PROJECT FINAL REPORT

Grant Agreement number: 258512
Project acronym: EXALTED
Project title: Expanding LTE for Devices
Funding Scheme: IP
Period covered: from 1
st
Sept 2010 to 28
th
February 2013
Name of the scientific representative of the project's co-ordinator
1
, Title and Organisation: Dr.
Thierry Lestable, Sagemcom SAS.
Tel:
Fax:
E-mail: thierry.lestable@sagemcom.com
Project website
Error! Bookmark not defined.
address: http://www.ict-exalted.eu

1
Usually the contact person of the coordinator as specified in Art. 8.1. of the Grant Agreement.
Ref. Ares(2013)1099549 - 15/05/2013
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

During the past thirty months the EXALTED project has worked on M2M communications and delivered a
rich set of solutions addressing various aspects of a M2M system. The key objective of the project is to
establish scalable network architecture over 3GPP/LTE infrastructure and provide secure, energy-efficient and
cost effective communication solutions for low-end devices.
The project provided a scalable system architecture for M2M communications over 3GPP/LTE infrastructure
as a reference model, considering the features of 3GPP MTC and ETSI M2M architectures. Technical work
packages addressed different parts of the architecture and proposed novel solutions (which are discussed in the
following sections) for enhancing the functionalities and feature of the architecture. The proposed technical
solutions have been extensively studied using analytical models and/or simulations. Proof of concept test
platforms have also been developed and evaluations have been performed showing some of the key benefits of
EXALTED solutions.
The technical works of the project resulted in several journal and conference publications and contributions to
standards. Thanks to both a very detailed Standardization plan, and commitment from leading industry
partners, the EXALTED project has demonstrated its influence and impact towards SDOs (3GPP, ETSI) by
submitting and presenting a total of 48 contributions.
Regarding Dissemination, the consortium presented 53 papers with results of the EXALTED research at a
number of prestigious international conferences and workshops, such as IEEE WCNC.
The EXALTED project has also presented 11 articles in an international journal and has attended several
events where the project goals and scientific knowledge have been presented.
Last but not least, 14 (fourteen) patent applications have been filed partners in relation to technical
developments in EXALTED.
Three workshops were organized in major conferences, namely IEEE Globecom 2011, IEEE Globecom 2012,
and IEEE WCNC 2012 (jointly with external partners). The workshops included technical sessions, keynote
speeches, and panels, and were very fruitful in terms of discussions and new ideas.
A Summer School has been currently being organized in cooperation with other european projects (LOLA,
SmartSantander, …).
Finally, the overall outcomes and achievements of the EXALTED project, demonstrate true interest,
commitment and cooperation from partners, with a visibility, influence and impact among the whole
ecosystem thanks to active contributions, and lively participations to SDOs, industry groups that are shaping
the future of the related technologies.

1. EXALTED Concepts

The aim of EXALTED is to lay out the foundations of a new scalable network architecture supporting most
challenging requirements for future wireless communication systems and providing secure, energy-efficient
and cost-effective machine-to-machine (M2M) communications suitable for low end devices interacting over
3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) infrastructure.


Duration: Sept. 2010 – Feb. 2013 (30 Months)

Consortium: 14 partners
 Countries: 6
 Industrial (Operator): Vodafone Group
Services Limited (VGSL), Telekom Srbija (TKS)
 Industrial (Manufacturer): Sagemcom (SC),
Sierra Wireless (ex-Sagemcom Energy &
Telecom (SCET)), Gemalto (GTO), Alcatel-
Lucent Deutschland (ALUD), Ericsson d.o.o
Srbija (EYU)
 SME: TST Systemas SA (TST), Vidavo SA (VID)
 Research Centres: Commissariat à l’énergie
atomique et aux energies alternatives (CEA),
Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de
Catalunya (CTTC)
 Higher Education: University of Surrey (UNIS),
University of Dresden (TUD Vodafone Chair),
University of Piraeus Research Center (UPRC)

Total Budget: 10.3 M€
Maximum EC funding: 7 M€
Resources: 982 PM
Public Deliverables: 25
Website: http://www.ict-exalted.eu/
The EXALTED Consortium is also supported by an Advisory Board with representatives of standardization
body (ETSI), academics (University of Bremen, University of Austin), industry forum (NG Connect), market
research firm (IDATE).
2. Project Objectives and Challenges

EXALTED addresses important challenges posed to M2M systems and is proposing solutions to face the ever-
growing demand for diverse M2M applications with modest communication needs but with strong energy
limitations and network reliability requirements.
Network scalability and complexity issues resulting of the huge number of interacting autonomous devices are
also addressed.
M2M communications are often characterized by a need for both proximity and global communications.
Hence, to facilitate application developments, a unified framework for M2M systems and services integrated
with the rest of the all-IP networks for global coverage is being defined.
Other important challenges for economic viability of the EXALTED solutions are: a cellular M2M market
characterized by low revenue per device or service but with low churn, and interoperability and
standardization needs.
Then, EXALTED expects the following outcomes:
 A new scalable end-to-end network architecture over 3GPP LTE infrastructure aiming
towards an all-IP networking system for efficient and cost-effective M2M communications

 Cost, spectrum, and energy-efficiency of radio access technology and of mechanisms for M2M
applications co-existing with high capacity LTE networks

 Power and energy-efficient M2M devices gateways supporting low-cost autonomous
operations for months or years.

 Low-cost, automated, security and provisioning solutions for M2M communication over LTE

 Standardization and dissemination of project results

To sum up, the EXALTED vision, as illustrated in Figure 1 below, is that of “a new scalable network
architecture supporting the most challenging requirements for the future wireless communication systems and
providing secure, energy-efficient and cost effective Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications suitable
for low end devices” toward the future Internet of Things.



Figure 1: EXALTED vision

3. Work Achievements

During the past thirty months the EXALTED project has worked on M2M communications and delivered a
rich set of solutions addressing various aspects of a M2M system. The key objective of the project is to
establish scalable network architecture over 3GPP/LTE infrastructure and provide secure, energy-efficient and
cost effective communication solutions for low-end devices. The technical works of the project resulted
several journal and conference publications and contributions to standards.
The project provided a scalable system architecture for M2M communications over 3GPP/LTE infrastructure
as a reference model, considering the features of 3GPP MTC and ETSI M2M architectures. Technical work
packages addressed different parts of the architecture and proposed novel solutions (which are discussed in the
following sections) for enhancing the functionalities and feature of the architecture. The proposed technical
solutions have been extensively studied using analytical models and/or simulations. Proof of concept test
platforms have also been developed and evaluations have been performed showing some of the key benefits of
EXALTED solutions.
Since the main focus of EXALTED is future M2M network(s) based on 3GPP LTE network framework, the
EXALTED system architecture, a novel LTE-M system has been proposed and a complete set of protocol
stack is specified. The main components, including novel frame structure, PHY/MAC layer techniques, RRC
layer solutions, and multicast/broadcast mechanisms have been developed within the project. A complete
evaluation of LTE-M system concepts under different scenarios has also been performed. The novel solutions
resulted from this work lead to several contributions to 3GPP.
E2E M2M communications require efficient and reliable operations of devices directly or indirectly connected
to the LTE/LTE-M access, network. The support of capillary networks (i.e. the networks with indirectly
connected devices) brings more added value to the EXALTED system architecture for example in terms of
flexibility (support of different access technologies, remote device management, etc.) scalability (number of
devices supported, etc.), and extended coverage. Different device categories have been defined in EXALTED,
and the devices with no LTE-M access interface are put in the capillary networks behind M2M gateway(s).
For efficient networking of such devices various protocols and algorithms including cooperative MAC
techniques and IP networking techniques with novel address translation mechanisms for constrained devices
have been proposed. Further, novel lightweight device management protocols and framework, data
aggregation techniques, and network monitoring framework for constrained devices have also proposed. An
integrated system incorporating the proposed techniques has also been defined, with evaluation results under
different scenarios. Contributions have been made to IETF based on novel IP networking solution for
constrained devices.
Providing low cost automated authentication and device provisioning solutions as well as security of the
provisioning of M2M communications in LTE-M and inside capillary networks is another key objective of the
project. Towards this objective, a new type of secure element, called embedded secure element has been
defined with several of its variants to support different scenarios studied by the project. This embedded
element proposal has been further supported by novel remote provisioning techniques identified within the
project. How to delegate the authentication with the support of M2M gateway has also been investigated. The
security requirements for broad/multicast communication and P2P relaying have been detailed, and initial
specifications for securing such communications have been completed. The final evaluations on the proposed
solutions have been performed and recommendations are made for the communication scenarios seen in the
EXALTED system. Based on the security solutions, several contributions have been made to ETSI.
Improving the energy efficiency of devices is another key objective of the project. Several techniques,
including optimized sleep wake-up cycles for LTE-M devices, novel MAC procedures and Linux kernel
improvement techniques for reducing the power consumption have been proposed to improve the energy
efficiency of M2M devices. A self-diagnostic module architecture together with novel features has been
proposed to improve the reliability of the devices. In addition, a demonstrator prototyping has been made
incorporating an energy-efficient, reliable and secure M2M module for demonstrating the security features of
M2M devices and pairing mechanisms.
EXALTED has prototyped couple of test platforms for demonstrating some of the key features of the technical
solutions proposed by the project partners. Integration of technical solution into the test platforms has been
completed. Demonstrations of selected test platforms have been performed in several occasions such as Future
Networks and Mobile Summit 2012. The validation of selected EXALTED system concepts on the test
demonstrator platforms has been completed.
3.1 WP2
WP2 provided reference use cases, deployment scenarios and business models for evolved M2M
communications as well as the technical requirements for LTE-M, heterogeneous M2M networking, security
functionalities, and device management. Moreover, WP2 gathered, coordinated and aligned the innovations
resulting from the work in all the technical work-packages and established the unified EXALTED system
concept. The performance of the EXALTED system was evaluated after having defined a common evaluation
methodology and scenarios. In the following the WP2 achievements are assessed against the corresponding
objectives.
3.1.1 Identifications of use case of interest and definition of M2M deployment scenarios
An extensive analysis of the current and future M2M market was performed, along with a thorough
presentation of the specification groups’ and other stakeholders’ activities and advances. Additionally, several
potential use cases and M2M applications were detailed. Based on the market analysis, three main scenarios
were investigated, identifying their requirements, challenges and their possible deployment phases:
 Intelligent Transport System (ITS) – communication of vehicles and transport infrastructure with ITS
application servers, which controls parameters such as transportation time, traffic collision avoidance,
on-board safety, fuel consumption, and many others.
 Smart Metering and Monitoring (SMM) – very applicable use case of industrial, environmental,
energy, and other types of monitoring.
 E-healthcare – a relationship between a healthcare organization and a patient, established through the
M2M communication.
These scenarios served as the common starting platform for further and detailed investigations of the technical
assumptions of the EXALTED vision. Moreover, their investigation provided answers to critical issues, such
as the optimal deployment strategy, which will led to the desired system architecture and specifications.
Additionally, the regulatory initiatives related to the M2M technologies and applications were analyzed, along
with some technical aspects of important standardization bodies and consortium.
3.1.2 Investigation of the impact of the use cases and deployment scenarios on the
underlying M2M business models
The commercial impact of the EXALTED project was investigated, based on the identified use cases. For each
application area the relevant market characteristics were analyzed:
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS): With a total market size estimated at 1 trillion USD and the large scale
telematics programs mainly triggered by European and International Regulation Authorities seeking a large
piece of it amplified by the renewed interest of the car manufacturers to provide added value telematics
services in order to promote their brand image is a valid candidate for profitable M2M deployment
Smart Metering and Monitoring (SMM): Some sectors have increasing concerns which are driving the need
for more sophisticated sensing approaches: a good example is environmental monitoring/flood monitoring,
where flexible monitoring with good density of coverage is typically needed. However the business model and
demands are not evident to justify thousands of nodes being deployed in extensive monitoring systems.
Nonetheless there is increasing awareness and demand for greater use of sensors to, for example, improve
processes, safety, environmental monitoring, to reduce operational costs or meet changing regulatory or policy
requirements.
eHealth: The European eHealth market is projected to reach €15.619 million by 2012, with a compounded
annual growth rate of 2.9%. Remote monitoring of patient’s vital signs through the use of devices customised
by health care providers to target the specific needs of the individual applies best to the M2M world. The
European remote patient monitoring market where the estimated revenues for 2009 were approximately €230
million while the estimation for 2015 is for double this amount reaching €450 million is a suitable market for
M2M deployment as aging population and high prevalence of chronic diseases is the most important market
driver.
EXALTED and LTE-M in particular could meet the needs of stakeholders. Faster growth of M2M
applications could be achieved through the adoption of the improved characteristics of the EXALTED system,
including node and cellular network modifications, which could lower the overall system costs and increase
the spectrum utilization efficiency.
3.1.3 Specification of technical requirements

The technical system requirements for the EXALTED system were identified based on the analysis of the
adopted use cases and scenarios. The system requirements were given in a consolidated manner, in order to
ensure an effective end-to-end (E2E) system description, with references to particular scenarios that they can
be applied to. The requirements were grouped into the following categories:
 Functional requirements describe specific features of the EXALTED system that are needed to enable
the envisaged use cases.
 Service requirements related to M2M services such as prioritization, session continuity, coexistence of
multiple service providers on one single device, provisioning, remote change of subscription,
delegation of functionality, and security aspects.
 Network requirements related to network infrastructure needed for establishing E2E M2M
communication.
 Non-functional requirements are used to outline the required quality characteristics of a system.

 Device requirements that are closely related with the different devices in the EXALTED system are
described.
These technical requirements were extracted based on the standardization bodies' point of view through the
EXALTED prism and served as the baseline for the development of EXALTED system framework and
components.
3.1.4 System concept description
Following a thorough investigation of the most emerging M2M applications and use cases, the most critical
requirements (e.g. functional requirements, network requirements, and service requirements), were identified
towards the development of the necessary corresponding algorithms, procedures and technologies. The system
architecture provides a coherent framework, ensuring that all technical innovations are aligned towards a
unified system concept, able to achieve the project's objectives. Through an iterative process between the
technical innovations and the system architecture, and after cycles of refinements and interactions between
contributors covering different parts of the EXALTED system, the final architecture provides a consolidated
view of the EXALTED concept.
The EXALTED system is founded on two existing proposals that are considered as baseline architectures,
namely the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Machine Type Communications (MTC) and European
Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) M2M, aiming to the necessary enhancements at the Network
Domain (ND) and the Device and Gateway Domain (DD), in order to leverage on these standardization efforts
and complement them with new sets of features needed to provide cost, energy, and spectrally efficient
connectivity to a large number of devices. The EXALTED architecture consists of components and interfaces.
Components can be either physical entities, e.g. devices, or the logical combination of functions, e.g. Evolved
Packet Core (EPC) and M2M server. All the components are characterized by their functionality, which can
be either mandatory or optional. Algorithms realizing these functions are considered to be exchangeable and
not part of the architecture.
The working assumption for the EXALTED architecture was that it consists of various components
characterized by their functionalities. A component can either be a physical entity, e.g. a M2M device, or a
logical element summarizing certain functions that are in reality distributed at different locations, e.g. the
Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and interfaces between these components. The functionality of a component can
be realized by algorithms, and interfaces can be implemented with protocols. Candidate algorithms and
protocols are being developed in the WP3-WP6 and are part of the EXALTED system concept. They are
exchangeable without impact on the architecture design itself.
3.1.5 Evaluation methodology definition

Within EXALTED a common evaluation methodology was followed with common assumptions, which
served two major goals. The first one was the performance comparability of the various innovations within the
EXALTED system and the second one was to provide useful evaluation guidelines for the evaluation of M2M
solutions, underlining important aspects, such as topologies, traffic models and simulation parameters. Based
on these common evaluation assumptions, the performance of the EXALTED system was assessed against the
main objectives through a set of corresponding evaluation scenarios:
 supporting a large number of LTE-M devices with heterogeneous requirements and capabilities,
 low complexity and energy efficient M2M communications for LTE-M-based systems,
 end-to-end (E2E) connectivity (Heterogeneity and Interoperability),
 traffic aggregation,
 device management and
 E2E Security.
The objectives were evaluated against the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) that are directly related with the
objectives of the EXALTED system. Among others, the most important KPIs include: the relative increase of
the number of M2M devices that can be supported by LTE-M, compared to LTE, the spectral efficiency, the
battery power savings, the network lifetime, the number of addresses mapped to M2M devices, the reliability
of device connectivity, the coverage extension, the mobility management efficiency, the throughput and the
payload reduction.
The evaluation of the EXALTED system proved that significant benefits can be acquired.
3.2 WP3
The aim of the work package was the specification of LTE-M, a cellular mobile radio system co-existing with
LTE in the same frequency band and facilitating cost-, spectrum-, and energy efficient M2M communications.

3.2.1 Overall Progress of WP3
WP3 consists of the four tasks T3.1 (PHY layer), T3.2 (MAC scheduling protocol for M2M communications),
T3.3 (Dynamic resource management), and T3.4 (Broadcast & Multicast capability). It turned out that these
tasks cannot be treated independently, but that the diverse challenges and technical requirements demand
substantial cross-task activities to design a coherent system. Therefore the work was split up into objectives
rather than into tasks. The following objectives have been addressed.
 Co-existence with LTE
 Simultaneous support of a big number of machine devices and spectrum efficiency
 Provision of wide area coverage
 Energy savings to enable a long battery lifetime
 Cost efficiency

It is claimed that all of these objectives led to reasonable results in accordance with the initial project
proposal. A detailed performance analysis can be found in the final project report D3.4. In order to achieve
this, the work package was deeply involved in the EXALTED architecture discussion (WP2). As LTE-M is
the enabling technology for E2E connectivity, also a close cooperation with WP4 took place throughout the
project duration. Key algorithms have been transferred to WP7 for their implementation in one of the testbeds.
Furthermore, over thirty publications and standards contributions underline the significant impact of WP3
activities in the research community.
WP3 produced four public deliverables:
 D3.1 (First report on LTE-M algorithms and procedures), version 2.0 released in Jan. 2012, includes a
state of the art analysis and introduces the toolbox approach concerning candidate algorithms for
LTE-M Error! Reference source not found..
 D3.2 (Study of commonalities and synergies between LTE-M and the heterogeneous network),
released in Aug. 2011, is a joint effort with WP4 and gives an outline about the relationship between
LTE-M and the system components installed around Error! Reference source not found..
 D3.3 (Final report on LTE-M algorithms and procedures), released in July 2012, is the continuation of
D3.1 and defines for the first time the overall LTE-M system. Moreover, the specification of the
toolbox algorithms is presented Error! Reference source not found..
 D3.4 (LTE-M performance evaluation), released in Jan. 2013, includes the full specification of LTE-
M and the expected performance per objective Error! Reference source not found..

In the following, the most important achievements are briefly summarised.
3.2.2 LTE-M System
LTE-M fully complies with the EXALTED architecture and is one key part of the overall EXALTED system
concept. User plane and control plane of the radio protocol architecture are very much based on LTE. The
only substantial modification is the option that the eNodeB may serve as IP client for the LTE-M device and
map the IP address to a shorter local address. However, LTE-M utilises its own logical- , transport-, and
physical channels. Within the existing LTE frame structure, so-called Multicast-Broadcast Single Frequency
Network (MBSFN) subframes are available for LTE-M, and the different physical channels are mapped in
form of an LTE-M super-frame to these radio resources, a solution that is fully compatible to previous LTE
releases and still opens the opportunity to implement specific algorithms and protocols tailored for the needs
of M2M communications. Optimisations of the random access procedure and of the Hybrid Automatic Repeat
Request (HARQ) functionality are the essential modifications in the MAC layer. Radio Resource Control
(RRC) and Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) were adapted as well according to the specific needs of
a system suitable for a multitude of short messages from devices with diverse capabilities and requirements.
Key enabler is here the registration of information about the devices and their context in the network and the
selection of the right mechanisms. As an example, sensors installed at a fixed position don’t need any form of
mobility management. The actual intelligence of LTE-M is to recognise the situation and to activate or
deactivate a set of simple features.
3.2.3 Co-existence with LTE
Two project objectives are reflected, namely that the proposed solutions have to be supported by existing
eNodeB hardware platforms (O3.1) and that backward compatibility to LTE Release 8 is maintained (O3.7).
The abovementioned LTE-M system design as a whole already underlines these requirements, e.g. through the
separation of radio resources for LTE and LTE-M devices. But also some individual solutions were explicitly
specified to support this co-existence. Registering information about terminals is the key enabler. Thereby, it
is possible for the network to distinguish between LTE and LTE-M terminals. This is necessary to exploit the
performance potential of innovative scheduling techniques. Other solutions protect the network against sudden
overload situations, simply allow re-using already existing hardware components, or maintain the performance
of LTE UEs in the presence of LTE-M traffic. The following table summarises the proposed solutions,
indicates how they can be applied beneficially, and points out possible interactions with other EXALTED
solutions.

Solution Expected performance
Recommended
usage
Interactions with other
EXALTED solutions
Registering
information
about terminals
Co-existence achieved with
respect to backward
compatibility
General usage in
LTE-M systems
Enabler of other solutions
that exploit this information,
e.g. scheduling, optimisation
of paging.
Slotted access
Co-existence achieved with
respect to avoidance of
network overload situations
Event-driven
applications with a
big number of
devices
Combination with ‘Random
Access with Collision
Recovery’ is recommended.
HARQ for
LTE-M
Co-existence achieved with
respect to re-use of existing
hardware components
Generally applicable,
but tailored for
applications with
short messages
It is required to adapt the
LTE-M rate matching
algorithm according to the
proposed HARQ scheme.
Innovative
scheduling
techniques
Co-existence achieved with
respect to maintaining the
performance of LTE UEs in
the presence of LTE-M
devices
Generally applicable,
but particularly
beneficial in
heterogeneous
environments with
mixed applications
and QoS classes.
It can be used in all cases,
where ‘Semi-persistent
scheduling’ cannot be
applied. Both approaches
complement each other.
GFDM
Co-existence achieved with
respect to maintaining the
performance of LTE UEs in
the presence of LTE-M
devices
Generally applicable,
but tailored for
applications with
short messages
GFDM replaces SC-FDMA
in LTE-M uplink. A
combination with CDMA-
overlay is possible.
3.2.4 Simultaneous support of a big number of machine devices and spectrum
efficiency
One of the major objectives in EXALTED is the simultaneous support of a big number of LTE-M devices. As
the amount of the overall available radio resources for LTE-M is fixed through the LTE frame structure and
the LTE-M super-frame principle, the challenge is to transmit the same information by using fewer resources.
This can be achieved either by minimising the size of control and feedback messages (O3.2), or by optimising
the resource utilisation by traffic aggregation or novel signal formats (O3.4). Again the diversity of device
capabilities and requirements plays an important role (O3.5). Signalling reduction can be realised e.g. by
semi-persistent scheduling, and examples for spectrum efficient techniques on the payload are GFDM and the
HARQ scheme. An optimisation of the random access procedure and specialised scheduling techniques
showed additional improvements. The following table summarises the proposed solutions. Benefits between
some ten and some hundred percent were observed. All in all, with a suitable combination of the proposed
methods the number of supported devices can be increased by one order of magnitude.

Solution
Expected
performance
Recommended usage
Interactions with other
EXALTED solutions
Random access
with collision
recovery
80% throughput
improvement on
PMRACH
Applications with a
huge number of devices,
but rare transmissions
Combination with ‘Slotted
access’ is recommended.
HARQ for LTE-
M
Up to 30% more
LTE-M devices
Generally applicable,
but tailored for all
applications with short
messages
It is required to adapt the LTE-M
rate matching algorithm
according to the proposed HARQ
scheme.
Semi-persistent
scheduling
500% - 1000%
more LTE-M
devices
Applications with
frequent time-driven
transmissions
This solution complements the
proposed innovative scheduling
concepts.
Slotted access
900% more LTE-
M devices
Event-driven
applications with a huge
number of devices
Combination with ‘Random
Access with Collision Recovery’
is recommended.
AGTI scheduler
Up to 1000%
more LTE-M
devices
Beneficial if
applications with
different delay
constraints are mixed
It can be used in all cases, where
‘Semi-persistent scheduling’
cannot be applied. Alternatives
are ‘QoS based scheduler’ and
‘Scheduling algorithm for
heterogeneous traffics’.
QoS based
scheduler
Up to 1000%
more LTE-M
devices
Beneficial if
applications with
different delay
constraints are mixed
It can be used in all cases, where
‘Semi-persistent scheduling’
cannot be applied. Alternatives
are ‘AGTI scheduler’ and
‘Scheduling algorithm for
heterogeneous traffics’.
GFDM
Up to 35% more
LTE-M devices
Generally applicable,
but tailored for
applications with short
messages
GFDM replaces SC-FDMA in
LTE-M uplink. A combination
with CDMA-overlay is possible.
Scheduling
algorithm for
heterogeneous
traffics
Up to 1000%
improvement
based on
definition of
Beneficial if different
LTE and LTE-M traffic
types are mixed
It can be used in all cases, where
‘Semi-persistent scheduling’
cannot be applied. Alternatives
are ‘AGTI scheduler’ and ‘QoS
satisfied users based scheduler’.
3.2.5 Provision of wide area coverage
This is another important aspect of the EXALTED objective to support devices with diverse capabilities and
requirements in one system (O3.5). Cost- and complexity reduction are sublime objectives. However, they
cause some drawbacks. The main problem is the degradation of the link budget, particularly in the uplink. At
the end, this leads to insufficient coverage of LTE-M devices because the cellular layout is dimensioned
according to the LTE specification. Two solutions were developed that ensure wide area coverage also for
LTE-M. CDMA-overlay in the uplink exploits the simple principle of a spreading gain. For the downlink a
collaborative broadcast architecture is proposed that achieves a very high level of coverage. The following
table summarises the proposed solutions.

Solution
Expected
performance
Recommended usage
Interactions with other
EXALTED solutions
CDMA-overlay
97% coverage in
the considered
scenario
LTE-M uplink for
applications with power-
limited devices if the radio
channel quality is bad
It can be combined with
GFDM, but also with SC-
FDMA or OFDMA.
Collaborative
broadcast
architecture
100% broadcast
coverage
One message is addressed
to multiple devices in the
LTE-M downlink
Combination with E2E
solutions for capillary
networks studied in WP4.

3.2.6 Energy savings to enable a long battery lifetime
Besides spectrum efficiency, energy efficiency is the second big challenge in EXALTED. In other words, the
lifetime of the battery shall be extended from a couple of days to the duration of years. In order to be able to
analyse this complex problem, at first the sources of energy consumption in a conventional LTE UE were
analysed, and a relative breakdown was derived. Thereby it is distinguished if the device is in ACTIVE mode
or in IDLE mode. In a subsequent step, several solutions were studied with respect to the specific source of
energy consumption that they try to reduce or to avoid. Apart from the obvious project objective of energy
minimisation in the device (O3.6), also the optimisation of paging and polling of devices (O3.3) was handled.
The analysed solutions range from RRC protocol optimisation till unconventional techniques like energy
harvesting. The following table summarises the proposed solutions. The final conclusion is that it is possible,
depending on the characteristics of the application, to achieve battery lifetimes in the range of one year.

