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Essays Global Warming How would be the life after some 50 years if the earth goes on getting warmer in an alarming rate just like today? The earth is getting warmer. The changes are small, so far, but they are expected to grow and speed up. Global warming is the warming near the earth's surface that results when the earth's atmosphere traps the sun's heat. Different causes are contributing for global warming, and of course, there are different measures that can be taken to minimize the impact of it, yet little has been done towards it. Within the next fifty to one hundred years, the earth may be hotter than it has been in the past million years. A world-wide study shows that the average temperatures of the earth has raised by as much as 0.2 degree Celsius every decade. The rise in temperature is due to global warming, which has now become an imminent threat. As oceans warm and glaciers melt, land and cities along coasts may be flooded. Heat and drought may cause forests to die and food crops to fail. Global warming will affect weather, plants and animals, and people everywhere; humans are warming the earth's atmosphere by burning fuels, cutting down forest, and by taking part in other activities that release certain heat trapping gases into the air. One major cause of global warming is the use of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas that were formed from the remains of plant material deposited during the earth's carboniferous period. We have known for only a few thousand years that coal, oil, and natural gas can be burned to provide energy. It was not until the mid-1800s, however, that we began to burn very large quantities of these fossil fuels. The worldwide consumption of fossil fuel has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, burning fossil fuels is not the only thing that we humans are doing to increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. In many parts of the world today, forests are being destroyed at an alarming rate. Enormous numbers of trees are being cut down, both to provide timber and to clear the land for farming. Because there has been little attempt to replant trees in deforested areas, the world's forests are disappearing very quickly. Prevention is always better than cure. Human efforts can certainly prevent and control global warming. It can be best carried out by checking atmospheric pollution. Deforestation should be stopped. Wood should be used as little as possible. Bricks houses should be encouraged as they retain less heat. Unnecessary combustion of fuel should be checked. Encouraging biogas plants in village communities has multi-fold effects. Renewable sources of energy should be used as it is non-polluting and very efficient. These renewable sources of energy are solar energy and wind energy. Hydro-electricity is also of considerable use. Lastly, treatment appliances should be applied on the sources of green house gases which are carbon dioxide and methane, so that they may not violate the atmospheric balance. If we can reduce the greenhouse gases going into the atmosphere, we probably can slow the rate of global warming and climate change. There are a number of things that we can do to prepare for the changes that are coming. If we act now, perhaps we can "soften the blow" of the greenhouse effect. Without human intervention, many kinds of plants also may not survive as the earth's climate changes.
Except some war-mongers. But the modern warfare is totally different. This opened the eyes of the whole world. These two bombs with the brightness of thousand suns performed their monstrous destruction. if a war ever takes place. Doctors agree that participating in an active sport such as tennis or volleyball for thirty minutes releases tension. Not a single man could escape. On the 6th August 1945 the allied army dropped a small atom bomb on a Japanese city Hirosima. Tension builds in the body because of an over-accumulation of adrenaline produced by stress. Letters and Language Functions Movement for World Peace Peace is the mother of progress. The fight is not confined in a field or within the armies. It is hoped. The wise men counted that the human civilization would be ruined to the bit. conciliation. and increases stamina. arbitration and by fighting against the culprit country in acute case. (5) peaceful coexistence.2 | Essays. Although much of this advice is commercially motivated. They were limited within a field called battlefield. None in the world approves of the military action of China in the border of India. The whole city was destroyed with a second. So peace is ever desirable. advice for guarding and improving health bombards them. Negasaki another city of Japan got the same fate on the 9th August 1945. Long live world peace! The Benefits of Physical Exercise In recent years many people have become increasingly aware of the need for physical fitness. The public opinion of the world is in favour of lasting peace. (3) non-interference in one another's internal affairs for any reason of economic. is immediate. he or she should . (2) non-aggression. television or billboard. The first of these benefits. So. some of it. provides numerous benefits. world-peace is absolutely necessary. Such a program. jogs or rides a bicycle for half that time. the whole world is in favour of peace. But now-a-days if there be no peace. Almost everywhere people turn. Regular exercise releases tension. war should always be avoided for world peace. The five points are (1) mutual respect for one another's territorial integrity and sovereignty. The organization is working for world peace by persuasion. United Nations Organization is the outcome of the desire of the world people. If a person swims. the release of tension. anxiety. India and the other non-aligned countries together have organized to peace-area. To conclude. The Panchasila or the five points propounded by Jawaharlal Nehru has been accepted by many countries for world peace. world-peace will gain ground. Because modern war involves atom bomb and hydrogen bomb. improves appearance. the whole human race will be destroyed. The ancient battles were confined between two opposite armies. (4) equality and mutual benefit. they are working hard to establish permanent peace in the world. merits serious attention. or fear. if it consists of at least thirty minutes three times a week and if a person's physician approves it. So. political or ideological character. especially that advocating a regular exercise program. Without peace a nation cannot make any progress. The war-aeroplanes destroy the civilians by dropping bombs from the sky. whether it is to a newsstand.
