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Geographical Approaches Wouter de Vries Anne Visscher Don Misha Gerritsen
1-12-2005 5929 wrds 15 pgs
5. Introduction (Post)modernism Bauman’s (post)modernism Bauman’s globalization Bauman’s glocalization Conclusions References Page 3 Page 4 Page 7 Page 8 Page 12 page 14 Page 16 2 . 7. 3. 2. 4.Contents 1. 6.
the world is socially constructed. In this paper Bauman is seen as a postmodernist. contingency and ambivalence. Another important concept is glocalization. Modernism is a way of thinking in which society is based on rational knowledge. postmodernism and globalization according to a prominent thinker regarding these issues: Zygmunt Bauman. This annihalation can be explained with two species of pressures on the nationstate. Gerritsen Abstract The subject of this paper is the view on modernism. Postmodernism is seen as way of thinking contrasting modernism. The human consequences of globalization are examined. de Vries A. In his opinion the most visible characteristics of this modernity are institutionalised pluralism. and referred to his conception about Harvey’s ‘time-space compression’: decreasing distances in time and space. simultaneity and juxtaposition and the demise of the centred subject. Hence. variety. Visscher D. From that perspective there is no universal truth.M. It leads to the annihilation of the nation-state.Zygmunt Bauman’s (post)modernism and globalization W. These pressures can described as globalization. Other important issues of modernism are aesthetic self-consciousness. According to Bauman glocalization is implied as a restratification of society based on freedom and movement. Bauman’s ideas were applied to the concept of globalization. Firstly: pressures from below such as substate nationalism and a large economic difference between the core and periphery. Secondly: pressures from above such as economic intergration. 3 .
2 (Post)modernism 2. art. The application gives insights in nation state and its aspects like pressures from above and pressures from below. postmodernism and globalization. papers and documents. postmodernism can be seen as a wide set of developments in critical theory. Next to that. Bauman’s approaches to globalization are examined in the fourth paragraph. The second paragraph assesses the differences between the two ideologies and the approach of Bauman concerning these ways of thinking. because of their ambivalent history and plurality of related opinions. philosophy. literature and daily life had become outdated. It encouraged the idea of reexamination of every aspect of existence. The emancipatory project of enlightenment reasoning was to lead to certain and universal truths. Globalization is a word that’s often used for widely spread occurring processes. Bauman is seen as a postmodernist himself. modernism and Baumans interpretations of these issues. The modern movement emerged in the late 19th century. these processes will be connected to the ideologies of a prominent thinker regarding these issues: Zygmunt Bauman. music and literature emerging in the decades before 1914. In this paper. Modernism can be seen as a way of ordering the social world and making decisions based on a rationale. In the first paragraph both modernism and postmodernism are exposed. to have a better insight in the way with which developments these terms came into existence. and culture. This paper tries to make connections between these mentioned issues. For his typical way of thinking. architecture. In relation to this.1 Modernism In this paragraph the modernistic ideology is exposed. The main goal is to relate postmodernism. art.1 Introduction Modernism can be seen as a cultural movement regarding fields of art and architecture. which are generally characterized as either emerging from or in reaction to the cultural movement of modernism. The results of this examination are poured in a practical application of the concept ‘glocalization’ in the fifth paragraph. psychology and geography. The subject of this paper is Zygmunt Bauman’s approaches to modernism. Bauman has elaborated many works in sociology. It is an attempt to establish the scope and the limits of the faculties of reason. rationality and industry promised to transform the world for the better. The power of science. Both of these terms are hard to define. He has written many provocative and scientific books. and was rooted in the idea that ‘traditional’ forms of social organization. also called ’world-binding processes’. This would lay the foundations for humanities progress 2 . and that it was therefore essential to reinvent culture. knowledge and judgement. a calculability and an adherence to the rules of expert knowledge 1 . as artists rebelled against late 19th century traditions. A universal truth for all people at all times. The effects of globalization are mentioned and investigated in the third paragraph. several aspects related to globalization will be exposed. literature. 1 2 Mourad (1997) Enpsychlopedia (2005) 4 .