Solution
Expected
performance
Recommended usage
Interactions with other
EXALTED solutions
Energy Harvesting
Energy reduction
up to 6% for the
evaluated case
Isolated power limited
devices
No interaction with other
solutions known.
Random access with
collision recovery
Energy reduction
up to 11% for the
evaluated case
Applications with a huge
number of devices, but
rare transmissions
Combination with ‘Slotted
access’ is recommended.
Collaborative
broadcast
architecture
Must be
considered
together with
capillary
networks.
One message is
addressed to multiple
devices in the LTE-M
downlink
Combination with E2E
solutions for capillary
networks studied in work
package 4.
Directional antennas
Energy reduction
1%
Beneficial in scenarios
with limited feedback
capacity
It is useful to combine the
solutions with the methods
aiming at the support of a big
number of users.
LDPC codes for
incremental
redundancy
multicast
Average energy
reduction 12.5%
To be used in the LTE-M
downlink if the same
message shall be
delivered to a big
number of devices
No interaction with other
solutions known. It is
exclusively applied in the
PMDMCH.
Low complexity
MIMO
Average energy
reduction 4.75 %
All LTE-M uplink
scenarios with sufficient
coverage
No interaction with other
solutions known.
Registering
information about
terminals
No gain as stand-
alone solution
General usage in LTE-M
systems
Enabler of other solutions that
exploit this information, e.g.
scheduling, optimisation of
paging.
Adaptive paging
Reduction of
paging messages
by factor 20-50
in average
All applications with
fixed devices
Enabled by ‘Registering
information about terminals’.
Monitoring paging
channel and mobility
support
Up to 30%
energy reduction
in IDLE mode
All application with long
periods in IDLE mode
Enabled by ‘Registering
information about terminals’.

3.2.7 Cost efficiency
Similar as for energy consumption, the assessment of cost reduction is based on a breakdown of the
contributions from the different hardware components. For this, EXALTED adopted the work of 3GPP,
summarised in the technical report 36.888 [5], which already provides a broad set of means for cost reduction
for M2M devices. The added value from EXALTED, aiming at the objective to minimise the device
complexity (O3.2) is basically the proposed MIMO scheme. The expected performance is given in the
following table.

Solution
Expected
performance
Recommended usage
Interactions with other
EXALTED solutions
Low complex
MIMO
9% cost reduction
All LTE-M uplink
scenarios with sufficient
coverage
No interaction with other
solutions known.

3.2.8 Summary of Technical Achievements
 Outline system design of LTE-M that fulfils demand for co-existence with LTE and that is compatible
with existing network infrastructure
 Provision of means to extend the number of supported devices by factor 10.
 Provision of means to achieve a device battery lifetime in the range of one year.
 Provision of means to maintain wide area coverage in spite of device and protocol simplifications
 Additional device cost reduction of 10% on top of means proposed by 3GPP
 Enabling E2E connectivity based on IPv6 for devices in capillary networks

3.3 WP4
WP4 aims to establish a complete end-to-end (E2E) architecture for an M2M capillary network based of LTE-
M. The work package released three interim reports (IR4.1...IR4.3), and five deliverables (D4.1... D4.5). In
addition, the work package produced one supplementary public deliverable in conjunction with WP3 (D3.2).
Overall, WP4 worked along the following layers:
• PHY: signal compression techniques for sensors around fusion centers, beamforming and diversity for
aggregating data, clustering mechanisms.
• MAC: mobility models, dynamic encoding schemes for media access , energy-efficiency
• Networking: address translation schemes for sensor devices and vehicular networks, as well as
address and prefix auto-configuration protocols also for vehicular networks.
• Application: payload optimization and device management and short messaging for constrained
devices, network monitoring for sensor-class devices and machine-type entities.

An end-to-end system architecture for EXALTED was produced in WP4. The definition of nodes,
functionalities and communication modes within it were defined.

3.3.1 Common View of WP4 Achievements
This section classifies all mechanisms and protocols proposed in WP4 with respect to the main objectives
identified in DoW document.
It is possible that one solution is duplicated in more than one objective, as it may cover different innovations.
3.3.2 O4.1 Maintaining connection/transmission integrity across aggregation points
through heterogeneous connections

S4.1.1. Single hop cooperative MAC protocol for high number of devices (D4.1)
S4.1.2. Heterogeneous connectivity and address translation (D4.1 & D4.2)
S4.1.3. Mobility model estimator (D4.1)
S4.1.4. Distributed Cluster-based communications (D4.4)

3.3.3 O4.2 Efficient and consistent IPv6 Packet mapping throughout and across the
connections to ensure lowest IP overhead possible

S4.2.1. Payload Reduction (D4.1)
S4.2.2. V2V2I communication using VIN addressing (D4.2)
S4.2.3. SoTA on 6LowPAN mobility (D4.2)

3.3.4 O4.3 Define device management architecture that ensures consistent node
resource exposure and warrants reliable and uniform addressability and security

S4.3.1. Device management architecture (D4.3)
S4.3.2. ELFOMA protocol (D4.3)
S4.3.3. CoAP-DM over SMS and UDP (D4.3)
S4.3.4. ASN.1 encoding (D4.3)

3.3.5 O4.4 Traffic aggregation point architectures to support reduced traffic load

S4.4.1. Multi-hop MAC protocol for increasing energy efficiency (D4.1)
S4.4.2. DISC protocol (D4.4)
S4.4.3. CHANGE protocol (D4.4)
S4.4.4. Data Compression (D4.4)
S4.4.5. Multi-point communications (D4.4)
S4.4.6. Decentralized Source coding (D4.4)

3.3.6 O4.5 Design an IP based E2E networking system for M2M communications
(Machine: unattended device running for extended periods of time).

S4.5.1. IP address assignment (D4.1)
S4.5.2. V2V2I communication using VIN addressing (D4.2)
S4.5.3. Heterogeneous connectivity and address translation (D4.1 & D4.2)

3.3.7 O4.6 Device / node monitoring mechanism to ensure that a response-to-demand
datum is authentic reliable and secure

S4.6.1. Network Monitoring architecture (D4.5)
S4.6.2. Light-weight monitoring mechanism (D4.5)

3.3.8 WP4 Complete protocol stack
This section provides the big picture about where and how protocols proposed in WP4 fit together.
They are classified with respect to the layer that they cover. Layers taken into account for this purpose are
physical layer (PHY), link layer (MAC), network layer (IP) and application layer (APP).
In addition, compatibilities and incompatibilities are identified. The assumption is that all protocols are
independent to upper and lower layers; for instance, an EXALTED MAC protocol can use any of the proposed
(or already existing) PHY or IP protocols.
Within the same layer, protocols that can coexist with any other solution in the same layer are pictured in
green. On the other hand, if a protocol is exclusive and avoids by definition the use of alternative techniques at
the same layer, it is pictured in red.

A
P
P
I
P
M
A
C
P
H
Y
LTE-M M2M SERVER
S4.4.6
S4.1.4 S4.4.5
S4.1.3
S4.1.1 S4.4.1
S4.4.2 S4.4.3
S4.5.1 +
S4.2.2/S4.5.2
S4.2.3
S4.4.4
S4.3.4
S4.3.2
S4.6.1
S4.6.2
S4.2.1+S4.3.3
Conventional
LTE-M IP
protocol
Conventional
LTE-M MAC
protocol
S4.1.2
/
S4.5.3
Conventional
LTE-M PHY
protocol
S4.4.4
S4.3.4
S4.3.2
S4.6.1
S4.6.2
S4.2.1+S4.3.3
Conventional M2M
server IP protocol
Conventional M2M
server MAC protocol
Conventional M2M
server PHY protocol
S4.3.1
CAPILLARY

Figure 3.1. Protocol Stack.

The notation “conventional” means that any typical protocol for that layer and in that particular
equipment/network can be used, as it is transparent for the defined Stack.

In the following description we show how each solution mentioned above was defined during the project
timeframe.
3.3.9 Task 4.1
Task 4.1 investigated the aspects of maintaining continuous packet data transport level continuity between
heterogeneous physical layer network links in an end-to-end M2M scenario over LTE. The goal is to
minimize the required overhead while satisfying packet data connectivity reliability, energy consumption and
throughput/delay constraints. In order to achieve Task 4.1 objectives, the work during the first year lied in
three main aspects:
 Data packet continuity
 New MAC protocols for capillary networks optimized for M2M particularities
 Single user and group mobility.

After reviewing the diverse literature existing in each field aforementioned, some preliminary results have
been achieved and presented in the internal meetings carried out by WP4.
A first demonstrator has been performed; it aimed at integrating both ZigBee and IP networks. It is composed
by a gateway (IP enable) and a M2M device (non IP) connected through the ZigBee interface. After studying
the different solutions for integrating both worlds, the most effective scheme for M2M characteristics, based
on a web server at the gateway, has been implemented. The presented platform is capable to send commands
or access to the information of the M2M device from any point connected to an IP network.
Two complementary approaches were performed at MAC level. The first one is Cooperative ARQ, a MAC
protocol considering energy efficiency as primary focus due to the characteristics of M2M communications.
The work done includes MATLAB simulations that demonstrate the improvement in energy efficiency. As
result of this work a paper has been published in NEWCOM 2011 conference. A theoretical framework for
integrating shadowing effects in MAC design is also under development. Literature review of duty-cycling
has been started.
The other approach focused on the F-MAC protocol, where a state of the art study of hybrid CSMA-TDMA
protocols has been performed. Furthermore, in this context it has been proposed a MAC oriented solution for
diminishing the “funneling” problem near the sink, the simulations for validating the new design have been
started this year. In the next report the result of the simulations will be included.
Regarding mobility framework study, an analysis was performed on different mobility models and mobility
aware of MAC in WSN. As result of literature analysis the key parameters to identify mobility models have
been defined, contact and inter-contact duration. The mobility models have been integrated into the simulator
engine, being prepared for performing simulations in the following months of the project covering the
following scenarios: mobile M2M devices form a capillary network and are in an area with fixed nodes whose
positions are known and a sink node (gateway) whose position is known.
An address translation mechanism, to be implemented in resource constrain devices, has been investigated, on
one hand, by setting up and measuring a real-world testbed including ZigBee, NFC and IP connectivity, and,
on the other hand, by studying efficiency (on both IPv4 and IPv6), memory requirements and different
performance regarding cellular technologies (GPRS, 3G, LTE…). The basis of the system is the mapping of
devices in capillary network into virtual devices in the gateway.
T4.1 has also contributed to a Device Management protocol over SMS that is implemented and evaluated and
on evaluation of the payload formats over the proposed Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) protocol for
capillary networks. The payload formats of interest (XML, JSON, EXI, CSV, Protobuf and MessagePack)
over CoAP protocol was evaluated for efficiency (i.e. battery, memory and bandwidth consumption) in real
network conditions for parsing processes of messages sent from the server. The basis is resource oriented
approach for device management of the constrained device.
T4.1 has investigated several MAC protocols, listed below.
MAC protocol for high number of devices.
The DPCF protocol (Distributed Point-Control Function) is being implemented in a C++ simulator. In
addition, two conference papers have been submitted to two international conferences with:
1. the energy-efficiency evaluation of a cooperative approach that will be integrated into the DPCF
protocol, and
2. the analysis of the conditions under whith cooperation can be helpful in low-rate capillary networks
formed by simple M2M devices with constant (non-adaptive) transmission rate.
MAC protocols for reducing the funneling effect that appears near to the sink.
The main contribution in this context is to include priority based access for satisfying heterogeneous
requirements such as emergency situations, real time applications low battery supplies. Its achievements
include the selection of the appropriate model, and the beginning of simulations. The next step include to
complete the simulations as well as to prepare a conference paper with the obtained results.
MAC protocol designed for multihop scenarios.
It applies where data are being collected throughout the network and reported to the sink. In such situations, a
highly congested traffic is appearing around the sink, which results in an increase to the dropped packet
probability and power consumption due to continuous retransmissions. In this context, a hybrid MAC protocol
is proposed which supports both CSMA and TDMA according to the traffic. More specifically, all the nodes
perform CSMA by default unless they receive a beacon by the gateway and start performing TDMA. At this
time, an accurate simulation platform has been created in MATLAB, where hybrid access schemes are being
investigated. Next steps include to obtain an optimum threshold for the switching rate between the CSMA and
TDMA.
MAC protocol designed for mobility scenarios
T4.1 has been working on a mobility estimator, like a 'guess who' algorithm, to distinguish the current
mobility model among a series of known mobility models and patterns. We have also working on a MAC and
routing approach which is mobility aware and adapts some parameters to the current mobility model. Then a
novel algorithm has been developed by using simulation tools; a number of investigations on mobility were
performed with an algorithm for estimating mobility pattern of mobile nodes.
3.3.9.1 Technical achievements
The technical achievements related to T4.1 can be summarized and categorized as follows:
 Novel MAC protocols, focusing different aspects and suitable to be used depending on the use case
addressed:
o The DPCF protocol with duty cycling mode has been implemented in wireless motes in order
to evaluate its energy efficiency. This work complements previous simulation and theoretical
works and shows that the combination of IEEE 802.11 DCF and PCF in distributed M2M
capillary networks with collaborative M2M gateways can improve the performance of the
network in terms of throughput, delay and also in terms of energy efficiency. The obtained
results were reported in IR4.3 and a technical paper was written and submitted to an
international conference. Next step will be to integrate the whole contribution of DPCF and
all the conducted results into a journal paper.
o Following the proposed hybrid contention/reservation MAC protocol, which decides on the
access mode to be used, based on the trade-off between the expected throughput and protocol
complexity, we extended our work by proposing a novel analytical framework. Specifically,
the expected throughput can be predicted by exploiting a queueing theory analysis, which
evaluates the performance of both contention based and contention-free access schemes.
Furthermore, our proposed MAC protocol has been evaluated in order to provide comparison
results to IR4.3 in terms of throughput (K12) and reliability (K9).
o In addition to mobility models, parters have investigated to MAC protocols that exploit the
mobility models estimator, namely LA-MAC and DA-MAC which are respectively Low-
Latency Asynchronous MAC and Density-Aware MAC. They both propose to adapt their
behaviour to network and traffic dynamics so as to better serve devices with respect of their
QoS requirements.

 Device reachability and addressability for data connectivity:
o The heterogeneous connectivity solution is now under evaluation so as to provide the last
WP4 related results in IR4.3. In order to achieve this purpose, two main KPIs have been used.
Efficiency is calculated as the relationship between real data sent versus the total amount of
bits aired (including headers). With some techniques proposed, 80% efficiency rates can be
reached. Finally, energy consumed per message is calculated using TST hardware platform.
o MOBILITY MODELS - Different mobility models have been investigated and then gathered
in a tool that acts as an estimator of the mobility model that best fits with the one experienced
by either a mobile device or a group of mobile devices. This estimator is hardly assessable by
KPI since it is just a tool that has been then exploited in MAC protocols. Nevertheless, the
study on mobility models and the derived estimator can help to bring knowledge on mobility
to any solution that would require such knowledge.
 Payload reduction for supporting MAC efficiency:
o Application-layer protocol and payload reduction were evaluated with the final aim to
calculate efficiency, i.e. complete payload size and battery consumption of HTTP/XML
against CoAP/CSV in the live network. Evaluation showed that device that utilizes
CoAP/CSV instead of HTTP/XML spends 13.2% less battery and that packet size is reduces
by a factor of 4. Influence of payload reduction on complete EXALTED System is also
considered. Wireshark is used for analyzing traffic in the network, while battery consumption
is computed utilizing Android powered device for the parsing processes of large number of
messages sent from the HTTP and CoAP server.
 IP address assignment
o The IP address assignment analysis for the LTE-M terminals and assignment of the IP
addresses to M2M devices behind the M2M Gateway is further investigated by mapping with
other proposed algorithms and the EXALTED system.
3.3.10 Task 4.2
The goal of Task 4.2 is to design an IP based End-to-End (E2E) networking system for M2M communication.
In this respect, its major achievements were:
 Design of a joint addressing and radio architecture for vehicular communications
 Design and implementation of address auto-configuration mechanism with DHCP-PD and DHCP
default route
 Description of three vehicular networking scenarios

In T4.2, topics related to IP networking and IP communications between vehicles in particular have been
studied. An IP addressing architecture for vehicular networks has been proposed. Then the description of
addressing architecture has been adapted, considering a capillary network as a generic case of vehicular
network, and included into IR4.2.

Then V2V2I communications and VIN conversion to IPv6 address or prefix have been investigated. For
V2V2I, an analysis of the state-of-the-art for IPv6 addressing protocols (DHCP, Prefix Delegation, ND,
Mobile IPv6) was performed. The proposed method was compared against ETSI-ITS and IETF standards.
An IP/ZigBee address translation mechanism envisaged for M2M Gateways has been defined. Selection of
best technology, characterization of the efficiency of the method and a first integration on real equipment has
been performed.
An IP/Capillary address translation for the IP devices (for example 6lowpan) that are behind the gateways in
the capillary networks has been investigated. The gateway architecture whose goal is interoperability between
6LoWPAN and external IPv6 networks was analyzed. The gateway does the compression and decompression
of IPv6 packets; the gateway also performs a mapping between 16 bit short addresses and the IPv6 addresses
for both the external IPv6 networks and 6LowPAN. The gateway may maintain internal and external device
address mapping tables.
3.3.10.1 Technical achievements
The technical achievements regarding Task T4.2 are summarized below.
 Address translation mechanism: Finalization of the study about strategies for implementing ZigBee
to IP address translation mechanism programmed on M2M Gateways. Selection of the optimum
choice for being used on M2M devices oriented to SMM scenarios. Programming of the selected
option in real M2M devices and performance evaluation of results. All data regarding state of the art
study, implementation and measurement is included in D4.2 document.
 IP to Capillary Address Translation Schemes, IP to 6LoWPAN: Overview of the existing
translation mechanisms between IPv6 and 6LoWPAN addresses and router and gateway
functionalities. Analysis and proposal of the optimal solution for IP to 6LoWPAN address translation
on M2M–Gateways. Definition of the M2M-Gateway functionalities needed for address translation.
 6LoWPAN protocols: Definition of the mobility types and overview of the existing 6LoWPAN
protocols and emerging new protocols. Analysis of the mobility protocols features in 6LoWPAN
(MIPv6, HMIPv6, NEMO, MANEMO etc) and routing protocols (ROLL and MANET based and
Neighbour Discovery) for 6LoWPAN.
 Addressing and Routing Schemes for Capillary Networks: A detailed study of the state-of-the-art
for addressing and routing mechanisms in Future Internet has been done. This work was presented to
partners during the 4
th
General Assembly. The design of the addressing and routing mechanism for
V2V2I communications (that can be seen as C2C2I communications in a more generic manner) is
close to be finished. Most of the steps in the proposed mechanism have been done, leading to the
improvement of standard addressing and routing protocols (such as NDP and DHCPv6). All details
about the proposed addressing and routing mechanism for capillary networks can be found in D4.2.
 Elaboration of the common evaluation framework as well as providing the KPIs results regarding
the E2E connectivity scenario. This work is detailed in IR4.3 and also provided to WP2 as an input for
the elaboration of D2.4.

3.3.11 Task 4.3
This task aims to provide a Device Management solution for the EXALTED architecture to facilitate device
deployment, firmware update, remote administration, service installation, policy application, logging and
reporting.
Task 4.3 started with the study of existing solutions, mainly:
 OMA-DM and TR-069, all based on XML. But they are not suited for Exalted, which needs a
lightweight protocol.
 OTA is an alternative solution. Lightweight and security mechanism are already in place. But it may
not satisfy all the Device Management needs, such as Get, Exec, Replace, Add, etc, methods
 A protocol derived from OMA-DM was under study:
 Keep OMA-DM Management Objects
 Keep OMA-DM principle : Setup phase & Management phase
 Keep OMA-DM security mechanism
 Key difference : use key/value instead of SyncML representation
Based on a firmware update scenario, the proposed protocol leads to a reduction factor of 5 with respect to the
payload size.
T4.3 has evaluated a proposal of device management payload for resource consumption, defined device
management architecture interfaces, simple device management procedures and mapping for OMA-DM and
REST.
A testing environment has been provided by in a Data Center for the Device Management evaluation.
T4.3 worked on an evaluation of an M2M Device Management over SMS by using CoAP message semantics.
The motivation was to address a large number of SMS enabled terminals used today. The GET and POST
methods are implemented for CoAP over SMS between devices in real network conditions in order to evaluate
SMS efficiency for device management procedures. The next step is to evaluate an SMS Broker as a Device
Management Application Server equivalent. In this case, the SMS transport efficiency should be better when
sent directly from an SMSC. In addition, two papers are planned for the following proceedings: IEEE
Globecom 2012 and Infocom 2013.
Then, an OMA-DM v1.x compliant lightweight solution has been finalized. This solution enables service
providers who wish to reuse existing OMA-DM v1.x servers to continue managing existing OMA-DM
enabled mobile devices and to incrementally support M2M devices. An adapter proxy is inserted in the
communication chain, between new M2M devices and the existing OMA-DM server. This adapter provides a
2 ways message conversion: OMA-DM message to Exalted Lightweight DM message. The cost of this
solution is minimized as existing OMA-DM servers are reused “as is” without any change. The complexity of
the adapter proxy is reduced to message conversion and encoding scheme. Lightweight DM message
definition and syntax have been finalized. Method to create and to parse lightweight messages is defined.
A device management solution based on SMS has also been finalized. This solution is used to manage M2M
devices that are out of reach of 2G/3G/LTE-M data connectivity. Lightweight CoAP messages are exchanged
over SMS between the DM server and devices.
A paper describing this CoAP over SMS solution has been written.
Work done on the security has been mostly dedicated to address the scalability issue without compromising
the overall security. Architecture with devices sharing the same key among a capillary network is considered.
Favourite architecture is a distributed Device Management with a Device Management Agent located on the
gateway to factorize some device management functionality.
The proposed OMA-DM v1.x compliant lightweight Device Management solution reduces OMA-DM
messages by 85% while maintaining the same protocol and functionalities.
Evaluation methodology for device management has been elaborated. KPIs pertaining to various DM
solutions have been assessed. The outcome of this study will be documented in IR4.3 and D2.4.
 A power cut scenario has been detailed for a Smart metering and monitoring use case. This serves to
evaluate the payload reduction of DM solutions.
 Based on the aforementioned scenario, ELFOMA achieves 88.8% in payload reduction.
 While CoAP DM over UDP and SMS achieve 67.67% in payload reduction :
Device Management over CoAP: In order to efficiently utilize proposed device management
algorithm, a mapping of device management in the system for different use cases is done: (1) for
communication between Gateways, SMS is proposed as a transport with embedded CoAP messages,
(2) communication behind Gateway in the Capillary network, a “pure” CoAP transport is leveraged.
CoAP device management is evaluated for power-heater scenario: one message with 3 replace
commands for updating device info. The device management scenario is evaluated for the previous
message for related KPI measuring battery consumptions and transmission packet size in 50
performed tests. The evaluation showed that transmission payload size exchanged between 2 peers is
3x smaller, and that messages sent using proposed CoAP DM consumes 20.8% less energy than a
reference native OMA DM protocol SyncML message.
 The Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN.1) encoding rules have been studied as a possible representation
for the device management commands to replace the current SyncML as specified by the OMA-DM.
This work has been reported in document D4.3. A nice aspect of this representation is its compactness
and its ability to encode whatever protocol to ELFOMA to the new protocols currently specified in the
various OMA-DM standardization groups.
 End-to-End security had been specified and prototyped from end-device to M2M server. So far only
classical smart cards have been used as a secure element but nevertheless the capacity to bring
advanced security features to a low-end device has been demonstrated in lab. Code developed during
these experimentations has been recycled in the WP7 for the security sub-testbed. All results of the
work done on security and device management, that is mostly the management of the secure element
and its credentials have been reported in deliverable D4.3.

3.3.12 Task 4.4
Task 4.4 was focused on the design of novel coding schemes and communication protocols aimed to improve
energy efficiency and reduce network congestion in (large) M2M capillary networks.
To that aim, research was carried out on decentralized source coding techniques, which are capable of dealing
with spatially- or temporally correlated sensor observations (e.g. environmental monitoring scenarios). These
techniques are expected to reduce the amount of redundant information sent by the sensor nodes as well as the
total network traffic. In this context, an extensive review of the state of the art was performed.
Research efforts have been also focused on investigating joint routing and scheduling algorithms that will
efficiently handle the capillary network energy and the network congestion near the sink. In this context
several techniques have been investigated including, for the network layer, congestion avoidance routing or
data centric routing and for the MAC layer, adaptive scheduling techniques and suitable duty cycle MAC
protocol. Simulations for validating the new design have been started this year.

T4.4 investigated the analytical assessment of decentralized source coding techniques for random field
estimation with capillary M2M networks. In this context, we have analytically analyzed the performance of
the Quantize-and-Estimate encoding strategy when channel state information is not available at the sensor
nodes. Besides, we have also derived the optimal transmission order for the Compress-and-Estimate strategy.
In addition to this, we have also studied transform coding techniques based on the Karhunen-Loève (KL)
transform. In this context, we tackled the problem from different perspectives. On the one hand, we adopted
beamforming at the sensor nodes in order to implement the Karhunen-Loève transform in the air. In this
setting, we analyzed the impact of imperfect phase synchronization and independent duty cycles at the sensor
nodes. Some results have been already published (IWM2M Workshop) and recent results have been submitted
to international conferences such ICC’12 and ICASSP’12. On the other hand, we addressed a realistic
scenario where sensors transmit their observations by means of a contention-based Medium Access (MAC)
protocol to the Gateway. Here, the Gateway implements the aforementioned (KL) transform and compress the
sensors information aimed at reducing the traffic load at the LTE-M network. Preliminary results have been
submitted to FUNEMS’12.
T4.4 has also developed evaluated a new node clustering protocol. This protocol is designed to be fully
distributed without any dependence on time synchronization modules or protocols. Hence, it is different from
the current node clustering protocols that exist in the literature. No time synchronization property enables the
protocol to be able to quickly adapt to changing conditions and also be scalable to a multi-hop setting in a
large area of deployment. Then, this protocol is used to aggregate the collected data in a capillary network and
deliver the resulting information to a single gateway. This version of the protocol included four different cases
in performance comparisons: (1) no-clustering, (2) only-in-cluster CH reselection, (3) only region-wide re-
clustering, and (4) re-clustering including in-cluster and region-wide updates. An emulation code has been
developed. Initial results demonstrate that performance improvement is observed in extending network
lifetime and relieving network hot spots. However, it was noticed that the emulation code had to undergo a
significant structural review so as to better reflect the estimated network lifetime. Significant changes were
made to it, which helped making a more accurate network lifetime evaluation. The code structure was still
sequential and additional evaluations had to be made. The resulting work was presented during the WP3/WP4
physical meeting in Stuttgart. Later, a final version of the emulation code was prepared, that has major
differences from all previous versions in that the structure of the code enabled parallel operation of node-
centric events via introducing node states. The previous code on the other hand was based on sequential
processing of network events, which usually over-estimated network lifetime since overlapping events were
double counted. Hence, this newer version significantly improved the accuracy of evaluation of network
lifetime.
A third activity in T4.4 consists in research on mediated gossiping in large scale capillary networks. This work
enables a high level coordination between gateways controlling individual capillary networks. By doing so,
related data and queries can be directed and related with correct and most relevant locations dynamically.
Another part of the work performed in T4.4 is about the MU-diversity with beamforming techniques where
our prime targets are to efficiently handle the aggregation of a large number of sensor nodes around a fusion
center (FC) as well as to considerable reduce the nodes channel state information the is fed back to the FC. In
this context, by considering a highly time correlated fading channel and by employing differential
quantization techniques we have managed to obtained a considerable reduction on the amount of bits, with
CSI information, that are sent back to the FC by the users. Furthermore, we have performed some preliminary,
and then extensive simulations regarding a MAC protocol in which joint scheduling and routing techniques
have been considered for efficiently handle the capillary network energy and the congestion near the sink. At
that time we have managed to create an accurate simulation platform in Matlab, where hybrid access schemes
were being investigating.
A final activity was the study of selecting the optimum cluster head for capillary networks, obtaining fruitful
conclusions about the trade-off between network lifetime and outage probability. Future steps were provided
as well.
The technical achievements in T4.4 can be summarized as follows:
 Data Compression at the M2M Gateway: We have been working on our previously proposed data
aggregation technique at the GW. In particular, we have designed a multidimensional filter in order to
exploit temporal and spatial correlation of sensor data. After exploiting data correlation, data is
compressed to a given number of coefficients that are sent to the application server. We have seen that
this signal processing technique can significantly reduce the traffic in the LTE-M network when data
is highly correlated. Related to this activity, one conference paper (ICASSP’12) has been presented
and one conference paper (EUSIPCO ’12) accepted for publication.