Physics. the bridge between teachers and students. First. means more than knowledge transmit. however. of withstanding normal fatigue then a tense. look healthy. which is a second benefit of regular exercise. This improved appearance will provide confidence and favorably impress others. In addition to the self-confidence engendered by an improved appearance. students also learn skills like sewing. which help them a lot in their future family life. the accurate definition of education begins to have slight difference from what was in people’s mind before. Upon this. in fact. Second. actually acquiring these benefits is not easy. petty irritations and frustrations should be less troubling. improved endurance is one of the most important benefits of a regular exercise program. and eat excessively. healthier body is obviously more capable of working harder and . education can cultivate our sentiment. the mediator between individual and society. argue with the family. or in other words. students learn subjects like Math. an employee upset by the day's work and by traffic congestion may rush home. for instance. and have adequate strength for strenuous as well as routine activities. an exercise program will also improve a person's skin tone. From primary school on. weak one. English. Altogether. thereby reshaping the physique. or cleaning windows. can eliminate. tension. academic subjects to gain the initial knowledge of the nature and world. one can . education provided us with fundamental concepts of living. therefore. Education. education brings us basic knowledge and skill to survive. may be able during this time to burn away most excess fat and to tighten muscles. energetic body saturate the media. A stronger. Having improved muscle tone and even posture. A worker who exercises should be able to complete a forty-hour week and still retain enough energy for painting the garage. and mending bicycles. or at least control. Although easy solutions to the goals of losing weight and achieving an attractive. after the release of tension. Apart from academic subjects. In addition. Improvement.3 | Essays. A person who is five kg overweight. however. is not as immediately apparent as a better disposition. Letters and Language Functions sleep better at night and have a better temperament the next day. increased physical strength produces stamina. will come. The rewards. Equally important. are fully worth the effort of an established exercise program that makes a person feel relaxed. but being a wholly developed person in the society. which are extremely useful for our future career. For example. art subjects such as music and art seems more interesting toward students. cooking. Taking about thirty minutes to release frustrations through physical exercise could help him or her to avoid this behavior. Exercise takes perhaps a month or longer to show its results in a trimmer figure. Combined with a sensible diet. From these subjects. Planned physical exercise. To this extend. he or she will wear clothes more attractively and comfortably. Education What can education bring us? Is “high mark” the real destiny of education? As researchers and scholars are investigating this subject. this stamina helps to ward off illnesses such as colds and influenza. An improved appearance.
4 | Essays. The people holding the latter view suppose that tourists are likely to offend the local people because of the lack of knowledge of the local customs. The aim of education is to teach a person become a completely developed individual. more often than not. Third. Tourism enhances the mutual understanding between the local people and tourists. For instance. or understand the meaning of a piece of drawing. I can hardly extent to this idea: the above mentioned rarely happens. and personality form the most important part of the content of education. which may lead to the resentment of the local people. having seen the fine scenery or experienced the rich culture of other countries. droughts and floods. international tourism does encourage the understanding between people from different countries. They think that international tourism causes tension rather than promoting understanding between people from different cultures. Above all. However. emotion. which differ from their own. Secondly. international tourism furthers the understanding of people from different countries. tourism inevitably harms the natural resources and the cultural legacy. education makes an individual adapted to the society. which is polluting the Earth’s atmosphere. Moreover. people may never know what other countries are really like and thus can be misled by hearsay or films and TV programs. In my opinion. Some people hold opposite opinions. knowledge. which. For one thing. This kind of education influences our personality and views everyone as a whole individual in the big family of society. Being innocent and naive. tourists will have the desire to develop a good relationship with the locals. Through education like communication skills. students may know the essence of getting on with other people. In conclusion. without going to see for themselves. International Tourism International tourism is booming: millions of tourists go to other countries to explore the outside world. from which process they themselves are edified and finally have their own clear opinion on what is beauty. Letters and Language Functions enjoy the pleasure of listening to music. This could become a disaster if . young people always find it hard to immerge into the complicated environment. one of my American friends told me that most Americans had a strange bias against the Russian people until some young Americans traveled to Russia and saw with their own eyes that the Russians are human beings just like them. Role of Government in Controlling Global Warming The earth’s temperature is rapidly changing. are one-sided. which certainly contributes to the understanding between them. try to guess a composer’s emotion when writing a music chapter. As a result there has been a lot of climate change such as heat waves. instead of causing tension. and feel frustrated. Scientists believe that this is the result of human activity.
