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TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN INDIA
Industries have a major role to play in the economic development of underdeveloped countries. Textile industry is the one of the oldest industries existing till date. Although, initially this industry catered to the needs to cover the Human Beings, but its importance and significance groomed in Egyptian Civilization. For the most of recorded history, mankind has relied on natural fabrics, particularly cotton, linen, wool and silk for textile products. In addition, the technology of fabric manufacture was relatively simple. In India also, the textile industry revolved around these natural fibers spun and woven on handlooms. The production was mainly to cater to the parts. Gradually, India mastered in the textile industry and its textile products gained famed worldwide. It was only after industrial revolution in England, when machine substituted man and production started on large basis. However, the demand could not grow up in the same proportion and India suffered due to unbalance between demand and supply, thus ultimately resulting in lower prices. However with the advent of industrial revolution, the textile industry in India begins to rise due to open government policies and import of technical know-how and machinery. During the past few decades, the textile industry has gone through a period of unprecedented changes. The production of manmade fibers and their use in industry has surpassed that of natural fibers. The twentieth century customer has choice among linen, wool, rayon, silk, nylon, acrylic, polyester, etc. And also wide range of different blended fibers. Today, the textile industry applies scientific parameters to optimize production so as to develop textile products to meet specific consumer needs and demands.
1 Nahar Industrial Entp. Ltd.,Fabric Unit-2, Lalru.(Punjab.)
Changing fashions and desire for better quality have boosted the textile industry in recent years. With increasing population, demand for fabric is rapidly increasing and new units are being established while the existing ones are going for mass expansion and modernization.
2 Nahar Industrial Entp. Ltd.,Fabric Unit-2, Lalru.(Punjab.)
2. INTRODUCTION TO NAHAR GROUP
NAHAR GROUP, established in 1949 with Oswal Woolen Mills, Ludhiana, surges a head in establish itself as a repudiated industrial conglomerate with a wide range from spinning, knitting, fabrics, hosiery, garments, soaps, vegetable oils and sugar.
2.1 NAHAR GROUP OF COMPANIES INCLUDES:
. . Oswal Woolen Mills Limited.
Nahar Spinning Mills Limited.
Nahar Export Limited.
Nahar Industrial Enterprises Limited
Nahar International Limited
Nahar Sugar and Allied Industries Limited
3 Nahar Industrial Entp. Ltd.,Fabric Unit-2, Lalru.(Punjab.)
Africa. Middle East.Fabric Unit-2. offering worsted dyed yarns. Fabric. Europe.) .2. Ltd. The objective is meeting the buyer’s expectations with consistent quality backed by R & D divisions equipped with latest equipment. OWM is leading the way in hosiery manufacturing.. Acrylic and Synthetic Blended Yarns. Woolens Viscose & Acrylic Tops. The production facility has been awarded ISO 9001:2000. The group has spinning capacity of 0. Lambs Wool Yarn. warmth & lively feels. blended yarns.4 millions cotton spindles 25000 worsted spindles with turn over of $500 million inclusive of export turnover of $150 million. Knitting. Out of total production.(Punjab. Russia and Asia . Monte Carlo and Canterbury. They include diverse types of Woolen. Woolens Knitwear. Hosiery & Cotton Garments. Hosiery Garments Etc. fancy yarns & wool polyamide combinations for velvety looks. The markets of NAHAR GROUP are cris crossed allover the globe with major clientele in Australia.2 OSWAL WOLLEN MILLS LIMITED. Cream of highly qualified technocrats and adhering to timely schedules 4 Nahar Industrial Entp. 60% of the production is dedicated to exports and the rest 40% for domestic market. Today OWM is the flagship company of the glorious Oswal Empire and a proud owner of widely loved Super Brands in Knitwear. established in 1949 surges ahead to establish it self as a reputed industrial conglomerate with a wide ranging portfolio from Spinning. New Zealand. By spinning knitting yarns perfectly in keeping with global trends towards easy care. acro-wool. Lalru. Textile Fabric. The company boasts of a product range that is truly large and varied. (OWM) OSWAL WOOLEN MILLS LTD is the Flagship Company of over US$500 millions NAHAR GROUP OF COMPANIES Oswal Woolen Mills NAHAR GROUP.
The Company has 93408 spindles for the manufacture of Cotton / Synthetic & Blended Yarns.3 NAHAR SPINNING MILLS LIMITED NSM has installed capacity of 93408 spindles with total production of 13077 Metric ton of Cotton / Synthetic blended Yarn. 1st January 2005. The lower allocation of quotas for the second half of the financial year adversely affected the performance of the segment. Expansion Plans: Keeping in view the emerging opportunities arising out of the quota free global trade w.38 crores as against Rs.Fabric Unit-2. Ltd. The performance of the spinning division has shown upward trend vis-à-vis production and sale of Cotton Yarn and Synthetic Yarn. The stiff global competition coupled with demand shrinkage from overseas buyers also adversely affected the Exports as well as operating margins. 80 crores from the Financial Institutions under Tuff scheme and balance form the internal accounts of the company. The management is quite optimistic that enhanced capacity will enable the company to improve its financial performance in the coming years. 12.. 5 Nahar Industrial Entp.f.45 crores in the capacity expansion. The Garment Division contributed Rs. The company has also put up a Mercerizing cum Dyeing plant at village Lalru. & European Union. 133.73 crores towards the revenue of the company as against Rs 200. 4.e. the Management has decided to invest Rs. 112. Patiala.S.T.95 crores in the previous year.) . The expansion shall be financed by way of term loan of Rs.(Punjab.67 crores in the previous year. for the quality conscious market of U. The capacity of the plant is 2040 M. Lalru. Patiala for the manufacture of High Value Added Yarn. The company shall be putting up an Ultra Modern Spinning and Knitting cum Dyeing Plant with a capacity of 25000 spindles at village Lalru.2. resulting lower profits before tax at Rs.
P. G.. Ludhiana (Punjab) Village Simrai. Lalru. Mandideep.Road. Distt. Distt. Raisen (M. (Punjab) Dhandari Kalan. Patiala (Punjab) 6 Nahar Industrial Entp.) . Distt.) Village Lalru. Ludhiana. Patiala (Punjab) Village Jalalpur.(Punjab.Fabric Unit-2. Ltd.Works: Industrial Area –‘A’.T.
This.2. As an ISO 9002 company. A proactive move strongly indicates the company’s determination and confidence to race ahead of competition by superior utilization of both man and machines. NAHAR EXPORTS today is a major player in its chosen area blazing new trails and spinning new horizons in its on going pursuit of ever greater excellence.4 NAHAR EXPORTS LTD. Ltd. “Back to the Future” could be the title of NAHAR EXPORTS success story a dazzling satellite of NAHAR constellation. Hong Kong..) . it did through focused backward integration by setting up its own spinning unit with an ambitious installed capacity of 25000 spindles aiming to provide premium value added and special yarns to the market.(Punjab. NAHAR EXPORTS has two plants with a spindle age capacity of 1. 7 Nahar Industrial Entp. Singapore. Starting out in 1988 as a manufactures and exporters of cotton hosiery garments the company soon realized that to strategically move backwards. South Eastern Asian Countries.Fabric Unit-2. It was a conscious decision aiming to reap the benefits of the profitable merger. A masterstroke towards optimizing administrative functional and legal hassles in one final swoop.45.000 spindles manufacturing a wide range of premium special and value added yarns manned by a dedicated workforce of 5000 exporting to enthusiast customers in competitive export market of Europe. Mauritius. Lalru.
Italy. The soap unit is engaged in the production of Toilet & Laundry Soap In the textile division the company has two Spinning units and a weaving unit. Mauritius. Malaysia and Australia The second unit. The fatty Acid unit is engaged in the manufacture of Fatty Acids Stearic Acid and Distilled Glycerin. Ltd. it is one of the most modern weaving and processing plant of India. Lalru. Nahar fabrics has already produced more then 200 different constructions in Grey Fabric for in House needs and World Markets Oswal Cotton Mills. has been clubbed with Nahar Fabrics and now. established in 2000. is Engaged in the manufacture of cotton yarn is exporting its yarn to Europe. Hong Kong. a100% EOU. is engaged in the manufacture of cotton yarn.Fabric Unit-2.) . namely Sambhav Spinning Mills. Singapore Taiwan. 8 Nahar Industrial Entp. Nahar fabric the weaving unit is equipped with 176 Picanol Air Jet Weaving Machines (Cam/Repair/Dobby) A weaving design studio backs the facilities where the time-tested handloom is used for product development activity in consonance with market needs The preparatory is equipped with Benninger’s Warping & Sizing Machines. Oil & Soap Division and the textile division The oil and soap division has two units. it underwent a total change over to become Nahar Industrial Enterprises a decade letter in 1994 The company has to divisions under its umbrella namely. Inspection is equipped with automatic inspection with rolling machine from la Maccanica.5 NAHAR INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES LIMITED Established in 1983 under the name of OSWAL FATS & OIL LTD. There are two process house shortly named as P-1 & P-2.2.(Punjab. The aggregate installed spindle in both the units is 38000 spindles. The frost spinning unit..
Also the power co-generated at the plant is being constructively used for capitative consumption to reduce the raw material cost.(Punjab. The installed capacity of mill is 2500 TCDs An active program of cane development to ensure regular cane supply to the plant is on. Punjab for producing all types & grades of sugar and allied products.2.) . Lalru. Ltd. 9 Nahar Industrial Entp.Fabric Unit-2.. associate companies in the assisted sector with PSIDC promoted Nahar Sugar Nahar Sugar represents the Groups concerted thrust towards exploring new need based area in tune with the larger context of customer needs & market demands The company has a modern sugar mill powered with the latest state-of-the-art equipment at district Fategarh Sahib.6 NAHAR SUGAR and ALLIED INDUSTRIES LIMITED Established in 1993 Nahar Spinning mills Ltd.