 Beamforming and MAC protocol: Continuing our work concerning the MU-diversity with
beamforming techniques we have consider a highly time as well as spatial correlated fading channel
and by employing differential quantization techniques we have managed to obtained a considerable
reduction on the amount of bits, with CSI information, that are sent back to the FC by the users.
Furthermore, we have started to perform extensive simulations regarding the MAC protocol where
hybrid access schemes are been investigating. Our next steps include a routing algorithm that will
considerable reduce the congestion around the CH.

 Cluster head selection: working has been performed on the study of selecting the optimum cluster
head for capillary networks, obtaining fruitful conclusions about the trade-off between network
lifetime and outage probability. Future steps provided as well.

 Symbolic Aggregation Approximation: work was performed on a data aggregation mechanism
based on Symbolic Aggregation approXimation (SAX) method. The performance of the proposed
mechanism was evaluated by changing the granularity of data using SAX and creating high level
abstraction and representing them as patterns. Event processing and pattern detection techniques were
added to the proposed data aggregation mechanism in order to improve its performance. Initial
performance evaluation of SAX was performed with event processing and pattern detection.

3.3.13 Task 4.5
This task was concerned with network health monitoring of sensor / actuator to ensure that there are on-line,
bi-directional, demand-response communications between sensor-actuators and gateways. This task is
different from Device Management in a way that it does not only focus on identifying single stopped
functioning devices but monitoring reliable operation and maintenance of the network is the main objective in
this task.
As a first step, consolidated requirements were specified for this task driven from use cases introduced in
IR2.1, 3GPP MTC, and ETSI. The different sets of parameters involved in this task were made explicit.
Then literature review and background study of current mechanisms and algorithms available in capillary
networks were performed. Some algorithms that have been studied are: BOSS, MANNA, RRP, SNMS,
WINms. Our current focus is categorizing existing monitoring and management mechanisms in different
networks (Periodic reporting, Event-Driven, and Query-based), defining the evaluating metrics (i.e. number of
transmitted bits/packets, overhead, frequency of reporting, energy spent per bit, etc. and study the most
suitable algorithms for EXALTED. In addition to capillary network in the next step we have plan to explore
the monitoring mechanisms for LTE-M devices directly linked to the LTE network.
T4.5 has also studied a hierarchical network construction for distributed control of devices by cluster head
nodes. The distributed clustering protocol has been tested extensively with respect to its operational
parameters.
The procedure that forms the cluster structure in the capillary network has now been finalised as two
mechanisms: In-cluster Cluster-head role Rotation (ICR) and Multi-Cluster Re-clustering (MCR). ICR is a
periodic decision making mechanism whose time period Tin of condition checks has been tested for its effect
on protocol performance. It has been shown via emulations that Tin is most beneficial for Tin = 20 unit time
periods. (A unit time period is defined as 10 back-to-back link-level packet transmissions, without the effect
of MAC delays) For lower and higher values of Tin reduction in network lifetime was observed. Although for
all test cases, the standard deviation of node energy levels are lower than what would be observed in the case
with no ICR in place, a very large value of ICR (Tin = 50) deteriorates protocol performance by decreasing
network lifetime. This showed that ICR must be performed sufficiently frequently in order to obtain
noticeable gains.
An estimation module that assigns accurate initial values to the CH energy consumption Ecost has been
implemented. This module simply uses two consecutive HELLO messages and disseminates generated data
rates in local areas. With this, nodes are able to predict the later incoming rate from potential CH nodes,
should they be selected as a CH as well. As a result, the aggregated data in the CH nodes are better tuned to
initial network conditions, which are later refined by real traffic streams that are fed to the CHs.
Initially, ICR and MCR were evaluated separately in order to understand how specific parts of these
mechanisms are affected by their parameters. Then, a whole protocol with ICR and MCR for network-specific
parameters, such as node deployment density and initial variation of device energy resources, was tested.
The device deployment density has a major effect on how many CH nodes are eventually needed to cover and
effectively manage a reasonable number of devices within a given area. Test results has shown the DISC
protocol scalable to differences in node density, as the resulting average energy consumption figures show
similar angle of decline, and networks with different density have similar energy variations over time.
Test results have demonstrated that a combined ICR&MCR protocol (DISC) can actually reduce collected
data volume while applying re-clustering only within limited parts of the network at locally determined time
instances. The protocol is also found to be scalable to difference in network density, whereas increasing
energy heterogeneity unsurprisingly reduces network lifetime.
Task 4.5 defines a set of functions to monitor network status, detect network faults, to maintain normal
operation and improve network efficiency. To perform these tasks, network monitoring needs to send queries
and collect information from network devices to analyse the information. We prepared a detailed list of the
queries required by network monitoring server and continue to work on identifying special requirements for
network monitoring to be compliant with the properties and constraints of EXALTED (large scale, low cost,
low resources consumption, reliable, scalable, and configurable).
Therefore we have chosen a new hierarchical solution for network monitoring, by distributing the Monitoring
Module in cluster heads, gateways, and eNodeBs. In this approach, Information is organized in different
modules and there are agents in each network device to collect the information and report to an upper-level
network that has a view of the more complete network information.
The proposed framework enables the intermediate devices (Gateways, Cluster Heads) to combine their
monitoring status with the results from connected M2M devices to capture the status of the network. A
hierarchical architecture tackles scalability by applying monitoring policies in different network levels to
reduce monitoring network traffic load over the LTE/LTE-M network.
The proposed software architecture for network monitoring has several advantages over the current solutions.
Scalability is the main design consideration to support a large number of M2M devices. In addition, it
introduces standard interfaces allowing interoperability with other EXALTED architectures such as device
management and self-diagnostics.
A monitoring scheme based on Pachube middleware, being able to receiving information from the nodes in a
capillary network has been implemented and a first basic demonstrator has been performed.
A draft document was completed outlining the architecture options for the network monitoring architecture
and the recommended approach for EXALTED. The document is awaiting feedback from the EXALTED
group.

 Lightweight Monitoring Mechanism: development of a Pachube client embedded on TST’s M2M
devices that enables in an efficient manner (using CSV messages) to monitor the status of the different
nodes. Characterization of resultant throughput. Evaluation of next steps regarding node monitoring.
 A hierarchical approach to network monitoring has been proposed. The proposed framework enables
the intermediate devices (Gateways, Cluster Heads) to combine their monitoring status with the
results from connected M2M devices to capture the status of the network. A hierarchical architecture
tackles scalability by applying monitoring policies in different network levels to reduce its impact on
the traffic load over the LTE/LTE-M network.

Lightweight Monitoring Mechanism: this technique has been included under scenario 2 (device management) and it
has been compared against the resultant payload size of the aired packet, as the solution is oriented to reduce this packet
to the most. The real implementation is able to reach up to 150Kbps at each node, limited by the capillary interface
selected (ZigBee), transmitting 20Byte payloads. The Gateway is able to aggregate the data and encapsulate it through
the HTTP session, obtaining 80% payload reduction rates.

3.4 WP5
WP5 aimed at the definition of low cost, automated authentication and device provisioning solutions as well
as securing the provisioning and data transmission operations in different contexts (use of data gateways, use
of broadcasting or relaying techniques) for efficient and secure M2M communications over 3GPP or IP
networks.

3.4.1 Overall Progress of WP5
WP5 work was spread over three tasks: T5.1 (Low cost provisioning and security), T5.2 (security
mechanisms to be used for broadcast and multicast operations), T5.3 (Security solutions to secure networks
using P2P relaying).
Task 5.1 was spread over the first sixteen months of the project and would have benefited to take place as a
background activity during the whole project length as the “low cost aspect” is also impacting security
solutions defined in tasks 5.2 and 5.3. This constraint led us to organize our activities in consequence.
Task 5.1 has resulted in the production of D5.1 public deliverable; This report deals with network access
security for M2M devices in 3GPP (3G, 3G+,LTE, LTE-M) networks and addresses architectural topics for
application level M2M security in “generic” (not necessarily 3GPP) wide area IP networks. It has involved a
close collaboration with Work Package 6 team on the definition and prototyping of an “applicative secure
element” embedded in M2M devices and a continuous collaboration with WP2 team dealing with Exalted
M2M architecture.
Task 5.2 has resulted in the production of D5.2 public deliverable. This report focuses upon the use of
broadcast and multicast techniques to perform device management and software provisioning on a very large
number of devices. It addresses the associated security issues. Task 5.2 has involved close cooperation with
WP4 team on the topic of M2M device management and with WP3 team regarding the use of broadcast
facilities in LTE/LTE-M networks.
Task 5.3 has resulted in the production of D5.3 deliverable. This report deals with ways to bootstrap internal
security in standalone capillary networks which use multihop communications. It also proposes different
security models to secure the connection of multihop capillary networks to wide area networks. Task 4.3 has
involved collaboration with WP4 team on the topic of traffic aggregation.

The main contributions of WP5 group revolve around the following points
 Contributions to the definition of a new type of an embedded secure element either used for securing
3GPP network access (embedded SIM) or securing M2M applications (MIM)
 Sharing of secure element to secure multiple layers of data communications
 Low overhead security
 Business drivers and architecture solutions to achieve End to End security for M2M communications
 Bridging LAN and WAN security ; benefits and possible solutions
 Methods to achieve security bootstrap in multihop capillary networks
 Methods to bootstrap security for broadcast/multicast communications
 Use of MBMS with lightweight GBA to securely distribute software updates to a large number of
M2M devices connected to 3GPP networks.
 Lightweight key management methods in broadcast/multicast M2M communications.

We believe that those contributions constitute reasonable results in accordance with the initial project
proposal.
The work of the group resulted In terms of dissemination (directly or indirectly through member companies)
in more than 14 contributions to 3GPP and ETSI M2M work groups, filing of more than 10 patents by group
members, the submission of four papers (two accepted at time of writing), the agreement for presenting the
group results in three M2M international conferences, and the participation to the writing of a book to be
published on M2M communications.

The following sections provide further details upon the most significant achievements.

3.4.2 Embedded secure element
The traditional SIM form factor has proved over time to be ill suited to small M2M devices for the following
reasons:
 Various types of appliances are now becoming connected, some of them featuring a very small form
factor where the accommodation of a traditional SIM connector is not easy.
 M2M applications involving specific environmental constraints (heat, vibrations, humidity,…) or
usages (e.g. alarming) may impose the SIM to be soldered on the device.
 Some devices need to be provided “ready to connect” to the end user, requiring to fit the SIM in the
device at production or distribution. Distribution and operating costs must be very low because the
average revenue is currently very much smaller than in the mobile consumer market.
 Subscription change by SIM swap when devices are in inaccessible locations is not possible and
dictates the need to support over the air subscription management on M2M devices.

These reasons led the GSMA In November 2010, to announce the creation of a task force to “explore the
specification of a remotely activated embedded SIM” in embedded devices, which in most cases cannot be
removed.
This event probably marks a turning point in the history of the SIM card, as the management model for an
embedded SIM differs significantly from the one of the traditional SIM, for which the initial personalization
occurs at manufacturing time.

WP5 has contributed to the definition of the embedded SIM (eUICC) through the action of its member
companies. The case of an embedded SIM holding multiple M2M applications credentials in a multitenant
environment (the credentials associated to the different eUICC applications belong to distinct business
entities) has been explored. Different business scenarios corresponding to distinct security models have been
identified and described.
The cost impact upon security resulting from the introduction of the eUICC has also been investigated. A cost
breakdown of security in existing LTE network was first proposed.
The conclusion is that, if the cost of the embedded secure element is likely (at least in the years following
introduction) to be comparable with the cost of traditional SIM cards, very significant savings will results
from the automated subscription delivery and activation costs.

The eUICC is a secure element controlled by the mobile network operator and used primarily for securing
3gpp networks access. A derivation of the eUICC leads to the “applicative secure element”, packaged as a
simple peripheral connected to an M2M device via industry standard interface (Sp, I2C bus), and used
primarily for application security. We have also in collaboration with WP7 explored this type of secure
element and the associated security management model. This work led to one of the prototypes presented by
WP7.

3.4.3 Low overhead security
LTE-M or M2M devices part of Wireless sensors networks may be highly constrained in terms of energy
consumption. WP5 has investigated the overhead linked to security and proposed “low security overhead
security solutions”.
The impact of the security upon energy consumption of the device has been investigated by considering three
factors:
 The power consumption linked to the execution of cryptographic algorithms inside the device.
 The power consumption linked to the need to data overhead associated to security
 The power consumption linked to factors related to infrastructure choices, e.g.: periods between re-
authentications, number of simultaneous layers of security.
D5.1 has identified a number of “energy efficient” block ciphers reducing the energy required for
cryptographic operations. The impact of using short MAC upon security in an attempt to reduce the data
transmission overhead has also been investigated. Finally, for 3gpp networks, proposals to collapse security
layers in an attempt to minimize the architecture overhead have been formulated.

3.4.4 End to end security
The M2M architecture used in the EXALTED project involves an M2M service platform operated by an M2M
service provider. Pretty much as a PABX enables on demand communication between handsets which are not
directly wired together, the M2M service platform is expected to provide interoperability between independent
M2M applications or devices. The introduction of M2M service platform in the M2M architecture lead to a
well-known “trapezoidal communication model” similar to the one used for Voice over IP or telephony
communications and illustrated in Figure 2.
From security standpoint, the hop by hop security model where each hop of the communication path is
secured using a distinct set of credentials managed by different business entities, is the most widely adopted
model.
M2M service
platform1
Source device
Destinations Hop 1
Hop 2
M2M service
platform2
Hop 3

Figure 2: Trapezoidal communication model.
This security model is based on a circle of trust existing between M2M service operators and imposes upon
them a number of constraints which are detailed in D5.1. The WP5 team has identified and described a
number of business drivers for supporting an “end to end security model” in which a single set of credentials
is used to secure the data communication from the source to destination. The underlying reasons are described
in D5.1 and in D2.4.
We have investigated the possible solutions to implement end to end security in the Exalted or in the ETSI
M2M architecture. In particular we have shown that the resulting architecture opens the possibility to split the
responsibility of the M2M service provider between 2 independent business entities: the M2M service
provider and the trust manager. The benefits of this have been identified and described.

3.4.5 Bridging of LAN and WAN security
M2M applications often involve the combination of local area network (LAN) and wide area network (WAN)
communications. In this case, the devices typically transmit their data through a proximity network (LAN) up
to a gateway making the bridge with the internet. Then the data is routed through the wide area network up to
the application server, either directly or via an M2M service provider.
In order to secure the data stream, devices usually need to secure their local connectivity. Popular
communication protocols such as Bluetooth or ZigBee offer network access security between the devices or
between the device and gateway. The execution of the security bootstrapping process to define security
credentials is generally under the responsibility of the device owner.
The security of the data transmission after the gateway and up to the destination(s) is part of the application
security domain. The responsibility for credential definition belongs to either the M2M application provider or
to the M2M service provider when such provider is involved.
Application security may either stop at the gateway level or extend up to the devices part of the capillary
network. In such a case, the data transmitted in the local area network will undergo a double ciphering: one
linked to the LAN network security and the other tied to the application security as illustrated in Figure 3 This
for small devices can be inefficient and particularly so if they are constrained in energy or computing power.
Capillary
network
Gateway
Service provider
destinations Sources
Kna+ka
Ka
2 security levels in capillary network
Network access + application
Capillary
network
Sources
ka
Ka
LAN and WAN security linked
1 security level in LAN

Figure 3: separate and bridged LAN and WAN security
WP5 has investigated the possibility to bridge the LAN and WAN security resulting in a single set of
credentials in the LAN and in the WAN. In this case, the M2M service provider can offer as a service to
remotely manage the LAN security thus relieving the device owner for the responsibility to do so. We have
proposed solutions to achieve this goal and have shown that the remote management of LAN security by an
M2M service provider makes possible the support of new use case scenarios to connect capillary networks
located in different LANs. We have detailed 2 such scenarios and proposed associated security solutions:
 One device belonging to one capillary network, connecting and relaying its communications via a
guest capillary network when in a mobility situation.
 Devices belonging to one capillary network, being able to relay their communications via another
foreign network in the immediate neighbourhood

3.4.6 Security bootstrap in capillary networks using multihop communications
Task 5.3 was dedicated to the use of relaying or multihop communications in capillary or infrastructure
networks. In multihop capillary network we studied group device pairing mechanisms and discussed their
application in constructing authenticated group key agreement protocols. The mechanisms were classified into
two categories of protocols: with and without trusted leader. We showed that protocols with trusted leader are
more communication and computation efficient.
Our study considered both insider and outsider adversaries and presented protocols providing secure device
pairing for uncompromised node even in presence of corrupted group members. Three new group device
pairing protocols were proposed, namely group numeric comparison, group MANA II, and multichannel
group device pairing and communication efficiency of Nguyen and Roscoe’s HCBK protocol and Laur-Pasini
SAS-based group key agreement protocol were enhanced.

3.4.7 Use of MBMS with lightweight GBA for device management in 3gpp networks
In the scope of task 5.2, WP5 has investigated the possible use of broadcast and multicast technique to
disseminate the same device management commands or software updates to a large number of devices. For
device provisioning occurring in 3GPP networks, D5.2 proposed to use the Multimedia Broadcast and
Multicast Service (MBMS) in conjunction with either ELFOMA (the lightweight device management protocol
proposed by WP4 team) or OMA device management solutions. We have investigated the security aspects of
this proposal. The Generic Bootstrapping Architecture (GBA) is at the core of the MBMS security and we
proposed a lightweight version of the GBA based upon a CoAP mapping replacing the traditional HTTP
mapping. In order to validate the added value of the solution, we compared a sample HTTP based GBA
exchange with the CoAP equivalent and showed the expected benefits of using CoAP for the GBA exchange.

3.4.8 Use of broadcast and multicast for device management/software update in IP
networks
Task 5.2 has also considered the use of device/multicast techniques for device provisioning in “Generic IP”
networks (possibly, but not necessarily 3GPP networks) and identified security solutions to remotely manage
devices located behind a gateway, taking into account the specificities and the threats associated to the LAN
part of the transmission (transmission of data behind the gateway to the devices).
Our contributions on this topic are focused upon 3 points:
 How can a capillary device bootstrap its security with a remote device management server located in a
wide area network when broadcast/multicast is being used. In particular we proposed an enhancement
to the ETSI M2M architecture to define a new service capability layers enabling to bootstrap
broadcast security.
 The initial security bootstrap usually enable secure transmission of one or several group keys to all
devices candidates to receiving data. We propose a solution (based on the use of Key Derivation
Keys) to minimize the key distribution overhead for applications involving multiple group keys.
 Group keys have usually to be renewed whenever devices leave or enter the distribution group,
possibly resulting in significant overhead. We investigate and propose a solution to reduce this
overhead.

3.5 WP6
WP6 aimed at improving different aspects of M2M devices such as energy efficiency, device self-diagnostic
and self-healing and M2M device security. WP6 released four (4) deliverables D6.1, D6.2, D6.3, and D6.4.
3.5.1 Overall Progress of WP6
Task 6.1 focused on the broad subject of improving energy efficiency in constrained M2M devices (meaning
low cost and low power processing devices) with a particular interest in energy management in capillary
networks, at MAC level and at LTE NAS protocol level. These work items are described in the deliverable
D6.2 which also compiles results related to energy efficiency of other EXALTED work packages.
Task 6.2 focused on improving the Linux Kernel when used in M2M gateways. Public deliverable D6.1
provides a study that covers dynamic voltage scheduling (DVS), system improvement and an interrupt
filtering solution.
Task 6.3 described a framework for a self-diagnostic mechanism targeting M2M devices as well as networks
of M2M devices. The results of task T6.3 were published in D6.3.
Task 6.4 aimed at defining a new low cost, low power and energy efficient pairing mechanism for constrained
devices that materializes as a secure element for M2M devices. These results were described in D6.4.

3.5.2 Energy Efficiency
This task started with literature survey on gateway functionalities on sensor networks, 3GPP’s LTE and MTC
specifications and ETSI’s M2M service requirements with a focus on devices and on sleep mode management
in data collection scenarios. Different constraints peculiar to M2M networks were drawn out such as the
support of various communication demands and capabilities and the support of large number of devices whilst
maintaining the energy efficiency of the devices. These activities were performed as a combined effort with
WP3 and WP4.
3.5.2.1 Hierarchical capillary network structure
One application of M2M networks consists in the monitoring of phenomena related to environment, delivery
of summarized information to related end-users, automated data storage and processing servers that reside
somewhere else. This is achieved by cooperative collection of regular or instantaneously generated data by
multiple measurement devices, usually wireless sensors, to the gateway in multiple transmissions. A multi-hop
transmission is required when data is generated far away from the gateway location and a direct transmission
is either too costly or simply not possible by the device. However, as multiple data traffic flows are generated
at a large number of network locations simultaneously, although the data rate of these flows may be low, the
end result is a high traffic load on forwarding nodes where these flows merge. Such locations emerge as
Network Hotspots, locations where nodes are under heavy burden of data forwarding, which leads to early
depletion of their energy resources as compared to devices that do not have much traffic load. Hence, an
imbalance in traffic load is likely to exist in multi-hop networks and is especially expected for M2M networks
with large number of data sources.
To tackle the hot-spot problem, the energy consumption throughout the network should be equalized as much
as possible. Towards this objective, different strategies can be taken, namely MAC level measures, routing
level measures such as selection of best forwarding node, Cluster Head (CH) selection algorithms, and
scheduling of individual traffics to ensure equalized load on forwarding nodes.
3.5.2.2 Energy efficient MAC scheduling
In M2M applications, various requirements arise, including the high number of devices, the low duty cycles,
low power consumption, and traffic patterns that are based on a hop -by-hop and many-to-one logic towards
the gateway. Trying to satisfy these requirements without considering device power consumption levels may
considerably deteriorate network energy efficiency. In order to improve the energy efficiency of the network,
two complementary MAC protocols are proposed. These protocols provide adequate solutions for collision
reduction and congestion avoidance, thus help avoid unnecessary retransmissions of the same information,
which consumes devices battery energy. The two protocols are complementary to each other in a sense that
the MAC protocol for collision reduction is one-hop oriented, while the second one designed for congestion
avoidance is based on multihop scenarios.
3.5.2.3 Duty cycle mechanism for LTE capable M2M devices
This mechanism aims at providing an answer to two requirements the EXALTED project identified as area of
improvement regarding M2M communications. The first one is to be able to achieve better energy efficiency
for LTE/LTE-M capable devices and the second one is to limit the risks of traffic saturation when M2M traffic
and legacy traffic are competing for network resources.
Improvement to the device’s energy efficiency is performed by introducing negotiated duty cycles.
Negotiation happens at subscription level between the network provider and the M2M service provider.
Intervals for data communications are scheduled and pushed to the device at NAS protocol level, first during
the initial network registration procedure and eventually during each data transfer. The duty cycle enables
offline intervals the device can use to apply strong power saving procedures up to a complete power off during
offline intervals. Improvements in the NAS management of registration update procedures in order to
maintain the device registration status over long offline intervals were also proposed. These improvements are
a consequence of a timer management policy that is M2M device specific. They do not impact legacy systems
as they are per device policies and, as a consequence, can be applied to M2M devices that are duty cycle
capable only. The main result is that, when the device reaches online granted interval, it is not expected to
perform full network registration procedure prior to initiating communication yet, its network registration
status remains. Better energy efficiency is performed through significant reduction of system transactions at
NAS level.
Traffic saturation can be avoided thanks to the control duty cycles enable over M2M communications. The
network provider and the M2M service provider can decide when a device is authorized to transmit or receive
data and when it is not. Carefully designing the windows of opportunity for M2M data communications, it is
possible to regulate its traffic and move it or part of it to moments the network resources are underused by
legacy users.
3.5.2.4 Enhancements to Linux Kernel for Energy Efficiency
M2M gateways, or high-end M2M devices, tend to use Linux as operating system since Linux is very popular
for embedded systems. It is therefore interesting to seek for energy efficiency optimizations in a Linux
embedded system.
Implementation of DVS in the Linux Kernel was detailed and a simple DVS algorithm was suggested.
An improvement over the tickless idle implementation was suggested in order to get a complete tickless
system. Current tickless idle mechanism considers removing the tick event during idle mode in order to
prevent regular wakeups. T6.2 considered the benefits of removing the tick event also during active intervals
relying on high resolution timers to schedule tasks. The underlying idea is to improve the resources dedicated
to useful tasks over resources dedicated to system tasks. The cost of such modification to the kernel is a
difference in the task switching dynamics. Tasks with equivalent priorities do not interleave anymore as tasks
consumes their allocated resources in a single run.
The interrupt filtering solution that was proposed is based on the idea that an efficient device should only
wake up to tackle “interesting” tasks. Energy efficiency is reached as the complex Linux mechanism of
handling interrupts is only invoked for valuable tasks while a focused mechanism discards uninteresting
events and returns the system to sleep mode much quicker than the Linux scheduler would. A solution based
on TinyOS, a lightweight and prompt to return to idle mode operating system, was suggested in the document.

3.5.3 M2M Device Reliability
Task 6.3 aimed at designing a self-diagnostic and self-healing framework for the M2M devices. The
underlying idea is to improve the maintenance of large numbers of devices by introducing an autonomous
device management which can also be described as a local delegation of some usually remotely performed
device management tasks. The task worked in close cooperation with Device Management in WP4 to provide
an interface for the remote device management system in order to reduce the number of transactions, hence to
reduce the overall network resource cost of device management.
Guided by a set of updatable rules the device is able to decide which action results from a diagnostic it
performed on itself with the resulting actions ranging from notifications to self- repairing procedures. The
self-diagnostic capable device can also participate to a broader network diagnostic mechanism that is built
upon the device self-diagnostic mechanism. Both mechanisms are described in the public deliverable D6.3
published in M18.
The diagnostic in the device is performed by an embedded self-diagnostic server that applies rules logic to a
device context made of state variables. The logic of self-diagnostic is made of a set of hierarchical and
interconnected rules that produces a diagnostic result. Based on this result a predefined or contextual reaction
is initiated. Such a reaction ranges from “doing nothing” to launching a self-healing procedure should the
diagnostic be interpreted as an indication something goes wrong in the device.
As it is defined, the diagnostic server may not be limited to local diagnostic. The diagnostic logic applies to
local state variable but it is possible to locally maintain a set of state variables that represent the current state
of other connected devices as provided by these devices’ own diagnostic servers. Interconnection of SDMs
enables virtualizing the diagnostic resources and, if the network of devices is carefully designed, it becomes
possible to get the status of a network addressing the SDM of a single device or at least, a limited number of
them, considerably reducing the amount of maintenance traffic over a main radio link such as a LTE/LTE-M
connection. A network status may not rely on a “per device” addressing of every devices belonging to said
network (every request would transit through the main LTE/LTE-M link) but on a single request sent to the
diagnostic server running in the device that acts as the device network access node.

