focus() End If End Sub Private Sub Button2_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button2.Click End End Sub Private Sub GroupBox1_Enter(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles GroupBox1.Enter

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Hotel Management System HelpProvider1.SetHelpString(TextBox1, "MUST BE IN SMALL LETTERS EG.souryapratap") HelpProvider1.SetHelpString(TextBox2, "MUST BE MAXIMUM OF EIGHT CHARACTERS ONLY AND IN SMALL LETTERS EG.thegreat") End Sub End Class

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AddInfoForm2.Vb
Public Class AddInfoForm2 Private Sub Button1_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button1.Click StudentInfoForm3.Show() End Sub Private Sub Button2_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button2.Click TeacherInfoForm4.Show() End Sub Private Sub Button4_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button4.Click End End Sub Private Sub Button3_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button3.Click Dim x As New LoginForm1 Me.Hide() x.Show() End Sub End Class

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StudentInfoForm3.Vb
Public Class StudentInfoForm3 Dim X As New Class1 Private Sub Button4_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button4.Click GroupBox1.Enabled = True TextBox1.Focus() Label6.Text = "" End Sub Private Sub Button1_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button1.Click If TextBox1.TextLength = 0 Then MessageBox.Show("YOU MUST HAVE TO INPUT THE STUDENT ID") TextBox1.Focus() ElseIf TextBox2.TextLength = 0 Then MessageBox.Show("YOU MUST HAVE TO INPUT THE STUDENT NAME") TextBox2.Focus() ElseIf TextBox3.TextLength = 0 Then MessageBox.Show("YOU MUST HAVE TO ENTER THE STUDENT COURSE") TextBox3.Focus() ElseIf TextBox4.TextLength = 0 Then MessageBox.Show("YOU MUST HAVE TO ENTER THE STUDENT COURSE") TextBox4.Focus() Else Label6.Text = X.SaveData("studenttable", _ TextBox1.Text & ",'" & TextBox2.Text & "','" & TextBox3.Text & "'," & TextBox4.Text, _ "studentid,studentname,studentcourse,studentyear", "", "INSERT") GroupBox1.Enabled = False DataGridView1.DataSource = X.getTable("StudentTable", "*", "") End If End Sub

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Hotel Management System Private Sub Button3_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button3.Click Me.Close() End Sub Private Sub Button2_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button2.Click TextBox1.Clear() TextBox2.Clear() TextBox3.Clear() TextBox4.Clear() End Sub Private Sub StudentInfoForm3_Load(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles MyBase.Load TextBox1.Focus() End Sub End Class

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Hotel Management System

TeacherInfoForm4.vb
Public Class TeacherInfoForm4 Dim X As New Class1 Private Sub Button4_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button4.Click GroupBox1.Enabled = True TextBox1.Focus() End Sub Private Sub Button1_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button1.Click If TextBox1.TextLength = 0 Then MessageBox.Show("YOU MUST HAVE TO INPUT THE TEACHERS ID") TextBox1.Focus() ElseIf TextBox2.TextLength = 0 Then MessageBox.Show("YOU MUST HAVE TO INPUT THE TEACHERS NAME") TextBox2.Focus() Else Label5.Text = X.SaveData("TeacherTable", TextBox1.Text & ",'" & TextBox2.Text & "'", "", "", "INSERT") GroupBox1.Enabled = False DataGridView1.DataSource = X.getTable("TeacherTable", "*", "") End If End Sub Private Sub Button3_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button3.Click Me.Close() End Sub Private Sub Button2_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button2.Click TextBox1.Clear() TextBox2.Clear() End Sub Private Sub TeacherInfoForm4_Load(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles MyBase.Load Dim sqlstmt As String = "select * from TeacherTable" DataGridView1.DataSource = X.getTable("TeacherTable", "*", "") End Sub End Class

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UserForm1.Vb

Public Class UserForm Private Sub Button1_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button1.Click YearForm2.Show() End Sub Private Sub Button3_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button3.Click Dim x As New LoginForm1 x.Show() End Sub Private Sub Button4_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button4.Click End End Sub Private Sub Button2_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button2.Click shortlistform3.Show() End Sub End Class

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YearForm2.Vb

Public Class YearForm2 Private Sub Button4_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button4.Click End End Sub Private Sub Button1_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button1.Click AttndanceForm.ComboBox1.Items.Add("ETC (1.1)") AttndanceForm.ComboBox1.Items.Add("FCM (1.2)") AttndanceForm.ComboBox1.Items.Add("CF (1.3)") AttndanceForm.ComboBox1.Items.Add("DS (1.4)") AttndanceForm.ComboBox1.Items.Add("LAB-1 OS (1.5)") AttndanceForm.ComboBox1.Items.Add("LAB-2 C (1.6)") yr = 1 AttndanceForm.Show() Me.Hide() End Sub Private Sub Button2_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button2.Click AttndanceForm.ComboBox1.Items.Add("NASM (2.1)") AttndanceForm.ComboBox1.Items.Add("OS (2.2)") AttndanceForm.ComboBox1.Items.Add("CO (2.3)") AttndanceForm.ComboBox1.Items.Add("DBMS (2.4)") AttndanceForm.ComboBox1.Items.Add("LAB-1 C++ (2.5)") AttndanceForm.ComboBox1.Items.Add("LAB-2 ORACLE (2.6)") yr = 2 AttndanceForm.Show() Me.Hide() End Sub Private Sub Button3_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button3.Click Page: 99