limited and partial vantage points from which to view events. First. and that people should adapt to their worldview to accept that what was new was also good and beautiful 4 .. (2000) 6 Lunn (1985) 7 Johnston et al. and many commentators treat Modernism as both a critique of and a response to a series of major crises within capitalist Modernity at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. the aggressive advance of European colonialism and imperialism and also the turbulence of the first World War and the Russian Revolution 9 .political rationalisation: subjection of and total control over politics . Lunn argues. including the critical inquiries of the ‘Frankfurter Schule 12 ’. (2000) 8 Ibid. ‘Modern artists often draw attention to the media or materials with which they are working’. 3 4 Mourad (1997) Enpsychlopedia (2005) 5 Johnston et al. ‘simultaneity and juxtaposition’. Its historic-geographical characteristics include: the explosive growth of modern cities and radical transformations of their built forms. Lunn identifies four major preoccupations of aesthetic modernism in the early twentieth century that provide a useful series of formal coordinates 6 : Firstly. ambiguity and uncertainty’. Modernism often exposes and disrupts the fiction of the sovereign individual or ‘the integrated subject 8 ’. ‘and in doing so establish the status of their work as a ‘fiction’ in the literal sense of ‘something made’: they thus seek to escape from the idea of art as a direct reflection of the world 7 . different perspectives are often placed side by side within the same frame. Modernism often disrupts. According to Johnston et al 5 . This also had dramatic repercussions on far beyond the shores of Europe and North America 11 . Modernism often explores what Lunn calls ‘the paradoxical many sidedness of the world’. Secondly.scientific rationalisation: the possibility of gaining objective knowledge Modernists argued that the new realities of the 20th century were permanent and imminent. modernism was based on three starting points 3 : . These shifts did not emerge in a vacuum. Even in such an abbreviated form. this cultural mapping has three implications of direct relevance to human geography.economic rationalisation: subjection of and total control over nature . economies and cultures. the ‘aesthetic self-consciousness’. Fourthly.According to the French (postmodern) philosopher Lyotard. ‘the demise of the centred subject’. 9 Timms and Kelley (1985) 10 Kern (1983) 11 Rabinow (1989) 12 Pippin (1991) 5 . modernism was connected not only to experimentation in the arts but also to philosophical reflection and the formation of the social sciences. ‘paradox. Secondly. Thirdly. especially through the Agricultural Depression at the end of the nineteenth century and the intensified technical changes brought about by a new round of industrialization. these episodes brought with them significant changes in conceptions of time and space in the west 10 . Modernist writers may deploy multiple. the restructuring of European capitalism. weakens or dissolves temporal structure in favour of an ordering based on simultaneity.
There are no longer any universal terms of reference for people to make sense of their lives. To set any sort of ethical criteria in order to criticise the practices or beliefs of others is wrong. the awareness that such narratives serve to mask the contradictions and instabilities that are inherent in any social organization or practice. and that ‘order’ really is rational and good. reason.’ group. Hence no criteria of validation are available which could be themselves justified ‘out of context’. coloured and organized by the ideas and expectations of the observer. rather than large-scale universal or global concepts. or awareness and recognition of this pluralism. or stability 16 . language. In other words. It can be seen as a worldview that emphasizes the existence of different worldviews and concepts of reality. given by Knox and Marston: ‘Postmodernism is a view of the and a distrust and lack of faith in ideologies and world that emphasizes openness to a religious beliefs that could not be tested using scientific methods. et cetera which makes it possible and endows it with meaning. Regarding postmodernism. Any postmodern thinker could say: ‘We are no longer bound by the conditions of modernity. Whereas modernism emphasized a trust in the empirical scientific method. and political empowerment 13 . As a reaction on modernism. Postmodernism. local events. Without universal standards. Observations are steered and selected. Things which are plural in the postmodern world cannot be arranged in an evolutionary sequence. including science as the primary form of knowledge. Postmodernism accepts that reality is fragmented and that personal identity is an unstable quantity transmitted by a variety of cultural factors. the problem of the postmodern world is not how to globalize superior culture. communal traditions. 