Foundations of Sociometry: An Introduction Author(s): J. L. Moreno Reviewed work(s): Source: Sociometry, Vol. 4, No. 1 (Feb., 1941), pp.

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An inquiry into the nature of the foundations of human society becamenecessary as a preliminary to any genuineplan for its reconstructionin accord interof well-balanced human with the requirements relations. Sociometryis concernedwith both of these problemsand their interdependence. No collection-large--of sociometric techniques can cover however of sociometry. Someof the chief the whole domain concepts are discussed: the concept of the Moment, tele, the social atomand psycho-social networks. A significant discoveries whichhave of the moest number been made in the course of sociometric studies--such as the socio-genetic law, the patterningof social atomsand the racial saturation point--are stressed. The paper ends with a discussion of the dialectic character of sociometry.

THE PROBLEM The discoverythat humansociety has an actual, dynamall its periphic, central structureunderlying'and determining eral and formal groupingsmay one day be considered as the cornerstoneof all social science. This central structure-once it has been identified--iseither foundor discernible in every formof humansociety, fromthe most primitiveto the most civilized: it is in the genesis of every type of society. In addition,it exerts a determining upon every sphere influence in whichthe factor of humaninterrelations is an active agent-in economics, biology, social pathology, politics, government and similar spheres of social action. It seems to be established beyondany reasonable doubt that the tele factor, the social atom (withits specific types of
1See page 23, last paragraph. 15

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In other words. Therefore.16 SOCIOMETRY betweenatoms patterns). In the past. But individualscannotbe aroused--or. The task of the social scientist is to inventadequate tools for the explorationof a chosen domain. thoughts. as long as the individualscomposinga human society remainedpassive agents--more or less immobile by fate or circumstance-entities. of every social situationand of the whole experiment. Up to the adventof sociometric explorationof humansociety. A reagent--a catalyzer-is necessary in order that they may be broughtto view. geological and astronomicalexploration. degree--by undynamic to an insignificant The individualsmust be adequately motivatedso that they summon from the depths of their beings the maximumof their and shaping of methodsfor spontaneity." Every other genuinemethodbent upon the studyof social processes should be able to verifytheir existence. theydo not become manifestin a humansociety. carried hitherand thither these key structurescould not be found. This of all the incatalyzer is. the principle of socio-genetic evolution-and their patternings. On the level of this domain is made up of the interactive humaninterrelations. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the methodsused to explore the subjects were those whichhad been successful in physical. chemical. These concepts and structureshave by methodscalled "sociobeen either isolated or demonstrated metric. the crux. This content downloaded on Sun. the spontaneity dividuals in the given society. must go hand in hand. Per se. Thus. the spontaneity humaninterrelations the individualis the alpha and the omega. stirring social investigation. spontaneitiesof all the individualscomposingit.but the subjects--the material of the been left out of any participationin the study investigation--had offthe of this.only and automaticmeans. This meant shutting source of inof the subjects--the most important spontaneity formation. on the social level. But in of and in humansociety. and feelings of the people on whomtheyare used. the invention and the up of the actions. the task of the social scientist becomes the shaping of tools in such a fashionthat theyare able to arouse the individualsto the required point on a scale whichruns all the way from zero to the maximum.for example. all these have always been operatingin all humansociety and will continueto do so.the stages whichare intermediary the psycho-social networks and more inclusive configurations. we had seen the social scientist to come into contactwiththe life-situation himselfbeginning whichwas to be explored. of the subjects speaking--thespontaneity where--metaphorically studieddid not enter into or disturbthe experiment. their own life-situation.

becomes operative in determining every directionof planningand. In fact. Sociometryopened up a new possibilityof genuineplanning of humansociety for the reason that the factors of spontaneity.sociometry. Man believed that the genesis of society was outside his province-. the essence of every process of planningis total sponas heretofore. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND It was duringthe first World War that the idea of a with a means of their spontaneities.FOUNDATIONSOF SOCIOMETRY 17 Finally. 3.-I11.revised theoryof conjunction sociometry. knowledgeof the central structureof human interrelationsis essential to any general planningand construction of human society. In a sociometric sysplorationand of the investigation tem. the spontaneity of a small number taneity--not.evenmore so than the genesis of personality.SOCIOMETRY. This content downloaded on Sun.notwithstanding all the advances man had of his effortshad become evidentas bemade. Moreno.2in spontaneity. The new of humaninterrelations. the utter futility ing largely because of these advances. 2See the section on the General Theoryof Spontaneityand the Cultural Conserve in "MentalCatharsis and the Psycho-drama. man saw himself slippingback to the primitivestate fromwhichhe had begun his rise. had its first expression. Thus. of leaders or individualschosen at random.and these two factors togethersupplyus with a basis upon whichthe planningof humansociety may be undertaken. No.the initiativeand the momentary grasp of the individuals concernedwere made the essence of the methodof exitself. L." by J. In spite of all the magnificentedifices whichhe had erected so industriously. The total sum of the individuals. this was well-nighimpossible as long as the key us a philosophy and guide for the determination methodology of the central structureof society and the evocation of the spontaneity of the subject-agents. Sociometrydeveloped at whichhad no precedentin the historyof mankind-a moment at a momentwhen. in the selection of every key individualor leader to whom or action is to be entrusted. in addition. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Vol. all the a certain function peripheral actions and functions--on every level betweenthe peripheryand the center--remainunder the continuous or recurringcontrol of the key or central structure.