3.5.4 M2M Device Security
Task 6.4 focuses on device pairing mechanisms paying attention to the low resources. Studies on M2M device
specific threats were performed, leading to the definition of a set of requirements regarding device security.
Task 6.4 also produced interim report IR6.2 that details the pairing mechanisms and applies them to common
EXALTED use cases (automotive, eHealth and smart metering use cases). A low cost secure element based on
a single wire protocol (SWP) interface is also described in the document and proposed for further prototyping
stage.
This task proposed a new low cost, low power and power efficient mechanism for device pairing under the
form of a new secure element able to fulfill the different requirements related to the security of constrained
devices directly and indirectly connected to a LTE/LTE-M network. This secure element is built upon two
main blocks, the M2M Identity Module (MIM) that takes care of the security function and a configurable
bridge that enables easy integration into M2M device designs supporting a collection of widely used interfaces
(UART, SPI, I2C, etc).
A software development kit that enables interfacing M2M applications with the secure element was produced.
Task 6.4 includes the chip definition and design stages as well as a chip prototyping stage.
3.5.5 Summary of Technical Achievements
 A network structure for devices connected to a capillary network that achieves better energy
efficiency at network level through energy equalization.
 Two complementary and energy efficient MAC algorithms.
 A M2M duty cycling mechanism for LTE/LTE-M capable M2M devices that is “harmless” for legacy
users and enables M2M traffic regulation.
 Fully tickless Linux OS and interruption filtering
 A device self-diagnostic framework that also enables optimized network status monitoring.
 A secure element optimized for constrained M2M devices.

3.6 WP7
WP7 is the convergence point of all technical work packages (WPs). It aims to develop Proof of Concepts
(PoC) by integrating key concepts and algorithms from WP2 through WP6. The main purpose of these PoCs is
to validate selected algorithms by assessing performances and coverage of technical requirements needed in
various use cases.
3.6.1 Overall Progress of WP7
WP7 comprises 3 tasks: Task 7.1 focused on selection of use cases defined in WP2 along with most important
concepts, algorithms and technologies developed in WP3 through WP6. Task 7.2 aims to fully define testbeds
building blocks and integration aspects. Task 7.3 is dedicated to validation of testbeds.
As the result of efforts undertaken within these tasks, the following public deliverables have been produced:
 D7.1 [9] defines 3 testbeds (LTE-M, E2E connectivity and device management) leveraging most
valuable algorithms identified in WP3 through WP6. Major scenarios defined in WP2 are selected and
represented by these testbeds. Architecture, functionalities, building blocks and interfaces are
presented.
 D7.2 [10] details components, interfaces, functionalities and algorithms for each subtestbed along
with the tracing of technical requirements.
 D7.3 [11] reveals performance measurement and verification procedures.

In addition to the aforementioned public reports, most important testbed achievements are summarized below.
3.6.2 LTE-M testbed
This testbed is dedicated for the LTE-M air interface. It consists of lab equipment that emulates the PHY layer
uplink with two candidate LTE-M algorithms, namely General Frequency Division Multiplexing (GFDM) and
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). A physical LTE-M radio signal can be sent over the air.
This testbed provides the proof that LTE-M can coexist with LTE in the same frequency band. This
assessment was performed using a transmission scenario involving two LTE UEs and one LTE-M device. It
can be shown firstly that superimposed LTE and LTE-M signals can be separated from each other and
decoded successfully and secondly that the performance of the LTE UEs is not affected at all. As the same
receiver is utilized for both communication systems, thus the intended reusability of hardware is
demonstrated. These findings confirm the theoretical results from WP3.

A second measurement scenario without the two LTE UEs primarily aimed at the verification of the spectral
properties of GFDM. This was shown by a comparison of the measured spectral power density with a
respective simulation. Moreover, the required overall QoS concept was evaluated. The BER depending on the
SNR was determined using GFDM and compared against simulation results. It was further shown that
CDMA-overlay Tx vectors representing different settings of modulation scheme, spreading factor, and
transport block size can be successfully decoded. Again, a reasonable match between results from WP3 and
the measurement campaign is claimed.
3.6.3 End-to-End communication testbed
This testbed implements selected novelties developed in three main fields:
 Concepts developed within capillary networks
 End-to-end connectivity between M2M devices, not only belonging to the same capillary network, but
also from different ones connected to the LTE/LTE-M network
 End-to-end security between M2M devices and M2M server

In order to address various use cases, this testbed can be seen as a composition of five subtestbeds each one
based on its capillary network. This represents the real-life sub-networks each one addressing a set of
requirements for the end user.
3.6.3.1 Extended E2E connectivity with Capillary-to-Capillary-to-Infrastructure

This subtestbed reflects a scenario in which an ambulance transmits patient vital data to hospital over a V2V2I
communication type. It demonstrates the feasibility of capillary-to-capillary-to-Infrastructure IP
communications. It makes use of an eHealth application as a proof of concept. The architecture is connected
through an IPv6 networking technology involving two neighbouring M2M gateways where only one is
connected to the infrastructure. The leaf M2M Gateway relies on its neighbour for accessing the M2M
services provided by the M2M application domain.
The following techniques have been implemented in this testbed to demonstrate the addressing scalability,
heterogeneity, E2E IPv6 connectivity and mobility features.
 Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) based IPv6 addressing
 IPv6 prefix delegation over Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP)
 Network mobility support using MIPv6/NEMO
 Extended E2E connectivity scenario

Moreover, the following KPIs have been measured:
 Throughput. This KPI determines the limits of the V2V2I system in terms of technical bottlenecks. In
particular, it can be shown that Capillary-to-Infrastructure model can be extended (with limited
additional effort) to the pattern Capillary-to-Capillary-to-Infrastructure. This extension (hybridation)
allows supporting an additional M2M capillary network through one LTE-M infrastructure
connection, which scales up the number of supported devices.
 Number of addresses mapped. VIN-based generated addresses enables the addressing of a total 2^16
(65536) distinct devices in the capillary network.
 Payload Size. The efficiency of the control plane and the overall overhead generated has been
evaluated. The NDP extension Prefix Delegation (ND-PD) is compared to the DHCPv6-PD extension,
which is specified as the next IPv6 prefix delegation standard for LTE-R8. Besides the fact that the
number of messages can be reduced, the latency is enhanced.
 Energy per message. For the extended vehicular use case, involving the eHealth scenario, the energy
spent on sending a message from an eHealth end device through the Android Cluster Head is
measured.

The extended capillary technique reflects early stages of EXALTED solutions deployment during which an
M2M gateway may be disconnected from the infrastructure, may not be LTE-M enabled, or experience better
QoS through neighbouring M2M gateway. On the long-term, this setting should enable gradual integration of
other sorts of machine-type networks and allow them accessing LTE-M services through a heterogeneous ad-
hoc radio access.
3.6.3.2 E2E connectivity with data aggregation
This subtestbed implements several key algorithms: adaptive data scaling, weighted fair aggregation,
similarity avoidance approximation, and faulty detection and recovery. These algorithms are suited for
environmental monitoring use cases in which the following M2M data aggregation treatments are applied in
the gateway:
 Adaptively adjusts different offset and amplitudes as measured from environmental sensors (e.g.
temperature, humidity, CO2, etc) and scales them into a unified scale via performing normalization
amongst all streams before data aggregation.
 Reduce the complexity in both dimensionality and numerousity, in that only key data are selected for
data aggregation
 Provide reliability by intelligently detecting wrong data reported from faulty device and prevent those
data from being considered in the aggregation algorithm.
 Preserves good accuracy level with significant complexity reduction and processing speed
improvement.

The intelligent gateway is able to heterogeneously collect data from various sensors operating within
mismatching types of wireless technologies. Collected data is then aggregated using the aforementioned
algorithms prior sending to the application server. It can be shown that the amount of aggregated sensor data
transmitted (transmission payload size) over the LTE-M link to the application server represents only 3.75%
of the original sensor data (actual payload size) being collected at the gateway. This contributes to enhance the
spectrum efficiency thus increasing the scalability of the system. The application server uses the counterpart
algorithm to decode in order to recover the original sensor data. The gateway is able to achieve payload size
reduction in the dimension of both time and amplitude.
3.6.3.3 E2E connectivity for low power devices
This subtestbed exhibits a logistic monitoring scenario which consists in monitoring drug stock levels in
hospitals using low power devices. The principle consists in attaching an NFC tag to medicines. Whenever the
medicine package is empty, it is put into a box containing an NFC reader. Upon detecting the NFC tag, the
box informs a central server that the health care department is running short of that particular medicine.
A lightweight address translation scheme has been implemented at the M2M gateway, which interconnects
low power devices to the IP world. Seamless connectivity can be shown for constrained low power devices.
Moreover, the following KPIs have been assessed:
 Number of addresses mapped. Although theoretically the proposed lightweight address translation is
able to support up to 65536 nodes behind a single gateway, there is limitation in a real world
implementation.
 Transmission payload size. Measurements performed on different encoding strategies. The payload
reduction rate could be achieved up to 80%.
 Consumed energy per message has been measured for Zigbee devices sending various chunk sizes of
data.

This implemented solution is currently being deployed in several hospitals in Spain.
3.6.3.4 E2E security
This subtested emulates a SMM use case which consists in monitoring a solar farm. Energy service provider
needs to remotely read the amount of electricity produced by solar panels in the farm. The service provider
may want to send commands to solar panels, such as start or stop the production. For various reasons the
server may ask some devices to stop generating electricity, either because the electric network is near
overloading or because of security reasons like a fire alarm in the installation and so no more electricity must
be produced. When the alert is dismissed, the server may resume the production.
The security requirement is the data integrity. A low power Secure Element (SE) has been integrated in this
subtestbed and served to prevent the upstream and downstream data from being tampered.
Cryptography performances and KPI related to the computational energy consumption of the SE have been
measured for a couple of operational figures. Compared to a smart card, the SE operates 3 times faster to
cypher/decipher a message while consuming 44% less power.
3.6.3.5 Offloading capillary network traffic
This new subtestbed has been introduced during the last phase of the project. While the subtestbed described
in 3.6.3.2 aims to reduce traffic load at the LTE-M link, this solution can reduce traffic load both at the
capillary network and at the LTE-M main link. This algorithm is suitable for SMM use cases in which the
sensor signals being monitored are highly compressible. The sensor collects N samples of x signal, the vector
x is then compressed onto L samples, where L << N, prior transmitting to the M2M Gateway. Depending on
the use case, either the M2M GW sends the information to the application server for decompression or
recovers x by itself.
The following 3 KPIs have been measured:
 Actual payload size. In the subtestbed, 64 samples collected by the sensor are compressed onto 32
samples for transmission. The traffic is thus offloaded by 34,37% at the capillary network.
 Distortion. Mean Square Error (MSE) varies highly depending on the use case. MSE around 10-2 has
been measured when compressing solar panel samples during several days while monitoring
temperature every minute yields a rate around 10-6
 Radio energy consumption is comparable to those obtained in 3.6.3.3 as these subtestbeds share the
same software and hardward framework.

3.6.4 Device Management (DM) testbed
This testbed validates novelties in the field of device management. Considered aspects in the three subtestbeds
are the lightweight device management message encoding and a novel self-diagnostic for reliability and
monitoring.

3.6.4.1 ELFOMA - Lightweight DM
This subtestbed emulates a SMM use case by providing a novel procedure to electricity supplier to avoid
importing electricity from abroad or starting a fossil fuelled thermal power plant, in case of energy
consumption peaks. Depending on the use case, the gateway may read meter indexes and heater actuators
status on a regular basis then post the reading to the application server over the DM protocol. On the
downstream, the application server may send commands to the gateway over the DM protocol. Commands,
such as read meter, turn on/off heater, are translated by the gateway prior being forwarded to the targeted
sensor devices. Having this mechanism, electricity provider can control the overall energy consumption level
across the energy distribution network. Turning heaters off for 15 min on a round robin basis would not affect
the comfort level in houses.
As LTE-M is a system co-existing with LTE in the same spectrum, the amount of available radio resources for
M2M is limited. Therefore device management (DM) control and data flows exchanged over LTE-M must not
be verbose. Only standardized protocols are considered in WP4. The first DM solution, namely ELFOMA
(Exalted Lightweight DM For OMA-DM v1.x), enables operators to save cost by reusing existing OMA-DM
v1.x servers to incrementally manage new constrained M2M devices. Operators not relying on existing OMA-
DM server can use the second DM solution which is based on CoAP.
This subtestbed aims to evaluate performances of ELFOMA against OMA-DM. 3 KPIs have been measured
(i) Transmission payload size, (ii) Actual payload size, (iii) resources consumption, yielding the following
outcomes:
 With the proposed ELFOMA DM solution, stakeholders can reuse their existing OMA-DM v1.x
servers to manage constrained M2M devices. Compared to the standard OMA-DM protocol and for a
given bandwidth, the number of devices communicating simultaneously over the radio access network
can be scaled up by a factor of 9.
 The average size of an ELFOMA message is 100 bytes. Thus messages can be exchanged over a low
latency radio access network, i.e. LTE-M, within a reasonable timeframe.
 ELFOMA is 3.3 times less CPU demanding to parse than OMA-DM. We could assume that devices
implementing ELFOMA are consuming 3 times less energy to parse DM payloads. The CPU
processing capability of devices can be downsized to save device cost.
 ELFOMA is 22.7 times less memory demanding to parse than OMA-DM. The device cost could thus
be further lowered.

3.6.4.2 Self-Diagnostic
This subtestbed is oriented towards use cases, such as ITS and SMM, that require as few human attendance as
possible. The covered scenarios are root failure cause detection and assisted self-healing.
Besides enhancing the reliability of the M2M devices per se, the purpose of the self-diagnostic feature is to
enable the device to collect autonomously as much relevant data as possible on its operational status before
reporting these data to a management module. In order to minimize the number of transactions that would
occur on a resource constrained radio access network, i.e. LTE-M, the device ought to process these data first
to extract the most meaningful information. This is the purpose of the self-diagnostic rule engine running in
the device.
Therefore, an appropriate performance measure is given by the KPI: Frequency of queries from the Device
Management server to the M2M device. It can be shown that only one query is necessary per diagnosed
component.
3.6.5 Summary of Technical Achievements
 Novel algorithms have been selected and integrated onto 8 proof of concepts covering different use
cases: ITS, eHealth and SMM.
 Technical requirements have been traced and fulfilled per proof of concepts basis
 Subtestbeds enabled the measurement of 20 Key Perfomance Indicators (KPIs)
 Concept and algorithms developed with EXALTED satisfy various use cases and actually contribute
to:
o Increase the scalability of the system:
o Improve the energy efficiency
o Lower the cost of devices
4. Project Impacts

Finally, EXALTED standardization and dissemination activities have been very active during the life time of
the project and are as summarized below.
Patents: 14 patents have been filed.
Standardization Activities: 48 contributions have been made to standardization bodies (3GPP, ETSI, and
IETF).
Conference and Workshop Papers: 53 papers have been published or accepted.
Journal and Magazines: 10 articles have been published or accepted.
Book Chapter: 1 book chapter has been produced.
Presentations: 16 presentations have been made at scientific and technical events and other project meetings.
Workshops: 3 international workshops namely International Workshop on Machine-to-Machine
Communications (IWM2M) in IEEE GLOBECOM 2011, Internet-of-Things – Enabling Technologies (IoT-
ET) in IEEE WCNC 2012 and IWM2M in IEEE GLOBECOM 2012 have been very successfully organized
with numerous participants.
Summer School: Successful organization of EXALTED’s Training School in collaboration with other EC-
funded projects.
Other activities: Edition of 2 journal special issues and a Project booth in Future Network and Mobile
Summit 2012.
5. Project Website
The EXALTED portal (http://www.ict-exalted.eu) represents one of the main media for dissemination of the
project’s activities toward specialized public and non-technical or general readers. All public deliverables are
available for download.
Project Website: http://www.ict-exalted.eu
6. References
[1] FP7 EXALTED consortium, “D3.1 – First report on LTE-M algorithms and procedures,” project report,
version 2.0, Jan. 2012.
[2] FP7 EXALTED consortium, “D3.2 – Study of commonalities and synergies between LTE-M and the
heterogeneous network,” project report, Aug. 2011.
[3] FP7 EXALTED consortium, “D3.3 – Final report on LTE-M algorithms and procedures,” project
report, July. 2012.
[4] FP7 EXALTED consortium, “D3.4 – LTE-M performance evaluation,” project report, Jan. 2013.
[5] 3GPP, “TR 36.888 – Study on provision of low-cost Machine-Type Communications (MTC) User
Equipments (UEs) based on LTE,” Rel.11, Jun. 2012
[6] FP7 EXALTED WP6 D6.2 - “Final specification of the energy efficiency implementation”
[7] FP7 EXALTED WP6 D6.3 - “Final specification of the reliable device implementation”
[8] http://www.supelec.fr/fi/c_844404/tel-4-des-communications-machine-a-machine-a-l-internet-des-
objets.html
[9] FP7 EXALTED consortium, “D7.1 – Selection of scenarios for proof of concept testbeds and
specifications for key building blocks, functionalities and interfaces,” project report, August 2011.
[10] FP7 EXALTED consortium, “D7.2 – Integration of selected algorithms into platforms and interfaces
finalization,” project report, August 2012.
[11] FP7 EXALTED consortium, “D7.3 – Final proof of concept validation results and analysis,” project
report, February 2013.

List of Acronyms
Acronym Meaning
3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project
3GPP2 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2
6LoWPAN IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Network
API Application Programming Interface
ARO Address Registration Option
ARQ Automatic Repeat-reQuest
AT Attention
AUTOCONF Ad-Hoc Network Autoconfiguration
BARG Billing and Accounting Roaming Group
BeFEMTO Evolved FEMTO Networks
BoF Birds of a Feather
C2POWER Cognitive radio and Cooperative strategies for POWER saving in multi-
standard wireless devices
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CHOSEN Cooperative Hybrid Objects in SEnsor Networks
CoAP Constrained Application Protocol
CoRE Constrained RESTful Environments
CR Change Request (e.g. to a 3GPP or ETSI document)
CR Cognitive Radio
CSIM CDMA SIM
CT Core network & Terminals
DECT Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications
DHC Dynamic Host Configuration
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DM Device Management
DySPAN-SC Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks Standards Committee
EARTH Energy Aware Radio and neTwork tecHnologies
EC European Commission
EMC IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Society
eNB E-UTRAN Node B
ESMIG European Smart Metering Industry Group
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
eUICC Embedded Universal Integrated Chip Card
EURASIP European Association for Signal Processing
EXALTED EXpAnding LTE for Devices
HSPA High Speed Packet Access
ICT Information and Communication Technology
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem
IP Internet Protocol
IPv6 IP version 6
GBA Generic Bootstrapping Architecture
GENESI Green sEnsor NEtworks for Structural monItoring
GHC Generic Header Compression
GINSENG Performance control in wireless sensor networks
GSM Global System for Mobile Communications
GSMA GSM Association
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
HA Home Agent
HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol
LOLA Achieving LOw-LAtency in Wireless Communications
LTE Long Term Evolution
LTE-A LTE-Advanced
LTE-M LTE for Machines
LWIG Light-Weight Implementation Guidance
M2M Machine-to-Machine
MAC Medium Access Control
MEXT Mobility EXTension for IPv6
MFF M2M Form Factor
MIF Multiple InterFace
MIP Mobile IPv6 Protocol
MME Mobility Management Entity
MNO Mobile Network Operator
MTC Machine Type Communications
MVN Mobile Virtual Network
NAS Non Access Stratum
NEWCOM++ Excellence in wireless Communications++
NIMTC Network Improvements for Machine Type Communications
NGMN Next Generation Mobile Networks
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer
OMA Open Mobile Alliance
OSA Open Standards Alliance
OTA Over-The-Air
P-GW Packet data network GateWay
PHY Physical Layer
PKI Public Key Infrastructure
RAN Radio Access Network
RAS Radio Access Spectrum
REQ Requirements
REST Representational State Transfer
RFC Request For Comments
ROLL Routing Over Low power and Lossy networks
RP RAN Plenary
RPL Routing Protocol for Low power and lossy networks
RRC Radio Resource Control
RRS Reconfigurable Radio System
S-GW Serving GateWay
SA System Aspects
SAS Security Assessment Scheme
SCAG Smart Card Application Group
SCC Standards Coordinating Committee
SCP Smart Card Platform
SID Study Item Description
SIM Subscriber Identity Module
SIMTC System Improvements for Machine Type Communications
SME Small and Medium Enterprises
SMS Short Message Service
SUPELEC Ecole SUPérieure d'ÉLECctricité
TC Technical Committee
TCCC Technical Committee on Computer Communications
Tdoc Temporary document
TEC Technical
TR Technical Report
TS Technical Specification
TSG Technical Specification Group
TSG-SA Technical Specification Group System Aspects
TSG-RAN Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network
UE User Equipment
UICC Universal Integrated Chip Card
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
URI Universal Resource Identifiers
USIM Universal SIM
VITRO Virtualized dIstributed plaTfoRms of smart Objects
WG Working Group
WP Work package
WWRF Wireless World Research Forum


7. Use and Dissemination of Foreground

7.1 Section A
This section describes the dissemination measures, including any scientific publications relating to
foreground. Its contents is available to the public domain.
7.1.1 Standardization activities

Some of the concepts of EXALTED proposed by EXALTED partners have been discussed and/or accepted to
include in the specification by 3GPP, ETSI and IETF. As the standardization process for MTC is still on-
going within many of these bodies some of the ideas conceptualised in EXALTED may be adopted in the
future by the standards bodies.
Overall, 48 standards contributions with a direct mapping to EXALTED were carried out.
3GPP: 33 contributions
1) “M2M Specific Optimisations for LTE”, Vodafone (VGSL), Gemalto (GTO), Sierra Wireless
(SW), S1-110139, 3GPP SA WG1, Nashville, USA, Feb 2011.
2) 'MTC device migration from GSM', Vodafone (VGSL), Sagemcom SAS (SC), RP-110419,
3GPP TSG RAN #51, Kansas, USA, March 2011.
3) 'LS to ETSI M2M on potential co-operation between 3GPP work on MTC security and ETSI
M2M', Vodafone (VGSL), S3-110558, 3GPP SA3#63, Chengdu, April 2011.
4) 'Merits of the Slotted Access Methods for MTC', Alcatel-Lucent, Alcatel Shanghai Bell
(ALUD), R2-112247, 3GPP RAN2 #73bis, Shanghai, April 2011.
5) 'Proposed SID: Provision of low cost MTC terminals based on LTE', Vodafone (VGSL), RP-
110899, 3GPP TSG RAN #52, Bratislava, Slovakia, May 2011.
6) 'M2M: Small data transmission using optimised SMS', Vodafone (VGSL), S2-112899, 3GPP
SA WG2 #85, Xi'an, China, May 2011.
7) “Further Study of Access Performance for MTC”, R2-113183, Alcatel-Lucent (ALUD),
Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell, 3GPP TSG RAN WG2 #74, Barcelona, Spain, May 2011.
8) “Draft SID for further work on MTC for prioritized use cases by TSG SA”, RP-110912,
Nokia Siemens Networks, Nokia Corporation, Alcatel-Lucent (ALUD), MediaTek, 3GPP
TSG-RAN #52, Bratislava, Slovakia, June 2011.
9) 'Efficient small data transmission', Vodafone (VGSL), IPWireless, S2-113826, 3GPP SA
WG2 #86, Naantali, Finland, July 2011.
10) “Integrated Slotted Access with EAB for MTC”, R2-114391, Alcatel-Lucent (ALUD),
Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell, 3GPP TSG RAN WG2 #75, Athens, Greece, August 2011.
11) "Considerations on potential solutions for low-cost MTC UEs”, R1-113334, Alcatel-Lucent
(ALUD), Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell, 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 #66bis, Zhuhai, China, Oct
2011.
12) “Proposals on RAN1 aspects for study of Low cost MTC device”, P.Bhat, Vodafone (VGSL),
R1-113443, 3GPP RAN1 #66bis, Zhuhai, China. Oct 2011.
13) “Draft skeleton TR proposal "Provision of low-cost MTC UEs based on LTE”, P.Bhat,
Vodafone (VGSL), R1-113604, 3GPP RAN1 #66bis, Zhuhai, China, Oct 2011.
14) “Next steps for Study on Provision of Low-Cost MTC UEs”, R1-114068, Alcatel-Lucent
(ALUD), Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell, 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 #67, San Francisco, USA,
Nov 2011.
15) “Summary of E-mail discussions on MTC application scenarios and evaluation
methodology”, P.Bhat, Vodafone (VGSL), 3GPP RAN1 #67, SFO, USA, R1-114303, Nov.
2011.
16) “Text Proposal for Traffic model/characteristics for MTC”, P.Bhat, Vodafone (VGSL), 3GPP
RAN1 #67, SFO, USA, R1-114443, Nov. 2011.
17) “Support of reduced maximum bandwidth for low-cost MTC UEs”, R1-120510, Supporting
companies: Alcatel-Lucent (ALUD), Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell, 3GPP TSG RAN1 #68,
Dresden, Germany, Feb. 2012.
18) “Report of email discussion on TR inputs for "Cost drivers of reference LTE modem“,
P.Bhat, Vodafone (VGSL), 3GPP RAN1 #68, Dresden, Germany, R1-120795, Feb. 2012.
19) “Text Proposal for section 5.3 of 3GPP TR 36.888”, P.Bhat, Vodafone (VGSL), R1-120925,
3GPP RAN1 #68, Dresden, Germany, Feb. 2012.
20) “Views on Cost reduction techniques for "Low cost MTC UE based on LTE”, ”, P.Bhat,
Vodafone (VGSL), R1-120797, 3GPP RAN1 #68, Dresden, Germany, Feb. 2012.
21) TR 36.888 v1.0.0, P.Bhat, Vodafone (VGSL), RP-120270, 3GPP RAN #55, Xiamen, China,
Feb. 2012.
22) “Text proposal for TR 36.888 on restriction of techniques to low performance MTC UEs”,
P.Bhat (VGSL), E.Hardouin (Orange), R1-121720, 3GPP RAN1 #68bis, Jeju, S.Korea, Mar.
2012.
23) “Updated TR 36.888”, P.Bhat, Vodafone (VGSL), R1-120891, 3GPP RAN1 #68, Dresden,
Germany, Feb. 2012.
24) “On single receive RF chain for low-cost MTC UEs”, R1-121255, Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai
Bell, 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 #68bis, Jeju, Korea, March 2012.
25) “On reduction of maximum transmit power for low-cost MTC UEs”, R1-121256, Alcatel-
Lucent Shanghai Bell, 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 #68bis, Jeju, Korea, March 2012.“On half
duplex operation for low-cost MTC UEs”, R1-121257, Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell, 3GPP
TSG RAN WG1 #68bis, Jeju, Korea, March 2012.
26) “On half duplex operation for low-cost MTC UEs”, R1-121257, Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai
Bell, 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 #68bis, Jeju, Korea, March 2012
27) 3GPP TR 36.888 to include agreements from RAN1#69, P.Bhat, Vodafone (VGSL), R1-
123075, 3GPP RAN1 #69, Prague, Czech Republic, May 2012.
28) “Text Proposal on some aspects of section 9 of 3GPP TR 36.888”, P.Bhat, Vodafone (VGSL),
R1-123074, 3GPP RAN1 #69, Prague, Czech Republic, May 2012.
29) “E-mail discussion summary for TP to clause 7 of 3GPP TR 36.888” , P.Bhat, Vodafone
(VGSL), R1-123072, 3GPP RAN1 #69, Prague, Czech Republic, May 2012.
30) “Text Proposal for clause 7 of 3GPP TR 36.888” , P.Bhat, Vodafone (VGSL), R1-123073,
3GPP RAN1 #69, Prague, Czech Republic, May 2012.
31) “SI conclusion for low cost MTC UEs”, Multiple Authors, ALUD, R1-122505, 3GPP TSG
RAN WG1 #69, Prague, Czech Republic, May 2012.
32) “Feasibility of coverage extension of physical channels for MTC devices”, R1-130462,
Alcatel-Lucent, Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell, 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 #72, St. Julians, Malta,
Jan. 2013.
33) “Channel characteristics and channel estimation for extended coverage MTC”, R1-130463,
Alcatel-Lucent, Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell, 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 #72, St. Julians, Malta,
Jan. 2013.