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AttndanceForm.ComboBox1.Items.Add("OR (3.1)") AttndanceForm.ComboBox1.Items.Add("DCCN (3.2)") AttndanceForm.ComboBox1.Items.Add("SE (3.3)") AttndanceForm.ComboBox1.Items.Add("COAS (3.4)") AttndanceForm.ComboBox1.Items.Add("LAB-1 JAVA (3.5)") AttndanceForm.ComboBox1.Items.Add("LAB-2 I&WD (3.6)") AttndanceForm.ComboBox1.Items.Add("PROJECT (3.7)") yr = 3 AttndanceForm.Show() Me.Hide() End Sub End Class

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Hotel Management System

StudentInfoform3.Vb

Public Class StudentInfoForm3 Dim X As New Class1 Private Sub Button4_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button4.Click GroupBox1.Enabled = True TextBox1.Focus() Label6.Text = "" End Sub Private Sub Button1_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button1.Click If TextBox1.TextLength = 0 Then MessageBox.Show("YOU MUST HAVE TO INPUT THE STUDENT ID") TextBox1.Focus() ElseIf TextBox2.TextLength = 0 Then MessageBox.Show("YOU MUST HAVE TO INPUT THE STUDENT NAME") TextBox2.Focus() ElseIf TextBox3.TextLength = 0 Then MessageBox.Show("YOU MUST HAVE TO ENTER THE STUDENT COURSE") TextBox3.Focus() ElseIf TextBox4.TextLength = 0 Then MessageBox.Show("YOU MUST HAVE TO ENTER THE STUDENT COURSE") TextBox4.Focus() Else Label6.Text = X.SaveData("studenttable", _ TextBox1.Text & ",'" & TextBox2.Text & "','" & TextBox3.Text & "'," & TextBox4.Text, _ "studentid,studentname,studentcourse,studentyear", "", "INSERT")

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Hotel Management System DataGridView1.DataSource = X.getTable("StudentTable", "*", "") End If End Sub Private Sub Button3_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button3.Click Me.Close() End Sub Private Sub Button2_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button2.Click TextBox1.Clear() TextBox2.Clear() TextBox3.Clear() TextBox4.Clear() End Sub Private Sub StudentInfoForm3_Load(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles MyBase.Load TextBox1.Focus() End Sub End Class

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ShortListForm3.Vb

Public Class shortlistform3 Dim i% Dim y As Integer Private Sub shortlistform3_Load(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles MyBase.Load For i = 1 To 12 ComboBox2.Items.Add(MonthName(i)) Next ComboBox1.Items.Add("FIRST YEAR") ComboBox1.Items.Add("SECOND YEAR") ComboBox1.Items.Add("THIRD YEAR") End Sub Private Sub Label3_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) StatusForm.Show() End Sub Private Sub Label4_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Me.Close() End Sub Private Sub ComboBox1_SelectedIndexChanged(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles ComboBox1.SelectedIndexChanged Dim x As New Class1 Dim dtble As New DataTable ComboBox3.Items.Clear() y = ComboBox1.SelectedIndex + 1 dtble = x.getTable("SubjectTable", "subject_name", "YEAR=" & y) For i = 0 To dtble.Rows.Count - 1 ComboBox3.Items.Add(dtble.Rows(i).Item(0)) Next End Sub

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Private Sub Button1_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button1.Click Dim x As New Class1 Dim dtble As New DataTable Dim subj As Integer subj = ComboBox3.SelectedIndex + 1 dtble = x.getTable("attreg", "student_id,student_name", "year=" & y & " And month='" & ComboBox2.SelectedItem.ToString.Substring(0, 3) & "'and subject_code=" & subj) DataGridView1.DataSource = dtble End Sub Private Sub Button3_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button3.Click Me.Close() End Sub Private Sub Button2_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button2.Click s = ComboBox3.SelectedIndex + 1 month = ComboBox2.SelectedItem.ToString.Substring(0, 3) MsgBox(month) yer = ComboBox1.SelectedIndex + 1 MessageBox.Show(s & " " & month & " " & yer) StatusForm.Show() End Sub End Class

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Hotel Management System

StatusForm.Vb

Public Class StatusForm Private Sub CrystalReportViewer1_Load(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles CrystalReportViewer1.Load CrystalReportViewer1.SelectionFormula = "{STATUS.YEAR} = " & yer & " AND {STATUS.MONTH} = '" & month & "' AND {STATUS.SUBJECT_CODE} = " & s End Sub End Class