18 SOCIOMETRY The technology of machines and tools was perhaps the to shock man out of his roseate dream of first phenomenon but the effectof technology progress ad infinitum. regardless of what religious. feelings. perhaps. upon the spontaneity of the humanorganismwas not studied and remained. uncovered if we do not begin withthat whichall types of humansociety.e. the radio. as an individualcreator.. At the same time. opinions. 111. This content downloaded on Sun. No. to put it in a in a fragmentary positive way. etc. these identical devices revolutionizedall previous methodsof interhuman communication of ideas. the individualsthemselves and the interrelations betweenthem. his films.must have in common--the patterns of relationshipswhich humanbeings formwith one anotherand which persist underground. What remains of a society to be investigatedif the individuals themselves and the relationshipsbetweenthem are considered or wholesale fashion? Or.uncontrolled."even as a problem. from the Latin. i. Stuart Chapin. cannotbe omittedfrom any studyof a social situation. 245-262. 3. He began to look upon himselfas a negligible." meaningmeasure. pp. on "socius. had been neglected.. later." by F.e. the motion picture industry and. aspect of humaninterrelations from the most primitivepatternof the past to the most complex patternof the future. It was realized.that the foundations of humansociety must first be uncoveredbefore any extra-humansuperstructure(such as machinetechnology and the technology of cultural conserves) could be fittedto them." meaningcompanion). to an unprecedented degree. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . SOCIOMETRY.but the 'socius" aspect had been omittedfromdeeper analysis far more than the "metrum"aspect. in accordance with its etymology. He saw himselfbeing more and more replaced by them. but the emphasis was laid not only on the second half of the term. his radio voice. of the so-called "cultural conserves. These new methodsof communication began to 3See "Trends in Sociometrics and Critique. but also on the first half of the term (i. The "companion. then. in toto." Man.. its influencewithinour social structurehad remained unadjusted. political and technologicalstructureis superimposedupon them and rules on the surface? The technologicaldevices whicharoused man's deepest suspicion were the products of the printing press. social. My first definition of sociometrywas. it seemed to me. in other words. therefore. was outwitted by the products of his own brain--his books. was unrecognized. archaic entity. on "metrum.3 Both principles. Can the foundations of humansociety be reached and.

This analysis stimulatedthe projectionof constructsas diverse as the categoryof the Moment. Now that whose laws and configurations they seemed to be in danger of being obliteratedor. The theoretical of a groundwas thus graduallylaid for a positive beginning sociometrywhichwas concernedwith the patternsof social structureswhichactually exist in human society. the categoryof the cultural conserve. distortedin their functions. Analaysis and action. for one or aninstance. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . tist must. Aroundthis core. THE SOCIOMETRIC EXPERIMENT It is significant to differentiate betweenthe major. at least.but one cannot conceive a society functioning withoutsome considerationfor the individuals themselves and the relationshipsbetweenthem. construction for the partial or total readjustment. the film. the studyof their stratification and their gradual integration withthe core becomes an essential part of sociometry. of necessity. of course.FOUNDATIONSOF SOCIOMETRY 19 play havoc withthe old. The analysis of technologicaland cultural the research phase. The core of a social structureis. never entirelyseparable from these various stimuli. a social geometryof ideas and things. with the individualsthemselves and the interrelations between them. as a frame of reference. The original vision of the larger sociometric experiment was that the data obtainedin any particular research must have. natural methodsof communication had not been studied. A humansociety whichfunctions without other of these stimuli is conceivable.are arrayed manylevels of stimuli--economic.experiment in sociometryand the minor experiments. was thus an important. In order to enlist every individual's the social scieninterestduringthe phase of reconstruction. hence. especially of the book. cultural and technologicalprocesses.and the original state and situationof a 'thing"--its status nascendi.albeit negative.of humansociety.the total patternof humansociety in order that these data may be useful as a basis for the or reconstruction. The major was visualized as a world-wideproject--a scheme experiment This content downloaded on Sun. their significancebegan to loom on the horizon of man's awareness.spontaneous creative actions.theoreticalpreparationfor the developmentof sociometry. social research. acquaint himself. and the radio.are interwoven. and social construction. influencing the configurations of these patterns. The core of a social structureis the patternof relationshipsof all the individuals withinthe structure.

adolescent group and age group. Every individual. should be omittedfromparticipationin the experiment. every major group. it should be equally possible to prepare and propagate a world sociometry. The sociometric experimentwill end in becomingtotalistic not only in expansion thus markingthe beginning and extensionbut also in intensity. But this vision did not arise whollyout of thin air. the cultural and the technological-for whichthere was foundsome degree of aspiration or expression withinthe community. every minor group. have been analyzed and the causes of their failure disclosed. Their failure seems to have been due to a lack of knowledgeof the structureof humansociety as it actually existed at the time of the attempt. to choose and to reject. of which humansociety consists. Once we had successfullytreated an entire community by sociometric seemed to us at least theoreticallypossible to treat an infinitely large number of such communities by the same methods--all the communities. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .no social unit. the studyof every type of children's group. which have attempted world-widereorganization of humanrelationships.20 SOCIOMETRY well-nighUtopianin concept--yetit must be recalled again and lest it be crowded out by our more pracagain to our attention tical. therefore. every domain of humanrelationships will be. A partial knowledge was not sufficient. Schemes like Marxism. The investigatorshave been concernedwith every aspect of a community--the economic. the cultural. the investigation of communities.closed and open. and others. primitiveand metropolitan. all the individuals in a society must become active agents. At times a project was carried to the maximumpoint of its domain.stirred up--the economic. not only exploringthe This content downloaded on Sun.howeverpowerless.and so on--and that they all will be broughtinto the picture. in order to attain this total knowledge. and every social class must participate. Sociometric investigatorshave turned their attention towards a more away from a general experiment of old methods strategic and practical objective--therefining and the invention of new ones.perhaps--thatif a war can spread to encircle the globe. The aim is to gain a total picture of humansociety. daily tasks in sociometry. In addition. The groundis still graduallybeing prepared for the major experiment. once individualsare aroused by sociometric procedures to fact. knowledgeof the total structurewas necessary. We is assumed that. It is a fact that the work to date has consisted in minor experimentsand studies. We knowthat. of a political sociometry. the racial. the technological.