Mr. Anil Tyagi Mr. 12. No.P.) H. 9. Amit Walia Mr. 13. Ravindra Rohila Mr.(Accounts) Purchase Dept.(Finishing) HOD (Dyeing) H.D. 10. & Q.O.(Bleaching) H.(Punjab. Kamal Oswal Mr. 1. Basu Mr.D.A. Security Officer 3.(PA & HR) H.Fabric Unit-2. Sachin Jain Mr.O. Ltd. Jawahar Oswal Mr. President H. 6. 5. Name Mr. 2.C.D.O. 7. Arnav Gosh Mr.O. Naresh Chand Post Chairman M.S. 3. S. 11.O. Gurpreet Singh Mr. 4.2.7 MANAGEMENT OF NAHAR GROUP S.D. 8. Folding Dept. (Tech. 10 Nahar Industrial Entp. Sanjeev Gulati Mr.) . P.D. Dhawan Sharma Mr. Lalru. Vishnupal Bhatnagar..D.
. Ltd.(Punjab.Fabric Unit-2. Lalru.11 Nahar Industrial Entp.) .
.Fabric Unit-2. Lalru. Ltd.3.1 PLANT LAYOUT 12 Nahar Industrial Entp.) .(Punjab.
Desize cum singe m/c 26. Chemical lab 11. Workshop 7. Ltd. Folding and packing department 14.. Personal & Adm. Power plant 21. Caustic recovery plant 18. Grey godown 19. Store II 20. Accounts department 6. Physical lab 12. Stenter m/c 24.(Punjab. Bleaching department 17. Pitching m/c 13 Nahar Industrial Entp. Manav vikas Kendra 4. 3.Fabric Unit-2.PLANT LOCATION 1. Scouring & bleaching continuous m/c 27. Visitors waiting room 5. Grey checking 15. Finishing department 13. Yarn dyeing plant 8.) . Pad dryer m/c 22. Pad steam m/c 23. Security office 2. Boiler 9. Lalru. Sanforisation m/c 25. Mercerization m/c 28. Store I 16. Kitchen 10.
Fabric Unit-2.) . These guidelines are then communicated to the Plant Head who communicates them to the various Departments according to the guidelines and instructions. The Marketing department then talks with Product Development Group (PDG) and then communicates the terms discussed to the Quality Assurance (Q A) and Product Planning and Control (PPC) who decides on the various guidelines and the time required to execute the order. Lalru.3. who sent it to the Folding and Dispatch from where other financial activities follows.(Punjab. 14 Nahar Industrial Entp. The fabric is then sent to the Fabric Inspection and then to the Central Quality Assurance. Ltd.2 ENTIRE PROCESS FLOW The Customer and the Marketing department communicate with each other..
Ltd.. Lalru.) .(Punjab.CUSTOMER MARKETING PDG QA PPC PLANT HEAD DEPARTMENT HEADS FABRIC INSPECTION CENTRAL Q A INVOICE & DISPATCH Fig 3.1 Process flow 15 Nahar Industrial Entp.Fabric Unit-2.
Ltd. Lalru.(Punjab. PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL 16 Nahar Industrial Entp.) .4..Fabric Unit-2.
It creates the link between the production department and marketing department.P.Fabric Unit-2. (b) Making Lab.C.A. P. (a) Order Finalization: .. Ltd. Dip. After Which the M. It exchanges the information between both the departments. (1) Role and Responsibility of P. After approval of sample contract is signed b/w buyer and the seller. will make the similar samples (mostly it is 3) against the sample sent. In the enquiry sheet expected. then P. would send the sample to the quality assurance departments.The role of P.P.C. quality. (3 Lab.C.C.C.P.(Punjab. Contract has the exact quantity. will forward the same Lab. delivery date and rates.C. Production programme is a very important report which has the full information of the fabric to be processed. Then production programme is made for the entire four departments. department with the required delivery date. plans the production against the contract send. Lalru.P.P.P.C. To the marketing concern head and out of the samples the buyer approves send one of them. Then P.P. would inform to marketing concern head the actual delivery date. (2) Production planning and control: - The contract is send to the PPC department. starts before the contract is executed and is in the stage of finalization.P. dip) and spends it to the P. Then P. department sends the fabric construction to the fabric unit in the form of Enquiry Sheet. which is known as Lab. 17 Nahar Industrial Entp.P. Contract number is clearly mentioned on the contract. Dip: If specific colour sample is also sent. The Q.C. Marketing departments sends the sample to the P. These samples are added to the Card.) . Then P. Following things are mentioned in the production programme.P.D. Then the fabric unit sends back the enquiry sheet mentioning the availability of the quantity required and time taken against the same quantity.C. quality. quantity and delivery date is mentioned.P.C. PPC signs will first make the folio and add it to the concerned marketing head folio file. has a major role to play in the organizations. Dip.
Length in Mtrs. To get the grey fabric issued from the store Lot Number is required. finish width.O No.C. Lot Number is a number given against the contract number only against this number. Ltd.(Punjab. Lot No. Of shade).) The following things are mentioned.: 18 Nahar Industrial Entp. P. No... No. .. Date of execution of the contract Delivery date Quality No. construction. supplier name) Product Information (Shade No. article no. Delivered Date. Lot No. Order Quality. Process Information (Planned date. weight.) Customer Information (Party Name. (3) Lot Card: Lot card is again a very important document for the production department.Fabric Unit-2.P. P. Shade Finish Contract No.C.C.) P. P. grey fabric can be issued. Lalru. Delivery Date. Ordered Qty. No. number is the reference number against the particular contract. Process steps. Grey Information (Sort No.P. Construction Weave Quantity Packing Institutions Shade No.P.
Complaint Handling: 2 FABRIC TYPE White Natural DYED DYED PC 3 CHEMICAL Soft Stiff Perfume RFD finish 4 USCHANICAL Peach Normal 1. Lalru. Table 4. 3. is taken from the partly and send to the folding department.. Last three digits define the process steps. Folding department will find out the lot number and roll number against the Bale No. 2. Ltd. has 7 digits and each digit has its own meaning. 19 Nahar Industrial Entp.P. 4. 6. the point given is checked.(Punjab. If the complaint is genuine then compensation is send against the particular complaint.) . Then from the inspection report which is on 4 point system. 5.O number defines the process route of the fabric.1 1 FABRIC GROUP Bottom WT Shirting Cotton COT/Poly LYCRA Others.Fabric Unit-2. To trace back the Bale No. The article no. (4) Complaint from the party against the contract is also handled by the PPC.
(Punjab. AMIT WALIA 20 Nahar Industrial Entp. HOD: Mr..) .Fabric Unit-2. Lalru.5. Ltd.
Bleaching section consists of four sections from gray opening to mercerization.) .(Punjab. Lalru. Ltd..1 INTRODUCTION The grey fabric consists of various kinds of impurities like vegetable matter. waxes etc. GREY SECTION SINGEING AND DESIZING BLEACHING AND SCOURING (PTR) MERCERIZATION 21 Nahar Industrial Entp. In this section all of these impurities are removed and whiteness in fabric is imparted.Fabric Unit-2.5.
Fabric Unit-2..Fig.1 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM: FABRIC FABRIC FROM FROM WEAVING WEAVING UNIT UNIT BALE BALE OPENING OPENING SINGEING SINGEING & & DESIZING DESIZING CONTINUOS CONTINUOS PRETREATEUSNT PRETREATEUSNT RANGE RANGE MERCERISATION MERCERISATION RANGE RANGE FOR FOR DYEING DYEING Or Or FINISHING FINISHING 22 Nahar Industrial Entp.(Punjab. Lalru.) . Ltd.5.
3. 4th digit 5th digit 6th and 7th digit Dobby design For plain Twill Drill Satin Count of fabric Weave (20) ply of yarn type of loom serial no. 0. Lalru. is given Ex 2022116..) .(Punjab. Ltd.e.Fabric Unit-2.2 GREY CHECKING In this section. 2. First and 2nd digit Third digit i. the bales of grey goods are opened and are converted in the form of roles of required length and then sorting is done that is sort no. of weaving unit.5. 23 Nahar Industrial Entp. 1. 4.
by changing the pressure of gas of the burner. This can be change when the width of the cloth is more or less than the width of the flame. Ltd.Fabric Unit-2. the gas used is L. for burning purpose. SINGEING It is a process in which protruding fibers on the surface of fabric are burnt. when fabric is heavier in weight and its speed cannot reduce below a level. DIFFERENT SETTINGS OF THE GAS SINGEING M/C: Speed of the Cloth: This may be varied with the help of differential gears provided. Lalru. This can be change when more heat is to be provided to the fabric i.(Punjab.5. 2. 3.P..e. 1. Height of the flame: This can be varied with the help of the valve provided at the side of the machine i.G. Firstly fabric gets singed and then continuously passed through desizing bath. 24 Nahar Industrial Entp.e.3 SINGEING AND DESIZING INTRODUCTION These two pretreatments are given in one machine. The fabric is passed over a flame at high speed to obtain a smooth surface.) . Length of the flame: This can be varied with the help of the valve provided at the side of the machine. This is changed according to the GSM of the fabric.