15 Best (2005) 16 Klages (2001) 6 . artistic expression. Postmodernism then is the critique on these grand narratives. making no claim to universality. but a grand narrative masks the constructedness of these categories by explaining that ‘disorder’ really is chaotic and bad. depend on ‘grand narratives’. stories that explain small practices. Neither can they be classified as ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ solutions to common problems.2 Postmodernism This paragraph. ideologies. No knowledge can be assessed outside the context of the culture. The main feature ascribed to postmodernism is the permanent and irreducible pluralism of cultures. rather than one A definition of postmodernism is ‘correct’ or ‘true’ one. the Postmodernistic ideology is exposed. in rejecting grand narratives. because we can not apply our own values to others’ 15 . 13 14 Knox and Marston (2004) Ibid. favours ‘mini-narratives’. postmodernism emerged in academic studies in the mid-80’s of last century. Society was said to have moved into a new phase which left many of our old assumptions behind 14 . postmodernism emphasizes that a range of perspectives in social particular reality is a social construction by a specific inquiry. or be seen as each other's inferior or superior stages. community or class of persons. provisional. contingent. every attempt to create ‘order’ always demands the creation of an equal amount of ‘disorder’. truth. Postmodernism claims that there are no universal philosophical foundations for human thought or action and all truth is culture bound. Truth can only be a degree of social agreement from within a particular tradition. We can no longer judge on the grounds of truth and knowledge and justice. but how to secure communication and mutual understanding between cultures. tradition. Postmodern mini-narratives are always situational. the French Philosopher Lyotard argues that all aspects of modern societies.2. and temporary.
means to live in a world where ‘everything that is solid melts into air 17 ’. culture. a direction driven by universalization. managed and rational set of state actions. representation (what is) Practices.'Modernity conscious of its true nature 22 ' . There is a firm belief that progress can only be sustained by the state ignoring the judgements of individuals and acting in what is believed to be its own interests.A form of Modernity which is self-critical. Every attempt is made to preclude any activities which may destabilise society in its struggle for survival 20 . systemisation and rationalisation. which. 7 . He says that modernity is a form of society which has 'disqualified any uncertified agency'. modernity is a 'movement with a direction 18 '. This suggests that for most people life is nasty. experience Rationalisation Relativism Absolutism Deconstruction (what becomes) Discover. attitudes and beliefs.and postmodern issues and related ways of thinking. unless they have order imposed on them by the state 19 . 22 Ibid. modernity can be understood as the socio-cultural experience of life under the wings of modernization. For Bauman. This works on people to bring about the homogenisation of individuals. Modernity is seen as being about destroying the meaning of life. achieved through erasing differences between them (termed by him as 'a state administered universal identity 21 ’). discourses Objectivity. Postmodernism Modernism (Inter)subjectivity. self denigrating and self dismantling 17 18 Gren (1994) Bauman (1992) 19 Klages (2001) 20 Bauman (1992) 21 Ibid. the outcome of a planned. ethics and politics. That is to say. who are expected to share similar values. facts Identification. above all. systems Hybrid Categories Heterotopia Utopia Reasoning from foundation upwards Multiple factors and levels of reasoning Universal scientific optimism Scientific realism of limitations Parts comprise the whole The whole is more than the parts Language is referential Language has meaning in social context Figure 1: comparison between modernism and postmodernism 3 Bauman’s (post)modernism Zygmunt Bauman is described variously as one of the foremost sociologist of postmodernism. within modernity there is a movement by the state towards the uniformity of its residents. strategies Structures. theory. For Bauman. Modernity is a social totality. interactions.share fashions and passions in accepted ways. For Bauman postmodernity is viewed as: .Figure 1 gives an overview of modern. He was a leading contributor to the postmodernism debate. modernity is a way of organising society which is geared towards resolving the problem of order. brutish and short. Bauman has published a series of books that sketch out a postmodern turn in society.