194]. In a philosophy to the moment mentthere are three factors to be emphasized: the locus. This content downloaded on Sun. metricproceduresfor future has been The result of these small scale experiments discoveries in twofold.Cases have occurred where the investigator onlypartial data (and this by withgathering had to be content of the because of the low sociometricadaptability indirection) under observation. the findings onlyhalfway necessarily cover only a peripheralsegmentof a community.possible upheaval and resistof a community the political administration within sociometric thorough hindered its citizens of ance on the part experimentation. wouldbe of subcompletely stantialassistance in the preparationof more dependablesociouse. Moreno for May. and the applicationof these data to the people themselveswas not considered.theyled to important by every the realm of humanrelationswhichwere confirmed new study. however. Nevertheless. L." by J.resultingin studies whichwere population could sociometric. 22. a trans1See "Das Stegreiftheater.and the matrix. of the Moof its emergence.FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIOMETRY 21 to the the findings but also applying of a community structure producing and tensions thus relieving and situations community social catharsis.and.a bird's-eye withthe assistance of these miniature of society at large. on the other hand. the pieces of sociometricstructogether. In these cases. On the one hand. the more accurate and completewill be our psycho-geographical and model of the world. This lation of whichwill be published in SOCIOMETRY note refers to pp. 23 of the original.a critical surveyof all the sDthe ciometricstudies whichhave been made to date. At other times. ture whichhad been foundin various communities patterns. SOME FUNDAMENTALCONCEPTS The most neglectedaspect The status nascendi. as comparedwiththe still sketchy primitivemodel whichis available to us today. evaluating whether all cases.and no status nascendi no locus without (1923). There is no "thing" its status nascendi. the status nascendi. in uationor. The view of the sociometricfoundation greaterthe numberof valid studies in the years to come.theymade it possible to put like a jig-saw puzzle. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in obtained results the and used methods sociometricor only partiallyso.4 -ina social sitof the Moment of social science is the function social situation a of the relationship other words. and get. without of the same process. These representthree views its locus.

The common important misconceppi-onccurswhenthe last act of prdpctiQn or creaItaken for. for example) is all too likely to be a stereotype. 111. by means of various machines. In either case. An example is the performance eating whichbegins to develop the r8le of the eater in every infantsoon after birth. creation or production reproducedover and over again.thatprocesses of humanrelations cease to exist when relationshipenters the a cultural conserve or a stereotyped picture. process. is reached when his creation is divorced fromhim and becomes a cultural conserve. the status nascendi and the warming-up ess take place in the course of the process of creation.for instance. The last phase.22 SOCIOMETRY its matrix. say. The social sciences have been too much preoccupied 5See "Normal and AbnormalCharacteristics of Performance PatVol. From the anti-climaxfor the artist the point of view of productivity.such as in procthe creative arts. Uhl and Joseph Sargent. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . itself. has a primaryactionEvery humanact or performance of pattern--a status nascendi. No. the warming-up In the case of a very complex humanperformance. pp. thus becominga technologically cultural conserve. The finished paintingis removedfromits place at the end of the course of and.and in are institutions manysocial relationshipssimilar stereotyped parallel to the cultural conserve stage in a the end-products. Withsatiation comes an anti-climax.such as a love rell-.5 The patternof gestures and movementsleading up to the state of satiation is. The last act in a process--the last creafor instance--is to us only as tive brush-strokeon a painting. It is not to be assumed." by Anita M. the marwork of art. tionship. or sub4stitutedfor. In the case of a social situation. terns. however. Moreover. in this instance. the considerationof all riage relationship the phases leading up to it is omitted. SOCIOMETRY.the status nascendi exists whenthe lovers meet and begin to warm up to one another. in the contemplation betweentwo people. a new social situationis begunwhich requires special methodsof investigation. This content downloaded on Sun. a love-relationship(marriage. Its matrixis the fertile seed. Its status nascendi is that of a growingthingas it springs fromthe seed.for instance is in without the bed where it is growing.38-57. 3. This the precedingphases in the development change when the last act undergoesa still more significant technologicalprocess enters into the situation. The locus of a flower. the whole process and all tionis are ignored. the phase before the anti-climax. as every other phase in the process.