Ltd.Fabric Unit-2.IMPROVED PROPERTIES • • • Improved luster. Here enzymatic steep method is used for desizing because it is effective for ecology and quality of desizing. DESIZING It is the removal of size material from the grey fabric.2 Degradation of starch Basis parameters which affect the activity of the enzyme are following: • TEMPERATURE. Smoothens the fabric and improves the feel of the fabric. But this sized layer is to be removed before wet processing as it reduces the absorbing power of the fabric.) Fig 5. • pH • Time of Contact( IMPREGNATION ) 25 Nahar Industrial Entp.(Punjab.) . Lalru. Sizing is done to provide strength to cotton warp to meet the requirement of weaving. The starch is degraded as: Starch Dextrin (Insol) Dextrin (Sol.. Minimized pilling tendency.
1: SINGEING PARAMETERS MACHINE MAKE MODEL NAME SOURCE OF FLAME NO. Lalru.3 PROCESS FLOW OF SINGEING AND DESIZING Keep the batch in rotation for 8-12 hours Table 5.Fig 5.(Punjab.) .. 2. Ltd. OF BRUSHING UNITS Osthoff Senge.2: RECIPE FOR ENZYME DESIZING ENZYME WETTING AGENT CHILATING AGENT 5 g/l 5 g/l 3 g/l 26 Nahar Industrial Entp. OF BURNERS GAS PRESSURE MAXIMUM SPEED OF FABRIC FLAME HEIGHT NO. Germany 42327WUPPERTAL Mixture of Gas & Air(75:25) 2 12-13m bar 100 mt/min.Fabric Unit-2.5 inch to 4.5 inch (according to quality) 2 Table 5.
4 PROCESS FLOW IN DESIZE WASHER 27 Nahar Industrial Entp.) . Neutralization. They are removed completely before further processes on the INJECTA unit by the action of steam & water jets then hot wash at 95OC is given to the fabric in the EXTRACTA unit..) 100% 5.Desize wash. DESIZE WASHER INTRODUCTION The action of enzyme hydrolyses the starch into soluble degradation products. and Drying. Washing.) Intox (CLARIANT Chemicals Ind. Lalru.4 CONTINUOUS PRE TREATEMENT RANGE The fabric from batch (after storing for 8-12 hrs) is continuously processed for following processes.(Punjab. combined scour-bleach.Fabric Unit-2.3 DESIZING PARAMETERS CAPACITY OF DESIZE BATH TEMP NIP PRESSURE ENZYME USED WETTING AGENT USED CHILLATING AGENT USED % EXPRESSION 750 lt.Table 5. Fig 5.) Lenetol CBRD (CRODA Chemicals Ind. 75oC 2 bar BIOAOURLASE (OM Logistic Ltd. Ltd.
.FABRIC FABRIC FROM FROM BATCH BATCH PRE PRE WETTING WETTING AT AT O OC 65 65 C INJECTA INJECTA UNIT UNIT (Steaming (Steaming + + hot hot water water Spray) Spray) To To IMPACTA IMPACTA UNIT UNIT EXTRACTA EXTRACTA UNIT UNIT (WASHING (WASHING AT AT 95 95 C) C) O O INJECTA: The Desize module of INJECTA is exclusively used to wash the fabric.Fabric Unit-2. Technical Data: 28 Nahar Industrial Entp. Ltd. With the INJECTA.) . Other relevant advantages are small space requirement and minimum water consumption. Lalru. the intensive washing system.(Punjab. all types of size from PVA to starch are removed without preswelling.
Humidity at delivery (depend on fabric) : 3. Lalru.Fabric Unit-2.) . Utilities 29 Nahar Industrial Entp. Max 130%.(Punjab.1. Ltd.) : : 95 C. EXTRACTA: It is used to wash the fabric using counter current flow of water. It has been designed for especially low power and water consumption. Degree of Humidity – Humidity at the in feed end : 100 C 60 – 70% or Dry. The high Washing effect of this machine is achieved through exact liquor segregation and counter-flow guidance. Temperature Maximum washing temperature Heat up time (approx. 7 bar. Temperature 2. Utilities – Water Saturated Steam Compressed Air : : : 400 l/m.5 bar. 10 min.. 4.
4 30 Nahar Industrial Entp.Fabric Unit-2. Lalru. Fig 5.Maximum water consumption (Direct heating) Steam pressure : : 4 to 8 ltr per kg. 4 – 5 bar.) .(Punjab.. Ltd.
Wetting Agent The surface tension of water prevents the wetting of hydrophobic material and it is therefore necessary to reduce it to enable fabric to be wetted easily.4 Chemical used in Pre Treatment Range:Tank NO. 4. waxes etc. In this process we remove natural as well as added impurities of essentially hydrophobic character like oils. Chemicals H2O2 NaOH CBRD Intox Lanitol CESE 31 Nahar Industrial Entp.(Punjab.. Table 5. fats. CBRD. Lalru. This white effect is essential for the dyeing process especially for the light or medium shades. 2. 3. 1.Fabric Unit-2. The natural impurities & natural coloring matter can be destroyed by this combined process.) .Universal Bleaching Agent This liberates nascent oxygen which is responsible for the bleaching action. For removal of impurities during scouring it is necessary to incorporate a wetting agent or surface active agent. As completely as possible and leave the fabric in a highly absorptive condition without undergoing significant chemical or physical change or damage and also for removing the natural coloring matter of cotton to give the fabric a white effect. Ltd. Function of chemicals:H2O2.PRETREATMENT RANGE It is a combined process in which Scouring and Bleaching is done. 5.
) . One more important function of NaOH in the semi-bleach or combined process is to activate H2O2 it liberates nascent oxygen because of which bleaching is done in the CONTINUOUS PROCESS.NaOH.Sequristing Agent A sequristing agent can ‘Chelate’ (combine to form complex with) the metallic ions in water and also reduce the hardness of water.Fabric Unit-2. INTOX.Stabliser This is to control the rapid decomposition of the peroxide when alkali is added in the solution i. 32 Nahar Industrial Entp. to ensure a fairly uniform availability of the per hydroxyl ion for the bleaching action stabiliser are used. Ltd..Conversion of glycerides of fatty acids into soap by the use of NaOH is called “SAPONIFICATION”. Lanitol CESE.e. Lalru. Thus the oils and fats in the cotton textile are saponified during the scouring process into water soluble products. These agents can replace the use of Sodium Silicate and Sodium Hexa-meta phosphate to some extent.(Punjab.
Lalru.5 IMPECTA UNIT 33 Nahar Industrial Entp.Fig 5.(Punjab.4 PROCESS FLOW IN BENNINGER PRETREATMENT RANGE:Fabric From Fabric From EXTRACTA EXTRACTA WASHER WASHER IMPECTA UNIT IMPECTA UNIT (Impregnation in (Impregnation in Bleaching and Bleaching and scouring chemicals) scouring chemicals) For Steaming ( Dwell Time = 20 min. (Pre hot washing) To dry the fabric VERTICAL VERTICAL DRYING DRYING RANGE RANGE To dry the fabric NEUTRILIZATION NEUTRILIZATION With Acetic acid With Acetic acid Counter current flow washing washing EXTRECTA EXTRECTA UNIT UNIT Counter current flow Table 5.10 ml/kg 27 – 30 ml/kg 5.Fabric Unit-2. Ltd.5 RECIPE H2O2 SEQUSTRANT WETTING AGENT STABILIZER NaOH 30 – 40 ml/kg 2 ml/kg 3 ml/kg 7 .) ( Dwell Time = 20 min.. removed.) REACTA UNIT REACTA UNIT For Steaming FORTRACTA FORTRACTA UNIT UNIT :: (Pre hot washing) Impurities sticking to Impurities sticking to the fabric surface are the fabric surface are removed.) .
The impregnation module contains only a small volume of liquor.Fabric Unit-2.the automatic and regulating station guarantees consistent and air free contestation . The chemicals are injected by force. Temperature: 34 Nahar Industrial Entp. Moisture content: At in feed end At deliver end = = 60-70%.. Water supply is controlled by level regulation.(Punjab. Water is added continuously. max 130%. The displacer with the guide roller guides the fabric into the liquor. Ltd. Temperature: Maximum treatment temperature = 60 C. REACTA (STEAMER): The chemicals applied to the fabric react in the steamer according to the specific process . Lalru. The amount of chemicals can be varied between normal impregnation & high wet pick up impregnation via the adjustable squeeze roller. impregnation fabric under high turbulence & high temperature with minimum amount of liquor. The level is determined by the weight of the floater in the liquor by the level sensor.) .the steamer can provide tight strand fabric guidance or place the fabric on the roller bed for stationary dwell time of up to 60 min .
6 4. Steamer with single roller bed.6 FORTRACTA: 35 Nahar Industrial Entp.Maximum treatment temperature Heat up time = = 98 C. This type is used in the NIEL Fabric Unit-2 Fig 5. Combination steamer with double roller bed. Combination steamer with single roller bed. reaction time = 3-40 min. Lalru. Short time steamer with reaction .) . reaction time = 3-45min.. 3. 30 min.(Punjab. reaction time = 5-60min 5.Fabric Unit-2. Ltd. 2. Various ways of passing fabric through steamer: 1. cloth content = 25200mt.
Ltd.Fabric Unit-2. 36 Nahar Industrial Entp. max 130%. Lalru. Avoid any creasing in the fabric. washing 2. Even batching guides fabric properly. EXTRACTA WASHER: There are four washing chambers based on counter current washing principle. 3. Neutralization: When the mercerization is not required then neutralization is done in forth washer.Purpose: it is used for:1.(Punjab. Temperature: Maximum treatment temperature = 100 C..) . Moisture content: At in feed end At deliver end = = 60-70%. If mercerization is done then no there is no need of neutralization.
