Evolution of Microsoft Operating System

CHIKEZIE IFENNA A Faculty of information Technology Infrastructure, Department of Software Engineering, Infrastructure University of Kuala Lumpur, Kajang, Malaysia. Click2fexy@yahoo.com

Nik Zulkarnaen Khidzir
Faculty of information Technology Infrastructure, Department of Computer Science, Infrastructure University of Kuala Lumpur, Kajang, Malaysia nikz@iukl.edu.my

Abstract- Evolution is one thing that is inevitable in our today’s life. It take’s place in virtually in everything that is bound to evolve. In this paper, the evolution of windows operating system will be sighted. A clearer view of how the Microsoft windows operating system has evolved in the past years will be critically analyzed to bring to understanding the importance and vital role software evolution and maintenance plays. The evolution that has taken place with the windows operating system is quite obvious and vivid as the huge difference between previous version and latest version can be uniquely noted. Evolution and maintenance is really one important element that all software needs to keep them available, efficient, effective, and durable. Categorically, critical analysis and emphasis would be carried out on the windows operating system right from its origin and on to its latest state to see the shadow of evolution logically.



The Windows operating system was found by Bills Gate the CEO of Microsoft [1]. Microsoft windows operating system was introduced on November 20, 1985 emerge as the first to commercialize the ready Graphical User interface [1]. The first version which was 1.0 was released in 1985 and from then till now, Microsoft did not stop coming out with newer versions of its operating system. Windows operating

system reigned and controlled the personal computer world’s market with over 90% overpowering Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984 [2].

The rapid pace at which Technology evolves can leave an expert individual amazed. The moment a new technology begins to trend, a newer and better technology surfaces there by rendering the previous technology

obsolete. When an individual purchases a new technology that seems to be current then suddenly in the next minute a newer version of the same technology becomes more relevant because of its effectiveness,

For example. Since then the product line has shifted from the GUI phase to the modern phase of operating System. depended solely on the use of typewriter. windows 95. windows 98. This will go a long way to stress out the importance and efficiency of the evolution and maintenance of software. access were added to 3. The windows operating system has remained strong in the market because they have been consistent with evolution and adequate maintenance. windows 3.x and 4. II Literature Review people and organizations Before the era of Microsoft operating system invention. 32-bit networking and 32-bit . In 1983.x ménage are 3. more features were added as well. As new versions were invented. Bill Gate who is the founder of Microsoft saw the need of personal computers and how the invention of a new technology era would change the world. there was any need to copy a document. Microsoft has used the evolution as a key technique to remain at the top in the market. Evolution Windows OS logos windows which will be introduced with a [2] graphical user interface (GUI).1 by windows for workgroup also more features were implemented in Windows 95 such as 32capabilities and a new object oriented user interface. Microsoft made known the development of its operating system.Evolution of Microsoft Windows Operating System efficiency and changes it made to correct lapses in the previous version. and windows ME [3].0. If at that time. Looking at the situation. The 3. this would be done by the aid of a mimeograph or carbon paper.1x.

This type of windows was an expanded type of the dos. Windows Paint and compose utility.0 restored the world of computers from MS Dos with graphical natural environment mode .0 MS-Dos with graphical natural environment mode . this was the first type of windows launched. 1985 the first financial version of the windows was presented commercially entitled as the “Windows 1.The major concept of Microsoft behind the commencing of this scheme was to endow multitasking of limited dos program and move pc stage from dos to the graphical world.0 of MS-DOS. Clipboards. It was farther replaced with another version of windows type. and Dos submission with 16 bitgraphical interface. The utilities supplied by this issued version of windows are:        Clock. The system obligations of the “Windows 1.01. Windows note pad reviewer. windows were brandished tiled/side by edge of each other. Type 2.0: In November 20.However the look of the scheme was still Dos like. However the gaze of the system was still . business card file. The shell supplied in this scheme was title as the “MSDOS EXECTIVE” to bypass disintegrates between the distinct windows. Windows 1.Work mode altered from the very dark screen of dos to the distinct windows (working panels) that could not overlap with each other. and Dos submission with 16 bit-graphical interface. HARD DRIVE or 2 twice aligned drives. command Panel.Evolution of Microsoft Operating System WINDOWS 1. This released version of windows was enumerated as 1. EXECTIVE” to bypass collapse between the distinct windows. windows were displayed tiled/edge by edge of each other.Work mode changed from the black computer display of dos to the different windows (working panels) that could not overlap with each other . The scheme requirements of the “Windows 1. The case supplied in this scheme was title as the “MSDOS Dos like. Type 2.0“.0” are: Windows 1. Minimum RAM dimensions of 256 KB (kilo byte). This version of windows was an extended version of the dos. HARD propel or 2 twice aligned drives.0” are:    Smallest RAM size of 256 KB (kilo byte).0 of MS-DOS. Colander. However.