Lundberg. Moreno. Therefore. L.FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIOMETRY 23 with studies of processes after theyhave become cold. Herriott. theories and methodshad to be found.A. Perhaps this is why sociology has been chieflyconcernedwiththe studyof the tangible structuresin research whichdoes not give its main attention to these phenomenamust be sterile. C. A. T. B. by. J. Davidson. K. S. F. M. A. H. Curtis. It is. D. Feldstein. The preoccupation not surprising. Sargent. The studyof finishedproducts. Uhl. Jr. C. M. P. M. Dodd. L. Anyplan for the betterment of society. for the improvement of humanrelations. instead of proceedingbackwardfrom their end-product.for instance. R.or between genetic phenomenaand symptoms. Treudley. M.of cultural conserves and of stereotypeshas. Just as every cause is a part of its effectand every effecta part of its cause. Sanders. A humansociety without these phenomenain statu nascendi would present a lifeless appearance. M. L.. Kerstetter. important that theybe studied systematically. D. Price. Franz. W. C. Steele. underlying and surface structures. G. D. N. B. has great theoreticaladvantages. C. A studyof humaninterrelations proceedingforwardfrom their status nascendi. Newcomb. W. it must be admitted. M. Jennings. N. L. The status nascendi has been neglected. But it is from the social situationsin statu nascendi that the more important inspirationsand decisions come. Newstetter. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . G. It is much easier to studya relationshipwhen it is finishedand established and when it has the deceptive appearance of being an end-result. H. C. Richmond. of course. C. Johnson. A. J. The results to date are meager. Taylor. J. Borden.T. Most of the studies of man-woman relationshipsoccur whenthe anti-climaxhas been reached--when the flow of feelingbetweenthe man and the them together womanhas dried up and the love whichbrought is over. Sol- This content downloaded on Sun. Allen. J. H. Murphy. structurepartakes of the peripheral and vice every underlying 6Studies contributive to sociometryin their emphasison inter-personal systemshave been madeby: C. 1.esoteric phenomena--how to studythem. Therefore.6 It is at this cardinal point that sociometric and psychodramatic studies have stepped into the breach. S. M. Zeleny. M. Loomis. The problem has been how to get at these intangible. Kephart. J. Their deep impress upon all humaninterrelations has been demonstrated. is hopeless without them. Criswell. Northway. Wolman and L. of course. its place and its meaningin withthem is a system of social science. J.but the road is now open. A studyof this sort is able to do away withthe dualistic character ascribed to social processes. There is no true dichotomy between.

independent tions of the tele factor a productresults whichhas the characsystem. a pattern of attractionsand repulsions. and as the members of these groups in turnproject their emotionstowardhim. It evolves as an inter-personalstructurefrom the birth-levelonward. for instance. or as manypersons as compose a given social situation. Out of these operative. Dual constructions come. a supra-individual. It may have some relation to gene structureand sexual attraction. we have found that some relationships on the formal level are identical with those on the underlying level-. it is clear that the tele factor operates. Tele can be assumed to be responsible for the operationof the multiplefoci in any relationshipbetweentwo persons. the individualsand is not the subjecproductof each person. SOCIOMETRY.24 SOCIOMETRY versa. The statistical distribution and repulsions is affectedby some esoteric factor. It has been suggestedby soof attractions ciometric findings. The tele concept is not a Concept. The size 71n the sociometric analysis of home groups. It is dependentupon both. L. then.or all. can be discerned on the thresholdbetweenindividual-and This patternis called his asocial atom. The "Tele" purely theoreticalconstruction. as projected from both sides. Jennings. This content downloaded on Sun. The normal into whichpractically all psychologicalphenomena distribution fit is not followedby attractionand rethus far investigated of attractionand pulsion patterns.8 The factor responsible for this effectis called 'tele'" It may explain whythere are not as many humansocieties as there are indipossible-viduals--a situationwhichis at least theoretically withall social relations the productof individualimaginations. better understanding The Social Atom. The trend towards mutuality repulsion manytimes surpasses chance possibility. pp.illogical. It may will provide clues to a be that the studyof tele psychology of sex attractions. As the individualprojects his emotionsinto the groups around him. nothing Although is as yet knownabout its "material" structure. and H. Moreno 8See 'Statistics Volume 1. group.' by J. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .7 This is the case if we begin withthe status nascendi stage process through of a situationand followits warming-up such as cause and effectbeafter stage.for instance). 342-378." It is not identical withthe formalposition an individualoccupies in the group (his position in the family. H. part 1. ter of an objective. of Social Configurations.

Accordingly. with it. as participant observers (watching children at play. The social atom is the first tangible structureempiricallydiscernible in the formation of a humansociety.FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIOMETRY 25 of the social atom of any particular individualcannot accurately be discerned unless the whole community or group in which he lives is sociometricallystudied. In an early phase of sociometry. empirical material. we were able to determinewith some precision the outer structureof the lv But the deeper structureof the group remained ungroup. A community can be diagnosed from the point of view of what types of social atoms are in the minority. A studyof this sort may suggest the optimum in which patternfor a well-balanced community this or that patternpredominates. disclosed and. but we did not thenknowwhat dynamicmeaningit had in its formation. for instance. Jennings. It is its smallest unit. the first chartingof inter-personalrelation systems showedblank areas. The studyof Jennings9 demonstratesclearly that it develops different patterns. Moreno. SOCIOMETRY. notinghow certain persons assumed a leader position in respect to certain others and how some were able and others unable to begin or end an action). L. Sociometric case-work of a single individualmay be tolerated in practice. Moreno mentioned in Note 1. or sittingin a spontaneiof pairs on the basis of ty theatreand watchingthe formation various roles. she differentiates eight different patterns. an individualcan be diagnosed fromthe point of view of how his social atom is patterned. The first construction of sociometric concepts. Vol. was intuitive. The discovery of social atom patternings is an excellent illustrationof how sociometric ideas develop and change in accord withthe findings. like the social atom. also the section on Experiment in "Des Stegreiftheater. 169-191. 4. "Social atom" was first a purely descriptive term for a social configuration whichwas evidentin every inter-personalrelation system of a community. Thus. This content downloaded on Sun. pp. In fact. Only later did we suspect that it mightbe a basic social a time whenwe were studying group structuresfrom the outside.suggested by slight. L. the social atom. When sociometric tests were applied to a formal group in a 9See "Quantitative Aspects of Tele Relationships in a Community" by Helen H. No. but we must be aware that some positive or negativetele may exist in reference to him which cannotbe calculated unless all the individuals around him are tested in conjunction withhim. 11." by J. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1 See "WhoShall Survive?" by J.