Fabric Unit-2.) . whose final product is wet fabric. of mangle rollers which removes approximately 70% of water from the fabric. There is a length measuring cylinder. 37 Nahar Industrial Entp.5 – 5 kg/sq. This is a vertical drying range with 30 cylinders. Lalru. Features: The machine is based on the principle of high temp steam hating. Another separate motor is provided for driving 3 cooling cylinders.7 CYLINDER DRYING MACHINE The bleached fabric in wet condition is dried on to the cylindrical drying range.Fortracta Extracta washer Neutralization Vertical Drying Range Exit J-scray Fig 5. cm 120-150 C. dyeing etc.. Functions: Function of this machine is to dry the fabric after various chemical Processes like bleaching. Ltd. Steam pressure Temp of the machine Speed of fabric : : : 2. driven by two motors. Chilled water is circulated through the cooling cylinders. One motor drives all the hot cylinders through belt. There are two exhaust fans for exhausting the humid air at the upper side. There are 30 cylinders arranged vertically and heated by steam vapourize water from the fabric. The drying Range consists of no. 80 mt/min (for shirting). It consists of a bow shaped roller to remove crease from the fabric. Starting four rollers are coated with a paint to give initially normal heating so that Face to back effect can be avoided. 60-65 mt/min (for suiting).(Punjab.
.) .Fig 5. Lalru. 38 Nahar Industrial Entp.8 5.(Punjab.Fabric Unit-2.7 MERCERISATION Impregnation of wet or dry fabric in caustic soda solution of determined concentration under tension is the process called mercerization. Ltd.
2. 4.(Punjab.) .9 PROCESS FLOW IN BENNINGER MERCIRISER VARIOUS UNITS IN MERCERIZATION: BEN DIUSNSA:- 39 Nahar Industrial Entp. Improve Luster Provide Dimensional Stability Increase Absorbency Increase Dye-ability Reduction in Convolutions Fig 5.OBJECTIVES OF MERCERIZATION 1. 3. Ltd.Fabric Unit-2.. 5. Lalru.
Ltd.(Punjab.) . 60 C..Its function is to accumulate the fabric in J-Scray when batch changing has to be done PRE WETTING SECTION:First the fabric is passes through the water and then fabric passes through the pre wetting trough containing week lye (alkali of 10 Be) .Fabric Unit-2. After the fabric is squeezed.59%. Lalru. 1. this improves the initial absorbency of fabric . NOTE: . 14 m.). STENTRING ZONE (chain with pin):Its object is to stretch the fabric to provide required tension. 40 Nahar Industrial Entp.4 Tw = 6 gpl = 0.1 Be (Bauus) = DWELLING ZONE:This is used to give required dwell time after impregnation by passing through the cylinders (Passage length = 32 m. IMPREGATION ZONE:Fabric passes through strong alkali solution with following specifications Strength of caustic Temperature Passage length = = = 29 Be.
(Punjab. Lalru.EXTRACTA WASHERS:There are six washers. Ltd..Fabric Unit-2. 5.8 PEACHING Peaching is a process of developing very low pile on the surface of fabric. Peaching of fabric is done by using emerising or brushing system depends on quality & construction of fabric. Initial four washers for the hot washing of the fabric and fifth washer is for neutralization and sixth again for washing. 41 Nahar Industrial Entp.) .
Fabric Unit-2.effect required by customer etc.(Punjab. OF PILE ROLLS NO. Lalru.) . Caru (emerizing system) –1 –1 Gematex (emerizing system) – 2 Lafer (Brushing system) GEMATEX: MADE NO. TO RUNNING FABRIC. OF COUNTER PILE ROLES DIRECTIONS OF PILE ROLES : GEMATEX (GERMANY) : 12 : 12 : IN THE DIRECTION OF RUNNING FABRIC DIRECTION OF COUNTER PILE ROLES: IN THE DIRECTION OPP.. Ltd. ENERGY OF PILE ROLES: 50 – 200 (DEPENDS ON EFFECT REQUIRED AND QUANTITY) ENERGY OF CP ROLES: 50 – 200 (DEPENDS ON EFFECT REQUIRED AND QUANTITY) EMERY OF PILR ROLES EMERY OF CP ROLES RPM OF DRUM : : : 220 GRIT 100 GRIT 90 – 110 42 Nahar Industrial Entp. In Nahar Group there are machines of both type of mechanism.
Lalru.Fabric Unit-2. 6 43 Nahar Industrial Entp. required effect we can change energy of pile and counter pile roles.) . rpm of drum.In this machine. speed of machine & tension of fabric on emery drum.(Punjab.. Ltd.
Lalru.HOD: Mr.1 INTRODUCTION Dyeing is defined as the application of dye to fibers (according to their affinity) to have desired colour. Ltd. 44 Nahar Industrial Entp. Main types of fabrics those are dyed are: 1) 100% cotton fabric 2) P/C blend. ARNAV GHOSH 6. In Nahar Fabrics. Every natural or synthetic fiber varies in affinity or capacity to take the dyestuffs. dyeing is done at fabric stage.Fabric Unit-2..(Punjab.) .
. BRUSHING UNIT COOLING CYLINDER KUSTER PADDING MANGLE AIRING DEVICE IR PREHEATER 3 HOT FLUE CHAMBERS COOLING CYLINDER.Fabric Unit-2.3) Lycra (less quantity) MACHINERY IN DYEING 1) PAD-DRY 2) PAD-STEAM Fig 6. Ltd.(Punjab. Lalru. EXIT J-SCRAY.1 PROCESS FLOW ON PAD DRY:BATCH OF FABRIC TENSIONING GUIDES ENTRY J-SCRAY. E + L GUIDE. E+L GUIDE.) . BATCHING 45 Nahar Industrial Entp.
Fig 6.1 PAD DRY IN NAHAR PROCESSING UNIT-2(VIEW FROM EXIT END)
VARIOUS UNITS IN PAD DRY
Batch of fabric:- Batch of fabric
2. Tensioning guides: - To give proper passage and tension to the fabric. 3. Entry J-scary: - To facilitate continuous process while batch changing has to be done. 4. E+L guide: - To guide the fabric by guiding the selvedge.
Brushing unit: - It consists of two brushing roller. This is provided to remove fluffs from the peached fabric. Brushing efficiency can be changed according to requirement by changing the position of side handle
46 Nahar Industrial Entp. Ltd.,Fabric Unit-2, Lalru.(Punjab.)
Exhaust fan: - From the other side of brushing roller a motor driven fan is provided for exhausting the waste and collecting it in to separate bags.
Cooling cylinders: - To maintain uniform temperature which facilitate in uniform pickup of dye liquor.
Kuster mangle: - Fabric is passed through the Padding mangle where the colour padding takes place. It is jacketed by chilled water line to maintain its temperature. * 2 dip 2 nips. * Differential pressure along left, middle and right portion of fabric.
9. Ring device: - There are 11 guide rollers to give time for airing. 10. IR-pre heater: - The cloth is passed through Infra red unit where 50-60% fabric is dried with the help of infrared rays. Gas and air mixture is supplied to burners from MAXON GAS STATION to produce IR rays. The temperature inside is around 750c. 11. Drying chambers:47 Nahar Industrial Entp. Ltd.,Fabric Unit-2, Lalru.(Punjab.)
Further the fabric is passed through 3 heating chambers. These heating chambers are heated with the help of furnace oil and heat is exhausted with the help of fans in it. The temperature of the chambers depends on the type of fabrics. The temperature in these chambers is maintained somewhere around 140-180 degrees (for thermosol dyeing) and 100-130 degrees (for other methods). The time for drying /thermosoling depends upon the speed of the fabric which in turn depends upon quality of fabric (GLM). For light weight fabric high speed, lees time for drying and also lower IR temperature, drying temperature and fan% while higher exhaust%. PLEVA (Sensor):- Attached outside the chamber in each hot flue chamber used to control humidity in the case of E-control process 12. The fabric is passed over cooling cylinder. 13. Exit J-scary: - To facilitate the continuous process while batch changing has to be done. 14. E+L guide: - To guide the fabric by guiding the selvedge 15. Length measuring roller and antis tats are also provided • • Then the fabric is rolled on the rolling beam with the moisture content of 2-3%. Further the fabric is sent for colour fixation and developing.
Fig 6.2 PROCESS FLOW ON PAD STEAMER:48 Nahar Industrial Entp. Ltd.,Fabric Unit-2, Lalru.(Punjab.)
. EXIT J-SCRAY. BATCHING 49 Nahar Industrial Entp.) . E+L GUIDE. E + L GUIDE.BATCH OF FABRIC TENSIONING GUIDES ENTRY J-SCRAY. Lalru.(Punjab.Fabric Unit-2. Ltd. LENGTH MEASURING ROLLER BICOFLEX PADDER STEAMING UNIT WATER LOCK UNIT EXTRACTA WASHER VERTICAL DRYING RANGE COOLING CYLINDER.