compose. Calendar.This type was completely employed on the 80286 processor’s family.exe      Notepad. Single floppy and a hard computer disk.Himm. its farther issued expanded versions were windows 286 and windows 386. Windows 3. Clipboard.0 should have the following characteristics:    protected mode for the  Smallest Ram size required 512 KB (kilo byte). The facility of mouse is optional. Calculator.Windows 2.0 as “ZOOM” and “Iconize” with the distinct shortcut keys from the keyboard as “Minimize” and the “Maximize”.0 AND WINDOWS 2. programs was used for memory boost purpose. bit chart was introduced and better graphics environment support was presented.Evolution of Microsoft Windows Operating System WINDOWS 2.  Characteristics: To advance the multitasking “Program supervisor” and “file supervisor “programs were introduced these were the icon founded programs and replaced the Dos executive based program/file managers. Windows/286: This commenced version of the Windows 2. This edition made the client natural environment as well as the mechanical natural environment better so that the best use of the recollection capabilities of the 80286 and 80386 processor. Reverse1. 1987. Windows/386: First time groundwork shell on which the submissions run as aligned in “Virtual 8086 mod memory boost purpose. Overlapping windows were made endowed System Requirements: The configuration and compatibility of the system to run the Windows 2. CVT decorate.0.Multitasking and the use of the mouse. Windows 2.1X: The second version of the windows was issued on December 9. Card file. timepiece identical as windows 1.0 and 3. Fatal. Windows 2 admitted the overlap of windows .1 xs relates to the graphical interface schemes. MS-Dos type 3.0.0 furthermore replaced other terminologies of its preceding windows 1.1 NT: These editions of windows revolutionized in the era of 1900’s. Applications utilities provided by these versions were: .1 xs was used to extend the memory available for the operating scheme programs .

1 or later. utility was After the MS-Dos founded versions did well.0 must be booted in the genuine recollection mode to loads its needed boot file that is “Swapfile. 64 kb of the accepted memory.   Pre-installed font methods. MS-Dos 3. To change the virtual memory backgrounds. multimedia additions. This version was the first that was pre-installed on the hard drives to make it sleek and much quicker.Evolution of Microsoft Operating System Windows 3. MS-Mouse recommended. Windows 3. Integration facility. paint brush. The scheme specifications to run these versions are:      ISSN  Smallest 1 Megabyte (MB) of the memory. Windows 95. Following are the major editions of 9x groundwork kind.exe”. the bit deepness rate of the audio documents Smallest needed was 44.0 was the first windows type that could run in the three of the recollection modes. Three recollection modes were presented in these systems “Standard “.      Multimedia viewer to play video/audio files. A). Processor 80286 or later version. Internet Explorer 2.0 run in the benchmark mode or the 386 enhanced modes. CGA/VGA or compatible supervise.0 Reversi embedded with the business card game for the CD-ROM solitaire. Abode type supervisor (ATM) font scheme. B) Windows 98. Hard computer disk with smallest 6 MB free space. new terminologies of the 9x founded versions of the windows were commenced.1 MHZ (kilo hertz). The client amenities provided by these editions are:  Utilities:     Supported audio files sustained.0. Note pad. . Greatest submissions of the windows 3.1 belongs to the family of the 16-bit color system designs for the home use of computer . C) Windows 2000.Pre-established set of the different font methods were available to make the desk top announcing platform.”Real “and “Enhanced 386” mode. In windows 3. windows 3.