' by Charles H. Cooley. to the neighborhoods and to other situationsin whichtheywere involvedwere not advanced part of the study. as inspired by the dynamicsof actual situations. which are not primary groups.that the social atom became discernible. L. isotural analysis of a community withinits limits. for instance. lates. 1909. cannot exist independent of relationshipswith other persons. In other words. it is still valid.. Sociometric concepts had to be constructedanew. See "System of Sociology. "'See "Application of the GroupMethod to Classification. 3See "Social Organization. etc.home or work group--buthe may be ignorantor unconscious of the existence of many individualswho feel strongly about him and there may be some individualsabout whomhe feels stronglybut who are. looks rather artificial.26 SOCIOMETRY an analysis of inner public school. be superseded by the use of more dynamicpatternings of the social atom as a more penetrating guide to the depth structureof a community. But.a true pair. Now that we are able to study social atoms both descripthe earlier structively and in their dynamicdifferentiations. The great theoreticaladvances whichhave been made as the result of sociometric experimentsbecome more pointedif we consider them in the light of the contributions of two sociological pioneers. the number of isolates. when a whole community sociometrically. 1931."1 the findings permitted structures. an individualknows "face-to-face" a certain number of the people composinghis social atom--theymay belong to his family. To be sure.either ignorantor unconscious of this fact. in the course of time. von Wiese12 and Cooley.13 From the formalistic distinction betweenvon Wiese's patternsof association and disassociation in humanrelations to the modernsociometric concepts is a long way. but the social atom could not yet be discerned--noteven on the descriptive level--because the tests were limited to the classrooms. etc. From the point of view of the total community structure. configurations. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Our previous procedure of structureanalysis may. although. It was not until a still further was approached phase was reached. in turn.percentages of attractionsand repulsions. psycho-social networks. qqreno. there are primary social social atoms. This content downloaded on Sun. 98-103.and others.. Pp. 1932. The relationshipsof the pupils to the families. althoughsocial atoms are certainlyprimary. as being made up of pairs. triangles chains." by Becker-Wiese. pairs.theyare not exactly "face-to-face" groups." by J. Cooley's concept of primarygroups comes closer to the realities of social structure.

14 betweenthe social atom and the psycho-social network. race. aided by psychodramatic of an additionalconcept. Psycho-Social vestigate the larger and more inclusive sociometric structures map of any which can be discerned on the psycho-geographical we can discover manyintermediatestages typical community.. the sociometric test and Originally. to us from spontaneity two tests. the coalescing of three or four social atoms.FOUNDATIONSOF SOCIOMETRY 27 Anotheraspect of the social atom which may stand in need of revision is its relation to the findingswhichhave come testingof the individualscomprisingit." pattern.the distinction for construction and cultural atom is artificial. In contrast to ethnological concepts such as class. Now." whichwas viewed as a patternof role relations. producedfindings test. but withno visible proximity individuals.We can see. We must visualize the atom as a configuration personal relationshipsin whichthe attractionsand repulsions with members are integrated existingbetweenits constituent the many role relations which operate betweenthem.. If we continueto inNetworks. This content downloaded on Sun. The sociometric test producedfindings the spontaneity whichsuggestedthe settingup of the concept "social atom. and it is these roles which give to each attractionor repulsion its deeper and more differentiated meaning. and many other similar structures actually exist as dynamic parts of human society.the which suggestedthe construction acultural atom. Very little is knownabout these and more 11Individuals cluster together and form psycho-social networks of varying configurations and the communities in which they live are held together by specific emotional currents which can today be mapped with the same precision as the physical geography of thatregion. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .we constructed test. in the same geographical area. there is but one atom. Elserelations betweenany of their constituent where on the map we may encountera group of social atoms whose central individualsshow a negativetele to the central individualsof anothergroup of social atoms.forming a triangle or a square. The spontaneity viewed as an attraction-repulsion procedures. From the point between social of view of the actual situation. etc. psycho-social networks. patterns of social atoms. for example. the central individualsof whichare mutuallyattracted. It is pertinent purposes but it loses its significancewithina living communiof interty. Every individualin a social atom has a range of roles. in reality. At other places on the map we may see half a dozen social atoms which exist in close geographical to a dozen other social atoms.