" "Sorry to bother you. but…" Disagreeing "I'm not sure I agree with you. Some money has gone missing from my hotel room." "I agree with you. As well. I think this change is wrong. They should also support alternative sources of electricity from wind and water rather than from oil and coal. They should also encourage the public to recycle. Private companies should be rewarded for following these laws. Secondly. support scientists and encourage individuals to protect the planet. They should also be punished for creating pollution." Complaining in English In a shop "Excuse me." . For example. they should encourage companies to develop vehicles that cause less pollution. isn't it!" "Bit nippy today." In a hotel "Excuse me." "I agree entirely." "(I'm afraid) I can't agree with you. Finally." "I totally agree." "I totally disagree.the bed hasn't been made. Therefore. Another way of saving energy is by public transport systems.5 | Essays." Partly agreeing "I agree with you up to a point." "I'm afraid I have to make a complaint. but…" "That's quite true. but I think there's something wrong with the air-conditioning." "I'm afraid there's a slight problem with my room . I think you've given me the wrong change"." "(I'm afraid) I disagree. it is important that governments involve individuals in the problem solving process. not $10. but there's a problem with the heating in my room." "What strange weather we're having!" Agreeing in English Agreeing in English "I think you're right. or "Sorry. They should involve companies. they should make laws that limit the amount of greenhouse gases that companies can emit. and this should be compulsory for everyone." Disagreeing strongly "I don't agree at all." Strong agreement "You're absolutely right. Governments should spend money on public transport to make it as easy as possible for the public to save energy. For example they should encourage households to save as much energy as possible by using more efficient light bulbs or less hot water. by supporting research. Firstly." "I couldn't agree with you less. governments can support research. They can act in three ways." "(I'm afraid) I don't agree. by making laws and by keeping the general public informed. Language Functions Some examples of conversation starters "Lovely day. everybody is affected by global warming. Letters and Language Functions governments do not act to help control global warming. they should sponsor conferences to discuss the effects of greenhouse gas emissions and possible solutions to the problem. In summary. I gave you $20. it is clear that there are a lot of things that governments can do to combat global warming.