evolutions versions comprehensive as follows: Windows 95: Microsoft issued the better enhance type as compared to its previous issued goods with new 9x based expertise on 24h August 1995 that is “ Windows 95“.g.g.0 “ or “Chicago “. File share Table (FAT) utilized in Windows 95 is FAT 16. c) The Installable document scheme supervisor: This scheme characterizes the scheme access to the various documents. construct 224. Start bar. task bar. Arranging of gist etc. hardworking rank of the available status.display and mesh cards etc. The base level of the windows 95 formed by a substantial number of the “Virtual apparatus Drivers “ which are considered to blame for the administration of the apparatus such as video .Evolution of Microsoft Windows Operating System D) Windows ME. It tests the status of the whole adhered apparatus to the computer and functions as the platform to control the modification rank. construct 73g. The technology in distinction these and the are It works as the “kernel “of the windows OS it is advised to blame for the administration of the jobs as:      Recollection administration. WPM (Windows document Explorer Manager) remained identical in the upcoming versions till “XP lifetime”. To bypass disintegrate between distinct devices it assigns distinct resource to the apparatus e. construct 189.The basic components of the schemes e. It was compatible with the 16-bit applications.Many of the beta versions of the Windows 95was commenced before its last delivery as construct 58s. Events administration. Foremost it was also referred as “Windows 4. In xp lifetime and farther until windows 7 rudimentary structures were . construct 81. memory etc. Three foremost jobs of the Virtual drivers are: a) The Virtual Machine: b) The Configuration administrations: Configuration administration works as the supervisor of the “Plug N Play” function of OS. Administration of the device drivers. construct 468 etc. initially Windows 95 was an evolution of the windows 386 Enhancements in windows95: Here in this type Microsoft clearly divided the MS-D from the Windows goods coach still the origin case on which windows executes was the Dos. construct 122. Input/output (I/O) apparatus share. Interrupt management.

1998. Processor type 80386. access scheme. easily setting up wizards. Windows 98 SE . Technical improvements (long (Second version) was issued on the 5th May 1998 with the repaired bugs present in the 98’s first version a short evaluation of the both of the versions is recounted in this theme. Multitasking. Scheme obligations:       Smallest RAM needed was 16 MB but recommended was 24 MB. VGA or later tenacity supervise was recommended. WINDOWS 98 &WINDOWS 98 SE It was officially commenced on June 25. Improvements/Enhancement:    Internet Explorer 4. Some major of the facilities provided in these goods that are inherited throughout today’s schemes as well are described as utilities of windows 98.0. GUI was the ever best enhancement in this version because “the rudimentary structure of the windows is identical from this type upwards except some updating of expanded interfaces.Evolution of Microsoft Operating System identical but the themes were altered in distinct versions. Scheme Requirements:    Smallest Hard disk space needed 50 MB. Smallest needed available space on hard disk was 500 MB.  Integrated (Transmission 32-bit TCP/IP 32-bits document firstly presented in this version . It was a type that was monolithic that is “16-bit” at the same time furthermore support “32-bits “with a new introduction of the MS-Dos “Boot loader “. Minimum Ram needed is 4 MB. Built in dialup networking. Microsoft Mouse and CD propel or DV propel was recommended. Enhancements: WDM (Windows person driving form) was document titles.This was the new technology of that time and most of the developers were not permitted of this truth so maximum goods proceeded to be in structure matching with preceding type of the OS. internet support. Pentium’s Processor suggested.  Full graphical client interface (GUI) support. Evolution from Windows 98 to Windows 98 SE. Evolution form one edition to another directs to some reasons which are not according to obligations so get the difficulty command/Internet Protocol support) support.