reaching one section of a community easily than another. back and forthfrom mouthto mouth. We saw individualswho were unacquaintparts of a ed withone anotherand belongingeither to different doing or saying things communities. were described and Once the networksin a community mapped. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the other a lower.and then transferred brokenup into several soThus. We liftedfrom in the original map all the individualswho were interconnected the fashiondescribed. opinions. The experimenter of the networks This content downloaded on Sun. In the second social strata--theone illustration. doublyisolated-isolated as individuals. it was easy to demonstratetheir dynamicexistence by whichwas under a simple experiment. regardless of the specific groups to them to a new map.28 SOCIOMETRY complex structures.etc.another.others belongedto different related and scattered betweenthe networks. or to different community as to seem to indicate some so similar and so simultaneously mysteriouscorrespondence--the 'grapevines" of folk-sociology.we saw that individualsas a rule belongedto of more than one network. in the first illustrationabove.and left out of the networks.we saw that only a small proportion knew each the individualswho belongedto the same network other personally--thelarge majoritywere tied to one another by a hiddenchain of tele-links. thena studycan be begun. In a closed community we were aware that rumors passed continually investigation.they may belong to different group havinga highercultural and economic status.beyondtheir descriptivepattern. The psycho-social networksare not readily visible on a map. The third illustrationmay represent individualsof competitivesituations. The object of the experimentwas to demonstratethat these rumors followedthe paths whichwe had mapped. Local may disclose that. The communitiesmust first be mapped as wholes.howeverfar apart theyappeared to be geographicallyor on the social scale but the devious links who are associated with one anotherthrough of mutualtele. would produce a smoothchanand counterlinks nel for the transmissionof news. Furtherexplorationis required which cannotbe made by even the most inspired speculation. It seemed logical to assume that individuals. whichtheybelonged. investigation the central individualsare of the same kinship." We saw thempartly overlapping one . We saw that only a small probelongedto any one portionof the social atoms of a community networksor remained unnetwork. we saw the entire community called "psycho-social networks. We became interestedin the possipsycho-geographical bility of their existence when we noted that rumor distributed more itself irregularly.

M was chosen to be the person withwhomto start the spread of the rumor. Some. IV and V. my first approach to the sociometric concept of the network and the realization that this superimposition of a mechanical-social 15See Loomis' Istayer-" and "mover-" networks in "Measurement of the Dissolution of In-Groups in the Integration of a Rural Resettlement Project" by C. It was gratifying to see our assumptionsverifiedwithgreat accuracy. From the material whichhad been available. Jr. others operate throughout several communities. The distorting effect whichthe printedpage has upon individualspontaneity and the mouth-to-mouth transmissionof ideas was. M. belonged to Network A. We assumed that it would take its longest time to reach Network E. indeed. This field is little explored.only very few participated in any one other network..and news--the printing press.whichconcerneda leading personality in the community's administration. and others to Groups II. who. Volume 11. are limitedto a particular locality. that the chances were that the rumorwould spread with ease and speed through M's own network. Network A. and thenwould need a longer time to filter through to the other networks. into whichthere was no overlapping fromNetwork A. in networks comprisingmore than 100 individuals. number2. Checks fromtime to time showedthat the rumorwas. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Microscopic studies of networks will also show thatthe telelinks betweenthe connectedindividualsare held together by ideal images (such as Christ) or sacred symbols (such as the Cross and the Swastika). The different characteristics of its or decay of a psycho-social networkswill indicate the growth 15 community. opinions. still others may cross the whole country. accord- This content downloaded on Sun.FOUNDATIONSOF SOCIOMETRY 29 ing to the map.some of whombelonged to his GroupI. that is. from coast to coast. he was linked up with 22 other individuals. III. therefore. M was a key individual. we knowalready. SOCIOMETRY. the motionpicture and the radio--is of prime importance.but some future studymay be able to show that communities differin accord withthe types of networks whichprevail withinthem. It will probablybecome apparentthat the size of the various networks differsgreatly. it can be deduced thatthere are many specific patternings of psychosocial networks. M. Davidson. P. Loomis and D. We had foundthat. It seemed. entered Group I and approached an individual. indeed. following the paths we had expected it to follow. It is obvious that the relationshipbetweenthe networks and the moderntechnologicalapparatus for the distribution of ideas.

Berlin. and the radio. If. can the psychologicalmomentover a prominent reach. Political leaders are keenlyaware of the 'grapevine' phenomenon.16 The development radio. This is more significant still for the position he has in the psycho-social networksin whichhe is either active or passive. He may make a guess at what is brewingfor or against him--as an individualor as the memberof a group. In a political campaign. for instance. they geographicalmaps of the communities could make their selection of key individualswithgreater precision and prepare their campaignswithbetter chances of success. if In an age like ours. This content downloaded on important radio systems have upon the psycho-social networks. It would be the printof interestto studywhat the technologicalnetworks. L. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Their psycho-geographical maps are. There is. social networks beneficialeffectwhichour modern however. by J. an unprecedented message.can be kept from dissemination first man to hear it if he does not choose to pass it on. actually.theyhad real psychoat their disposal. operate through of course. theyare 'practical" sociometrists. The network political phenomtheoryis able to interpret otherwise.and disturb almost the whole world. while the most harmfuland least culturedexpression. do to the psychoing press. The ebb and flow of attractionsand repulsions withinhis social atom may be responsiblefor tensions within him. 1918. affect. if utteredat radio network. the beyondhumancontrol. At one stroke theycan bring thousandsof independent psycho-social into a confluence in different parts of the country networks transwhichcould not have been producedby a mouth-to-mouth fer of news or opinion.except after a long period of time.30 SOCIOMETRY produces a situation network upon a psycho-social network whichtakes society unawares and removes it more and more of the film. however. since he cannotbe entirelyunaware of how much sympathy or hatred is directed towardhim. the most important by the transmitted by mouth. and modernpropagandahas accelerated this process of degree. whichwe are largely unconscious. of whichhumansociety consists. It is interesting to note the relationship betweenpolitics which is more imand sociometry. or how people feel about him. and for example. theypick the key individualsin a community them. Moreno. There is hardlyanything portantto a man than his position in the group.but he cannotknowfor certain. One illustrationis the to understand ena difficult 16See "Die Gottheit als Autor" (The Godhead as Author).

