BroadCast and Collision domains BroadCast Domain

A broadcast domain is a logical division of a computer network, in which all nodes can reach each other by broadcast at the data link layer. A broadcast domain can be within the same LAN segment or it can be bridged to other LAN segments. A broadcast domain encompasses a set of devices for when one of the devices sends a broadcast, all the other devices receive a copy of the broadcast. For example, switches flood broadcasts and multicasts on all ports. Because broadcast frames are sent out all ports, a switch creates a single broadcast domain. Any computer connected to the same repeater or switch is a member of the same broadcast domain. Further, any computer connected to the same set of inter-connected switches/repeaters is a member of the same broadcast domain. Routers and other higher-layer devices form boundaries between broadcast domains. This is as compared to a collision domain, which would be all nodes on the same set of inter-connected repeaters, divided by switches and learning bridges. Collision domains are generally smaller than broadcast domains. Broadcast domains are only divided by layer 3 network devices such as routers or layer 3 switches. However,some layer two network devices are also able to divide the collision domains. A broadcast domain is a set of NICs for which a broadcast frame sent by one NIC is received by all other NICs in the same broadcast domain

Collision Domain

A collision domain is the set of LAN interfaces whose frames could collide with each other, but not with frames sent by any other devices in the network. The collision is happened when to computer in same time want to use bandwidth. The CSMA/CD algorithm that deals with the issue of collisions, and some of the differences between how hubs and switches operate to create either a single collision domain (hubs) or many collision domains (switches). Generally speaking in easy terms, A collision domain is a set of network interface cards (NIC) for which a frame sent by one NIC could result in a collision with a frame sent by any other NIC in the same collision domain. Only one device in the collision domain may transmit at any one time, and

in terms of function and performance. These differences then affect a network engineer’s decision when choosing how to design a LAN. each with 100 Mbps of bandwidth. The devices may inefficiently use that bandwidth due to the effects of collisions For example. However. The terms collision domain and broadcast domain define two important effects of the process of segmenting LANs using various devices. a collision occurs. Also. no collisions would occur. Using a switch instead of a hub. with higher traffic loads. The different parts of an Ethernet LAN may behave differently. either each port on a switch becomes its own collision domain (in the case of half duplex links) or the possibility of collisions is eliminated entirely in the case of full duplex links. This means . if two devices transmit simultaneously. The Importance of Collision and Broadcast Domains on LAN Design When designing a LAN. with the same topology.the other devices in the domain listen to the network in order to avoid data collisions. you might have ten PCs with 10/100 Ethernet NICs. depending on which types of devices are used. the hub’s performance would be worse and you need a switch . consider the devices in a single collision domain for a moment. That may work well and meet the needs of those users. and both devices must retransmit at a later time. you have one collision domain. Modern wired networks use a network switch to eliminate collisions. If you connect all ten PCs to ten different ports on a single 100-Mbps hub. and the PCs in that collision domain share the 100 Mbps of bandwidth. For a single collision domain: The devices share the available bandwidth in network. total network bandwidth is shared among all devices. Because only one device may be transmitting at any one time. with only one device on each switch interface. By connecting each device directly to a port on the switch. would create ten different collision domains. When creating any Ethernet LAN. when choosing the number of devices in each collision domain and broadcast domain. Collisions also decrease network efficiency on a collision domain. First. and possibly a few hubs. you use some form of networking devices— typically switches today—a few routers.

. Using the switches instead of hubs seems like an obvious choice given the overwhelming performance benefits. effectively giving each interface 200 Mbps.that you could enable full duplex on each interface. most new installations today use switches exclusively. Frankly.

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