System Registry was refurbished by the Scan Reg (Scan Registry) facility. LAN (Local locality mesh) was introduced so that multiple nodes can broadcast with each other using NAT (Network Address Transition) terminology.This was the ever biggest bug which was settled in the SE version. underneath .  DVD-ROM support for the distinct drives. Sever version. NTFS (New Technology document System) 3. Enhancements:     Scan computer disk.0 replaced the Internet Explorer 4. Scan computer disk facility was utilized to sustain the accessible document scheme .Major one which are enquired in this type are recorded This was the last Microsoft’s issue for the completion of the “NT Family” products: Characteristics:     FAT 32 document scheme utilized.    Enhanced Universal Serial coach (USB) support with the scheme.0.g. WINDOWS 2000: Microsoft commenced this 64-bit type on 17h February 2000 for the use in the enterprise [4]. A user related facility to manually disable /enable the not needed services and program throughout the run time of the Functioning scheme. Server Features.Disk Defragmenter was to blame to enumerate the non-valid document system’s fragmentation effects. Server and desktop work areas. get access to of the documents on distinct levels.0 was introduced. Scan Reg. Computer disk Defragmenter.Evolution of Microsoft Windows Operating System settled transmits to another simplified edition. Internet Explorer 5. New facility of the circulated document systems.Howe ever these were corrected to some span in the next versions. . Ms Config. The four successor issues of this system were:     Expert version. Sophisticated Server version. distinct System utilities. Major Draw Back of 98: If the windows 98 goes on running for the 49 days a memory overflow mistake appeared . Facts and figures center Server.  Maximized administration submissions e. Microsoft Console supervisor. There were a number of the bugs taken from the first 98’s type .

5 was presented in this version. This type was connection distributing. TCP/IP terminologies. Foremost Bug of Windows 2000: Windows 2000 was a better protected version for overhead cited characteristics but still this version became the strike issue of a several number of viruses as “ NIMDA “ . keyboard & mouse revising programs for home users) & Windows newspapers contestant 7. Characteristics:  Internet Explorer 5.  Windows video Maker (Video document expanded data protection. One year after its publication it was replaced with a new family of Microsoft’s products called “XP” goods. Help and support center. document scheme protection. Windows update Desktop facility.  Scheme utilities: refurbish system to previous time.   Expanded Gaming zone with “DirectX “was accessible.     Pentium or subsequent version 133 Mega Hertz (MHZ) CPU. scheme supervise etc. Microsoft suggested. fundamentally developed for the dwelling use of the computers. languages option. Outlook express. Internet Explorer 5. .   USB mass storage Drivers support. dwelling networking wizards etc. Enhanced scheme’s Window Control localized section and discovers Facility. WINDOWS ME: Windows Millennium (ME) was release on 24th September 2000. Scheme Requirements:  Suggested RAM dimensions 64 MB. as a client manual guide to fetch data related the scheme etc. but smallest needed was 32 MB. This degraded the value of this product and made its customers seem unreliable. For Windows 2000 Server Edition smallest RAM should be 256 MB.0. scheme. Network topologies: Dial up networking. Sophisticated Encrypt  System Recovery. was manufacturer defined in this product. Internet “cipher RED “ etc. Hard propel of 2 GB.   Gaming zone. Mass storage apparatus support.Evolution of Microsoft Operating System     Configurable USB drivers. Evolved Accessibility.

Task bar was also developed with distinct supplements such as fast launch. task bar group features. Bugs in Windows ME: First of all its time period was so short. Hard disk smallest dimensions should be 320 MB.g. XP carries two architectures 32-bit and 64-bit. distinct pillars. and ‘Navigation section’ on the right edge.  Windows Explorer. identical kind multiple submissions in a single assembly (individual constituent pops up when banged on the group). articles. other due to the Afresh and afresh crash and very cold lead this version to the conflict and unreliability of the facts and figures. Windows outlook is divided into the two portions ‘Task section’ on the left side of any active window. textures. interface enhancements were evolved. “Start list “extended in the bandwidth so / that the  Many alterations made to the Windows Explorer relating to its formatting as well as its visual aspects also. Features /Evolutions in XP:  Task bar and start menu: revised task bar and start button facility was presented. Windows XP: Windows XP was officially issued on25th October. command section etc. first pillar depicts the user characterized utilized submissions applications Scheme obligations:    Smallest and suggested RAM size required was32 MB.Evolution of Microsoft Windows Operating System  Taken genuine mode Dos feature from this type. suggested was 150 MHZ. Structure Improvements : mechanically manually characterized files can be often accessed from a single Platt pattern. Start list was spitted into two a) Quick boot and logging on: Login time minimized so that the user do not wait for . Pentium processor dimensions (frequently mechanically brandished here) while second pillar recount the system provided utilities e. (accessories.After few months of its arrival it was approximated that overhead 60% of the enterprise and 70 % of the home use localities utilizing XP.)[5]. 2001.  Driven Graphics Structure: 2D Graphics were. The major reason was to make XP more ‘Task oriented ‘system and ‘Digital Hub ‘many of the new features were supplemented to the XP. but suggested dimension was 2 GB.