Temperature of padding bath is 35-40 C. Section with 25 m fabric content.6.(Punjab. 2. 5.Fabric Unit-2. Ltd. 5. 3. BICOFLEX Padder:• • • The fabric is passed through hydro and caustic for vat development and for reactive dye.Normally tried to be done at room temperature. Batch of fabric. Various features of Reacta:1. 6. Roof heating. 4.) . Lifetime lubricated bearings. 3.. 7. 6.2 VARIOUS UNITS IN PAD STEAM 1. REACTA:- The fabric is then passed through steam chambers here the chemical reaction takes a dwelling time of one minute and dyes enter the fabric completely. Entry J-scary:To facilitate continuous process while batch changing has to be done. Lalru. Even pressure throughout the width of the fabric. Large fabric diameters (193 mm) for creaseless fabric runs. 4. 50 Nahar Industrial Entp. Horizontal or vertical fabric entry with heated lips and exhaust fan for excess steam. E+L guide & length measuring roller:To guide the fabric by guiding the selvedge. fabric passed through alkali solution and 60% chemical pickup takes place. Tensioning guides:To give proper passage and the tension to the fabric. Top rollers individually driven by AC motors. 2. Load cell to measure fabric tension for drive control.
Water seal with small liquor content and uniform liquor distribution. 10. 12.ie water flows from washer-9 to washer-1. Washer-9 for neutralization and washing both in the same chambers. As this machine is inclined in position from backward side so it uses less water as washed fabric comes in contact with the fabric first then it goes to the other section.6&7 are used for soaping. 40 C used for cold washing. which facilitates in the removal of condensed steam. Temperature or volume controlled fresh water flow to the water seal. Automatic cleaning system. 51 Nahar Industrial Entp. Vertical drying range:- The dyed fabric in wet condition is dried on to the cylindrical drying range. Ltd. Lalru. In water seal continuous chilled water is circulated through the jacket. Probe to measure steam condition. 4&5 are used for vat development (H2O2) or simple hot washing/soaping for reactive dyed/white fabric. 8.(Punjab. • • • • • Washing unit:Washer-1&2 having water temp. Fig 6.) . This is a vertical drying range with 33cylinders. 9. Washer-3..8. 11.Fabric Unit-2. Steam conditioning unit. Washer-8 for hot washing.3 7. Za Washer.
To guide the fabric by guiding the selvedge 12. Ltd. 6. 6. THERMOSOL/PDPS vat (PET/Cotton). PDPS for reactive dye on 100% cotton.. 2.3 VARIOUS METHODS OF DYEING:1. 5. Exit J-scary: . Batching or Trolley: . 11.To facilitate continuous process while batch changing has to be done.) . 4. THERMOSOL/PDPS reactive (PET/Cotton). 3. Cooling cylinders:-The fabric is passed over cooling cylinder.Fabric Unit-2. Lalru.(Punjab.9.Finally fabric is batched or collected in trolley. 10. E+L guide:. E-CONTROL. THERMOSOL/E-CONTROL (PET/Cotton) 52 Nahar Industrial Entp. PDPS for vat dye on 100% cotton.
Fabric Unit-2.(Punjab. Ltd.) .4 Process flow diagram of PDPS Vat Dye on 100% COTTON PADDING IN DYE PAD VAT DYESTUFF + AUXILIARIES AIR PASSAGE FOR DYE PENETRATION PRE DRYING ON IR DRYER DRYING ON HOT AIR FLUE PADDING IN CHEMICALS ON PAD STEAUSR STEAMING WASHING CHEMICAL OXIDATION & SOAPING NEUTRALISATIO Then DRYING ON VDR 53 Nahar Industrial Entp. PDPS for vat dye on 100% cotton Fig 6. Lalru.1..
2.Fabric Unit-2.(Punjab. Ltd.. Lalru. PDPS for reactive dye on 100% cotton. Process flow diagram of PDPS Reactive Dye on 100% COTTON PADDING IN DYE PAD REACTIVE DYE SOLUTION AIR PASSAGE FOR DYE PENETRATION PRE DRYING ON IR DRYER DRYING ON HOT AIR FLUE PADDING IN CHEMICALS ON PAD STEAUSR STEAMING COLD WASHING SOAPING & HOT WASHING NEUTRALISATION Then DRYING ON VDR 54 Nahar Industrial Entp.) .
the temperature on the goods is around 71°C. The E-Control process comprises just 3 steps: Application of dye.. The dyeing system must be carefully balanced to ensure complete fixation of the Remazol or Levafix dyes within the drying time. complete fixation of reactive dyes is not possible in normal drying conditions because of the wet bulb temperature. 55 Nahar Industrial Entp. If humidity is 30%. Ltd. Drying. E-CONTROL Reactive Dyeing Process Basic principle of E-control process.3. However. Three key variables — time. Lalru.Fabric Unit-2. It means that during drying. The E-control process uses this physical fact to fix the reactive dye during drying. If humidity is 25% and the air temperature is 120°C. the temperature of the moist goods is far lower than the surrounding temperature In normal drying processes the temperature on the goods can drop to 50-55°C. The exact temperature depends on the humidity of the air used to dry the goods. and Washing off. temperature and humidity — are used to ensure accurate control of the dyeing process in the Thermex hot flue. which is a characteristic of all convection-based drying systems.(Punjab.) . the temperature on the surface of the goods is around 68°C.
Lalru. it is essential to dose the alkali and dye solutions separately. All Levafix and most Remazol dyes can be used. reactive dyes with high to medium reactivity are particularly suitable.1 AMOUNT OF DYE Soda ash NaOH 50% UP TO 10 GPL 20 - >10-30GPL 20 2 ml/ltr > 30 GPL 20 4 ml/ltr Common auxiliaries used in continuous dyeing processes can be used. the dyes used in the E-control process have to be suitable for the process conditions..g.) .(Punjab. AUXILIARIES AND ALKALI SYSTEMS Evidently. Ltd.6. In practice. antimigration agents and.4 RECOMMENDED DYES. Urea is not essential for the Econtrol process but up to 50 g/l may be advantageous in same circumstances. To ensure optimum reliability. Levafix dyes are used for pale to medium shades. wetting agents. For example. Soda ash or soda ash/NaOH is normally used as the alkali system. while Remazol dyes are used for medium to very deep shades.Fabric Unit-2. sequestering agents. A mild oxidant can be added to prevent reduction of the dyes. e. Since dyeing is completed in approximate 2-3 minutes. the following amounts of alkali are recommended for LevafixCA dyes: Table 6. 56 Nahar Industrial Entp. if necessary.
Limitation Nevertheless. Energy and chemical requirements • • • The E-control process needs far less energy than the e.g. By contrast. The amount of alkali is similar. all other continuous dyeing processes require separate fixation of same sort. Ltd. 57 Nahar Industrial Entp.Fabric Unit-2. like all dyeing processes.. PDPS process because it cuts out the extra fixation step (steaming). Pale to medium shades can be dyed on PES/COTTON blends using a modified onebath TTN process but a separate thermosol step is required after the E-control step. E-control does have its limitations: • • The first is that Indanthrene dyes can be dried by using the Thermex hot flue but not fixed as an air free steamer is required for this. That includes brilliant turquoise. they do not have to be washed off immediately and can be stored without problem. unlike the PDPS process.) . • The process also has a logistical benefit: since the goods are dry at the end of the Econtrol dyeing process. • The E-control process requires 35% less time.Features of the E-control process • E-control process does not use a separate fixation step. of course.(Punjab. For chemicals. • E-control can be used to dye all shades that can be obtained with reactive dyes. black. deep Bordeaux. Lalru. Consequently. deep navy and. at least two Thermex chambers are required. the E-control process does not require any salt.
The appearance of same goods dyed under E-control conditions differs from their appearance in the PDPS process. Lalru. The E-control process is not entirely suitable for heavyweight pile and loop pile goods such as terry toweling because there is a risk of frosting.Fabric Unit-2.(Punjab.5 Process flow diagram of THERMOSOL/PDPS vat (PET/Cotton) PADDING OF FABRIC IN DISPERSE/VAT DYE SOLUTION AIR PASSAGE FOR DYE PENETRATION PRE DRYING ON IR DRYER THERMOFIXATION ON HOT AIR FLUE VAT DEVELOPUSNT & REDUCTION CLEARING ON PAD STEAUSR STEAMING then COLD WASH OXIDATION WITH H2O2 SOAPING IN 3 WASHING CHAMBERS then HOT WASH NEUTRALIZAION DRYING OF Nahar Industrial Entp. This means the two processes are not always interchangeable.. Ltd.• • • More experience is needed to obtain reproducible dyeing on very lightweight qualities (<60 g/m²) than on heavier fabrics.) FABRIC ON VDR 58 . THERMOSOL/PDPS VAT (PET/Cotton) Fig 6. 4.
(Punjab.. Ltd.6 Process flow diagram of THERMOSOL/PDPS Reactive (PET/Cotton): PADDING OF FABRIC IN DISPERSE DYE AIR PASSAGE FOR DYE PENETRATION PRE DRYING ON IR DRYER THERMOFIXATION ON HOT AIR FLUE REDUCTION CLEARING ON PAD STEAUSR DRYING ON VDR PADDING OF FABRIC IN REACTIVE DYE ON PAD DRY AIR PASSAGE then PRE DRYING ON IR DRYER DRYING ON HOT AIR FLUE PADDING IN CHEMICALS ON PAD STEAMER STEAMING + CW + HW +SOAPING + HW + NEUTRALIZAIO DRYING OF FABRIC ON VDR 59 Nahar Industrial Entp.5.) .Fabric Unit-2. Lalru. THERMOSOL/PDPS reactive (PET/Cotton) Fig 6.