" "Sorry to hear that . but I've got something else on. I'm Maria. I'm Maria." Or "Hello. "Let me introduce myself.6 | Essays. I'm Peter Mitchell. That would be very kind of you. What about the 6th?" "I'm sorry." Greeting people you don't know "Good morning / afternoon / evening. Thursday is fine. what about yourself?" "Not bad. have you met my colleague John?" "Sarah. I'd love one. thanks." Or." At work-related events "I'd like to introduce myself." "Pleased to meet you." "I'm really sorry. my name's Maria. Sarah. that would be lovely." "Thursday suits me. thanks." "How was your trip?" or "Did you find our office easily?" Introducing yourself At an informal party "Hello." Or. Could we meet on Tuesday instead?" Making invitations Inviting "Would you be interested in coming to the cinema with me tonight?" "How do you fancy going out for a meal at the weekend?" Accepting "I'd love to. "No thank you.I'll get someone to check it for you. please?' ." Making requests Asking someone to do something for you "Could you open the door for me." Suggesting a different date "I'm afraid I can't on the 3rd." "How do you do? I'm Peter Mitchell from ……." "Nice to meet you. John." English greetings Two friends meeting "Hi! How are you?" "How are things?" “Hello!" "How's life?" "Fine thanks. I won't be able to make it on Monday." Or "Nice to meet you." "That's very kind of you. John." "Hi." Making appointments Asking to meet "Are you available on the 17th?" "Can we meet on the 16th?" "Are you free next week?" "Would Friday suit you?" "What about sometime next week?" Agreeing on a date "Yes." "No thanks. I'm Maria from ……. I'm Sarah. and you?" "Fine thanks. thanks. I'm Sarah.I'll send someone up. but actually I'm doing something else on Saturday. I'd like you to meet my colleague John. I'm Sarah." Or "Hello." Introducing other people "Sarah." "What a great idea. "Yes please. from France." Or "Hello Maria." Or "Nice to meet you. from Egnland. Letters and Language Functions "I'm sorry ." "Yes please." "Thursday would be perfect. Sarah." Making offers "Can I help you?" Would you like me to… ? "Can I help you?" "Shall I open the window for you?" "Would you like another coffee?" Responding to offers "Yes please." "Nice to meet you too. please?" "Can you open the door for me.." Or." Declining "That's very kind of you.
" "I'm not feeling very well." "He quite likes going to the cinema." "She's fond of chocolate." "I'm not sleeping very well at the moment." "Have you considered…"" Do you think it's a good idea to…" "I suggest visiting the Eiffel Tower." "I hate crowded supermarkets." "Perhaps we could…" Talking about likes and dislikes in English If you love or like something "I love eating ice-cream." "I like cooking." "You look a little pale." "I think I'm going down with a cold. please?" "Do you mind if I turn up the heating?" "Would you mind if I turned up the heating?" Suggestions in English "You should try to practise English." Mild illness "I have a bit of a stomach bug." "I like swimming very much." Making appointments Asking to meet "Are you available on the 17th?" "Can we meet on the 16th?" "Would Friday suit you?" ." "I suggest that you visit the Eiffel Tower." "I adore sun-bathing." If you don't like something "She doesn't like cooking very much. I would…" "You could always…" Giving your opinions Giving your opinion neutrally "I think…" "I feel that…" "In my opinion…" "As far as I'm concerned…" "As I see it…" "In my view…" "I tend to think that…" Giving a strong opinion "I'm absolutely convinced that…" "I'm sure that…" "I strongly believe that…" "I have no doubt that…" English expressions for asking someone's opinion "What do you think?" "What's your view?" "How do you see the situation?" How to talk about illness General aches and pains "I feel a bit under the weather." "I've got a splitting headache ." "I've got a nasty cough." "I have a touch of flu." "I advise you to buy a good dictionary." "I think I've got a bit of a temperature." "I feel a little faint." "If I were you. Letters and Language Functions "Would you mind opening the door for me. I've got a sore throat. please?" "Could I borrow some money from you." Sympathetic responses "I'm sorry to hear that." If you really dislike something "I don't like sport at all." "You don't look very well.7 | Essays. I would…" "Have you thought about…" "You really ought to…" "Why don't you…" "In your position. I'd watch more television." "She loathes celery." "He detests being late." "He's not very fond of doing the gardening." "He can't stand his boss." If you neither like nor dislike something "I don't mind doing the housework.I hope it's not a migraine." Rephrasing expressions "What I meant to say was…" "Let me put this another way…" "Perhaps I'm not making myself clear…" "If we go back to the beginning…" Giving advice in English "If I were you." "Why don't you join an English club?" "You ought to read more. please?" Asking if you can do something "Can I use your computer." "She can't bear cooking in a dirty kitchen." "I dislike wasting time." "I've got a slight headache.