ETSI & GSMA: 11 contributions
1) 'Proposed WID: Use cases and requirements related to Embedded UICCs', AT&T, Gemalto,
Sagem Orga, et al, SCP (11)0146r1, ETSI SCP REQ #29, Sophia Antipolis, March 2011.
2) 'Embedded SIM Task Force Requirements and Use Cases', GSMA, SCP (11)0088, ETSI SCP
REQ #29, Sophia Antipolis, March 2011.
3) 'Liaison Statement on new Work Item for eUICC - to 3GPP and 3GPP/2', ETSI TC SCP, SCP
(11)0147r1, ETSI SCP REQ #29, Sophia Antipolis, March 2011.
4) 'CR against TS_102_412, “Addition of requirements for the eUICC', Deutsche Telekom,
Giesecke & Devrient, Telefonica O2, Vodafone, SCPREQ (11)0043 , ETSI SCP REC ad hoc
#113, London, UK, April 2011.
5) 'Discussion document on definitions pertaining to Embedded UICC', Deutsche Telekom,
Telefonica O2, Vodafone, Giesecke & Devrient, SCPREQ (11)0044 , ETSI SCP REC ad hoc
#113, London, UK, April 2011.
6) 'High Level Components in eUICC First_provisioning', Vodafone Group, SCPREQ (11)0064
, ETSI SCP REQ #30, Caserta, Italy, May 2011.
7) 'Embedded UICC – A high level remote provisioning architecture', GSMA Embedded SIM
Task Force: Technical Stream, SCPREQ (11)0113 , ETSI SCP REQ #32, San Diego, USA,
July 2011.
8) 'GSMA and SIM alliance Collaboration on eUICC Protection Profile', GSMA, SCPREQ
(11)0118 , ETSI SCP REQ #32, San Diego, USA, July 2011.
9) “Considerations for addressing End-to-end Security in M2M Release 2”, H. Ganem et al,
ETSI-M2M TC, March 2012.
10) “Considerations for addressing dIa Security in M2M Release 2”, H. Ganem et al, ETSI-M2M
TC, March 2012.
11) “Method for a harmonized definition of Low Duty Cycle transmission as a passive mitigation
technique used by short range devices and conformance test Methods”, C. Ibars (CTTC) et al,
ETSI TS 103 060, ETSI-STF411, Oct. 2012.

IETF: 4 contributions
1) “Scenarios and Requirements for IP in Intelligent Transportation Systems”, A. Petrescu et al
(CEA), draft-petrescu-its-scenarios-reqs-01.txt, Internet-Draft, Network Working Group,
CEA, Renault, July 2012.
2) ”Default Router List Option for DHCPv6 (DRLO)”, A. Petrescu, K. Pentikousis, C.
Janneteau, M. Mouton (CEA), draft-mouton-mif-dhcpv6-drlo-02, Internet-Draft, Network
Working Group, CEA, HUAWEI, September 2012.
3) “Prefix Delegation extension to Neighbor Discovery protocol”, A. Kaiser, S. Decremps, A.
Petrescu (CEA), draft-kaiser-nd-pd-00, Internet Engineering Task Force, 85th edition,
Atlanta, November 2012.
4) "A Security Framework for Routing over Low Power and Lossy Networks," T. Tsao, R.
Alexander, Mischa Dohler, V. Daza, A. Lozano, IETF Requirement Draft for Routing over
Low Power and Lossy Networks (ROLL), work in progress.
7.1.2 Publications
In this section we list all publications directly related to EXALTED and authored by members of the
EXALTED team. Besides the authors, in each publication we identify the partner institution and in which
workpackage of EXALTED the work was carried out.
7.1.2.1 Journals, Magazines, and Books
The following book chapter (1) and ten (10) journal publications have been recently published or have been
accepted for publication in the coming months:
1. P. S. Bithas, Α. Lioumpas, and A. Alexiou (UPRC-WP4), "Mitigating Shadowing Effects Through
Cluster-Head Cooperation Techniques," accepted for publication in IET on Networks, Dec 2012.
2. Y. Ma, R. Tafazolli, Z. Lu (UNIS-WP3), “Cluster-Based Differential Energy Detection for Spectrum
Sensing in Multi-Carrier Systems”, To appear in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2012
3. S. Vural, P. Navaratnam, and R. Tafazolli (UNIS-WP4) “Transmission Range Assignment for
Backbone Connectivity in Clustered Wireless Networks”, To appear in IEEE Wireless
Communications Letters, 2012
4. J. Alonso-Zárate, J. Matamoros, D. Gregoratti, Mischa Dohler (CTTC-WP4), “Machine-to-machine
communications in smart grid”, Book Chapter in E. Hossain, Z. Han, H.V. Poor (Edts), "Smart Grid
Communications and Networking," Cambridge University Press, 2012.
5. K. Zheng, F. Hu, W. Xiangy, and M. Dohler (CTTC-WP3), “Radio Resource Allocation in LTE-
Advanced Cellular Networks with M2M Communications”, To appear in IEEE Communications
Magazine, 2012.
6. J. Alonso-Zárate, C. Crespo, Ch. Skianis, L. Alonso, and Ch. Verikoukis (CTTC-WP4), “Distributed
Point Coordination Function for IEEE 802.11 Wireless Ad hoc Networks”, Elsevier Ad Hoc
Networks Journal, May 2012.
7. B. Devillers, D. Gunduz (CTTC-WP3), “A General Framework for the Optimization of Energy
Harvesting Communication Systems with Battery Imperfections”, To appear in Journal of
Communications and Networks (JCN)- Special Issue On Energy Harvesting in Wireless Networks,
April 2012.
8. D. Wei, Y. Jin, S. Vural, K. Moessner, R. Tafazolli (UNIS-WP4), "An Energy-efficient Clustering
Solution for Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE Transactions On Wireless Communications, Vol. 10 ,
No. 11, Nov. 2011.
9. A. G. Gotsis, A. S. Lioumpas and A. Alexiou (UPRC-WP3), " Machine-to-Machine Scheduling over
LTE Networks: Challenges and new Perspectives" IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, Sep 2012.
10. A. Bartoli, J. Hernández-Serrano, M. Soriano, M. Dohler, A. Kountouris and D. Barthel, (CTTC-
WP4) "Secure Lossless Aggregation Over Fading & Shadowing Channels For Smart Grid M2M
Networks" IEEE Transactions on Smart Grids, Special Issue on Smart Grid Security, vol. 2, no 4., pp.
844-864, June 2011.
11. N. Chu, D. Raouf, B. Corlay, M. Ammary, N. Gligoric, S. Krco, N. Ognjanovic, A. Obradovic
(SWIR,EYU,TKS-WP4), “OMA-DM v1.x compliant Device Management for Lightweight M2M
devices”, Trans. on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, special issue on Machine-to-
Machine: An Emerging Communication Paradigm.


In addition, seven (7) more manuscripts were submitted to various journals and are still under review

1. G. Cocco, D. Gunduz and C. Ibars (CTTC-WP3), “Streaming over Block-Fading Channels with
Delay Constraint”, Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, April 2012.
2. A. G. Gotsis, A. S. Lioumpas and A. Alexiou (UPRC-WP3), "Analytical Modeling and Performance
Evaluation of Realistic Time-Controlled M2M Scheduling over LTE Cellular Networks" submitted to
Transactions on Emerging Telecommunication Technologies, Special Issue on Machine-to-Machine:
An Emerging Communication Paradigm, Wiley, 2013.
3. N. Gligoric, T. Dimcic, S. Krco, D. Drajic, N. Chu, A. Obradovic (EYU-WP3), “M2M Device
Management over Short Message Service (SMS)” submitted to Trans. on Emerging
Telecommunications Technologies, special issue on Machine-to-Machine: An Emerging
Communication Paradigm.
4. J. Matamoros, C. Anton-Haro (CTTC-WP4) "Compressed Spatial Field Estimation with M2M
Capillary Networks" Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications.
5. S. Mirzadeh, H. Cruickshank, and R. Tafazolli, (UNIS-WP4) "Secure Device Pairing – A Survey"
Submitted to IEEE Communication Surveys & Tutorials
6. G. Cocco, C. Ibars, N. Alagha (CTTC-WP3) "Coverage extension in heterogeneous satellite
machine-to-machine networks" Transactions On Emerging Telecommunications Technologies.
7. Serdar Vural, Pirabakaran Navaratnam, Ning Wang, and Rahim Tafazolli (UNIS-WP4)
“Asynchronous Clustering of Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks,” ACM Transactions on Sensor
Networks.


7.1.2.2 Conferences and Workshops
There have been fifty-three (53) contributions presented to, or accepted for, conferences and workshops. Out
of them, thirteen (13) papers have been submitted by consortium members to the three workshops organized
by the project in conjunction with IEEE-GLOBECOM’11, IEEE-WCNC’12 and IEEE-GLOBECOM’12
respectively.
The following list enumerates papers have been accepted and/or published. In brackets we indicate the
institution/instiution that the partners belong to, as well as the corresponding Workpackage in EXALTED.
1. G. Cocco, D. Gunduz, C. Ibars (CTTC-WP3) "Throughput and Delay Analysis in Video Streaming
over Block-Fading Channels" Accepted IEEE International Conference on Communications 2013.
2. J. Matamoros and C. Antón-Haro (CTTC-WP4) "Traffic Aggregation Techniques for Environmental
Monitoring in M2M Capillary Networks" Accepted IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-
spring), Dresden
3. C. Qian, H. Chen, Y. Ma and R. Tafazolli, (UNIS-WP4)"A Novel Adaptive Hybrid-ARQ Protocol for
Machine-to-Machine Communications" Accepted IEEE VTC Spring 2013
4. P. Blasco, D. Gunduz and M. Dohler (CTTC-WP4), "A Learning Theoretic Approach to Energy
Harvesting Communication System Optimization", Globecom 2012 - Int'l Workshop on Machine-to-
Machine Communications, Anaheim (CA), Dec. 2012.
5. M. Grieger, S. Boob, G.Fettweis (TUD-WP3), "Large Scale Field Trial Results on Frequency Domain
Compression for Uplink Joint Detection", Globecom 2012, Workshop on Multicell Cooperation,
Anaheim (CA), Dec. 2012.
6. A. Bartoli, J. Hernández-Serrano, M. Soriano, M. Dohler, A. Kountouris and D. Barthel (CTTC-
WP4), "Optimizing Energy-Efficiency of PHY-Layer Authentication in Machine-to-Machine
Networks", Globecom 2012 - Int'l Workshop on Machine-to-Machine Communications, Anaheim
(CA), Dec. 2012.
7. A. G. Gotsis, A. S. Lioumpas, and A. Alexiou (UPRC-WP3), "Evolution of Packet Scheduling for
Machine-Type Communications over LTE:Algorithmic Design and Performance Analysis",
Globecom 2012 - Int'l Workshop on Machine-to-Machine Communications, Anaheim (CA), Dec.
2012.
8. T. Predojev, J. Alonso-Zarate, L. Alonso, and C. Verikoukis (CTTC-WP4), "Energy Efficiency
Analysis of a Cooperative Scheme for Wireless Local Area Networks", IEEE Global Conference on
Communications (GLOBECOM), Annaheim (CA), Dec. 2012.
9. J. Alonso-Zarate, J. Sánchez Recacha, N. Zorba, A. Perez-Neira, and C. Verikoukis (CTTC-WP4),
"Cooperative Communications: from Theory to Experimental Implementation", IEEE Global
Conference on Communications (GLOBECOM), Anaheim (CA), Dec. 2012.
10. F. Vázquez Gallego, J. Alonso-Zarate, and L. Alonso (CTTC-WP4), "Energy Analysis of Distributed
Neighbour Discovery Algorithms Based on Frame Slotted-ALOHA for Cooperative Networks", IEEE
Global Conference on Communications (GLOBECOM 2012), Anaheim (CA), Dec. 2012.
11. P. S. Bithas, A. S. Lioumpas and A. Alexiou (UPRC-WP4), "A Hybrid Contention/Reservation
Medium Access Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE Globecom 2012 - Int'l Workshop on
Machine-to-Machine Comms., Anaheim (CA), Dec. 2012.
12. N. Gligorić, T. Dimčić, D.Drajić, S. Krčo, N. Chu, (EYU-TKS-SIERRAW, WP4) "Application-
Layer Security Mechanism for M2M communication over SMS", 20th Telecommunications forum
(TELFOR 2012), 20-22 November, Belgrade, Serbia
13. "N. Gligorić, T. Dimčić, D.Drajić, S. Krčo, I. Dejanović, N. Chu, A. Obradović" (EYU-TKS-
SIERRAW, WP4), "CoAP over SMS Performance Evaluation for Machine to Machine
Communication" 20th Telecommunications forum (TELFOR 2012), 20-22 November, Belgrade,
Serbia
14. S. Imadali, A. Karanasiouy, A. Petrescu, I. Sifniadisy, and V. Vèquez (CEA, VID-WP4,7), "EHealth
Service Support In IPv6 Vehicular Networks", VECON 2012, 2nd Int'l Workshop on Vehicular
Communications and Networking (in conjunction with IEEE WiMob 2012), Barcelona (Spain), Oct.
2012.
15. M. R: Palattella, N. Accettura, M. Dohler, L. A. Grieco and G.Boggia (CTTC-WP4), "Traffic-Aware
Time-Critical Scheduling In Heavily Duty-Cycled IEEE 802.15.4e for an Industrial IoT", IEEE
Sensors 2012, Taipei (Taiwan), Oct. 2012.
16. T. Predojev, J. Alonso-Zarate, M. Dohler (CTTC-WP4), "Energy Analysis Of Cooperative and Duty-
Cycled Systems In Shadowed Environments", IEEE Int'l Conference on Computer Aided Modelling,
Design and Analysis (CAMAD'12), Barcelona (Spain), Sep. 2012.
17. J. Rico, B. Cendón (TST-WP4), "NFC Enabling Hospital Logistics System, NFC World Congress
Conference", Nice - Sophia Antipolis, Sep. 2012.
18. G. Corbellini, C Abgrall, E. Calvanese Strinati, A. Duda (CEA-WP4), “Energy Evaluation of
Preamble Sampling MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks”, in Proc. Int'l Conference on
Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC 2012), Sydney (Australia), Sep. 2012.
19. G. Corbellini, E. Calvanese Strinati, A. Duda (CEA-WP4), “LA-MAC: Low-Latency Asynchronous
MAC for Wireless Sensor Networks”, Int'l Conference on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio
Communications (PIMRC 2012), Sydney (Australia), Sep. 2012.
20. N. Michailow, S. Krone, M. Lentmaier, G. Fettweis (TUD-WP3), “Bit Error Rate Performance of
Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing”, Vehicular Technology Conference 2012 (VTC-Fall
2012), Quebec City (Canada), Sep. 2012.
21. J. Matamoros and C. Antón-Haro (CTTC-WP4), “Joint Pre-Coder Design and Greedy Power
Allocation for Compressed Spatial Field Estimation”, in European Signal Processing Conference 2012
(EUSIPCO’12), Bucharest, Aug. 2012.
22. J. Rico, J. Sancho, V.Bataller, J.L. Villarroel, C. Rueda, R. Olmedo, J. Diez (TST-WP4),
"Cooperative System for Avalanche Rescue", Int'l Conference on Wireless Communications in
Unusual and Confined Areas, Clermont-Ferrand – France, Aug. 28-30, 2012.
23. W. Nitzold, M. Lentmaier and G. P. Fettweis (TUD-WP3), “Spatially Coupled Protograph-Based
LDPC Codes for Incremental Redundancy”, in Proc. 7th International Symposium on Turbo Codes &
Iterative Information Processing, Sweden, Aug. 2012.
24. J. Matamoros and C. Antón-Haro (CTTC-WP4), “Data Aggregation Schemes for Machine-to-
Machine Gateways: Interplay with MAC Protocols”, in Proc. Future Networks and Mobile Summit
2012. Berlin (Germany), Jul. 4-6, 2012.
25. G. Botter, J. Alonso-Zarate, L. Alonso, F. Granelli, Ch. Verikoukis (CTTC-WP4), “Extending the
Lifetime of M2M Wireless Networks through Cooperation”, In Proc. Workshop on Green
Communications and Networking - Int'l Conference on Communications (ICC 2012), Ottawa
(Canada), Jun. 2012.
26. J. Matamoros and C. Antón-Haro (CTTC-WP4), "Robust Estimation of Spatial Fields with
Compressed Observations and Imperfect Phase Estimation in M2M Capillary Networks", in Proc.
EURASIP Cognitive Information Processing Workshop (CIP 2012), Baiona (Spain), May 2012.
27. J. Rico, B. Cendón, J. Valiño (TST-WP4), “Bringing IoT to Hospital Logistics Systems”, Proc. IEEE
Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC 2012) - Workshop on Internet of
Things Enabling Technologies: “Embracing the M2M Communications and Beyond”, Paris (France),
Apr. 2012.
28. N. Accettura, M. R. Palattella, M. Dohler; L. A. Grieco, G. Boggia (CTTC-WP4), “Standardized
Power-Efficient & Internet-Enabled Communication Stack for Capillary M2M Networks”,
Proc. IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC 2012) - Workshop on
Internet of Things Enabling Technologies: “Embracing the M2M Communications and Beyond”,
Paris (France), Apr. 2012.
29. G. A. Elkheir, A. Lioumpas, A. Alexiou (UPRC-WP3), “Energy Efficient Cooperative Scheduling
based on Sleep-Wake Mechanisms”, Proc. IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking
Conference (WCNC 2012) - Workshop on Internet of Things Enabling Technologies: “Embracing the
M2M Communications and Beyond”, Paris (France), Apr. 2012.
30. P. S. Bithas , A. S. Lioumpas and A. Alexiou (UPRC-WP4), “Enhancing the Efficiency of Cluster-
based Networks through MISO Techniques”, Proc. IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking
Conference (WCNC 2012) - Workshop on Internet of Things Enabling Technologies: “Embracing the
M2M Communications and Beyond”, Paris (France), Apr. 2012.
31. T. Predojev, J. Alonso-Zarate, M. Dohler (CTTC-WP4), “Energy Efficiency of Cooperative ARQ
Strategies in Low Power Networks”, In Proc. IEEE INFOCOM Workshop on Communications and
Control for Sustainable Energy Systems: Green Networking and Smart Grids, Mar. 2012.
32. A. Gotsis, A. S. Lioumpas, A. Alexiou (UPRC-WP3), “Challenges and New Perspectives on
Machine-to-Machine Scheduling over LTE Networks”, 28th meeting of the Wireless World Research
forum, Piraeus, Greece, Apr. 2012.
33. P. Bithas, A. S. Lioumpas, A. Alexiou (UPRC-WP4), “Enhancing the Performance of Cluster-based
Networks through Energy Efficient MISO Techniques”, 28th meeting of the Wireless World Research
forum, Piraeus, Greece, Apr. 2012.
34. G. A. Elkheir, A. S. Lioumpas and A. Alexiou (UPRC-WP3), “Energy Efficient Cooperative
Scheduling based on Sleep-Wake Mechanisms”, 28th meeting of the Wireless World Research forum,
Piraeus, Greece, Apr. 2012.
35. N. Michailow, R. Datta, S. Krone, M. Lentmaier and G. Fettweis (TUD-WP3), “Generalized
Frequency Division Multiplexing: A Flexible Multi-Carrier Modulation Scheme for 5th Generation
Cellular Networks”, in Proc. GeMiC 2012: the 7th German Microwave Conference, Ilmenau
University of Technology, Germany, Mar. 2012.
36. D. Gunduz and B. Devillers (CTTC-WP3), Multi-hop Communication with Energy Harvesting, The
Fourth International Workshop on Computational Advances in Multi-Sensor Adaptive Processing
(CAMSAP’11), San Juan, Puerto Rico, December 13-16.
37. P. Cheraghi, Yi Ma, Z. Lu, and R. Tafazolli, (UNIS-WP3), “A Novel Low Complexity Differential
Energy Detection for Sensing OFDM Sources in Low SNR Environment”, Globecom 2011 -
IWM2M, Dallas (Tx), Dec, 2011.
38. D. Gunduz and B. Devillers (CTTC-WP3), "Two-hop Communication with Energy Harvesting", The
Fourth International Workshop on Computational Advances in Multi-Sensor Adaptive Processing
(CAMSAP'11), San Juan, Puerto Rico, Dec. 13-16
39. F. Ganz, P. Barnaghi, F. Carrez, K. Moessner (UNIS-WP4), “A Mediated Gossiping Mechanism for
Large-scale Sensor Networks”, Globecom 2011 - IWM2M, Dallas (Tx), Dec, 2011.
40. A. Lioumpas, A. Alexiou (UPRC-WP3), "Uplink Scheduling for Machine-to-Machine
Communications in LTE-based Cellular Systems", Globecom 2011 - Int'l Workshop on
Machine-to-Machine Communications, Houston (Tx), Dec. 2011.
41. J. Matamoros and C. Antón-Haro (CTTC-WP4), “Power Allocation Schemes for Spatial Field
Estimation with Compressed Observations in M2M Capillary Networks”, Globecom 2011 - Int'l
Workshop on Machine-to-Machine Communications, Houston (Tx), Dec. 2011.
42. B. Devillers, D. Gunduz (CTTC-WP3), “Energy Harvesting Communication System with Battery
Constraint and Leakage”, Globecom 2011 - Int'l Workshop on Machine-to-Machine
Communications, Houston (Tx), Dec. 2011.
43. G. Cocco, D. Gunduz, C. Ibars (CTTC-WP3), “Application of different coding schemes for broadcast
transmissions”, Eighth International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems, Aachen,
Germany, 6th - 9th Nov., 2011.
44. G. Cocco, D. Gunduz, C. Ibars (CTTC-WP3), "Real-time broadcasting over block-fading channels,
In Proc. the Eighth International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS)",
Aachen, Germany, 6th - 9th Nov., 2011.
45. N. Gligorić, S. Krčo, D. Drajić, S. Jokić, and B. Jakovljević ( EYU-TKS WP4) “M2M
Device Management in LTE Networks”, Science telecommunication forum (TELFOR), Belgrade,
Nov. 2011
46. G. Abou Elkheir, A. Lioumpas, A. Alexiou (UPRC-WP3), “Energy Efficient AF Relaying under
Error Performance Constraints with Application to M2M Networks”, Symposium on Personal, Indoor
and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), Sep. 2011.
47. A. Lioumpas, A. Alexiou, C. Antón-Haro, and P. Navaratnam (UPRC-CTTC-UNIS-WP2),
“Expanding LTE for devices: Requirements, Deployment Phases and Target Scenarios”, Proc.
IEEE/VDE European Wireless Conference (EW’11), April 2011.
48. J. Matamoros and C. Antón-Haro (CTTC-WP4), “Opportunistic Sampling for Random Field
Estimation with M2M Capillary Networks”, Proc. IEEE/VDE European Wireless Conference
(EW’11), April 2011.
49. J. Alonso-Zarate , L. Alonso, and C. Verikoukis, (CTTC-WP4) “Improving the Energy-Efficiency of
Machine-to-Machine Communications with Cooperative ARQ”, Proc. Joint Workshop on Wireless
Communication (Paris, France), Dec. 2010.
50. F. Ganz, P. Barnaghi, and F. Carrez, (UNIS-WP4) “Context-Aware Management of Sensor
Networks”, Proc. Fifth International Conference on COMmunication System softWAre and
middlewaRE (COMSWARE), Verona (Italy), July 2011.
51. F. Ganz, (UNIS-WP4) “Designing Smart Middleware for Wireless Sensor Networks”, The 12th
annual Post Graduate Network Symposium on the Convergence of Telecommunications, Networking
and Broadcasting, (PGNet2011), Liverpool, April 2011.
52. A. Lioumpas, A. Alexiou, (UPRC-WP3) “On the Switching Rate of ST-MIMO Systems with
Energy-based Antenna Selection”, Proc. EuCap 2011, Rome, Italy, April 2011.
53. A. Petrescu, M. Boc, C. Ibars, (CEA-CTTC WP3-4) “Joint IP Networking and Radio Architecture
for Vehicular Networks”, International Conference on ITS Telecommunications (ITST 2011), St
Petersburg, August 2011.
In addition, 4 more contributions were submitted to various conferences and workshops and are still under
review
1. Hong Chen, Yi Ma and Rahim Tafazolli (UNIS-WP3)" Improved Fountain Codes for Short
Block Transmission over Noisy Channels " Submitted to IEEE GLOBECOM, Atlanta, USA.,
December 2013.
2. S. Imadali, A. Karanasiou, A. Petrescu, I. Sifniadis, E. Vellidou, and P. Angelidis (CEA-VIDAVO,
WP7) "Integration of eHealth Service in IPv6 Vehicular Networks"Submitted to the 3rd Int'l
Conference on Ambient Media and Systems (Ambi-sys), Athens, Greece, March 2013.
3. "S. Imadali, A. Petrescu, M. Boc, V. Veque" (CEA-WP4) "VULA: VIN-based Unique Local IPv6
Address Auto-configuration for VANET" Submitted to IEEE WoWMoM 2013.
4. J. Rico, J. Valiño, E. Epifanio (TST-WP4) "Cluster Head Assignment in Networks controlled by
Gateway Entities (CHANGE)" Sumbitted to First International WorkShop on Energy-Aware
Systems, Communications and Security (EASyCoSe 2013), to be held in conjunction with the 27th
IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA-2013),
Barcelona, Spain, March 2013.