it’s an important remark that time-space compression is not Zygmunt Bauman’s concept. ‘changes in contemporary society and culture require new modes of thought. According to him.a situation where action is not determined by factors outside human control.1 Globalization according to Bauman To understanding Bauman’s ideas one must have a notion about time-space compression. developing sketches of social and cultural changes of our time. Bauman poses fundamental challenges to contemporary social theory and provides an original and provocative postmodern version of the sociological imagination. and the ways in which theory and politics must be changed to creatively map and democratically respond to these questions. 4 Bauman’s globalization This paragraph introduces Bauman’s ideas about globalization. the redundancy of intellectual legitimation in the presence of seduction and repression and the loss of control over culture. the spatial-. Hence. Because this concept is an idea of David Harvey.. it can be seen that time – space compression and glocalization are important aspects. morality and politics to appropriately respond to the new social conditions. Firstly. cultural. purity. But Baumans approaches about the effects of globalization differ from Harvey’s approaches. contingency and ambivalence 23 ' Bauman is particularly concerned with the issue of ambivalence. variety. experience of intellectuals in the historical/social context of erosion of global structures of domination. Postmodernity has its own distinctive features which are self contained and self reproducing. 4. Society has challenges to conventional wisdom held to the concepts of beauty. and order for and practice. The second part consists out of the effects of globalization according to Bauman. Time-space compression is introduced by David Harvey in his book ‘The Condition of Postmodernity 27 ’. defined by the individual's quest for sublime require serious critical responses to his happiness at the expense of security. With this. Bauman's critical reflections on modern theory and Bauman: ‘The postmodern era can be said to be society. In postmodern politics this ambivalence becomes the main dimension of inequality. now a new worldview has emerged with postmodernism is a kind of reflexive the individual at its nucleus 26 ’. centuries.The most visible characteristic of this modernity for itself are 'institutionalised pluralism. We will 23 24 Bauman (1992) Best (2005) 25 Anderson (2001) 26 Bauman (1992) 27 Harvey (1989) 8 . According to Bauman. as access to knowledge is the key to freedom and enhanced social standing. and his postmodern turn. his approaches to globalization are strongly related to Harvey’s conceptions on this point. constructed within a cognitive space which is very different from that of modernity 24 . Ambivalence is characterised by action which takes place within a habitat where individual human agents have to choose between many rival and contradictory meanings.and political consequences of globalization will be examined. This requires a reconfiguration of critical social theory and new tasks for a postmodern sociology 25 ’.
At that time. All these developments have their influence on the concept space. The ‘megalopolis’ is a good example of this. Zygmunt Baumans approaches regarding this subject will specifically be stressed. In the middle ages the most common vehicle used was a horse coach. This paragraph is a general introduction to Bauman’s ideas. 31 Harvey (1989) 32 Harvey (2000) 33 Ibid (2005) 34 Harvey (1989) 35 Bauman (1989) 9 . Another aspect of time-compression is the large global influence at one place. critical theories on culture and modernism. Nowadays. loss of identity and senselessness. 4. with relation to the time needed for travelling. searching for possible solutions. He questions dilemma’s with which society has to cope in the absence of a guidebook or instruction’s manual.examine the effects in the next paragraph. such as education. geography is nowhere 33 . such as the increased mobility and internationalization of capital 29 . Two of these developments are of particular importance. Harvey uses the word ‘compression’ because it characterizes the shrinking of space. News items from anywhere in the world can reach you in fifteen minutes. It means that the world becomes smaller and smaller. health services and entertainment 31 . Through these developments the world has become seventy times smaller between 1500 and 1960. The megalopolis is a result of time-space compression and globalization. This means that the pace of the life has speeded up 28 . traveling around the world has become much easier. The world is out of balance and it becomes a chaos 34 . for example. An important effect of this time – compression is the ‘annihilation’ or ‘erosion’ of space 32 . but rather they are being polarized 35 . When space and place is ‘boundaryless’ a human being is loosing his identity. Bauman emphasizes social movements. clothing. one could travel only 100 kilometers a day. The time in the world also declines. politics and morality. The result of this is a lack of referentiality and orientation. The first one is the increasing mass consumption of. Economically seen. called ‘space’. new communication technologies (mobile telephone) and new packaging technologies (just in time production) are responsible for this. we can point at globalization as a technological decrease of temporal/spatial distances of human conditions. socialism and class. In general. According to Kunstler. New technologies such as the computer. Claire and Hartman call this the ‘boundaryless space’ or ‘release of gravity’. It is a mix of different ingredients from the world surrounding any human being. 30 Ibid. Technological developments drive people more and 28 29 Harvey (2000) Ibid. with a speed of 16 km in an hour.2 Effects of globalization in Geography This paragraph deals with the human effects of globalization. The reasons for this shrinking of space and speed-up are the modernization of the world in the beginning of the twentieth century. It also has a disorienting impact on the social. These conditions are not being homogenized. cultural and political world. The second important development is the shift from a consumption of goods to an increasing consumption of services. lifestyles and recreation. there’s a global world market with many global agencies such as global consumers and global producers. With these solutions on issues he tries to offer different opportunities in terms of freedom. In one day it’s possible to fly around the world by a 1000 km/h plane 30 . Through this development a typical postmodernistic worldview comes into existence.