7 Process flow diagram of THERMOSOL/E-CONTROL Reactive (PET/Cotton) : PADDING OF FABRIC IN DISPERSE DYE AIR PASSAGE FOR DYE PENETRATION PRE DRYING ON IR DRYER THERMOFIXATION ON HOT AIR FLUE REDUCTION CLEARING ON PAD STEAUSR DRYING ON VDR PADDING OF FABRIC IN REACTIVE DYE+ALKALI ON PAD DRY AIR PASSAGE then PRE DRYING ON IR DRYER FIXATION OF DYE ON HOT AIR FLUE RINSING & SOAPING ON PAD STEAUSR NEUTRALISATION DRYING OF FABRIC ON VDR 60 Nahar Industrial Entp. Ltd.(Punjab..Fabric Unit-2.) . THERMOSOL/E-CONTROL (PET/Cotton) Fig 6. Lalru.6.
(Punjab.6. Lalru.5 YARN DYEING GREY YARN SOFT WINDING MACHINE LOADING DYEING DRYING HYDROEXTRACTOR R F DRYER CONE WINDING CONDITIONING 61 Nahar Industrial Entp.) . Ltd.Fabric Unit-2..
2 Capacity 1 kg 3.) . In NIEL plastic cheese are used. For dyeing generally 1800gm packages are prepared which are winded on plastic cheese. The machines used for cone to cheese conversion are SSM CW1-W.6 kg 10 kg 18 kg 25-36 kg 65 kg 100 kg 150 kg 324 kg 518 kg 1100 kg Packages are generally of 1.SOFT WINDING Packages are transformed from paper cone which comes from the spinning department. DYEING The number of machines in the yarn dyeing department is 21. No. Of Machines 4 1 4 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 62 Nahar Industrial Entp. Lalru.(Punjab. Ltd..Fabric Unit-2. All the machines are High Temperature High Pressure machines.2 kg to 1.8 kg. The capacity of the machines varies from: Table 6. Perciflex Technology.
45min The dosing and the flow of the sequence are shown by a graph which indicates the temperature. all these processes are done sequentially. Stock tank – This is the storage tank where the entire chemicals are mixed with the help of a stirrer.Alkali Lenatol HPBS – Peroxide Stabliser H2O2 – Bleaching Agent Ustaxil BABK – Peroxide Killer After these processes we need to neutralize the solution so that the pH is maintained at 6. Lalru. This consists of all the material and chemical solution. pretreatment. 6. The chemicals used for this are:Lenatol FFC – Air Removing Agent Lenatol HPLF – Wetting Agent Sandophor R3C – Sequristing Agent Caustic Flax . The machine consists of basically 3 tanks: 1. dosing and holding time. Main tank – This is used for all the processes and has a lid over it.6 SEMI-BLEACH This includes scouring and bleaching of yarn in the same bath.. 63 Nahar Industrial Entp.Fabric Unit-2. Dosing tank – This tank is used for dosing the chemicals in the appropriate quantity in a regulated manner. dyeing.All the processes which are included i. Ltd.e. finishing of grey yarn are done in the same machine and in single flow of the yarn i e. chemical.5 for this we use Green Acid – Neutraliser Time Required – 1hrs. 2.(Punjab. 3.) .
64 Nahar Industrial Entp.6 Holding time – 45 min Above all the processes are indicated the dosing and the flow of the sequence is shown by a graph which indicate the temperature.lubricant Wax Emulsion. Lalru. Finishing Chemicals: Generally Softeners are used in same solution Perifil – Resin Finish Resil . Ltd.Fabric Unit-2.DYEING Dri Mazine ER – Levelling Agent Sandophor R3C – Sequristing Agent Dye Solution for HE Reactive (Ferozee) Pro yellow HE4R Tult Blue XLE Pro Blue HERD Glauber Salt – Exhausting Agent Soda – Fixating Agent Green Acid – Neutralizer Saracol 1583 – Soaping Acetic Acid – Neutralizer HCF – Dye Fixing Agent pH – 10..) .(Punjab. dosing and holding time. chemical .
This machine basically removes all the moisture present in the material except the moisture content of the material.6. 65 Nahar Industrial Entp. In this machine the water molecules are vibrated at a speed of 18000 cycles per sec. Time cycle is of 10 min. In Hydroextracor only the water present on the outer layer and between the fibres are removed.7 DRYING Drying is done with the help of two machines here. The capacity of the machine is 18 packages of 1. it removes this much amount of water. Running time of drying is 7 min Speed of rotation is 0 – 1100 rpm Mechanism – Centrifugal force is applied on the yarns. The speed of the machine is 6. Lalru. This is a machine based on the principle of radio frequency. This is essential to remove the extra water present in the yarn only.) . RF DRIER. Specification The drying zone length in the machine is of 7 mt length.(Punjab.. First one is HYDROEXTRACTOR and second one is R F DRIER. Ltd. ITALY .e.Fabric Unit-2. The moisture present in the interstitial of the fibre is not removed.8 or 1. The efficiency of this machine is around 50-60% i. Specification:The machine used here is of DETTIN.5 mt/hr Temperature – 98c Conveyer belt is made of fibrous plastic material.2 kg.
MR.Fabric Unit-2. DHAWAN SHARMA 66 Nahar Industrial Entp.(Punjab. TESTING LAB HOD: . Lalru. Ltd.7.) ..
1 Introduction: Research & Development department is the backbone of any industry. Various kinds of tests performed are: For mercerized fabric • • • • • • • Shrinkage test Tensile Strength Absorbency test (drop method) Whiteness test pH of the fabric Width Residual Size Content 67 Nahar Industrial Entp. It deals not only with the present problems but also with the problems that could arise in future.) . Objectives of R & D • • • • • • • Quality Control Productivity Improvement Shade matching Process Control Product Development and Testing Buyer Satisfaction Specification Tests Sections of R & D • • • Physical testing Lab Chemical testing lab Dyeing Lab Physical testing lab It includes various tests like shrinkage test..(Punjab. Ltd. These tests are performed to ensure the quality of the fabrics.Fabric Unit-2. strength test etc. Lalru.7.
. Lalru.) . Ltd.(Punjab.Fabric Unit-2.• • • • • • Dip test For dyed fabric Fastness properties Washing fastness test Wet fastness test Rubbing fastness test pH of the fabric For finished fabric • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Shrinkage test Skew test Tensile Strength Tear Strength Fastness test Washing Fastness test Wet fastness Test Rubbing fastness test pH of the fabric EPI & PPI test (ends per inch and picks per inch) Crease Recovery Angle For fabric from folding department Shrinkage test Strength test Skew test EPI and PPI test GSM test Count of the yarn in the fabric 68 Nahar Industrial Entp.
Heal To check Rubbing fastness 14. Heal To ensure the Crease Recovery Angle AATCC 66 40x15 mm 500 grams.1 Jauss H.2 INSTRUMENTS USED IN PHYSICAL TESTING LAB CROCK METER Fig 7. Lalru. Ltd.7.Fabric Unit-2.1 Table 7.(Punjab. 2 Kg 69 Nahar Industrial Entp.5 x 4 cm MAKE USE SAMPLE SIZE CREASE RECOVERY ANGLE TESTER Table 7.) ..2 MAKE USE TEST METHOD SAMPLE SIZE LOAD APPLIED Jauss H.
) .T. and Sons To determine the amount of fabric Stretch and fabric growth.M.4 MAKE USE TEST METHOD C. A. GROWTH TESTER Table 7.S. Heal To check the extent of P/C blend. Ltd. D310 DELUXE PH METER Table 7.3 MAKE USE Jauss H. Lalru.PORTABLE SPECTROPHOTOMETER Table 7.(Punjab.5 MODEL USE 101 E To check the pH of the fabric..Fabric Unit-2. ABRASION TESTER 70 Nahar Industrial Entp.M.
S.Heal To check the extend of abrasion B. Lalru.Fig 7. Ltd.Fabric Unit-2.7 JaussH.7 MAKE USE TEST METHOD Paramount To check water repellency AATCC 22 71 Nahar Industrial Entp.5690 MAKE USE Paramount To magnify the specimen SPRAY TESTER Table 7.) ..6 MAKE USE TEST METHOD MAGNASCOPE Table 7.(Punjab.2 Table 7.
3 Table 7.8 MAKE USE TEST METHOD SAMPLE SIZE TENSILE STRENGTH TESTER Table 7.TEARING STRENGTH TESTER Fig 7.Fabric Unit-2. Heal To ensure the resistance offered by a pre cut specimen to a falling pendulum. ASTM D5037 35x5 cm 72 Nahar Industrial Entp.8 MAKE USE TEST METHOD SAMPLE SIZE LIGHT CABINET Table 7. Ltd. Lalru. Heal To ensure the resistance of fabric ..) .(Punjab.9 Jauss H. ISO 9290 100x63 mm Jauss H.To break under a tensile load applied.
HEAL To match colour under specified light TL 84.3 CHEMICAL TESTING LAB All the chemicals used in the processing of the fabric are checked here. 7. The chemical dosing done in all the process like bleaching. the removal of colour from the fabric is checked the fabric is washed with the solution of Soda Ash (2 gm).MAKE USE LIGHT SOURCES source JAUSS H. F.) . Washing fastness. Dyeing is tried here on the scale model machines and thus the suggestions are given as required by the concerned department.. UV. Shrinkage checking: the fabric is washed and dried 3 or more times as per the requirement to check the level of shrinkage in the cloth. 73 Nahar Industrial Entp.(Punjab. Detergent (5gm) and water (1 Lt. D 65. And thus the washing fastness is checked that who much colour the fabric is leaving. Lalru.) The cloth is left for the dwelling time of half an hour under 60-degree temperature.Fabric Unit-2. The sample preparation as per the instructions of the PPC and buyer is also prepared in the department. The department also gives the usage pattern of the chemicals as per the quality and concentration of the chemicals. the quality and the property of the chemicals and accordingly the usage are made. Ltd.