New revised task bar “Super bar”: A new architecture of the task bar was revolutionized with a new coding scheme. It introduced a touch of 3D graphics. new installed. This edition was more users friendly. c) Plug and Play (PNP): Ever evolutionary functionality of this version is. Windows newspapers contestant. folders in the database of computer in the hidden as well as scheme files. Characteristics:     Graphics made better than the XP generation. Windows photograph Gallery. DVD propel / CD ROM apparatus. RAM dimensions needed 2 GB. generation was introduced as the Vista lifetime here in this lifetime Graphical aspects are improved and more supplements made and previous flaws are taken. b) Windows seek Option: sophisticated seek utility in the scheme to seek the documents. because all the drivers are constructed in. Farther editions of the windows XP are: Commercially optimized editions of the Windows XP were:       Windows XP Server 2003. Windows Vista: Issued on 22nd October 2009 was the functioning scheme which did well the XP lifetime . System obligations:     System Requirements: Minimum Ram dimensions needed 64 MB. Hard computer disk needed was 1. d) Advanced topics: A set of construct in topics for the system is constructed in with in the scheme .More fascinating topics to make the gaze of the computer better and flexible. just plug any peripheral with the computer and don not get worried of the driver play that very apparatus. frequent utilized and auto accessible were put here for the instant get access to newspapers. It includes The 24-bit. Windows XP Server 2008. VGA or EGA Graphics monitor.5 GB. dimensions For 64-bit Architecture. home and desktop use. Graphics processor EVOLUTION in the direction of VISTA lifetime A new replaced expertise of XP . DirectX9 needed.This version was issued for the business. 64-bit Processor needed dimensions 1 GHZ.  Updating: Windows video manufacturer (WMM).Evolution of Microsoft Operating System the so much time throughout stacking of the functioning system.

System Enhancement: The windows 7 OS was implemented with numerous features and enhancements. Hard computer disk free capability 16 GB. On top of the existing features in other previous version. RAM of 1GB. video playback may require additional memory hardware  and advanced graphics Some games and programs might require a graphics card compatible with DirectX 10 or higher for optimal performance  For some Windows Media Center functionality a TV tuner and additional hardware may be required . For 32-bit Architecture 32-bit Processor with 1 GHZ      Improved Security Increased speed rate Windows Media Center Format support Biometrics dimensions. Evolution is paramount as it seen in this paper how the windows operating system has gone through this evolutionary process. Windows is later version of the windows operating system compared to the windows vista.Evolution of Microsoft Windows Operating System       Hard computer disk size 20 GB needed. DVD optical drive needed. here's what it takes:  1 gigahertz (GHz) or faster 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor Windows 7: Windows 7was introduced following the massive success the windows vista got.0 or higher driver Additional requirements to use certain features:   Internet access (fees may apply) Depending on resolution. these are some of the newly implemented features in the Windows OS:      Virtual hard disks Disk partitioning Safe Removal of media BitLocker to Go Boot performance  1 gigabyte (GB) RAM (32-bit) or 2 GB RAM (64-bit)  16 GB available hard disk space (32bit) or 20 GB (64-bit)  DirectX 9 graphics device with WDDM 1. It could be simply said that windows 7 is a continuity of the OS. System Obligation: If you want to run Windows 7 on your PC.