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Hotel Management System

Chapter # 5

IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING


Unit Testing: In this testing each module of the information system is tested individually. The database is also tested rigorously for the performance of each of the module. Integrated Testing: After completing all the modules, they are integrated to form the end results. This testing was done with simple data. The developed system has run successfully for the simple data. The need for the integrated test is to find the overall system performance. Black Box Testing: Black box testing is done to find incorrect or missing functions. Interface error Error in external database access Performance error Initialization Initialization and termination error

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Hotel Management System White Box Testing: Using this type of testing the following tests are successfully tested for this application. Check whether all independent paths with out module having exercise at least once. Exercise all logical decision on there true and false side. Execute all loops at their boundaries and within their bounds. Exercise internal data structure to ensure their validity. All the possible validity checks all validity look-up has been provided to ensure valid data heading. System Testing: Each use case is initially tested separately, from an external viewpoint. These tests are thus based on requirement models. When all use cases have been tested separately, the entered system is tested as whole. Testing of the System Testing and implementation of the developed information system from the most important task of the project. A brief description of the testing procedure followed to test various modules of the information system given below. Testing: Software testing is a criterion of software equality assurance and presents the ultimate review of specified design and coding. System testing reveals the presence of errors in the software development. Software testing all so to find discrepancies between system objectives, current specification and system documentation.

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Objectives: Verification- Verification checks whether the results agrees with the specification. Validation- Validation checks whether the results really is what the order actually wanted. This focus on customer satisfaction in concerned with getting the specification and the result right. Implementation of the system Implementation includes all those activities that take place to convert from the old system to the new system. The new system may be completely new, replacing and existing manual or automated system or it may be major modification to an existing system. Successfully implementation may not guarantee improvement in the organization using the new system, but improper installation will prevent it. It has been observed that, even the best system cant show good result it the analyst managing the implementation doesnt attend to every important detail. This is an area where the system analyst need to work almost care. There are three aspects of implementation: Training Personnel Conversion Procedure Post Implementation Review

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Chapter # 6

RESULTS AND DISCUSSISONS


The Electronic Attendance Register project is to take the attendance of the students of the specified classes and at last determines and also produces out the report of the number of the classes attended by each student. The primary function is to keep the record of the students in a systematic manner and also it is used for taking the attendance electronically in the computer. The procedures through which the primary functions are carried out are: Administrator: 1. 2. 3. 4. Users: 1. 2. 3. Takes the Attendance of the previous specified class. Sorts the name, year, subjects of the student attended. Generates and produce out the final report that determines the number of classes Logging into the Start up page. Adds the newly and experienced faculty. Adds the name of the students with roll no, class and year. Exit from the main page.

attended by a student in a specified class. The software first validates the password given by the administrator against the particular passwords present in the database by retrieving it. Then once authenticated the software retrieves the code and user name. Then the next work of the system will be done. The authentication then stops the entire process whenever its time for the administrator to shut it down .This totally restricts the software to stop adding any of the teachers and also the new and old faculties. The administrator then exits from the entire process by pressing the cancel button. Page: 109

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Chapter # 7

CONCLUSION
The project entitled ELECTRONIC ATTENDANCE REGISTER is a GUI based application software. The main purpose of this project is to take the attendance of the students electronically rather than manual and at last one can generate the report of the number of classes attended by each student in different subjects. . Every steps has been taken to initiate the existing manual system to make it more user friendly and to incorporate new features wherever necessary so that users could find the worth using the automated system. The system is highly user-friendly, the menu and message has been property place so as to make the user comfortable using the system. Even a layman can early use the system, after a small training. Whenever the system can be expanded to incorporate new functions or, modify the existing function. We can also incorporate other functions to enhance the system. For the system maintenance and modification the source code has been properly documented which will make it easier for future modification of the various coding if required.

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FUTURE SCOPE OF THE PROJECT


The automated ELECTONIC ATTENDANCE REGISTER SYSTEM has been developed, even flexible but it has flexibility and efficiency within the available resources and time. In this project more strict steps may have been taken by the using of the card system which may be very expensive. An Attendance Machine may be constructed in which the card may be inserted and the signal for the entry of the person can be possible. Another thing is that it may have done to take the Attendance of the teachers as well by including the date and time of their appearances. These are the few future steps that may be included in this project for the perfect and a sufficient running of the project that can be implemented in the Business fields.

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Chapter # 8

REFERENCES
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] Visual Basic. Net -Black Book .Net Programming -Comdex Pub. Visual Basic .Net -SCITECH Pub. Professional SQL Server 2005-Wrox Pub. Mcore.NET 1.2 Developers Guide System Analysis and Design by Elias M.awad. System Analysis and Development by James A. Senn. Database Management System by Bipin Desai Beginning SQL Server 2005 for Developers by Robin Dewson Beginning ASP.NET 2.0 in Visual Basic by Matthew MacDonald Professional ASP.NET 2.0 by Bill Evjen, Scott Hanselman

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Hotel Management System Chapter # 9

GLOSSORY
GPRS: Global Packet Radio Services GSM: Global Services of Mobiles SMS : Small Message Services Email: Electronic Mail ASP.NET : Active Server Page.NET VB.NET : Visual Basic .NET MCIL : Microsoft Common Intermediate Language CLR : Common Language Runtime

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