Various chemicals that are used in the mill are tested for strength. : McBEATH : 1 . of instrument Objective:1.Thus the chemical testing department plays important role in developing the fabric as per the requirements of the buyer. Whiteness assessment. percentage purities etc. It means to produce the required shade by finding the correct recipe required and correcting it. 74 Nahar Industrial Entp..4 DYEING LAB The main function of dyeing lab is shade matching. MACHINE USED IN DYEING LAB CCM LAB Name of instrument Model Make No.) : Spectrophotometer : colour eye 7000 A0 Gretagmacheth. Chemicals that are tested in lab are – • • • • • • NaOH H2O2 HCl Soda Ash Hydro Lime 7. 2. gpl (gram per liter).(Punjab.Fabric Unit-2. Lalru. Ltd. Matching & ensurement of colour or shade. The samples of same RFD are dyed before dyeing the fabric in bulk to check the recipe prepared for colour matching.
of Bottles No. of Machine Datacolour 101 2 75 Nahar Industrial Entp.2 bar (for vat) 4.(Punjab.Fabric Unit-2.PADDING MANGLE Make Max speed Pressure Function Hot flue Make Max speed Max temperature Purpose Mathis.4 bar For reactive batching For applying finishing liquor MICROWAVE Purpose Gives 8/16 hours batching effect in 8-15 mins. Switzerland 2 m/sec 250°C Drying. Ltd. AUTO DISPENSER Make No.) . Thermosoling Mathis.8 bar (for p/c) To pad the dye onto the fabric PADDING MANGLE Make Speed Pressure Purpose Indian 3 m/min 3. Switzerland 1m/sec 3.. Curing. Lalru.
11 sec. Ltd.0 m/min 60 % 25oC 76 Nahar Industrial Entp. 3 (two for colour & one for water amount) Mathis. Lalru. of Display E-CONTROL Made Object Dwell time Air Temp.No.. reactive dye development by saturated steam.) .10 Padding parameter Nip Pressure Speed Expression Trough Temp HOT FLUE (FOR THERMOSOLING) Table 7. Switzerland.(Punjab.6m/min Set point 4.8 bar 1. 1200 C SAME MACHINE PARAMETER PADDING MANGLE Table 7.Fabric Unit-2.11 IR Temperature Speed Off 220°C 0.
Fabric Unit-2..(Punjab.Level Speed Temp Of Drying Range Set point 70 % 1 m/min 140OC CDR PARAMETERS (FOR PDPS ROUTE) Table 7.FOR VAT DRYING Table 7.R. Ltd. Lalru.) .13 Parameters Speed Steamer Dwell Time Roof Temp Nip Pressure Set point 3 m/min 1 min 100OC 2 bar 77 Nahar Industrial Entp.12 Parameter I.
Lalru.) .8 78 Nahar Industrial Entp..(Punjab.Fabric Unit-2. Ltd.
.HOD: MR. VISHNUPAL BHATNAGAR 8.) . FOLDING DEPARTMENT WORKS IN FIVE SECTIONS: • • • • • INSPECTION & GRADING GROUPING RECORDING SAMPLING PACKING 79 Nahar Industrial Entp.1 DETAILS ABOUT FOLDING SECTION INTRODUCTION: After finishing. the fabric comes to the folding department for the inspection and packing.Fabric Unit-2. Ltd. Lalru.(Punjab.
These defects are given penalty points from 1 to 4. For this ASQC 4 point system is used (American Society for Quality and Control). Lalru. Ltd. Table 8.) . It shall be assigned 4 points for each meter.INSPECTION & GRADING: On inspection machine various types of defects per counted and according to these defects penalty are given. MAJOR DEFECTS: o In a piece length up to 100 meters – 0 to 6 o 100 to 200 meters – 7 to 12 80 Nahar Industrial Entp.1 Defect Size Up to 3” 3” – 6” 6” – 9” More than 9” Penalty Points 1 2 3 4 There are four types of defects CONTINUOUS DEFECT: o Any easily perceptible defect in a continuous nature constitutes a continuous defect. MINOR DEFECT: o These defects up to the length of 1” – 9”..(Punjab.Fabric Unit-2.
) DESCRIPTION Fresh Fresh short length(10 – 20 mt. inch – 4 points o More than ½ sq. Ltd.2 METHOD FOR POINT CALCULATION: TO CALCULATE THE POINT/100 SQ.. Grading is done asTable 8. CUTABLE DEFECTS: o Up to ½ sq.) . OF POINTS *100*100)/(LENGTH OF ROLL IN MT.2 Grade A AS C D Condition 25 points in 100 m 25 TO 50 points in 100 m But piece length 10 – 20 m 25 to 50 points in 100 m Continuous defect More than 50 points. * WIDTH IN CM.Fabric Unit-2.3 GRADE A AS D S 8. Continuous defect GRADING: Table 8. USTRE FOR INDIVIDUAL ROLL: (TOTAL NO. Major damage Sample 81 Nahar Industrial Entp. Lalru.(Punjab. inch – to be cut.
This is the last section of the department. lot no. • RECORDING: In this process. For sampling we sent approximately 2 m piece. We can check the whole information. Here packing is done with LLD (linear low density polyethylene). In this sample of 15 cm length each role and then grouping is done according to shade.. Reed cut 3. lot no.. • PACKING: After inspection and grading. 8. Coarser end 5.. sort no. sort no.. Starting mark 7.3 LIST OF VARIOUS DEFECTS IN GREY FABRIC:1.. finish and quality finally and gives its approval. Lalru.Fabric Unit-2. the roll piece goes for packing. of roll is 15 kg. Same particulars like roll no.(Punjab. Coarser pick 6. show the samples and bring order. are written on slip and pasted on fabric. wt.• GROUPING: After inspection grouping is done. length grade of the given roll and finally the group of the roll is recorded and saved in computer.. Marketing persons goes to party. feel.. • SAMPLING: In sampling we cut a 5 m piece from the hosiery and sent to the concerned party for checking. net wt..) . Sampling is done mainly for marketing persons. The samples which are closer in shade are kept in one group. roll no. Pulled warp 4. Float 82 Nahar Industrial Entp. When it goes to the party. Reed mark 2. Thickness of this material is 23 micron and wt. Ltd. party looks its shade.
Stitches 27. Mending impression 83 Nahar Industrial Entp. Lalru. Wrong Denting 23.. Tear 31. Sizing stain 28. Slubby warp (Long slub) 13. Dirt stain 30. Three ply 12. Slack end 9. Count mix 26. Temple mark 21. Double end 10. Un twisted yarn 19. Broken Pattern 24. Loose warp yarn 34. Defective Selvedge Slack selvedge Tight selvedge Curled selvedge Pulled-in selvedge Uneven selvedge Cut or Burst selvedge 32. Warp Break with high tension 20. Missing End 15. Slubby weft 14.Fabric Unit-2. Broken pick 17. Crack 25. Oil & grease stain 29.8.) . Sizing Patches 33.(Punjab. Thick place 18. Double pick 11. Wrong Drawing 22. Ltd. Missing Pick 16.
Abrasion 38. Bad appearance 67. Moon mark 53. Patches dari 51. FLUFF STAIN 42. Scroll impration 61. Crease 46. Colour weft patti 40.) . Short width 54. White stain 60. Rubber impration 41.Fabric Unit-2. Skew 55. More point 66. Shade variation 37. Foam Dari 63. Contamination impration 65.35. Stitch impration 58. Distortion 59. Rust stain 52.(Punjab. Seeding Crease 84 Nahar Industrial Entp. Ltd. Lalru.. COLOUR WARP PATTI 39. Stoppage mark 43. Colored stain 49. Handling stain 44. Steamer mark 56. Silicate Dari 64. Insect stain 62. Streakiness 57. oil stain 48. Cut selvedge 50. Water mark 45. Contamination defect 36. Colour Dabber 47.
The data has already been fed in the computer.4 MACHINERY USED IN FOLDING DEPARTMENT Elbit vision system ALMAC inspection machine ALMAC packing machine Panchal EVS Machine (Elbit Vision System): EVS machine is a computerized inspection machine in which. Seam Cut 72.) . Bundling Crease 69. Non Confirmity 70.Fabric Unit-2. More Point Counting 74.(Punjab. the fabric inspected with the help of photo cameras. OF COMPUTERS SPEED NO. OF MACHINE Elbit Vision System Italy 6 4 60 – 70 m per min 1 85 Nahar Industrial Entp. Haziness 8. editing of damages is done. Ltd. which catch the damages. Roll Cut 71. It inspects the fabric according to data and gives penalty points and grade of the fabric. Sanforis Crease 75. Machine particulars: Table 8. Guider Crease Dye 73. Lalru.4 MACHINE NAME MAKE NO. OF CAMERAS NO. It has six cameras..68. Guider Crease Finishing 76. After inspection.