those that have a mouse and keyboard.2  BitLocker To Go requires a USB flash drive  Windows XP Mode requires an additional 1 GB of RAM and an additional 15 GB of available hard disk space.Evolution of Microsoft Operating System  Windows Touch and Tablet PCs require specific hardware more like a tile display and each tile is connected to an individual. and those with both. its in a grid form SSE2 (more info)  RAM: 1 gigabyte (GB) (32-bit) or 2 GB (64-bit)  Hard disk space: 16 GB (32-bit) or 20 GB (64-bit)  Graphics card: Microsoft DirectX 9 graphics device with WDDM driver . etc. Added Features:  Windows Store Shell and user interface User login Microsoft account integration Multi-monitor support File Explorer Improved Internet Explorer Task Manager         System Obligation: If you want to run Windows 8 on your PC. Windows 8 has come out with new and amazing features clearly illustrating the importance of evolution to a software system. appp. and Windows 8: So far. here's what it takes:   HomeGroup requires a network and PCs running Windows 7  DVD/CD authoring requires a compatible optical drive  BitLocker requires Trusted Platform Module (TPM) 1. The interface is extremely amazing. this is the current version of the Microsoft Operating System (Windows).  Music and sound require audio output Processor: 1 gigahertz (GHz) or faster with support for PAE. move things around. and move smoothly from one location to another. NX. Windows is flawless for PCs with touchscreens. you'll find out very quick and fluid ways to swap between apps. Anything kind of PC you select.

you need an active Internet connection and a screen resolution of at least 1024 x 768  A TV tuner is required to play and record live TV in Windows Media Center (Windows 8 Pro Pack and Windows 8 Media Center Pack only)  To snap apps.3. some content might  Secure boot requires firmware that supports UEFI v2.1 Errata B and has the Microsoft Windows require additional fees (Windows 8 Pro Pack and Windows 8 Media Center Pack only) Certification Authority in the UEFI signature database .0 Windows 8 Task Bar Additional requirements to use certain features:   BitLocker To Go requires a USB flash drive (Windows 8 Pro only)  BitLocker requires either Trusted Platform Module (TPM) 1. you need a tablet or a monitor that supports multitouch (more info)  Client Hyper-V requires a 64-bit system with second level address translation (SLAT) capabilities and additional 2 GB of RAM (Windows 8 Pro only)  To access the Windows Store and to download and run apps.Evolution of Microsoft Windows Operating System  Some games and programs might require a graphics card compatible with DirectX 10 or higher for optimal performance  Microsoft account required for some features  Watching DVDs requires separate playback software (more info)  Windows Media Center license sold separately (more info) Fig 1. you need a screen resolution of at least 1366 x 768  Internet access (ISP fees might apply)  Free Internet TV content varies by geography.2 or a USB flash drive (Windows 8 Pro only) To use touch.

It is clearly revealed that evolution brought about thorough changes to the Operating System thereby boosting its functionality.0 shows the comparism of different windows version based on DOS-based (MSDOS/9x-based). IV Conclusion Having done all these research and clearly stated them out on this paper. one would realize that evolution is truly a process of change over time and it is very . III Result: Fig 2. Fig 2. requirements. value and success of the particular software system. you can run the Upgrade Assistant.0 Comparison of Microsoft Windows versions.Evolution of Microsoft Operating System To check if your PC meets these essential for any software system to continually support the growth.

microsoft. [9] Northeastern Illinoi University. Asad Kayani et.pdf [6] http://msdn.85%29. [2] http://en.microsoft. “Evolutionary Aspects Of Windows Operating .com/en- us/library/windows/desktop/ms724832%28v =vs.edu/helpdesk/d oc/Computer/Operating_System_Bios_Boot/ OS_Windows7ProductGuide. [7] http://www.computerhope. ”Introduction to Windows XP Operating System”.htm accessed by April 2013 [8] William Stallings “THE WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM. accessed April 2013. [4] Microsoft Windows Common Criteria Evaluation accessed April 2013. al.wikipedia. [10] M. accessed April 2013.org/wiki/Features _new_to_Windows_7 accessed march 2013 [3] Windows 7: Overview Delivered by ITS Training Services for Penn State accessed March 2013.com/histo ry/windows. [5] http://www.salisbury.com/en- System to Enhance Existing Technology “ accessed April 2013 my/windows-8/new-look accessed march 2013.Evolution of Microsoft Windows Operating System References [1] http://windows.aspx accessed May 2013.