7.1.2.3 Presentations in Scientific and Technological Events
The dissemination activities conducted by EXALTED partners also encompassed the following presentations
in various S&T events, namely,
1. B. Corlay, C. Anton-Haro, A. Petrescu, “Expanding LTE for devices,” ETSI M2M Workshop,
Sofia-Antipolis (Nice), October 2010.
2. D. Raouf, “New Scalable Network Architecture for M2M Communications: The ‘EXALTED’
approach”, WWRF25 meeting, Newbury (UK), Nov. 2010.
3. J. Alonso, “Machine-to-Machine: An Emerging Communication Paradigm”, WWRF25 meeting,
Newbury (UK), Nov. 2010.
4. S. Saur, “General overview of EXALTED”, Joint ALUD and Heinrich-Hertz-Institute (HHI)
M2M Workshop in Berlin (ALUD), Dec. 2010.
5. D. Raouf, Project presentation at FUTURE NETWORKS concertation meeting, Feb. 2011.
6. C. Antón-Haro, Project presentation in NEWCOM++ Smart Grids Workshop, Feb. 2011.
7. Srdjan Krco, “EXALTED overview”, Ericsson Research seminar, Kista, Sweden, May 2011.
8. Thierry Lestable (SC), Smart Energy Management “From Innovation to Deployment”, M2M
conference: M2M standards as growth enablers - TIA (Atlanta), Sept. 2011.
9. W. Nitzold (TUD), Poster Session within the Industrial Partner Program at TU Dresden, Presenting
EXALTED within the Industry Partnership Program at TU Dresden, Sept. 2011.
10. A. Alexiou (UPRC) , “M2M Communications”, ITU Academy Workshop. Athens (Greece). March
2012.
11. C. Ibars (CTTC), “M2M Communications”, LTE World Summit, Barcelona, May 2012.
12. T. Lestable (SC), “EXALTED project”, General Assembly of the ICT-LOLA project, May 2012,
Paris.
13. A. Alexiou (UPRC), “M2M communications - Technology trends and research challenges”, Future
Networks and Mobile Summit (in the context of a WWRF-organised workshop), July 2012. Sept.
2012.
14. N. Ognjanovic, D. Drajic, S. Saur, “EXALTED achievements” at M2M Workshop at University of
Siegen, Feb. 2013.
15. D. Raouf, “EXALTED Preliminary Results”, RAS Cluster – 10th Concertation Meeting, October
2012
16. D. Raouf, “EXALTED Preliminary Results”, 4G and Beyond, Supélec – Gif-sur-Yvette, November
2012.
7.1.2.4 Journal Special Issues and Training School
EXALTED project partners have also engaged in the organization of one Journal Special Issue in Wiley’s
Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies (ETT), and one Journal Special Issue in IEEE’s
Communications Surveys & Tutorials. The special issues are aimed at enlarging the project’s footprint in the
scientific community
EXALTED’s training school was organized in cooperation with other EC funded projects, namely, LOLA,
Smart Santander, HOBNET and IoT6 in the context of senZations training school in Mecavnik (Serbia). The
senZations training school, now in its seventh edition, has become an annual event on the agenda of young
researcher talents across Europe and other parts of the world. It covers in depth a range of advanced topics
from wireless sensor networks to M2M to Internet of Things, as well as their applications.
Moreover, members of the EXALTED project team have organized Journal Special Issues, tutorials at IEEE
ICC and Globecom, among others, participated and chaired technical committees, and given keynote
speeches, all these in the topic of M2M, and directly reporting results from the Project.
7.1.2.5 Workshops

The first EXALTED International Workshop on Machine-to-Machine Communications (IWM2M) took place
in the IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom) in Houston, Texas, on December 9
th
, 2011. The
organizing committee included members from several EXALTED partners, and the TPC included worldwide
experts from both academia and industry. The technical program featured topics of high relevance, such as
networks, resource allocation, energy efficiency, as well as technical and business challenges. A second
edition of the successful IWM2M took place in IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom) in
Anaheim, CA, USA, on December 7
th
, 2012. Besides the IWM2M, an international workshop entitled Internet
of Things Enabling Technologies: “Embracing the M2M Communications and Beyond” took place at the
IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC) on April 1
st
, 2012 in Paris. The
workshop organizing committee also included members from several EXALTED partners. Four technical
sessions, in the topics of Smart Grid and RFID Technologies, M2M Network Architecture, Application and
Experiment, and Energy Efficiency, were included.

7.2 Section B
The content of the two following section 7.2.1 and 7.2.2 are confidential unless stated otherwise.
7.2.1 Patents
The following patents were filed by EXALTED partners, related to the technical developments in EXALTED
1. Method for reduced resource usage in system synchronization, Inventors: G. Fettweis, W. Nitzold,
S. Krone, T. Gill, 11176361, Filed, Applicant: TUD (assigned to Vodafone), European Patent, Aug.
2011.
2. Method for reduced resource usage in system synchronization, Inventors: G. Fettweis, W. Nitzold,
S. Krone, T. Gill, 13/565,029, Filed, Applicant: TUD (assigned to Vodafone), US Patent, Aug. 2011.
3. Method for minimizing the collision of multicast acknowledgments, Inventors: G. Fettweis, W.
Nitzold, S. Krone, T. Gil, 11180527, Filed, Applicant: TUD (assigned to Vodafone), European Patent,
Sep 2011.
4. Secondary wireless communication terminal integration, Inventors: G. Fettweis, P. Rost, W.
Nitzold, 10168318.3, Applicant: TUD, (assigned to Vodafone), European Patent, 2010.
5. Dispositif et Procede pour Generer une Adresse Internet Protocol (IP) a Partir d’un Numero
d’Identification de Vehicule (VIN), Inventors: S. Imadai, A. Petrescu, C. Janneteau, 12/56772,
Applicant: CEA, French Patent, July 2012.
6. Système de communication entre un équipement non connecté et un serveur de gestion, Inventors:
Nhon Chu, Djelal Raouf, Applicant: Sagemcom, French Patent, Sept. 2011.
7. Procédé de contrôle de l’accès d’un équipement pour réseau de type machine-à-machine aux
ressources d’un réseau de téléphonie cellulaire, Inventors: Bruno Corlay, Djelal Raouf; Applicant:
Sagemcom, French Patent, Febr. 2012.
8. WO2012085593: SIM Locking ; filed June 28, 2012; BABBAGE, Steven BONE, Nicholas;
VODAFONE IP LICENSING LIMITED
9. WO2012080740, KEY DERIVATION; filed June 21 2012; BABBAGE, Steven BONE, Nicholas;
VODAFONE IP LICENSING LIMITED
10. WO2012076437 : IMPROVEMENTS TO UICCs EMBEDDED IN TERMINALS OR
REMOVABLE THERE FROM :file 17/08/2012 MERRIEN Lionel,MATHIAN Nicolas,ROUSSEL,
Nicolas,BERARD, Xavier,GACHON, Denis,GIRARD Pierre,PROUST Philippe,VERGNES
Fabrice,FARIA Frédéric , IMOUCHA Franck,BRADLEY Paul ; GEMALTO SA
11. WO2012076461 : METHOD FOR SWITCHING BETWEEN A FIRST AND A SECOND
LOGICAL UICCS COMPRISED IN A SAME PHYSICAL UICC; filed 05/12/2011 VERGNES
Fabrice , MATHIAN Nicolas; GEMALTO SA
12. WO2012035338 : AUTHENTICATION IN A WIRELESS ACCESS NETWORK; filed 22/03/2012
BONE, Nicholas;HOWARD, Peter; VODAFONE IP LICENSING LIMITED
13. WO2012035335: AUTHENTICATION IN A WIRELESS TELECOMMUNICATIONS
NETWORK; filed 22/03/2102 ;BONE, Nicholas; VODAFONE IP LICENSING LIMITED
14. Procédé de transmission d'un message d'urgence entre un véhicule et un centre d'appel, Inventors:
Djelal Raouf, Jérémie Dumont, Nhon Chu; Applicant: Sagemcom, French Patent, March 2012.
Part B2
Please complete the table hereafter:

Type of Exploitable Foreground
Description Confidential
Foreseen
embargo date
Exploitable
product(s) or
measure(s)
Sector(s) of
application
Timetable,
commercial or any
other use
Patents or other
IPR exploitation
(licences)
Owner &
Other
Beneficiary(s)
involved
of exploitable foreground
Click on
YES/NO
dd/mm/yyyy
General advancement of knowledge
The University of Surrey, being a
higher-education institute with a strong
focus on research and innovation,
intends to exploit its participation in
the EXALTED project by exposing
post-graduate researchers to high-
quality deployable technical work thus
training future researchers and
engineers strengthening the future
European workforce. The acquired
knowledge will be widely disseminated
through publications in journals and
conferences and through the
participation in trials and
demonstrations. This knowledge will
also be used to enrich the material of
relevant MSc courses, and will be used
to enhance the content of tutorials
presented in major international
conferences/workshops and relevant
industry short-courses. The final aim is
to use the outcomes of EXALTED as
basis for future scientific endeavours.
NO Not applicable
LTE-M system
concepts
1. Scientific
research and
development
2011
None UNIS
Advancements in
M2M networks
2. Higher education 2013
General advancement of knowledge
New advances in communications
protocols and algorithms for energy
and cost costrained LTE-like devices
No
Communications
protocols and
algorithms
J61.2.0 - Wireless
telecommunications
activities
2015 None CTTC
General advancement of knowledge
New advances in device management
protocols for low resources devices.
NO M2M devices
J61.2.0 - Wireless
telecommunications
activities

SWIR
General advancement of knowledge
LDPC code design for efficient
multicast transmission
NO M2M devices
Wireless
Communication;
M2M systems
approx. 2020

TUD
Exploitation of R&D results via
standards
Promotion of new mechanisms for
coverage extension and scalability in
LTE-like communications systems for
M2M
NO
Performance
measures of a LTE-
like communication
system
Research and
experimental
development on
natural sciences and
engineering
Contributions to 3GPP
standardisation 2013-
2016

Owner: Alcatel-
Lucent
Exploitation of R&D Results via
standards
Optimised LTE-based radio interface
for low data rate M2M services -
Industry SIG formed to agree
appproach for implementation of the
above, using EXALTED results as
input, where available
YES juin-14
Network and
protocol
architectures for
efficient carriage of
M2M user data and
network signalling
Wireless
telecommunications
activities
First draft
specification Jun-2014
(depending on
outcome of initial
studies and LTE WI
progress)
Not yet identified
Vodafone
Group:
Commercial
entities
including
network
operators,
infrastructure
and device
suppliers.
Commercial exploitation of R&D
results
Differentiating features in future
Alcatel-Lucent base station product
releases
YES
LTE-M enabled
base station
Manufacture of
communication
equipment
Release of products
2014-2018

Owner: Alcatel-
Lucent



8. Report on societal implications

Replies to the following questions will assist the Commission to obtain statistics and
indicators on societal and socio-economic issues addressed by projects. The questions are
arranged in a number of key themes. As well as producing certain statistics, the replies will
also help identify those projects that have shown a real engagement with wider societal issues,
and thereby identify interesting approaches to these issues and best practices. The replies for
individual projects will not be made public.


A General Information (completed automatically when Grant Agreement number is
entered.
Grant Agreement Number:

258512
Title of Project:

EXALTED
Name and Title of Coordinator:

Dr. Thierry Lestable
B Ethics

1. Did your project undergo an Ethics Review (and/or Screening)?

 If Yes: have you described the progress of compliance with the relevant Ethics
Review/Screening Requirements in the frame of the periodic/final project reports?

Special Reminder: the progress of compliance with the Ethics Review/Screening Requirements should be
described in the Period/Final Project Reports under the Section 3.2.2 'Work Progress and Achievements'



0Yes 0No
2. Please indicate whether your project involved any of the following issues (tick
box) :
NO
RESEARCH ON HUMANS
 Did the project involve children?
 Did the project involve patients?
 Did the project involve persons not able to give consent?
 Did the project involve adult healthy volunteers?
 Did the project involve Human genetic material?
 Did the project involve Human biological samples?
 Did the project involve Human data collection?
RESEARCH ON HUMAN EMBRYO/FOETUS
 Did the project involve Human Embryos?
 Did the project involve Human Foetal Tissue / Cells?
 Did the project involve Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs)?
 Did the project on human Embryonic Stem Cells involve cells in culture?
 Did the project on human Embryonic Stem Cells involve the derivation of cells from Embryos?
PRIVACY
 Did the project involve processing of genetic information or personal data (eg. health, sexual
lifestyle, ethnicity, political opinion, religious or philosophical conviction)?

 Did the project involve tracking the location or observation of people?
RESEARCH ON ANIMALS
 Did the project involve research on animals?
 Were those animals transgenic small laboratory animals?
 Were those animals transgenic farm animals?
 Were those animals cloned farm animals?
 Were those animals non-human primates?
RESEARCH INVOLVING DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
 Did the project involve the use of local resources (genetic, animal, plant etc)?
 Was the project of benefit to local community (capacity building, access to healthcare, education
etc)?

DUAL USE
 Research having direct military use
No
 Research having the potential for terrorist abuse No
C Workforce Statistics
3. Workforce statistics for the project: Please indicate in the table below the number of
people who worked on the project (on a headcount basis).
Type of Position Number of Women Number of Men
Scientific Coordinator
Work package leaders
Experienced researchers (i.e. PhD holders)
PhD Students
Other
4. How many additional researchers (in companies and universities) were
recruited specifically for this project?

Of which, indicate the number of men:



D Gender Aspects
5. Did you carry out specific Gender Equality Actions under the project?



Yes
No
6. Which of the following actions did you carry out and how effective were they?


Not at all
effective
Very
effective



Design and implement an equal opportunity policy 
   


Set targets to achieve a gender balance in the workforce 
   


Organise conferences and workshops on gender 
   


Actions to improve work-life balance 
   


Other:

7. Was there a gender dimension associated with the research content – i.e. wherever people were
the focus of the research as, for example, consumers, users, patients or in trials, was the issue of gender
considered and addressed?


Yes- please specify



 No
E Synergies with Science Education
8. Did your project involve working with students and/or school pupils (e.g. open days,
participation in science festivals and events, prizes/competitions or joint projects)?


 Yes- French course at Supelec on M2M



No
9. Did the project generate any science education material (e.g. kits, websites, explanatory
booklets, DVDs)?


Yes- please specify



 No
F Interdisciplinarity
10. Which disciplines (see list below) are involved in your project?


Main discipline
2
: 1.1


Associated discipline
2
: 2.2  Associated discipline
2
:

G Engaging with Civil society and policy makers
11a Did your project engage with societal actors beyond the research
community? (if 'No', go to Question 14)


Yes
No
11b If yes, did you engage with citizens (citizens' panels / juries) or organised civil society
(NGOs, patients' groups etc.)?


 No


Yes- in determining what research should be performed


Yes - in implementing the research


Yes, in communicating /disseminating / using the results of the project

2
Insert number from list below (Frascati Manual).
11c In doing so, did your project involve actors whose role is mainly to
organise the dialogue with citizens and organised civil society (e.g.
professional mediator; communication company, science museums)?


Yes
No
12. Did you engage with government / public bodies or policy makers (including international
organisations)


 No


Yes- in framing the research agenda


Yes - in implementing the research agenda


Yes, in communicating /disseminating / using the results of the project
13a Will the project generate outputs (expertise or scientific advice) which could be used by
policy makers?


Yes – as a primary objective (please indicate areas below- multiple answers possible)


Yes – as a secondary objective (please indicate areas below - multiple answer possible)


 No
13b If Yes, in which fields?
Agriculture
Audiovisual and Media
Budget
Competition
Consumers
Culture
Customs
Development Economic and
Monetary Affairs
Education, Training, Youth
Employment and Social Affairs











Energy
Enlargement
Enterprise
Environment
External Relations
External Trade
Fisheries and Maritime Affairs
Food Safety
Foreign and Security Policy
Fraud
Humanitarian aid











Human rights
Information Society
Institutional affairs
Internal Market
Justice, freedom and security
Public Health
Regional Policy
Research and Innovation
Space
Taxation
Transport











13c If Yes, at which level?


Local / regional levels


National level


European level


International level
H Use and dissemination
14. How many Articles were published/accepted for publication in
peer-reviewed journals?
10
To how many of these is open access
3
provided?
How many of these are published in open access journals?

How many of these are published in open repositories?

To how many of these is open access not provided? 10
Please check all applicable reasons for not providing open access:
 publisher's licensing agreement would not permit publishing in a repository
 no suitable repository available
 no suitable open access journal available
 no funds available to publish in an open access journal
 lack of time and resources
 lack of information on open access
 other
4
: ……………

15. How many new patent applications (‘priority filings’) have been made?
("Technologically unique": multiple applications for the same invention in different
jurisdictions should be counted as just one application of grant).
13
16. Indicate how many of the following Intellectual
Property Rights were applied for (give number in
each box).
Trademark

Registered design

Other

17. How many spin-off companies were created / are planned as a direct
result of the project?

I ndicate the approximate number of additional jobs in these companies:

18. Please indicate whether your project has a potential impact on employment, in comparison
with the situation before your project:


Increase in employment, or  In small & medium-sized enterprises


Safeguard employment, or  In large companies


Decrease in employment,  None of the above / not relevant to the project


Difficult to estimate / not possible to quantify
19. For your project partnership please estimate the employment effect
resulting directly from your participation in Full Time Equivalent (FTE =
one person working fulltime for a year) jobs:

Indicate figure:
81




3
Open Access is defined as free of charge access for anyone via Internet.
4
For instance: classification for security project.


Difficult to estimate / not possible to quantify



I Media and Communication to the general public
20. As part of the project, were any of the beneficiaries professionals in communication or
media relations?


Yes  No
21. As part of the project, have any beneficiaries received professional media / communication
training / advice to improve communication with the general public?


Yes  No
22 Which of the following have been used to communicate information about your project to
the general public, or have resulted from your project?


Press Release  Coverage in specialist press


Media briefing  Coverage in general (non-specialist) press


TV coverage / report  Coverage in national press


Radio coverage / report  Coverage in international press


Brochures /posters / flyers  Website for the general public / internet


DVD /Film /Multimedia  Event targeting general public (festival, conference,
exhibition, science café)
23 In which languages are the information products for the general public produced?


Language of the coordinator  English


Other language(s)



Question F-10: Classification of Scientific Disciplines according to the Frascati Manual 2002 (Proposed
Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development, OECD 2002):

FIELDS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

1. NATURAL SCIENCES
1.1 Mathematics and computer sciences [mathematics and other allied fields: computer sciences and other
allied subjects (software development only; hardware development should be classified in the
engineering fields)]
1.2 Physical sciences (astronomy and space sciences, physics and other allied subjects)
1.3 Chemical sciences (chemistry, other allied subjects)
1.4 Earth and related environmental sciences (geology, geophysics, mineralogy, physical geography and
other geosciences, meteorology and other atmospheric sciences including climatic research,
oceanography, vulcanology, palaeoecology, other allied sciences)
1.5 Biological sciences (biology, botany, bacteriology, microbiology, zoology, entomology, genetics,
biochemistry, biophysics, other allied sciences, excluding clinical and veterinary sciences)

2 ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
2.1 Civil engineering (architecture engineering, building science and engineering, construction engineering,
municipal and structural engineering and other allied subjects)
2.2 Electrical engineering, electronics [electrical engineering, electronics, communication engineering and
systems, computer engineering (hardware only) and other allied subjects]
2.3. Other engineering sciences (such as chemical, aeronautical and space, mechanical, metallurgical and
materials engineering, and their specialised subdivisions; forest products; applied sciences such as
geodesy, industrial chemistry, etc.; the science and technology of food production; specialised
technologies of interdisciplinary fields, e.g. systems analysis, metallurgy, mining, textile technology
and other applied subjects)

3. MEDICAL SCIENCES
3.1 Basic medicine (anatomy, cytology, physiology, genetics, pharmacy, pharmacology, toxicology,
immunology and immunohaematology, clinical chemistry, clinical microbiology, pathology)
3.2 Clinical medicine (anaesthesiology, paediatrics, obstetrics and gynaecology, internal medicine, surgery,
dentistry, neurology, psychiatry, radiology, therapeutics, otorhinolaryngology, ophthalmology)
3.3 Health sciences (public health services, social medicine, hygiene, nursing, epidemiology)

4. AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
4.1 Agriculture, forestry, fisheries and allied sciences (agronomy, animal husbandry, fisheries, forestry,
horticulture, other allied subjects)
4.2 Veterinary medicine

5. SOCIAL SCIENCES
5.1 Psychology
5.2 Economics
5.3 Educational sciences (education and training and other allied subjects)
5.4 Other social sciences [anthropology (social and cultural) and ethnology, demography, geography
(human, economic and social), town and country planning, management, law, linguistics, political
sciences, sociology, organisation and methods, miscellaneous social sciences and interdisciplinary ,
methodological and historical S1T activities relating to subjects in this group. Physical anthropology,
physical geography and psychophysiology should normally be classified with the natural sciences].

6. HUMANITIES
6.1 History (history, prehistory and history, together with auxiliary historical disciplines such as
archaeology, numismatics, palaeography, genealogy, etc.)
6.2 Languages and literature (ancient and modern)
6.3 Other humanities [philosophy (including the history of science and technology) arts, history of art, art
criticism, painting, sculpture, musicology, dramatic art excluding artistic "research" of any kind,
religion, theology, other fields and subjects pertaining to the humanities, methodological, historical and
other S1T activities relating to the subjects in this group]


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
During the past thirty months the EXALTED project has worked on M2M communications and delivered a rich set of solutions addressing various aspects of a M2M system. The key objective of the project is to establish scalable network architecture over 3GPP/LTE infrastructure and provide secure, energy-efficient and cost effective communication solutions for low-end devices. The project provided a scalable system architecture for M2M communications over 3GPP/LTE infrastructure as a reference model, considering the features of 3GPP MTC and ETSI M2M architectures. Technical work packages addressed different parts of the architecture and proposed novel solutions (which are discussed in the following sections) for enhancing the functionalities and feature of the architecture. The proposed technical solutions have been extensively studied using analytical models and/or simulations. Proof of concept test platforms have also been developed and evaluations have been performed showing some of the key benefits of EXALTED solutions. The technical works of the project resulted in several journal and conference publications and contributions to standards. Thanks to both a very detailed Standardization plan, and commitment from leading industry partners, the EXALTED project has demonstrated its influence and impact towards SDOs (3GPP, ETSI) by submitting and presenting a total of 48 contributions. Regarding Dissemination, the consortium presented 53 papers with results of the EXALTED research at a number of prestigious international conferences and workshops, such as IEEE WCNC. The EXALTED project has also presented 11 articles in an international journal and has attended several events where the project goals and scientific knowledge have been presented. Last but not least, 14 (fourteen) patent applications have been filed partners in relation to technical developments in EXALTED. Three workshops were organized in major conferences, namely IEEE Globecom 2011, IEEE Globecom 2012, and IEEE WCNC 2012 (jointly with external partners). The workshops included technical sessions, keynote speeches, and panels, and were very fruitful in terms of discussions and new ideas. A Summer School has been currently being organized in cooperation with other european projects (LOLA, SmartSantander, …). Finally, the overall outcomes and achievements of the EXALTED project, demonstrate true interest, commitment and cooperation from partners, with a visibility, influence and impact among the whole ecosystem thanks to active contributions, and lively participations to SDOs, industry groups that are shaping the future of the related technologies.

1. EXALTED Concepts
The aim of EXALTED is to lay out the foundations of a new scalable network architecture supporting most challenging requirements for future wireless communication systems and providing secure, energy-efficient and cost-effective machine-to-machine (M2M) communications suitable for low end devices interacting over 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) infrastructure. Duration: Sept. 2010 – Feb. 2013 (30 Months)

Consortium: 14 partners    Countries: 6 Industrial (Operator): Vodafone Group Services Limited (VGSL), Telekom Srbija (TKS) Industrial (Manufacturer): Sagemcom (SC), Sierra Wireless (ex-Sagemcom Energy & Telecom (SCET)), Gemalto (GTO), AlcatelLucent Deutschland (ALUD), Ericsson d.o.o Srbija (EYU) SME: TST Systemas SA (TST), Vidavo SA (VID) Research Centres: Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux energies alternatives (CEA), Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC) Higher Education: University of Surrey (UNIS), University of Dresden (TUD Vodafone Chair), University of Piraeus Research Center (UPRC)

 

Total Budget: 10.3 M€ Maximum EC funding: 7 M€ Resources: 982 PM Public Deliverables: 25 Website: http://www.ict-exalted.eu/

Project Objectives and Challenges EXALTED addresses important challenges posed to M2M systems and is proposing solutions to face the evergrowing demand for diverse M2M applications with modest communication needs but with strong energy limitations and network reliability requirements. EXALTED expects the following outcomes:  A new scalable end-to-end network architecture over 3GPP LTE infrastructure aiming towards an all-IP networking system for efficient and cost-effective M2M communications  Cost. spectrum. Other important challenges for economic viability of the EXALTED solutions are: a cellular M2M market characterized by low revenue per device or service but with low churn. Network scalability and complexity issues resulting of the huge number of interacting autonomous devices are also addressed. University of Austin). a unified framework for M2M systems and services integrated with the rest of the all-IP networks for global coverage is being defined. . and energy-efficiency of radio access technology and of mechanisms for M2M applications co-existing with high capacity LTE networks  Power and energy-efficient M2M devices gateways supporting low-cost autonomous operations for months or years. Hence. is that of “a new scalable network architecture supporting the most challenging requirements for the future wireless communication systems and providing secure. Then. to facilitate application developments. academics (University of Bremen. and interoperability and standardization needs. the EXALTED vision. M2M communications are often characterized by a need for both proximity and global communications. market research firm (IDATE). industry forum (NG Connect). as illustrated in Figure 1 below. energy-efficient and cost effective Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications suitable for low end devices” toward the future Internet of Things. 2.   Low-cost. automated. security and provisioning solutions for M2M communication over LTE Standardization and dissemination of project results To sum up.The EXALTED Consortium is also supported by an Advisory Board with representatives of standardization body (ETSI).