3 billion poorest people which is 45 percent of the world’s population. 40 Ibid. 38 Ibid. In effect. hightech manufacturing and producer services are increasing and enhancing productivity and efficiency of other firms. In the first chapter of ‘Globalization: the human consequences’. 22 percent of the global wealth belongs to 80 percent of the world population. in the course of which a new socio-cultural hierarchy. suppliers. China Malaysia. Mexico. nor the locality in which it is situated 39 ’. Globalization has given more opportunities for the extremely wealthy to make money more quickly. Firstly the new international division of labour manifested from the ‘90’s. Similarly. he states: ‘The company belongs to people who invest in it – not to its employees. quickly and efficiently. This system includes innovations such as solar energy. This pressure on human decision making tends to put consequences towards polarised outcomes. new specializations of international division labour have emerged. In this work. robotics. 39 Ibid. microelectronics. the States noticed rising competitiveness of Japan and Europe as industrial producers. These individuals have utilized the latest technologies to move large sums of money around the globe extremely quickly and speculate ever more efficiently. Moreover. Globalization of economic activities has also brought significant flows of capital into New Industrial Countries (NIC’s) such as Argentina. A third factor contributing to globalization is a new technology system. Secondly. He stresses that a war in the last quarter of a century has developed over the act of businessmen investing in local taxes. he illustrates the struggle of the worlds’ society over a narrow 36 37 Bauman (1989) Ibid. is put together. Within the core regions of the world. a new technology system and a homogenization of consumer markets. The volume of international investment and financial trading has created a need for banks and financial institutions that can handle investments on a large scale. Changes in destinations have also been influencing the globalization processes. Bauman often refers to Dunlap’s work ‘The celebrator of rationalizing modern enterprise’. For example United States involved more employment abroad. Thanks to this reorganization an extending of the global reach of finance and industry are allowed a more flexible approach to investment and trade. The idea of global banking and globally integrated financial markets is a directly related to massive increase in levels of international direct investments 37 . Nerve centres of these financial institutions are allocated in just a few places 38 . These are: a new international division of labour. but also decentralised manufacturing production from core areas to peripheral countries. Brazil. By saying this. the total wealth of the top 358 global billionaires equals the incomes of 2. Singapore and South Korea. an internationalization of finance. ‘The companies of those businessmen felt no responsibility for ‘invalids’ and other ‘human waste 40 ’. biotechnology and digital telecommunication and information systems. 10 . These new technologies insisted on a geographical reorganisation of core economies. A second factor in the cause of globalization is the internationalization of finance. the growth of consumer markets has increased. across great distances. Bauman states that globalization of the past quarter century is mainly caused by four important and inter-related factors36 .more to set their minds and decisions on acts in space in short time notice. a world-wide scale. It is obvious that the world is under a kind of process of new stratification.