.. OF COMPUTERS NO.) .6 MACHINE NAME MAKE OBJECT NO.5 MACHINE NAME MAKE OBJECT NO. OF MACHINE Packing Machine Table 8. OF WORKER NO.7 MACHINE NAME MAKE OBJECT NO. Ltd.(Punjab. Gujarat Inspection of fabric 1 1 6 86 Nahar Industrial Entp. OF MACHINES Panchal Panchal Industries Ltd. OF WORKER NO. OF COMPUTERS NO.INSPECTION MACHINE: Table 8. Lalru.Fabric Unit-2. OF MACHINE WEIGHT OF POLY ETHYLENE ROLL THICKNESS 300 Gauge ALMAC Baroda (India) Packing of Fabric 2 15 gm ALMAC Baroda (India) Inspection of fabric 1 2 2 PANCHAL MACHINE Table 8.
Samples match with lab dyed sample Yellowish tone More variation in tone of fabric more will be the no.g. Group no.8. of groups. 87 Nahar Industrial Entp.Fabric Unit-2.) .. Lalru. And so on. Group no. 1.5 GROUPING DEPARTMENT: The stripes (samples) from different rolls from folding department are matched with the lab dyed sample (which has been approved by customer) and then the corresponding rolls of fabric are put into different groups. Ltd. 2.(Punjab. E.
Ltd.) .(Punjab..Fabric Unit-2. Lalru.9 PRINTING DEPARTMENT HOD: 88 Nahar Industrial Entp.
Printing involves making colour impression on the fabric of desired colour designs or motifs. printouts or some other form from the customers.Fabric Unit-2. The artists use their creativity and create directly digital designs. These designs are analyzed. Lalru.(Punjab. The printing department is bifurcated into the following:• • • • • COLOUR STUDIO SCREEN MAKING DEPARTMENT COLOUR KITCHEN PRINTING MACHINE AFTER TREATMENT MACHINE COLOUR STUDIO:The colour studio function in the following ways: The colour studio is the section which first receives the designs which may be fabric cut pieces. The second way of producing designs is virtue of creating new designs with the help of special software named “Adobe Photoshop..) .1 INTRODUCTION The printing process is also called localized dyeing. Ltd. Best Image”.9. scanned or digital 12”x18” high definition scanners and the digital image produced is edited as required and final modification is made ready. 89 Nahar Industrial Entp.
which may otherwise clog the screen pores. Ltd. oils.. etc. The final output is a set of digital designs which are stored in a CD and send to the next department i. The screens are first washed using detergent solution so as to remove any dirt/dust particles. Photo Chemical Coating The photo chemical is coated on these dry screens by using sophisticated machine of Zimmer Co. air dried and fitted with supporting auxiliary rings. The segregation of colours is done so as to develop separate colour printing screens which together constitute the designs.2 SCREEN MAKING DEPARTMENT The screen making department functions into:Screen Degreasing The screens here are used generally of mesh sizes – 110. Lalru.) . Screen Rounding The screens after drying are kept in curing chambers at 180c for 1 hr 30 min – 2 hrs for giving it desired circular shape. 9.e. The final designs in either of the above two ways are then bifurcated according to the number of colours that have been utilized for the designs. The machine is equipped with two squeeze system and variable coating speeds to cater to the desired coating thickness.Fabric Unit-2.125. 90 Nahar Industrial Entp. the screen making department.155 of Stormac Pentascreen with length – 1800mm and repeat size – 640mm. Finally given spray washings with fresh water.(Punjab.
The coating given is very fine and uniform. The clamatiser has the provision for heating or cooling by air conditioning Finally before the next stage the screens are kept in the A. Lalru. The digital images developed by the studio are received on a CD. The printing head uses a special jet black washable ink which is used for printing. Drying The wet coating is dried in a special chamber Called the clamatiser where drying of photo coat is done at 25-30c for 30 min.(Punjab. This is loaded on the attached PC. The machine is provisioned with a special printing head the function exactly like an Inkjet printer.) . The screens with photo coat received from the previous stage are mounted on the movable horizontal holder taped on sides an inflated so to tighten the screen foe perfect firm circular shape. Screen Engraving Screen engraving is done on a highly sophisticated Computer Scanning Technology. Ltd.. The selected designs are displayed on the monitor. then one by one the segregated colour design are printed on the screen one by one for separate colour screens. 91 Nahar Industrial Entp.C rooms for 8 hrs.Photo Chemical Coating Recipe :1kg –Stormak photoemulsiion 50 ml –sensitizer (ammonium dichromate) 50-150ml – water (as per viscosity) The machine follows the up to down stroke for coating. The screen is made to rotate on its axis and while printing head rotates linearly making its print impression along the screen length. and. The machine does not utilize any negatives for screen exposing.Fabric Unit-2.
After the full desired length is printed with the design the machine also has the provision to expose the photochemical coat with a high intensity xenon lamp attached with the head.Fabric Unit-2. The machine has internal coil which is electrically heated inside and generate high temperature enough to dry the adhesive in just 1 min. Finally it is put on a Zimmer developing machine which is equipped with a high intensity water jet and long bristle brushes which remove the unexposed photo coat along with printing ink to reveal its unexposed pores. Ltd.. Air Drying Curing The wet screens are air dried then put in curing chambers at 180c for 1½ to 2 hrs for final fixation of the photochemical. The screens are now finally ready for print. Exposing time 1.(Punjab.) .5min – 2min in to and fro direction total time 10 – 15 min fine designs 20 – 25 min for thick designs Developing The exposed engraved screens are unloaded and dipped in water bath at RT for 2-3 min to loosen the ink and the photo chemical underneath it. Lalru. End Ring Fixation The end rings are internally coated inside with Adelite adhesive and fitted tightly to the screen on ring fixation machine. 92 Nahar Industrial Entp.
3 COLOR KITCHEN The color kitchen functions as: Developing and making the print paste for the actual printing Pigment Printing Recipe Table 9..Fabric Unit-2.9.(Punjab.5-3% 2-3% 5% 1. Ltd. Lalru.1 Quantity X-part 10-20% 1.) .to adjust viscosity Pigment Discharge Recipe Table 9.2 93 Nahar Industrial Entp.5% 10-15% Y parts 100 gm Total Ingredients Pigment Binder Luprint MCl – fixer Lutexsal HEF (97%) thickener Urea Liquor ammonia Kerosene Water.
Quantity X-part 10-20% 1.5-3% 5-6% 5% 1.5% 10-15% Y parts
Ingredients Pigment Binder Luprint MCl – fixer Lutexsal HEF (97%) thickener Urea Liquor ammonia Kerosene Water- to adjust viscosity
The same above is recipe with additionally 15-20% Rangolite C and Thickner 5-6%.
Reactive Printing Recipe Table 9.3
QUANTITY 3% 1-1.5% 3% 10-15% 100 kg Total
INGREDIENTS Sod. Alginate- Thickener Resist Salt- Mild Oxidizing Agent Sod. Bicarbonate Urea- Hygroscopic Agent
Vat Discharge Recipe The color kitchen is facilitated with – --- High speed stirrers --- Paste filtering machine --- Flat bearing bed
94 Nahar Industrial Entp. Ltd.,Fabric Unit-2, Lalru.(Punjab.)
9.4 PRINTING MACHINE
The department has in its proud possession the Zimmer RSD 666 Austria Features of the machine: V-Notch variable repeat size 640mm-1206mm 16 color screen head Individual screen drive and adjustment User- friendly touch screen display panel Electromagnetic squeeze system High efficiency dryer set at 150 – 160c
AFTERTREATMENT MACHINE The final treatment which are needed for print development and washing are done on the following machines: Steaming machines Manufacturer Functions Working speed Curing
95 Nahar Industrial Entp. Ltd.,Fabric Unit-2, Lalru.(Punjab.)
ARIOLI Italy 1 - Steaming/ developing of reactive, vat, discharge prints. - 30 mt/ min
No. Of Machines-
Resin finish required high temperature, which is provided by curing machine. It consists of a batch roll followed by 3 chambers where air is circulated by fans to provide the required temperature. Optimum dwell time is needed for the resin finish to polymerize onto the fabric.
Machine Parameter Made Bruckner No. of heating fan – 5 Speed – 4 m/min Thread length- 180mt Source of heating- Hot thermal fluid Mode of heating - Radiations
96 Nahar Industrial Entp. Ltd.,Fabric Unit-2, Lalru.(Punjab.)
When we were studying the theories of different concepts. the training aims to bring out better citizens. we were thinking that how all these would be implemented. we learnt that how all these could be put to good use. CONCLUSION Our training in NAHAR INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES LTD. But after the training. The training has given us a much-wanted feel of working with a big and a premier organization like the NAHAR GROUP. Lalru. It was the result of the training only that we got to see the objects in real and practical use.. has been a fruitful and eye-opening experience for us.) . 97 Nahar Industrial Entp. In other words. This all happened due the co-operation of the staff and the management. The people in the company are very good and always ready to provide a helping hand whenever required. this TWO WEEKS training was a learning experience all the way. Ltd. who helped us in gaining whatever knowledge we have today about the production and management. We came to know about various other management programs related to industry. which are used for increasing the productivity and for improving the quality of goods.(Punjab. NAHAR FABRICS LTD. better technocrats and better diplomats out of us. After doing training at NAHAR FABRICS LTD we felt the importance of training in industry and its practical applications.10.Fabric Unit-2. During our two weeks training in. we got a chance to expose our self to the industrial culture & work environment. which we had only read about and seen as 2-d objects in books. FABRIC PROCESSING UNIT-2. Moreover.
REFERNCES 98 Nahar Industrial Entp. both of which are must for the foundation of a high building.) . Ltd.Fabric Unit-2. we would like to conclude that the training is an essential part of the technical educational program. 11. We should always pursue for the theoretical as well as the practical knowledge.(Punjab. Lalru.At the end..
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