Proof of concept test platforms have also been developed and evaluations have been performed showing some of the key benefits of EXALTED solutions. The main components. a novel LTE-M system has been proposed and a complete set of protocol stack is specified. The project provided a scalable system architecture for M2M communications over 3GPP/LTE infrastructure as a reference model. the EXALTED system architecture. The technical works of the project resulted several journal and conference publications and contributions to standards. The novel solutions resulted from this work lead to several contributions to 3GPP. RRC layer solutions. . including novel frame structure. Technical work packages addressed different parts of the architecture and proposed novel solutions (which are discussed in the following sections) for enhancing the functionalities and feature of the architecture. and multicast/broadcast mechanisms have been developed within the project. Work Achievements During the past thirty months the EXALTED project has worked on M2M communications and delivered a rich set of solutions addressing various aspects of a M2M system. considering the features of 3GPP MTC and ETSI M2M architectures. Since the main focus of EXALTED is future M2M network(s) based on 3GPP LTE network framework.Figure 1: EXALTED vision 3. The proposed technical solutions have been extensively studied using analytical models and/or simulations. energy-efficient and cost effective communication solutions for low-end devices. A complete evaluation of LTE-M system concepts under different scenarios has also been performed. PHY/MAC layer techniques. The key objective of the project is to establish scalable network architecture over 3GPP/LTE infrastructure and provide secure.

novel lightweight device management protocols and framework. deployment scenarios and business models for evolved M2M communications as well as the technical requirements for LTE-M. WP2 gathered. Contributions have been made to IETF based on novel IP networking solution for constrained devices. several contributions have been made to ETSI. The final evaluations on the proposed solutions have been performed and recommendations are made for the communication scenarios seen in the EXALTED system. reliable and secure M2M module for demonstrating the security features of M2M devices and pairing mechanisms. Moreover. Providing low cost automated authentication and device provisioning solutions as well as security of the provisioning of M2M communications in LTE-M and inside capillary networks is another key objective of the project. For efficient networking of such devices various protocols and algorithms including cooperative MAC techniques and IP networking techniques with novel address translation mechanisms for constrained devices have been proposed. novel MAC procedures and Linux kernel improvement techniques for reducing the power consumption have been proposed to improve the energy efficiency of M2M devices. and extended coverage. Demonstrations of selected test platforms have been performed in several occasions such as Future Networks and Mobile Summit 2012. The performance of the EXALTED system was evaluated after having defined a common evaluation methodology and scenarios. and network monitoring framework for constrained devices have also proposed. The support of capillary networks (i.) scalability (number of devices supported. A self-diagnostic module architecture together with novel features has been proposed to improve the reliability of the devices. etc. called embedded secure element has been defined with several of its variants to support different scenarios studied by the project.1 WP2 WP2 provided reference use cases. a demonstrator prototyping has been made incorporating an energy-efficient.e. . Based on the security solutions. How to delegate the authentication with the support of M2M gateway has also been investigated. with evaluation results under different scenarios. and initial specifications for securing such communications have been completed. heterogeneous M2M networking. data aggregation techniques. Improving the energy efficiency of devices is another key objective of the project. Further. Different device categories have been defined in EXALTED. coordinated and aligned the innovations resulting from the work in all the technical work-packages and established the unified EXALTED system concept. network. The security requirements for broad/multicast communication and P2P relaying have been detailed. and the devices with no LTE-M access interface are put in the capillary networks behind M2M gateway(s). Towards this objective. a new type of secure element. In the following the WP2 achievements are assessed against the corresponding objectives. etc. security functionalities. EXALTED has prototyped couple of test platforms for demonstrating some of the key features of the technical solutions proposed by the project partners. An integrated system incorporating the proposed techniques has also been defined. the networks with indirectly connected devices) brings more added value to the EXALTED system architecture for example in terms of flexibility (support of different access technologies. including optimized sleep wake-up cycles for LTE-M devices. 3.E2E M2M communications require efficient and reliable operations of devices directly or indirectly connected to the LTE/LTE-M access. and device management.). remote device management. This embedded element proposal has been further supported by novel remote provisioning techniques identified within the project. Several techniques. In addition. The validation of selected EXALTED system concepts on the test demonstrator platforms has been completed. Integration of technical solution into the test platforms has been completed.

However the business model and demands are not evident to justify thousands of nodes being deployed in extensive monitoring systems. which will led to the desired system architecture and specifications. where flexible monitoring with good density of coverage is typically needed.1. The European remote patient monitoring market where the estimated revenues for 2009 were approximately €230 million while the estimation for 2015 is for double this amount reaching €450 million is a suitable market for M2M deployment as aging population and high prevalence of chronic diseases is the most important market driver. identifying their requirements.9%. to reduce operational costs or meet changing regulatory or policy requirements. environmental. energy. and many others. Moreover. Additionally.   These scenarios served as the common starting platform for further and detailed investigations of the technical assumptions of the EXALTED vision. safety. challenges and their possible deployment phases:  Intelligent Transport System (ITS) – communication of vehicles and transport infrastructure with ITS application servers. EXALTED and LTE-M in particular could meet the needs of stakeholders. Smart Metering and Monitoring (SMM) – very applicable use case of industrial. Additionally. such as the optimal deployment strategy. improve processes. E-healthcare – a relationship between a healthcare organization and a patient.619 million by 2012. and other types of monitoring. Faster growth of M2M applications could be achieved through the adoption of the improved characteristics of the EXALTED system. established through the M2M communication. Based on the market analysis. their investigation provided answers to critical issues. based on the identified use cases.2 Investigation of the impact of the use cases and deployment scenarios on the underlying M2M business models The commercial impact of the EXALTED project was investigated. environmental monitoring.1. traffic collision avoidance. with a compounded annual growth rate of 2. including node and cellular network modifications. For each application area the relevant market characteristics were analyzed: Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS): With a total market size estimated at 1 trillion USD and the large scale telematics programs mainly triggered by European and International Regulation Authorities seeking a large piece of it amplified by the renewed interest of the car manufacturers to provide added value telematics services in order to promote their brand image is a valid candidate for profitable M2M deployment Smart Metering and Monitoring (SMM): Some sectors have increasing concerns which are driving the need for more sophisticated sensing approaches: a good example is environmental monitoring/flood monitoring. on-board safety. several potential use cases and M2M applications were detailed. along with a thorough presentation of the specification groups’ and other stakeholders’ activities and advances. Remote monitoring of patient’s vital signs through the use of devices customised by health care providers to target the specific needs of the individual applies best to the M2M world. for example. eHealth: The European eHealth market is projected to reach €15.1 Identifications of use case of interest and definition of M2M deployment scenarios An extensive analysis of the current and future M2M market was performed. Nonetheless there is increasing awareness and demand for greater use of sensors to. which controls parameters such as transportation time. 3. which could lower the overall system costs and increase the spectrum utilization efficiency. the regulatory initiatives related to the M2M technologies and applications were analyzed. fuel consumption. .3. along with some technical aspects of important standardization bodies and consortium. three main scenarios were investigated.

in order to ensure an effective end-to-end (E2E) system description. or the logical combination of functions. Candidate algorithms and . e. namely the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Machine Type Communications (MTC) and European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) M2M.3. and interfaces can be implemented with protocols. 3. session continuity. able to achieve the project's objectives. e. All the components are characterized by their functionality. functional requirements. delegation of functionality. the most critical requirements (e.1. the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and interfaces between these components. Non-functional requirements are used to outline the required quality characteristics of a system.g.4 System concept description Following a thorough investigation of the most emerging M2M applications and use cases. remote change of subscription. devices. Components can be either physical entities.g. The EXALTED architecture consists of components and interfaces. Network requirements related to network infrastructure needed for establishing E2E M2M communication.g. The system requirements were given in a consolidated manner. The EXALTED system is founded on two existing proposals that are considered as baseline architectures. or a logical element summarizing certain functions that are in reality distributed at different locations. coexistence of multiple service providers on one single device. The functionality of a component can be realized by algorithms. provisioning.g. e. procedures and technologies. in order to leverage on these standardization efforts and complement them with new sets of features needed to provide cost. ensuring that all technical innovations are aligned towards a unified system concept. A component can either be a physical entity. Device requirements that are closely related with the different devices in the EXALTED system are described. Service requirements related to M2M services such as prioritization.3 Specification of technical requirements The technical system requirements for the EXALTED system were identified based on the analysis of the adopted use cases and scenarios. The system architecture provides a coherent framework. Algorithms realizing these functions are considered to be exchangeable and not part of the architecture. and after cycles of refinements and interactions between contributors covering different parts of the EXALTED system. with references to particular scenarios that they can be applied to. energy. a M2M device. the final architecture provides a consolidated view of the EXALTED concept. and security aspects. Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and M2M server. aiming to the necessary enhancements at the Network Domain (ND) and the Device and Gateway Domain (DD). were identified towards the development of the necessary corresponding algorithms. and service requirements). which can be either mandatory or optional. e.    These technical requirements were extracted based on the standardization bodies' point of view through the EXALTED prism and served as the baseline for the development of EXALTED system framework and components.1. Through an iterative process between the technical innovations and the system architecture.g. The working assumption for the EXALTED architecture was that it consists of various components characterized by their functionalities. network requirements. The requirements were grouped into the following categories:   Functional requirements describe specific features of the EXALTED system that are needed to enable the envisaged use cases. and spectrally efficient connectivity to a large number of devices.

the throughput and the payload reduction.3 (Dynamic resource management). 3. the coverage extension. the performance of the EXALTED system was assessed against the main objectives through a set of corresponding evaluation scenarios:  supporting a large number of LTE-M devices with heterogeneous requirements and capabilities. compared to LTE. underlining important aspects. 3.2. Based on these common evaluation assumptions. and T3.protocols are being developed in the WP3-WP6 and are part of the EXALTED system concept. They are exchangeable without impact on the architecture design itself. The first one was the performance comparability of the various innovations within the EXALTED system and the second one was to provide useful evaluation guidelines for the evaluation of M2M solutions. the spectral efficiency.2 WP3 The aim of the work package was the specification of LTE-M.1.5 Evaluation methodology definition Within EXALTED a common evaluation methodology was followed with common assumptions.      Co-existence with LTE Simultaneous support of a big number of machine devices and spectrum efficiency Provision of wide area coverage Energy savings to enable a long battery lifetime Cost efficiency . The following objectives have been addressed.  end-to-end (E2E) connectivity (Heterogeneity and Interoperability).1 (PHY layer). 3. Among others. T3.2 (MAC scheduling protocol for M2M communications). Therefore the work was split up into objectives rather than into tasks.4 (Broadcast & Multicast capability). traffic models and simulation parameters. the battery power savings.  traffic aggregation. the reliability of device connectivity. the network lifetime. which served two major goals. but that the diverse challenges and technical requirements demand substantial cross-task activities to design a coherent system. such as topologies. the mobility management efficiency. a cellular mobile radio system co-existing with LTE in the same frequency band and facilitating cost-. the most important KPIs include: the relative increase of the number of M2M devices that can be supported by LTE-M. T3. spectrum-. The objectives were evaluated against the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) that are directly related with the objectives of the EXALTED system. and energy efficient M2M communications.  low complexity and energy efficient M2M communications for LTE-M-based systems. The evaluation of the EXALTED system proved that significant benefits can be acquired. the number of addresses mapped to M2M devices. It turned out that these tasks cannot be treated independently.1 Overall Progress of WP3 WP3 consists of the four tasks T3.  device management and  E2E Security.

4. transport-. the work package was deeply involved in the EXALTED architecture discussion (WP2). e. In order to achieve this. D3.2 (Study of commonalities and synergies between LTE-M and the heterogeneous network).g. But also some individual solutions were explicitly specified to support this co-existence. over thirty publications and standards contributions underline the significant impact of WP3 activities in the research community. and the different physical channels are mapped in form of an LTE-M super-frame to these radio resources.It is claimed that all of these objectives led to reasonable results in accordance with the initial project proposal.1 (First report on LTE-M algorithms and procedures). version 2. the most important achievements are briefly summarised. LTE-M utilises its own logical. 2011. D3.2. a solution that is fully compatible to previous LTE releases and still opens the opportunity to implement specific algorithms and protocols tailored for the needs of M2M communications.1) and that backward compatibility to LTE Release 8 is maintained (O3. However. the specification of the toolbox algorithms is presented Error! Reference source not found. also a close cooperation with WP4 took place throughout the project duration. D3. Thereby. 3. Radio Resource Control (RRC) and Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) were adapted as well according to the specific needs of a system suitable for a multitude of short messages from devices with diverse capabilities and requirements. Moreover. so-called Multicast-Broadcast Single Frequency Network (MBSFN) subframes are available for LTE-M. Optimisations of the random access procedure and of the Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) functionality are the essential modifications in the MAC layer. released in Aug. 2012.3 Co-existence with LTE Two project objectives are reflected.. A detailed performance analysis can be found in the final project report D3. This is necessary to exploit the . 2013.2 LTE-M System LTE-M fully complies with the EXALTED architecture and is one key part of the overall EXALTED system concept. Within the existing LTE frame structure.. Registering information about terminals is the key enabler. Furthermore.0 released in Jan..2. released in Jan. The abovementioned LTE-M system design as a whole already underlines these requirements. namely that the proposed solutions have to be supported by existing eNodeB hardware platforms (O3. includes the full specification of LTEM and the expected performance per objective Error! Reference source not found. The actual intelligence of LTE-M is to recognise the situation and to activate or deactivate a set of simple features. is the continuation of D3. and physical channels. User plane and control plane of the radio protocol architecture are very much based on LTE.4 (LTE-M performance evaluation). is a joint effort with WP4 and gives an outline about the relationship between LTE-M and the system components installed around Error! Reference source not found.1 and defines for the first time the overall LTE-M system. sensors installed at a fixed position don’t need any form of mobility management. The only substantial modification is the option that the eNodeB may serve as IP client for the LTE-M device and map the IP address to a shorter local address. WP3 produced four public deliverables:     D3. As an example. includes a state of the art analysis and introduces the toolbox approach concerning candidate algorithms for LTE-M Error! Reference source not found... As LTE-M is the enabling technology for E2E connectivity. released in July 2012. through the separation of radio resources for LTE and LTE-M devices.3 (Final report on LTE-M algorithms and procedures).7). 3. it is possible for the network to distinguish between LTE and LTE-M terminals. In the following. Key enabler is here the registration of information about the devices and their context in the network and the selection of the right mechanisms. Key algorithms have been transferred to WP7 for their implementation in one of the testbeds.

Co-existence achieved with for but tailored for respect to re-use of existing applications with hardware components short messages Generally applicable.5). Registering information about terminals Co-existence achieved with General usage respect to backward LTE-M systems compatibility Slotted access Event-driven Co-existence achieved with Combination with ‘Random applications with a respect to avoidance of Access with Collision big number of network overload situations Recovery’ is recommended.4). Other solutions protect the network against sudden overload situations.g. Generally applicable. or by optimising the resource utilisation by traffic aggregation or novel signal formats (O3. indicates how they can be applied beneficially. or maintain the performance of LTE UEs in the presence of LTE-M traffic. but tailored for applications with short messages Innovative scheduling techniques Co-existence achieved with respect to maintaining the performance of LTE UEs in the presence of LTE-M devices It can be used in all cases. but particularly beneficial in heterogeneous environments with mixed applications and QoS classes. 3. HARQ LTE-M Generally applicable.2. A combination with CDMAoverlay is possible. scheduling. the challenge is to transmit the same information by using fewer resources.performance potential of innovative scheduling techniques. Signalling reduction can be realised e. Both approaches complement each other. The following table summarises the proposed solutions. by semi-persistent scheduling. This can be achieved either by minimising the size of control and feedback messages (O3.2). and points out possible interactions with other EXALTED solutions. Again the diversity of device capabilities and requirements plays an important role (O3. simply allow re-using already existing hardware components.g. and examples for spectrum efficient techniques on the payload are GFDM and the .4 Simultaneous support of a big number of machine devices and spectrum efficiency One of the major objectives in EXALTED is the simultaneous support of a big number of LTE-M devices. Solution Expected performance Recommended usage Interactions with other EXALTED solutions Enabler of other solutions in that exploit this information. e. optimisation of paging. devices It is required to adapt the LTE-M rate matching algorithm according to the proposed HARQ scheme. where ‘Semi-persistent scheduling’ cannot be applied. As the amount of the overall available radio resources for LTE-M is fixed through the LTE frame structure and the LTE-M super-frame principle. GFDM Co-existence achieved with respect to maintaining the performance of LTE UEs in the presence of LTE-M devices GFDM replaces SC-FDMA in LTE-M uplink.

An optimisation of the random access procedure and specialised scheduling techniques showed additional improvements. recovery PMRACH but rare transmissions Generally applicable.HARQ scheme. The following table summarises the proposed solutions. with a suitable combination of the proposed methods the number of supported devices can be increased by one order of magnitude. GFDM Generally applicable. A combination LTE-M devices applications with short with CDMA-overlay is possible. 500% . Solution Expected performance Recommended usage Interactions with EXALTED solutions other Random access 80% throughput Applications with a Combination with ‘Slotted with collision improvement on huge number of devices.1000% Applications with This solution complements the more LTE-M frequent time-driven proposed innovative scheduling devices transmissions concepts. It can be used in all cases. Event-driven Combination with ‘Random 900% more LTEapplications with a huge Access with Collision Recovery’ M devices number of devices is recommended. Slotted access AGTI scheduler Up to more devices Beneficial if 1000% applications with LTE-M different delay constraints are mixed QoS scheduler based Up to more devices It can be used in all cases. Alternatives are ‘AGTI scheduler’ and ‘QoS Scheduling algorithm for heterogeneous traffics . HARQ for LTE. Alternatives are ‘QoS based scheduler’ and ‘Scheduling algorithm for heterogeneous traffics’.Up to 30% more but tailored for all M LTE-M devices applications with short messages Semi-persistent scheduling It is required to adapt the LTE-M rate matching algorithm according to the proposed HARQ scheme. GFDM replaces SC-FDMA in Up to 35% more but tailored for LTE-M uplink. where ‘Semi-persistent scheduling’ cannot be applied. Alternatives LTE-M different delay are ‘AGTI scheduler’ and constraints are mixed ‘Scheduling algorithm for heterogeneous traffics’. Benefits between some ten and some hundred percent were observed. where ‘Semi-persistent scheduling’ cannot be applied. access’ is recommended. messages Up to 1000% Beneficial if different improvement LTE and LTE-M traffic based on types are mixed definition of It can be used in all cases. All in all. where Beneficial if ‘Semi-persistent scheduling’ 1000% applications with cannot be applied.

For the downlink a collaborative broadcast architecture is proposed that achieves a very high level of coverage.5 Provision of wide area coverage This is another important aspect of the EXALTED objective to support devices with diverse capabilities and requirements in one system (O3.2. channel quality is bad One message is addressed Combination with E2E 100% broadcast to multiple devices in the solutions for capillary coverage LTE-M downlink networks studied in WP4. Thereby it is distinguished if the device is in ACTIVE mode or in IDLE mode. In other words. In a subsequent step. Solution Expected performance Recommended usage Interactions with other EXALTED solutions CDMA-overlay LTE-M uplink for 97% coverage in It can be combined with applications with powerthe considered GFDM. this leads to insufficient coverage of LTE-M devices because the cellular layout is dimensioned according to the LTE specification. The analysed solutions range from RRC protocol optimisation till unconventional techniques like energy harvesting. at first the sources of energy consumption in a conventional LTE UE were analysed. 3.satisfied users based scheduler’. the lifetime of the battery shall be extended from a couple of days to the duration of years. The final conclusion is that it is possible. and a relative breakdown was derived. Two solutions were developed that ensure wide area coverage also for LTE-M. depending on the characteristics of the application.and complexity reduction are sublime objectives. energy efficiency is the second big challenge in EXALTED. In order to be able to analyse this complex problem. also the optimisation of paging and polling of devices (O3.6 Energy savings to enable a long battery lifetime Besides spectrum efficiency.2. The following table summarises the proposed solutions. Cost. particularly in the uplink. but also with SClimited devices if the radio scenario FDMA or OFDMA. Collaborative broadcast architecture 3. Apart from the obvious project objective of energy minimisation in the device (O3.3) was handled.5). they cause some drawbacks. to achieve battery lifetimes in the range of one year. The main problem is the degradation of the link budget. However. At the end. The following table summarises the proposed solutions. evaluated case other .6). several solutions were studied with respect to the specific source of energy consumption that they try to reduce or to avoid. CDMA-overlay in the uplink exploits the simple principle of a spreading gain. Solution Expected performance Recommended usage Interactions with EXALTED solutions other Energy Harvesting Energy reduction Isolated power limited No interaction with up to 6% for the devices solutions known.

2) is basically the proposed MIMO scheme. optimisation of paging. summarised in the technical report 36.7 Cost efficiency Similar as for energy consumption. . which already provides a broad set of means for cost reduction for M2M devices. e. support in IDLE mode 3.75 % solutions known. coverage other Registering information terminals Enabler of other solutions that No gain as stand.888 [5]. To be used in the LTE-M downlink if the same Average energy message shall be reduction 12. but collision recovery access’ is recommended. LDPC codes incremental redundancy multicast for Low MIMO All LTE-M uplink complexity Average energy No interaction with scenarios with sufficient reduction 4. The expected performance is given in the following table.Energy reduction Applications with a huge Random access with Combination with ‘Slotted up to 11% for the number of devices. aiming at the objective to minimise the device complexity (O3. evaluated case rare transmissions Must considered together capillary networks.5% delivered to a big number of devices No interaction with other solutions known.g. Adaptive paging Monitoring paging Up to 30% All application with long Enabled by ‘Registering channel and mobility energy reduction periods in IDLE mode information about terminals’. the assessment of cost reduction is based on a breakdown of the contributions from the different hardware components.General usage in LTE-M exploit this information.2. It is exclusively applied in the PMDMCH. Reduction of paging messages All applications by factor 20-50 fixed devices in average with Enabled by ‘Registering information about terminals’. about alone solution systems scheduling. Collaborative broadcast architecture Directional antennas It is useful to combine the Beneficial in scenarios Energy reduction solutions with the methods with limited feedback 1% aiming at the support of a big capacity number of users. The added value from EXALTED. One message is addressed to multiple with devices in the LTE-M downlink be Combination with E2E solutions for capillary networks studied in work package 4. For this. EXALTED adopted the work of 3GPP.

..1 Maintaining connection/transmission integrity across aggregation points through heterogeneous connections S4. beamforming and diversity for aggregating data.3 WP4 WP4 aims to establish a complete end-to-end (E2E) architecture for an M2M capillary network based of LTEM. Provision of means to achieve a device battery lifetime in the range of one year.IR4.1. Application: payload optimization and device management and short messaging for constrained devices..8 Summary of Technical Achievements       Outline system design of LTE-M that fulfils demand for co-existence with LTE and that is compatible with existing network infrastructure Provision of means to extend the number of supported devices by factor 10. Overall.3).1 & D4.1. the work package produced one supplementary public deliverable in conjunction with WP3 (D3. WP4 worked along the following layers: • • • • PHY: signal compression techniques for sensors around fusion centers. The work package released three interim reports (IR4. dynamic encoding schemes for media access . as it may cover different innovations.2 O4.2. D4.1 Common View of WP4 Achievements This section classifies all mechanisms and protocols proposed in WP4 with respect to the main objectives identified in DoW document.Solution Expected performance complex Recommended usage Interactions with other EXALTED solutions Low MIMO 9% cost reduction All LTE-M uplink No interaction with other scenarios with sufficient solutions known.2) .3. MAC: mobility models. functionalities and communication modes within it were defined. S4. An end-to-end system architecture for EXALTED was produced in WP4. and five deliverables (D4.1.1. 3. coverage 3. network monitoring for sensor-class devices and machine-type entities. 3.3. In addition. It is possible that one solution is duplicated in more than one objective. energy-efficiency Networking: address translation schemes for sensor devices and vehicular networks.1) Heterogeneous connectivity and address translation (D4.2.5). Single hop cooperative MAC protocol for high number of devices (D4.2). clustering mechanisms.. The definition of nodes. as well as address and prefix auto-configuration protocols also for vehicular networks.1. Provision of means to maintain wide area coverage in spite of device and protocol simplifications Additional device cost reduction of 10% on top of means proposed by 3GPP Enabling E2E connectivity based on IPv6 for devices in capillary networks 3.

5.3.4.3.3) ASN.3.5.3 Define device management architecture that ensures consistent node resource exposure and warrants reliable and uniform addressability and security S4. Mobility model estimator (D4.2) 3.1) V2V2I communication using VIN addressing (D4.3.2. S4.4 O4.1) DISC protocol (D4.4) CHANGE protocol (D4. S4. Multi-hop MAC protocol for increasing energy efficiency (D4.4. S4. Network Monitoring architecture (D4.4.2.4.3) CoAP-DM over SMS and UDP (D4. S4.3.1.4.2 Efficient and consistent IPv6 Packet mapping throughout and across the connections to ensure lowest IP overhead possible S4.2.5 Design an IP based E2E networking system for M2M communications (Machine: unattended device running for extended periods of time).5) .1.4) 3.2) Heterogeneous connectivity and address translation (D4.5 O4.1.6.3.3.1) Distributed Cluster-based communications (D4.1.3.4.7 O4.S4. S4.1) V2V2I communication using VIN addressing (D4.3) ELFOMA protocol (D4.4 Traffic aggregation point architectures to support reduced traffic load S4.5.3. Device management architecture (D4.5.3.1 encoding (D4.4) Data Compression (D4.3.2) 3.1.2.4.4) Decentralized Source coding (D4.4. S4.6 O4. S4.1 & D4.6. S4.1.5) Light-weight monitoring mechanism (D4. S4.2.3. IP address assignment (D4. S4.6. S4.4) Multi-point communications (D4.3.2) SoTA on 6LowPAN mobility (D4.2. S4.3 O4. S4.3) 3.4.2.3. S4.2. S4.6 Device / node monitoring mechanism to ensure that a response-to-demand datum is authentic reliable and secure S4.1. Payload Reduction (D4.4) 3.

1. protocols that can coexist with any other solution in the same layer are pictured in green.5.1 S4. . compatibilities and incompatibilities are identified.2 S4.6.3.1. it is pictured in red.3.1+S4.4.1 S4. They are classified with respect to the layer that they cover.1 Conventional LTE-M MAC protocol Conventional LTE-M PHY protocol MAC Conventional M2M server MAC protocol PHY Conventional M2M server PHY protocol Figure 3.4 S4.2.2 S4.4 S4.2 LTE-M IP S4.1 + S4.4. The notation “conventional” means that any typical protocol for that layer and in that particular equipment/network can be used.3 S4. network layer (IP) and application layer (APP).3 S4.3. Layers taken into account for this purpose are physical layer (PHY).6.4.2 / protocol S4.4 S4. as it is transparent for the defined Stack.4.4.2/S4.4 S4.2.4.5 S4. an EXALTED MAC protocol can use any of the proposed (or already existing) PHY or IP protocols. In addition.1.6.1.2.4 S4.2 S4.3.3 Conventional M2M server IP protocol APP IP Conventional S4.3. In the following description we show how each solution mentioned above was defined during the project timeframe. The assumption is that all protocols are independent to upper and lower layers.1.3 S4.3 LTE-M M2M SERVER S4.1+S4. Within the same layer.3 S4.2 S4.2. link layer (MAC).6 S4.3. if a protocol is exclusive and avoids by definition the use of alternative techniques at the same layer.1 S4. CAPILLARY S4. On the other hand. Protocol Stack.5.4.2 S4.6.3.3.8 WP4 Complete protocol stack This section provides the big picture about where and how protocols proposed in WP4 fit together.3. for instance.5.1 S4.

the most effective scheme for M2M characteristics. The other approach focused on the F-MAC protocol. has been investigated. where a state of the art study of hybrid CSMA-TDMA protocols has been performed. After studying the different solutions for integrating both worlds. As result of this work a paper has been published in NEWCOM 2011 conference. a MAC protocol considering energy efficiency as primary focus due to the characteristics of M2M communications. T4. being prepared for performing simulations in the following months of the project covering the following scenarios: mobile M2M devices form a capillary network and are in an area with fixed nodes whose positions are known and a sink node (gateway) whose position is known.9 Task 4. JSON. As result of literature analysis the key parameters to identify mobility models have been defined. It is composed by a gateway (IP enable) and a M2M device (non IP) connected through the ZigBee interface. 3G. The work done includes MATLAB simulations that demonstrate the improvement in energy efficiency.e. energy consumption and throughput/delay constraints. Literature review of duty-cycling has been started. NFC and IP connectivity. contact and inter-contact duration. EXI. memory and bandwidth consumption) in real .3. Two complementary approaches were performed at MAC level. The mobility models have been integrated into the simulator engine. Furthermore. has been implemented.1 investigated the aspects of maintaining continuous packet data transport level continuity between heterogeneous physical layer network links in an end-to-end M2M scenario over LTE. In the next report the result of the simulations will be included. LTE…). memory requirements and different performance regarding cellular technologies (GPRS. it aimed at integrating both ZigBee and IP networks. the simulations for validating the new design have been started this year. based on a web server at the gateway. CSV.3. Protobuf and MessagePack) over CoAP protocol was evaluated for efficiency (i. in this context it has been proposed a MAC oriented solution for diminishing the “funneling” problem near the sink. A first demonstrator has been performed. The presented platform is capable to send commands or access to the information of the M2M device from any point connected to an IP network. A theoretical framework for integrating shadowing effects in MAC design is also under development. In order to achieve Task 4. The basis of the system is the mapping of devices in capillary network into virtual devices in the gateway.1 Task 4.1 has also contributed to a Device Management protocol over SMS that is implemented and evaluated and on evaluation of the payload formats over the proposed Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) protocol for capillary networks. Regarding mobility framework study. to be implemented in resource constrain devices. the work during the first year lied in three main aspects:    Data packet continuity New MAC protocols for capillary networks optimized for M2M particularities Single user and group mobility. by setting up and measuring a real-world testbed including ZigBee. some preliminary results have been achieved and presented in the internal meetings carried out by WP4. battery. After reviewing the diverse literature existing in each field aforementioned. and. on the other hand. by studying efficiency (on both IPv4 and IPv6). The payload formats of interest (XML.1 objectives. The goal is to minimize the required overhead while satisfying packet data connectivity reliability. The first one is Cooperative ARQ. An address translation mechanism. on one hand. an analysis was performed on different mobility models and mobility aware of MAC in WSN.