Every individual seems to search for freedom of territorial impact. ‘The world is at our feet!’ Like mentioned in paragraph 5. Every human feels the need to reduce the difference and inequalities by force. Furthermore. An immense problem which shows every now and then is the irreducibility of difference. In the book ‘Globalization: the human consequences’. Bauman states that Nowadays people are less restricted to life. Communication in these circumstances is a constantly renewed search. The encounter with otherness puts us to a test. using more space and less time. of otherness. He questions whether it was created by a mixture of the mysterious forces of a new technology and the new global competitiveness or if it was a war planned in advance. It is seen as the Great War of Independence from Space. Freedom of movement and other forms of mobility illustrate the newly developed hierarchies of the post-space-war. Certain class levels want to shed off the responsibility for the consequences of the dividing of financial flows. Universal development of technical means allow us to make contact with different cultures and societies more often and faster. Bauman examines this struggle. according to the term globalization. In both globalization as well as unversalization lay the convictions of searching for a world order. the technological annulment of temporal/spatial distances tends to polarize it. For as far as freedom of movement and the self constitution of societies is concerned. Along with that the state lost military capacity. It shows the new weightlessness of power. In a nutshell: rather than homogenizing the human condition. People around the world are more free to trade and disconnection of power from obligation leads to a decreasing awareness of free floating local capital. Globalization is Jowitts’ new world disorder. Why does this worldly image of a man made wilderness. it could just have been a series of scattered and often unanticipated warlike actions. Information flows independently from its carriers. economic self sufficiency and cultural distinctiveness 41 . As for the shareholders in the company mentioned above. Non alignment was the obstacle that held some African state from 41 Bauman (1989) 11 . The power of their travelling is totally unimportant to that web. The new definition of Globalization refers to the global effects.conception of justice and equalities. declared and with its goals clearly defined. such as equal wealth or well-being. Global politics concerned itself with maintaining sovereignty over the state’s territories. But the web they are spreading is not dependant on the travel. Acting in shorter time notice. On the other hand this confrontation may generate the challenge of communication. Because of this we are. humans can undertake endeavours. At the same time it shows the struggle with fear of uncertainty for the future. The blocks promoted coordination between the realm of Meta sovereignty and the economic and cultural insufficiency. emerge? Maybe it is because mankind is increasingly realizing its own impotency of controlling inequalities in mobility. time space compression becomes obvious. rather than to global initiatives and understandings. in a way. work and recreation (to consume) in a limited amount of space. forced to create and constitute our own societies quicker. Elite people travel faster and further than before. Creating this sovereign state required the undermining of state formative ambitions of declining populations. they have the power to move the company to a place where there are more dividends. Two power blocks in the African Unity were formations of states from almost fifty years ago. The habitual. Only few states and their populations were able to create their own prospect of a sovereign state. taken-for-granted agencies showed that pride of place throughout the modern era belonged only to the state.
Bauman’s glocalization An important aspect of Bauman’s approaches to globalization is the process of glocalization. Any attempt of state to interfere with economic life is rigidly condemned by the world markets. In the first subparagraph. the world market always keeps an eye on weak states. to re-forge social issues into effective collective action. One of the most rapidly spreading consequences of the new global freedom of movement is that it becomes increasingly difficult. The dominating way of thinking. These technologies connect the global platform with the local platform. It is also a combination of deterritorialisation and reterritorialisation. maybe impossible. In this part glocalization will be applied to recent geographical issues. an exact definition of glocalization will be given. The term was first used in the 1990s by the British sociologist Roland Robertson. The ideas of Bauman are in contradiction to the examined definition of glocalization. States can not withstand the power of globalization because of their lack of resources of freedom for the population. liberalization. They are implicitly oppressed by processes of globalization. and cultural self efficiency was no longer part of reality.1 Glocalization In general the term glocalization is defined as ‘The creation of products or services intended for the global market. But they have to remain states in order to misuse this separation between state and the world of economics. 5. The world of economics and the world economy speak out a meaning: ‘the area of the nonpolitical’. it was its demise that made the idea of statehood gain popularity.sympathizing and taking over the state coordination. This means that the prospective of military-. Global financial markets impose their laws and percepts on the planet. This can be exemplified by the use of a computer by a farmer in Africa. Globalization is nothing more than a totalitarian extension of the logic of these markets on all aspects of life. The second subparagraph analysis of a recent geographical issue with relation to glocalization will be exposed. This means that the applications of the computer are easier than in the Western world. According to Bauman. Although sovereignty was increasing throughout the world. 5. social-. is at the moment: ‘releasing the brakes’. the less power is in the hands of the agency that carries out that message. An important aspect of glocalization is the development of communication technologies. This concept is a contradictory combination of the words globalization and localization. Deregulation. glocalization implies ‘a restratification of society based on freedom and movement 43 ’. However. The stronger these thoughts are presented. increasing fluidity and facilitating transactions on real estate markets and labour markets. thanks to the global market. flexibility. Sovereignty declined as these states had to seek alliances in order to retain their law and order policing ability. but customized to suit the local culture 42 ’. The use of this computer is customized in the local culture by decreasing its price (lower than the price in Europa or US) and the applications are modified to the knowledge of the farmer. The first process is the increasing economical activities outside and over the level of the nationstate (as internationalization of capital) and the latter is the paradoxical claim to form new 42 43 Enpsychlopedia (2005) Hubbard (2004) 12 .