This content downloaded on Sun. Moreno. Austria. Volume 1. knewthat. Unfortunately.others were linked. in turn. a numberof sympathizers must be linked. 17 and 18. Stalin. and "Sociometric Planning of a New Community. pp. Whywere extensive mass murders committed whenbut relativelyfew men had actually been found guiltyof treason? It would seem unnecessaryto punish more than a few. part 1. Loomis'.there were literally thousandsmore. say. to each of the. So. One project studied the formationand evolutionof a community17 and the other studied the formation and evolutionof groups frombirthlevel up to the age of fourteen. 220-254. potentially equally dangerous. 1934. in order to reach and exterminate his potentialas well as his actual enemies withthe highest possible efficiency.18 Most of the sociometric studies of communitiesmade to date were of communities whichwere already established.he did not knowthe actual men and their actual positions in their respective communities. he had only a rough. 1815 to 1918. 23-28. "WhoShall Survive?" by J. L. He knewthat. but the cold politician. It was almost impossible to trace the principle of socio-genetic 17See description of a resettlement project at Mitterndorf. who mightbecome infectedwiththe same political ideas.FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIOMETRY 31 purges attributed to Stalin. either directlyor indirectly. 8See description of a sociometric project in a public school with a re-test after a period of two years. C. he gave orders that not only the friendsof Trotskybut also the friends of these friends.instinctive picture of the networks.and to this larger circle manyothers were inter-linked. Taylor of C. Principle ever repeated sociometric tests have been administeredat intervals to the same (or nearly the same) population.and the friends of these friendsof the friendsof Trotskybe 'purged. who could be just as threatening to his regime.paper on "Informal Groupilngsin a Spanish-American Village. L. twelve guiltymen.the regularity withwhichcertain specific patternsof inter-personalrelations have occurred has arrested the attention of investigators.besides the few men who had been direct associates of Trotsky.SOCIOMETRY. pp. in "WhoShall Survive?" by J. and to each of these sympathizers. The material demonstrating this regularity has been the result of two research projects. Whenof Socio-Genetic Evolution. he visualized a myriadof psycho-social networksspread over all Soviet Russia in whichthese actual or potentialenemies acted in roles which mightbe dangerousto him. Moreno." even if the suspicion of any friendlyrelationshipwas very slight. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." by Shepard Wolman." in this issue. P. pp. In other words. See also discussion by C.

The follow-up must consist of the applicationof sociometrictests.amongothers. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .An investigator to demwho attempts beginnings onstratethe operationof this principlemust be presentwhen is in the process of formation. from month to month and fromyear to year. cannotbringthe workingsof a socio-geneticevolution into relief. I recommended. arbitrarilystudying groups of children at one or anotherage level." I anticipated that such This content downloaded on Sun. that suppletherefore. the community and he must followup its development. in order to reach valid material. Sociometricprojects. on the otherhand. It is upon manymore studies of this sort that a competent discussion of the formand existence of socio-geneticevolutioncan be based. An successive maps of the community to make a studyof this sort has. the will disclose its genesis. Whensociometrybegan to arouse public attention several years ago. Economic." "sociometric techniques"and "sociometric scale. To the categoryof supplementary techniquesbelong. up to now. even if theydid not fulfillthe requirements sociometricprocedures. studies of attitudesand socio-economicmeasurements. The investigator. been opportunity given to an investigator only twice. must approachgroups whichpresent a cross section of all the age levels frombirthto adolescence. Onlythenwill he be able to compare the most infantilegroup structure(groupstructurein statu nascendi) with each successive step in structure formation. step by step. in statu nascendi. mentary techniquesshould be used aroundthe true sociometric of genuine the resistance of people who favor other earlier methodsand ideologies in the of population manipulation problems. WhenI introduced terms like 'sociometry. THE DIALECTIC CHARACTEROF SOCIOMETRY is The dialectic attitudeof the soclometricinvestigator about on one hand by the natural resistance of the combrought to a scheme whichcarries the democraticprocess to munity a maximum degree of realization (forwhichit is as yet unprepared and uneducated) and. the numberof procedureswhichwere ready for applicationwas few as compared withthe numberof social problemswhichwere to be faced in any community and study.32 SOCIOMETRY as their past historyandtheir evolutionin these communities are unknown.technological political problems of all sorts pressing for an immediatesoluwithuntriedproceduresnor wait tion could neitherexperiment untiltheywere ready.public opinionstudies.