Bye! Yours affectionately. It is very much exciting. You can also have a sight of the Kathmandu from the Dharahara. please give me a ring. You should not miss to visit the Narayanhiti Museum too. Can we make another time?" Letters 17 Sallaghari Bhaktapur 10 July 2010 My Dear Karuna." Suggesting a different date "I'm afraid I can't on the 3rd. National Zoo in Jawalakhel. Priyanka . Can we fix another time?" "Something has just cropped up and I won't be able to meet you this afternoon. You will never feel that you have had enough. How is everybody at home? Do convey my regards to your parents and love to your little brother. The weather these days is quite wonderful. Thursday is fine. I won't be able to make it on Monday. Thank you for writing to me." "I'm afraid that I'm not going to be able to meet you after all." "Thursday suits me. I hope you’ll be able to visit me during your stay here. The hills around the valley are worth watching. The climate in Kathmandu is a bit cold in comparison to Biratnagar. But you should reach there as earlier as 4:30 a. When you are here. many places to visit. you should also go to Nagarkot to see the sun rise. My happiness knew no bounds when I received your letter this morning. see you in Kathmandu. but something urgent has come up. I will also accompany you. Once you are here you will have many things to see. Dakshinkali.8 | Essays. Can we meet up on the 19th?" Changing the arrangement "You know we were going to meet next Friday? Well. If you have time. Swoyambhunath. Before you come to visit here let me tell you something about this place as you have also asked me to do so. Mahaboudha. Could we meet on Tuesday instead?" "I really don't think I can on the 17th. What about the 6th?" "I'm sorry. Also write as soon as you can with all your news. Okay. I am very pleased to know that you are visiting Kathmandu with your parents during the upcoming holidays.m. Karuna. all three durbar squares and many more religious sites. The places that will be of interest to you are definitely the Pasupatinath Temple. Letters and Language Functions "How does the 3rd sound to you?" "Are you free next week?" Agreeing on a date "Yes." "Thursday would be perfect. I can’t tell you how much I miss you! Though I have made some friends here. I'm very sorry. none of them has become as close as you were.
I am a young Nepali citizen of 18. You have given freely of your time and life to raise me and you made it look so easy. Next year I want you to be more delighted with me because I’m going to keep my grades up and go to school every day except when I’m sick! Love always. The reason why I’m writing this letter is because one of our teachers Mrs. I would like to apply for the same post. I have also 6 months of experience in handling customers’ money transaction in Subha Fincance Company. You have also taught me how to have friends and work things out. Today I went to class and I have already completed all my work. Since my qualifications and experience best fit your job criteria. You have given me manners and taught to respect others. Bagbazar. I have recently completed my +2 in management from Kathmandu Model College. You have taught me everything. I have had the experience and training which would. It may be a great surprise to you as your daughter is writing to you today rather than giving you a call. This is in answer to your advertisement for the post of a Cashier advertised in the Kathmandu Post of 12 January. Kathmandu Dear Sir. Thank you mom for all the qualities and abilities you have inculcated in me. I have grown up thanks to you and daddy who made me go to school even though I didn’t want to. I realize all that you and Dad sacrificed for me.9 | Essays. as you already know that I have been trying my hardest at school so you could be happy with me. Aditi Job Application for the position of a Cashier Bagbazar. Letters and Language Functions A Letter to a Mom Biratnagar 6 February 2010 Dear Mom. Now that I am grown up. Kathmandu 17 January 2010 The Human Resource Manager Nepal Investment Bank Branch Office New Road. I also have the ability to use basic computer applications. I would appreciate the opportunity to show you how I can help your institution meet its goals in the detailed . Rai asked us to write a letter to an important person and I picked you. Putalisadak. and I can’t begin to list them all. Well. and the efforts you made to keep me safe and healthy. I want to say thank you for so many things. I think enable me to fill such a position satisfactorily.
Letters and Language Functions interview. I have enclosed my updated CV and other credentials hereunder which will further illustrate my employment background. I also assure you that I will join the duty and do the necessary works from Sunday. So. I have to undergo a minor operation on 3 September and the doctor has advised me to take complete rest for at least four days. Bhaktapur 1 September 2010 The ……. I am looking forward to working in your team.. I am sure I can contribute to your organization.e.Officer …………………. ………………… Dipen Rai (Post/Rank) . Therefore. and which would allow me to readily fit into your sought position. Kathmandu Dear Sir. Sincerely yours. from 3 September to 7 September. I would like to bring to your kind notice that I have got a problem with my left foot. I further confirm you that I am ready to face all the norms of selection. …………………. I am attaching a copy of appointment letter. Sincerely yours. I request you to grant me leave for five days i. Pujan Subedi Pujan Subedi Leave letter Kamalbinayak.10 | Essays. Please consider my request at your earliest convenience.
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