one can distinguish the European level. not very interested in the rest of the world because of their own concerns. where Belgium began its struggle of independence from Holland. invented national traditions). cultural backgrounds and the development of languages. in which local aspects of glocalization will be determined. For example. Like the Basks in Spain. Large parts of the French speaking people. Because of the locality and the annihilated opportunities. generally speaking. in South Belgium. together with possible cultural. Bauman stated that glocalization is globalization for some.nation-states 44 . cultural and linguistic differentiation is strong. 47 Storey (2001) 48 Ibid. people can’t reach out of their dominion. glocalization also means: ‘Globalization for some. 49 Ibid. It is a country that constantly finds itself in a linguistic based struggle between the French. social and religious backgrounds.2 Applications of glocalization In this paragraph applications to glocalization will be defined and explained. 50 Ibid. These effects cause an annihilation of the nation state. the national level or local level. Besides this. The framework in which these are elaborated is the subject glocalization. wanted to be liberated from the ‘nation state’ of Holland. This is the core of Bauman’ approaches to glocalization. Another distinctive quote of Bauman is: ’Some inhabit the globe. The most important thing is that these ‘sub ethnical’ groups create and see their own identity. The very heart of this distinction lies in history. Belgium can be seen as an example. It results in a worldwide re-ordening of society based on freedom and movement. The consequence of this development is a polarized world. is the creation of an identity (e. 13 . Namely.1 Pressure from below There are three general forms of pressures from below. 5. several people have tried to create their own independent political unity. Different aspects of the glocalization process are developing of socio-economic structures. others are chained to place 46 ’. which play a great role. We prefer the term sovereign state because the effects of glocalization have influences on the sovereignty of the state 49 . An important aspect inside this process. according to Bauman. Localization for others45 ’. pressures from below. and pressures from above. The localized people are tied to space and have an inferior existence with less opportunities to develop. There are two main effects of glocalization that will be examined. language division and core – periphery contrasts 50 . Sub state nationalism is the segregation of national identities into regional identities. The term nation state can also be explained as sovereign state 47 .2.g. 5. This tension proceeded into a language border 44 45 Hubbard (2004) Ibid.speaking part and the Dutch. This paragraph will expose these two pressures. This means that many people are then locally orientated and. 46 Ibid. These are sub state nationalism. and localization for others. In various European countries. There are different levels in which globalization occurs.speaking part. wherein global aspects will be described 48 . These two processes mean a morcellement of the nation-state. In the next paragraph we want to apply the consequences of a glocalized world with using the recent issue of the developing countries.