B. and psychiatry would become more flexible and realistic and thus approach the point of view whichhas been fosteredby fromBogarsociometry.21 who asks questions which deal withpersonal contacts. Bogardus and Thurstone provide examples which fall short in the "socius" aspect. "Scaling White-Negro Experiences by the Volume III. while case-work studies are typically short in the "metrum" aspect. Robert N. whetherthe opinionswhichare collected represent the opinions of the key individualsonly or the opinionsof the groups under their influence." 1925.20 who studies attitudestowards people as a race or as a class and gets an answer which cannotbe but a symbolicone and the scale based upon similar data a symbolic scale of attitudeto studies like that of Ford.22 The latter procedure is also far removed. "Social Distance and Its Origin. S.. and.concepts in sociology. but the private opinions of a small numberof people.partly because of the influenceof sociomof soetry.. what these investigatorsmeasure may not be what they intendit to be. the psycho-social networksthrough which opinionmoves. to the more recent refinements the questions to the group pre-testingquestionnaires--adjusting which is to be studied.19 tion to methodsdeveloped by me and my closer associates. Number3.FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIOMETRY 33 terms would be applied to types of social measurementwhich in addiare in some degree sociometric (near-sociometric). An attemptis made. An illustrationis the development dus. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. E. I also anticipatedthat. 20Bogardus. psychology. ber b t4 2Blankenship. It can be 19"Near-sociometric" can mean procedures which fall short of the full meaning of the term 'sociometric" either in its "socius" aspect or in its "metrum" aspect (see page 18 of this paper). covers the actual inter-individual fromthe older Anotherillustrationis the development responses public opinionquestionnaire. This content downloaded on Sun. SOCIOMETRY." SOCIOMETRY. however. This time the answers must be more concrete--they must be based upon "experiences"--but theyare still a far cry fromthe specific individualwithwhom the contact took place althoughit is withinthe field of the status nascendi of a relationship.which expected uniform in from a rigid. "Pre-Testing a Questionnaire for a Public Volume III. Opinion Poll. numMethod of Equal-Appearing Intervals. at least.from the sociometric approach whichwould disclose to the investigatorthe key individualsin the group. set question. to shape a questionnairein such a fashionthat it more nearly structureswhich exist. and partly as a result of the natural development cial science. Consequently. A. an opinionof the public. 2IFord. methodsand.

pp. Marxism.SOCIOMETRY. The philosophyof communism. The philosophy of anarchism. This may become the Achilles' heel of the totalitariansociety. L. the proper equilibriumbetweenleaders 23See "Statistics of Social Configurations. may go stale. self-chosen. and with it the productionand distribution cannotbe artificiallydivorced from the total system of interpersonal relations. is to rule all other peoples. regimes. 'Volume I.may prevail. perhaps arbitrary. can be handledwithin a sociometric scheme without violence and certainlywith a far greater precision and witha minimum of friction. There are manyconcepts and hypothesesin the conductof humanaffairswhich stand in the way of the applicationto their fullest extentof sociometric ideas. Jennings. the master race itself being governed by a leader at the top witha numberof auxiliary leaders carryingout his orders. part 2. in a sociometrically planned society the genuine contribution of collectivism could be brought to its fullest expression without represents the mass of the producers is necessary in order This content downloaded on Sun. if possible. the group of leaders who have inaugurated the regime.34 SOCIOMETRY expected that sociometric methodswhich include the interpersonal relation systems in their tests will graduallyreplace methodswhichinvestigatesocial situations in a more or less indirectand symbolisticfashion. 342-374. Within a totalitariansociety.the leader and the race question. may critihowever cize the various schemes of present-daygovernments. But the central problems of this ideology. Moreno and Helen H. but in a society whichis liberal. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . a special niche for anarchists is not necessary because sociometryis based upon the principle of spontaneity and gives expression to even the most extreme inparticularlyof dividualism. for instance." by J. Withinthe scope of sociometric investigaproblem has been tion a first clue to the solutionof this knotty foundin the relationshipbetweenthe socio-dynamiceffect23 of totalitarianof wealth. but any necessity of resortingto arbitrarymeasures. spontaneity in the peoples (minimum spontaneity This crucial problem. as authoritarian sociometricallyplanned. all the spontaneavailable spontaneity at the top) and no ity in the leaders (maximumspontaneity at the bottom). whetherself-chosen or elected. The other field in which sociometrycan demonstrateits value is that of social planning. of the total relyingas it does upon a distorteddistribution whichplaces. ic factor. may maintainthat the rule of one social class which that a maximumof justice. The economof goods. The philosophy and the distribution ism proposes a regime in whicha master race.

1922.can be dealt withby means of sociometric planningwithout havin&to resort to a totalitarianregime. and "Cross Cultural Survey." by Helen H. "Who Shall Survive?" by J. Moreno. 21See discussion of leaders and leadership.populations whichdifferethnologically can be distributed withina given geographic area without havingto resort to forced and hit-or-miss migration. 161. in becomingan outstanding and permanentexample of a society whichhas no need of extraneousideas or of forces which are not inherentin its own structure. Jennings. By means of concepts like race cleavage and the racial saturationpoint..pp. American Murdock. The so-called democratic process is not trulydemocratic as long as the large spheres of invisible processes disclosed by sociometric procedures are not integrated with and made a part of the political scheme of democracy. In the course of routine re-testingat regular intervals it becomes dramaticallyapparentthat these key individuals wane in influence and others come up to take their places (in statu nascendi).?5 Sociometrycan assist the United States. It has been demonstrated 4 withina community which is administered along sociometric lines that the set of individualswho are in key positions today can easily be ascertained by sociometric tests. 93-100.the problem of race is managed as an inherentpart of the sociometric scheme. This raises the question as to whetherleadership artificiallymaintained may not become a 'conserve" and thereforea stultifying instead of a spontaneousand inspiring agent. 163. with its populationconsistingof practically all the races on the globe. Sociological Review. 13 Jan 2013 16:50:21 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .FOUNDATIONSOF SOCIOMETRY 35 and followers.June. and "Quantitative Aspects of Tele-Relationships in a Community." by GeorgeP. This content downloaded on Sun. pp.-L. In addition. No.Volume11. NewYork."by JohnDewey.Henry Holt & Co. 4. Sociometrycan well be considered the cornerstoneof a still undevelopedscience of democracy. -25See "Human Nature and Conduct. 1940.SOCIOMETRY.

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