music and clothing for example are things that have simultaneously developed in a kind of trend. The segregation is not dominant anymore. economic effects and social – and cultural effects. Economical developments. and so. nowadays the question of a European identity coming into existence is asked. The nation state shows us that global as well as local processes maintain the phenomenon of glocalization. The spatial differentiation can be generally described as: ‘the periphery is conveyed as less developed and strongly dependent on the core 51 ’. These can also be called ‘core regions’ and ‘peripherical regions‘. Consequently. The enlightenment was supposed to lead to truth. By being less developed. Eventually this process turned into totality. as well as truth. localization for others. We can not make other practices or beliefs understand our truth by imposing it on them. imposing disorder elsewhere. The postmodern world’s query is how to secure communication and mutual understanding between cultures. Poverty and natural disasters seem to execute the phenomenon of globalization. One notices political effects. Our truth is relative. whereas in the early 19th century.2 Pressures from above The process of globalization delivers a variety of effects. In history. Society shifted towards a postmodern phase in which modernistic assumptions were left behind. 51 52 Storey (2001) Ibid.and several cultural differences. rationality and industrialization promised improvement and change for the better. one can come to these conclusions: In paragraph two the definition of modernism was given. The regulation of currency and the nations by European governance has increased since the EU was founded. Modernism tends to order the social world by rational. for example communication technologies. Globalization is not a universal phenomenon 52 . Wallonians and people from Brussels live together in a still culturally divided Belgium. Our truth may not be accepted by other cultures. to deduce this writing on glocalization. the urge to segregate from the nation state rises. Postmodern mini-narratives do not hide any theory behind masks and make no claim to universality. In the division of core and periphery. science. suggesting that order is rational and good. a so called ‘universal truth for all people at all times’. civil wars and political distress occurred because of this urge. the economic aspects are examined. calculable and adherent decisions. There will always be people living in local circumstances.2. the linguistic and cultural segregation was not so strong. 5. Recognition of pluralism in culture. one might say that both globalizing and localizing processes are intertwined globally. the nation state will continue to exist. Art. 14 . Like Bauman states: glocalization: globalization for some. Nowadays Flemish. have rapidly proved to be globally expanding over the last century. communal traditions and ideologies were adherent to that reaction. whether they have the opportunity to choose or not. after exposing these issues. In spite of these developments. Postmodernism is partly seen as a reaction on modernism and emphasizes on varying worldviews. 6 Conclusions Finally. In modernistic views. is put behind a mask in grand narratives. The European Union has played an important role. The consequences of creating order. So.
Bauman questions whether globalization is comparable to universalization. and the process of globalization were various important aspects discussed. This is a typification of polarization. globalization for others’. Developing countries seem unable to create a better (in terms of wealth) existence by themselves. In the 5th paragraph Bauman’s concept of glocalization is exposed and analysed. The erosion of global structures of domination and the opposite diversity of local mini narratives sketch the differences between modernism and post-modernism. Economics and communication systems have developed globally. there was no more homogenizing of a world order. People are fed with the economic idea of world binding flows of goods and money in indoctrinating manners. Sovereignty. the impact of the world economy in a global market has stressed Bauman’s approach of glocalization: ‘Localization for some. planned and rational set of state actions were sufficient for maintaining contemporary society. Paragraph four dealt with the term globalization and Bauman’s approaches to it. We now live in a world within reach of almost everything. and create the conditions to do so. like in time space compression such as proximity of different cultures in less space and time. State control over society lost in post-modernism and so. As we have discovered. 15 . Consequences were also discussed in this paragraph. The term implies a restratification of society based on freedom and movement. They are relying on the ‘first world’ to aid.In the third paragraph. others are bound to place’. He came to the conclusion that a modern. Bauman’s approach to modernism and postmodernism was conveyed. Bauman’s phrase: ’Some inherit the globe. The influences on the concept of space have changed life radically. Bauman thinks that states. cannot be achieved by globalization. which can be something universal. through modernity. attempted to achieve uniformity in society and its residents. Dealing with worldly matters. In paragraph four the effects of globalization on humanity were exposed. Territory is reset by glocalisation. The danger of being exploited by the ‘first world’ is unknown. implies that the ‘localized’ will barely have any chance of development. through which we have a world wide access now. In the end. In the last paragraph an application of glocalization was discussed. The rich are only trying harder to make themselves wealthier.
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