1 has investigated several MAC protocols. a hybrid MAC protocol is proposed which supports both CSMA and TDMA according to the traffic. MAC protocol designed for mobility scenarios T4. In this context. More specifically. The obtained results were reported in IR4. Next steps include to obtain an optimum threshold for the switching rate between the CSMA and TDMA. The basis is resource oriented approach for device management of the constrained device. The DPCF protocol (Distributed Point-Control Function) is being implemented in a C++ simulator. Then a novel algorithm has been developed by using simulation tools. all the nodes perform CSMA by default unless they receive a beacon by the gateway and start performing TDMA. focusing different aspects and suitable to be used depending on the use case addressed: o The DPCF protocol with duty cycling mode has been implemented in wireless motes in order to evaluate its energy efficiency.3 and a technical paper was written and submitted to an international conference. MAC protocol for high number of devices. In addition. and the beginning of simulations.3. In such situations. an accurate simulation platform has been created in MATLAB.network conditions for parsing processes of messages sent from the server. The next step include to complete the simulations as well as to prepare a conference paper with the obtained results.11 DCF and PCF in distributed M2M capillary networks with collaborative M2M gateways can improve the performance of the network in terms of throughput. The main contribution in this context is to include priority based access for satisfying heterogeneous requirements such as emergency situations.1 Technical achievements The technical achievements related to T4. the analysis of the conditions under whith cooperation can be helpful in low-rate capillary networks formed by simple M2M devices with constant (non-adaptive) transmission rate. to distinguish the current mobility model among a series of known mobility models and patterns. Its achievements include the selection of the appropriate model.9.1 has been working on a mobility estimator. and 2. T4. the energy-efficiency evaluation of a cooperative approach that will be integrated into the DPCF protocol.1 can be summarized and categorized as follows:  Novel MAC protocols. This work complements previous simulation and theoretical works and shows that the combination of IEEE 802. a highly congested traffic is appearing around the sink. two conference papers have been submitted to two international conferences with: 1. 3. delay and also in terms of energy efficiency. a number of investigations on mobility were performed with an algorithm for estimating mobility pattern of mobile nodes. Next step will be to integrate the whole contribution of DPCF and all the conducted results into a journal paper. MAC protocol designed for multihop scenarios. which results in an increase to the dropped packet probability and power consumption due to continuous retransmissions. real time applications low battery supplies. like a 'guess who' algorithm. where hybrid access schemes are being investigated. At this time. It applies where data are being collected throughout the network and reported to the sink. We have also working on a MAC and routing approach which is mobility aware and adapts some parameters to the current mobility model. MAC protocols for reducing the funneling effect that appears near to the sink. listed below. .

3 in terms of throughput (K12) and reliability (K9). Then the description of addressing architecture has been adapted. IP address assignment o The IP address assignment analysis for the LTE-M terminals and assignment of the IP addresses to M2M devices behind the M2M Gateway is further investigated by mapping with other proposed algorithms and the EXALTED system. Specifically. o MOBILITY MODELS .3.3. Influence of payload reduction on complete EXALTED System is also considered.e. Efficiency is calculated as the relationship between real data sent versus the total amount of bits aired (including headers). Finally. which decides on the access mode to be used.10 Task 4. Nevertheless. energy consumed per message is calculated using TST hardware platform. topics related to IP networking and IP communications between vehicles in particular have been studied. Furthermore.2 The goal of Task 4.2% less battery and that packet size is reduces by a factor of 4. Wireshark is used for analyzing traffic in the network. Evaluation showed that device that utilizes CoAP/CSV instead of HTTP/XML spends 13. which evaluates the performance of both contention based and contention-free access schemes. the study on mobility models and the derived estimator can help to bring knowledge on mobility to any solution that would require such knowledge. i.2. based on the trade-off between the expected throughput and protocol complexity. They both propose to adapt their behaviour to network and traffic dynamics so as to better serve devices with respect of their QoS requirements. complete payload size and battery consumption of HTTP/XML against CoAP/CSV in the live network. 3. our proposed MAC protocol has been evaluated in order to provide comparison results to IR4. 80% efficiency rates can be reached. . This estimator is hardly assessable by KPI since it is just a tool that has been then exploited in MAC protocols.Different mobility models have been investigated and then gathered in a tool that acts as an estimator of the mobility model that best fits with the one experienced by either a mobile device or a group of mobile devices. In addition to mobility models.o o Following the proposed hybrid contention/reservation MAC protocol. its major achievements were:    Design of a joint addressing and radio architecture for vehicular communications Design and implementation of address auto-configuration mechanism with DHCP-PD and DHCP default route Description of three vehicular networking scenarios In T4. the expected throughput can be predicted by exploiting a queueing theory analysis. we extended our work by proposing a novel analytical framework. namely LA-MAC and DA-MAC which are respectively LowLatency Asynchronous MAC and Density-Aware MAC. An IP addressing architecture for vehicular networks has been proposed. With some techniques proposed. two main KPIs have been used. parters have investigated to MAC protocols that exploit the mobility models estimator.2. Payload reduction for supporting MAC efficiency: o Application-layer protocol and payload reduction were evaluated with the final aim to calculate efficiency. and included into IR4. considering a capillary network as a generic case of vehicular network. while battery consumption is computed utilizing Android powered device for the parsing processes of large number of messages sent from the HTTP and CoAP server.2 is to design an IP based End-to-End (E2E) networking system for M2M communication. In this respect. In order to achieve this purpose.    Device reachability and addressability for data connectivity: o The heterogeneous connectivity solution is now under evaluation so as to provide the last WP4 related results in IR4.

Analysis and proposal of the optimal solution for IP to 6LoWPAN address translation on M2M–Gateways. mainly: .3. The gateway may maintain internal and external device address mapping tables. Programming of the selected option in real M2M devices and performance evaluation of results. 3. an analysis of the state-of-the-art for IPv6 addressing protocols (DHCP.  Address translation mechanism: Finalization of the study about strategies for implementing ZigBee to IP address translation mechanism programmed on M2M Gateways. Definition of the M2M-Gateway functionalities needed for address translation. An IP/ZigBee address translation mechanism envisaged for M2M Gateways has been defined. IP to Capillary Address Translation Schemes.2.11 Task 4. ND. Prefix Delegation. firmware update.Then V2V2I communications and VIN conversion to IPv6 address or prefix have been investigated.3 This task aims to provide a Device Management solution for the EXALTED architecture to facilitate device deployment. Addressing and Routing Schemes for Capillary Networks: A detailed study of the state-of-the-art for addressing and routing mechanisms in Future Internet has been done. This work was presented to partners during the 4th General Assembly. Analysis of the mobility protocols features in 6LoWPAN (MIPv6. The proposed method was compared against ETSI-ITS and IETF standards. Selection of best technology. leading to the improvement of standard addressing and routing protocols (such as NDP and DHCPv6). All data regarding state of the art study.4. policy application. The gateway does the compression and decompression of IPv6 packets. remote administration. characterization of the efficiency of the method and a first integration on real equipment has been performed. implementation and measurement is included in D4. logging and reporting.10.2 document. Task 4. The design of the addressing and routing mechanism for V2V2I communications (that can be seen as C2C2I communications in a more generic manner) is close to be finished. This work is detailed in IR4. Most of the steps in the proposed mechanism have been done. Mobile IPv6) was performed. MANEMO etc) and routing protocols (ROLL and MANET based and Neighbour Discovery) for 6LoWPAN. 6LoWPAN protocols: Definition of the mobility types and overview of the existing 6LoWPAN protocols and emerging new protocols.3 started with the study of existing solutions.2 are summarized below. service installation.3. Elaboration of the common evaluation framework as well as providing the KPIs results regarding the E2E connectivity scenario. The gateway architecture whose goal is interoperability between 6LoWPAN and external IPv6 networks was analyzed. HMIPv6. the gateway also performs a mapping between 16 bit short addresses and the IPv6 addresses for both the external IPv6 networks and 6LowPAN. An IP/Capillary address translation for the IP devices (for example 6lowpan) that are behind the gateways in the capillary networks has been investigated. All details about the proposed addressing and routing mechanism for capillary networks can be found in D4.3 and also provided to WP2 as an input for the elaboration of D2. Selection of the optimum choice for being used on M2M devices oriented to SMM scenarios.1 Technical achievements The technical achievements regarding Task T4. For V2V2I. NEMO.     3. IP to 6LoWPAN: Overview of the existing translation mechanisms between IPv6 and 6LoWPAN addresses and router and gateway functionalities.

But it may not satisfy all the Device Management needs. In this case. . the proposed protocol leads to a reduction factor of 5 with respect to the payload size. Work done on the security has been mostly dedicated to address the scalability issue without compromising the overall security. The complexity of the adapter proxy is reduced to message conversion and encoding scheme. T4. two papers are planned for the following proceedings: IEEE Globecom 2012 and Infocom 2013. A testing environment has been provided by in a Data Center for the Device Management evaluation. In addition. an OMA-DM v1.x compliant lightweight solution has been finalized. OTA is an alternative solution. etc. The proposed OMA-DM v1. A paper describing this CoAP over SMS solution has been written. This solution is used to manage M2M devices that are out of reach of 2G/3G/LTE-M data connectivity.x compliant lightweight Device Management solution reduces OMA-DM messages by 85% while maintaining the same protocol and functionalities. The next step is to evaluate an SMS Broker as a Device Management Application Server equivalent. Then. Method to create and to parse lightweight messages is defined. Architecture with devices sharing the same key among a capillary network is considered.3 has evaluated a proposal of device management payload for resource consumption. between new M2M devices and the existing OMA-DM server. such as Get.       OMA-DM and TR-069. Exec. This adapter provides a 2 ways message conversion: OMA-DM message to Exalted Lightweight DM message. Add. Lightweight and security mechanism are already in place. Lightweight DM message definition and syntax have been finalized. The motivation was to address a large number of SMS enabled terminals used today.x servers to continue managing existing OMA-DM enabled mobile devices and to incrementally support M2M devices. simple device management procedures and mapping for OMA-DM and REST. The GET and POST methods are implemented for CoAP over SMS between devices in real network conditions in order to evaluate SMS efficiency for device management procedures. Favourite architecture is a distributed Device Management with a Device Management Agent located on the gateway to factorize some device management functionality. Lightweight CoAP messages are exchanged over SMS between the DM server and devices. T4. The cost of this solution is minimized as existing OMA-DM servers are reused “as is” without any change. Replace. A device management solution based on SMS has also been finalized. This solution enables service providers who wish to reuse existing OMA-DM v1. defined device management architecture interfaces. all based on XML. methods A protocol derived from OMA-DM was under study: Keep OMA-DM Management Objects Keep OMA-DM principle : Setup phase & Management phase Keep OMA-DM security mechanism Key difference : use key/value instead of SyncML representation Based on a firmware update scenario. the SMS transport efficiency should be better when sent directly from an SMSC. But they are not suited for Exalted. An adapter proxy is inserted in the communication chain.3 worked on an evaluation of an M2M Device Management over SMS by using CoAP message semantics. which needs a lightweight protocol.

In this context. The Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN.4 investigated the analytical assessment of decentralized source coding techniques for random field estimation with capillary M2M networks. While CoAP DM over UDP and SMS achieve 67. that is mostly the management of the secure element and its credentials have been reported in deliverable D4. In this context.   3. This serves to evaluate the payload reduction of DM solutions. and that messages sent using proposed CoAP DM consumes 20. To that aim.4. CoAP device management is evaluated for power-heater scenario: one message with 3 replace commands for updating device info.4 was focused on the design of novel coding schemes and communication protocols aimed to improve energy efficiency and reduce network congestion in (large) M2M capillary networks. In this context several techniques have been investigated including.1) encoding rules have been studied as a possible representation for the device management commands to replace the current SyncML as specified by the OMA-DM. End-to-End security had been specified and prototyped from end-device to M2M server. Besides. SMS is proposed as a transport with embedded CoAP messages.g.67% in payload reduction : Device Management over CoAP: In order to efficiently utilize proposed device management algorithm.3. . The evaluation showed that transmission payload size exchanged between 2 peers is 3x smaller. which are capable of dealing with spatially. Based on the aforementioned scenario. adaptive scheduling techniques and suitable duty cycle MAC protocol.3. All results of the work done on security and device management. environmental monitoring scenarios). a “pure” CoAP transport is leveraged. congestion avoidance routing or data centric routing and for the MAC layer. This work has been reported in document D4. T4. Research efforts have been also focused on investigating joint routing and scheduling algorithms that will efficiently handle the capillary network energy and the network congestion near the sink.3.Evaluation methodology for device management has been elaborated.or temporally correlated sensor observations (e. Simulations for validating the new design have been started this year.8% in payload reduction. (2) communication behind Gateway in the Capillary network. The device management scenario is evaluated for the previous message for related KPI measuring battery consumptions and transmission packet size in 50 performed tests. So far only classical smart cards have been used as a secure element but nevertheless the capacity to bring advanced security features to a low-end device has been demonstrated in lab. These techniques are expected to reduce the amount of redundant information sent by the sensor nodes as well as the total network traffic. research was carried out on decentralized source coding techniques. KPIs pertaining to various DM solutions have been assessed. we have analytically analyzed the performance of the Quantize-and-Estimate encoding strategy when channel state information is not available at the sensor nodes. ELFOMA achieves 88.4 Task 4.    A power cut scenario has been detailed for a Smart metering and monitoring use case. The outcome of this study will be documented in IR4. for the network layer. a mapping of device management in the system for different use cases is done: (1) for communication between Gateways. A nice aspect of this representation is its compactness and its ability to encode whatever protocol to ELFOMA to the new protocols currently specified in the various OMA-DM standardization groups. we have also derived the optimal transmission order for the Compress-and-Estimate strategy. Code developed during these experimentations has been recycled in the WP7 for the security sub-testbed. an extensive review of the state of the art was performed.8% less energy than a reference native OMA DM protocol SyncML message.3 and D2.12 Task 4.

In addition to this, we have also studied transform coding techniques based on the Karhunen-Loève (KL) transform. In this context, we tackled the problem from different perspectives. On the one hand, we adopted beamforming at the sensor nodes in order to implement the Karhunen-Loève transform in the air. In this setting, we analyzed the impact of imperfect phase synchronization and independent duty cycles at the sensor nodes. Some results have been already published (IWM2M Workshop) and recent results have been submitted to international conferences such ICC’12 and ICASSP’12. On the other hand, we addressed a realistic scenario where sensors transmit their observations by means of a contention-based Medium Access (MAC) protocol to the Gateway. Here, the Gateway implements the aforementioned (KL) transform and compress the sensors information aimed at reducing the traffic load at the LTE-M network. Preliminary results have been submitted to FUNEMS’12. T4.4 has also developed evaluated a new node clustering protocol. This protocol is designed to be fully distributed without any dependence on time synchronization modules or protocols. Hence, it is different from the current node clustering protocols that exist in the literature. No time synchronization property enables the protocol to be able to quickly adapt to changing conditions and also be scalable to a multi-hop setting in a large area of deployment. Then, this protocol is used to aggregate the collected data in a capillary network and deliver the resulting information to a single gateway. This version of the protocol included four different cases in performance comparisons: (1) no-clustering, (2) only-in-cluster CH reselection, (3) only region-wide reclustering, and (4) re-clustering including in-cluster and region-wide updates. An emulation code has been developed. Initial results demonstrate that performance improvement is observed in extending network lifetime and relieving network hot spots. However, it was noticed that the emulation code had to undergo a significant structural review so as to better reflect the estimated network lifetime. Significant changes were made to it, which helped making a more accurate network lifetime evaluation. The code structure was still sequential and additional evaluations had to be made. The resulting work was presented during the WP3/WP4 physical meeting in Stuttgart. Later, a final version of the emulation code was prepared, that has major differences from all previous versions in that the structure of the code enabled parallel operation of nodecentric events via introducing node states. The previous code on the other hand was based on sequential processing of network events, which usually over-estimated network lifetime since overlapping events were double counted. Hence, this newer version significantly improved the accuracy of evaluation of network lifetime. A third activity in T4.4 consists in research on mediated gossiping in large scale capillary networks. This work enables a high level coordination between gateways controlling individual capillary networks. By doing so, related data and queries can be directed and related with correct and most relevant locations dynamically. Another part of the work performed in T4.4 is about the MU-diversity with beamforming techniques where our prime targets are to efficiently handle the aggregation of a large number of sensor nodes around a fusion center (FC) as well as to considerable reduce the nodes channel state information the is fed back to the FC. In this context, by considering a highly time correlated fading channel and by employing differential quantization techniques we have managed to obtained a considerable reduction on the amount of bits, with CSI information, that are sent back to the FC by the users. Furthermore, we have performed some preliminary, and then extensive simulations regarding a MAC protocol in which joint scheduling and routing techniques have been considered for efficiently handle the capillary network energy and the congestion near the sink. At that time we have managed to create an accurate simulation platform in Matlab, where hybrid access schemes were being investigating. A final activity was the study of selecting the optimum cluster head for capillary networks, obtaining fruitful conclusions about the trade-off between network lifetime and outage probability. Future steps were provided as well.

The technical achievements in T4.4 can be summarized as follows:  Data Compression at the M2M Gateway: We have been working on our previously proposed data aggregation technique at the GW. In particular, we have designed a multidimensional filter in order to exploit temporal and spatial correlation of sensor data. After exploiting data correlation, data is compressed to a given number of coefficients that are sent to the application server. We have seen that this signal processing technique can significantly reduce the traffic in the LTE-M network when data is highly correlated. Related to this activity, one conference paper (ICASSP’12) has been presented and one conference paper (EUSIPCO ’12) accepted for publication.

Beamforming and MAC protocol: Continuing our work concerning the MU-diversity with beamforming techniques we have consider a highly time as well as spatial correlated fading channel and by employing differential quantization techniques we have managed to obtained a considerable reduction on the amount of bits, with CSI information, that are sent back to the FC by the users. Furthermore, we have started to perform extensive simulations regarding the MAC protocol where hybrid access schemes are been investigating. Our next steps include a routing algorithm that will considerable reduce the congestion around the CH.

Cluster head selection: working has been performed on the study of selecting the optimum cluster head for capillary networks, obtaining fruitful conclusions about the trade-off between network lifetime and outage probability. Future steps provided as well.

Symbolic Aggregation Approximation: work was performed on a data aggregation mechanism based on Symbolic Aggregation approXimation (SAX) method. The performance of the proposed mechanism was evaluated by changing the granularity of data using SAX and creating high level abstraction and representing them as patterns. Event processing and pattern detection techniques were added to the proposed data aggregation mechanism in order to improve its performance. Initial performance evaluation of SAX was performed with event processing and pattern detection.

3.3.13 Task 4.5
This task was concerned with network health monitoring of sensor / actuator to ensure that there are on-line, bi-directional, demand-response communications between sensor-actuators and gateways. This task is different from Device Management in a way that it does not only focus on identifying single stopped functioning devices but monitoring reliable operation and maintenance of the network is the main objective in this task. As a first step, consolidated requirements were specified for this task driven from use cases introduced in IR2.1, 3GPP MTC, and ETSI. The different sets of parameters involved in this task were made explicit. Then literature review and background study of current mechanisms and algorithms available in capillary networks were performed. Some algorithms that have been studied are: BOSS, MANNA, RRP, SNMS, WINms. Our current focus is categorizing existing monitoring and management mechanisms in different networks (Periodic reporting, Event-Driven, and Query-based), defining the evaluating metrics (i.e. number of transmitted bits/packets, overhead, frequency of reporting, energy spent per bit, etc. and study the most suitable algorithms for EXALTED. In addition to capillary network in the next step we have plan to explore the monitoring mechanisms for LTE-M devices directly linked to the LTE network.

T4.5 has also studied a hierarchical network construction for distributed control of devices by cluster head nodes. The distributed clustering protocol has been tested extensively with respect to its operational parameters. The procedure that forms the cluster structure in the capillary network has now been finalised as two mechanisms: In-cluster Cluster-head role Rotation (ICR) and Multi-Cluster Re-clustering (MCR). ICR is a periodic decision making mechanism whose time period Tin of condition checks has been tested for its effect on protocol performance. It has been shown via emulations that Tin is most beneficial for Tin = 20 unit time periods. (A unit time period is defined as 10 back-to-back link-level packet transmissions, without the effect of MAC delays) For lower and higher values of Tin reduction in network lifetime was observed. Although for all test cases, the standard deviation of node energy levels are lower than what would be observed in the case with no ICR in place, a very large value of ICR (Tin = 50) deteriorates protocol performance by decreasing network lifetime. This showed that ICR must be performed sufficiently frequently in order to obtain noticeable gains. An estimation module that assigns accurate initial values to the CH energy consumption Ecost has been implemented. This module simply uses two consecutive HELLO messages and disseminates generated data rates in local areas. With this, nodes are able to predict the later incoming rate from potential CH nodes, should they be selected as a CH as well. As a result, the aggregated data in the CH nodes are better tuned to initial network conditions, which are later refined by real traffic streams that are fed to the CHs. Initially, ICR and MCR were evaluated separately in order to understand how specific parts of these mechanisms are affected by their parameters. Then, a whole protocol with ICR and MCR for network-specific parameters, such as node deployment density and initial variation of device energy resources, was tested. The device deployment density has a major effect on how many CH nodes are eventually needed to cover and effectively manage a reasonable number of devices within a given area. Test results has shown the DISC protocol scalable to differences in node density, as the resulting average energy consumption figures show similar angle of decline, and networks with different density have similar energy variations over time. Test results have demonstrated that a combined ICR&MCR protocol (DISC) can actually reduce collected data volume while applying re-clustering only within limited parts of the network at locally determined time instances. The protocol is also found to be scalable to difference in network density, whereas increasing energy heterogeneity unsurprisingly reduces network lifetime. Task 4.5 defines a set of functions to monitor network status, detect network faults, to maintain normal operation and improve network efficiency. To perform these tasks, network monitoring needs to send queries and collect information from network devices to analyse the information. We prepared a detailed list of the queries required by network monitoring server and continue to work on identifying special requirements for network monitoring to be compliant with the properties and constraints of EXALTED (large scale, low cost, low resources consumption, reliable, scalable, and configurable). Therefore we have chosen a new hierarchical solution for network monitoring, by distributing the Monitoring Module in cluster heads, gateways, and eNodeBs. In this approach, Information is organized in different modules and there are agents in each network device to collect the information and report to an upper-level network that has a view of the more complete network information. The proposed framework enables the intermediate devices (Gateways, Cluster Heads) to combine their monitoring status with the results from connected M2M devices to capture the status of the network. A hierarchical architecture tackles scalability by applying monitoring policies in different network levels to reduce monitoring network traffic load over the LTE/LTE-M network.

3. Scalability is the main design consideration to support a large number of M2M devices.1 was spread over the first sixteen months of the project and would have benefited to take place as a background activity during the whole project length as the “low cost aspect” is also impacting secu rity solutions defined in tasks 5.4. Task 5.2 (security mechanisms to be used for broadcast and multicast operations).1 public deliverable. Lightweight Monitoring Mechanism: this technique has been included under scenario 2 (device management) and it has been compared against the resultant payload size of the aired packet. It has involved a .3 (Security solutions to secure networks using P2P relaying). The Gateway is able to aggregate the data and encapsulate it through the HTTP session. T5. A monitoring scheme based on Pachube middleware. limited by the capillary interface selected (ZigBee). In addition. The proposed framework enables the intermediate devices (Gateways. it introduces standard interfaces allowing interoperability with other EXALTED architectures such as device management and self-diagnostics.   Lightweight Monitoring Mechanism: development of a Pachube client embedded on TST’s M2M devices that enables in an efficient manner (using CSV messages) to monitor the status of the different nodes.2 and 5. use of broadcasting or relaying techniques) for efficient and secure M2M communications over 3GPP or IP networks. A hierarchical approach to network monitoring has been proposed. Cluster Heads) to combine their monitoring status with the results from connected M2M devices to capture the status of the network. Task 5. automated authentication and device provisioning solutions as well as securing the provisioning and data transmission operations in different contexts (use of data gateways. 3G+. The document is awaiting feedback from the EXALTED group. 3. This constraint led us to organize our activities in consequence. A draft document was completed outlining the architecture options for the network monitoring architecture and the recommended approach for EXALTED. being able to receiving information from the nodes in a capillary network has been implemented and a first basic demonstrator has been performed. LTE-M) networks and addresses architectural topics for application level M2M security in “generic” (not necessarily 3GPP) wide area IP networks.The proposed software architecture for network monitoring has several advantages over the current solutions. Evaluation of next steps regarding node monitoring. Characterization of resultant throughput. This report deals with network access security for M2M devices in 3GPP (3G.1 has resulted in the production of D5.LTE. 3.4 WP5 WP5 aimed at the definition of low cost. as the solution is oriented to reduce this packet to the most. transmitting 20Byte payloads.1 Overall Progress of WP5 WP5 work was spread over three tasks: T5. obtaining 80% payload reduction rates. A hierarchical architecture tackles scalability by applying monitoring policies in different network levels to reduce its impact on the traffic load over the LTE/LTE-M network.1 (Low cost provisioning and security). The real implementation is able to reach up to 150Kbps at each node. T5.

We believe that those contributions constitute reasonable results in accordance with the initial project proposal.3 has resulted in the production of D5. and the participation to the writing of a book to be published on M2M communications. It addresses the associated security issues.close collaboration with Work Package 6 team on the definition and prototyping of an “applicative secure element” embedded in M2M devices and a continuous collaboration with WP2 team dealing with Exalted M2M architecture. The work of the group resulted In terms of dissemination (directly or indirectly through member companies) in more than 14 contributions to 3GPP and ETSI M2M work groups. Task 5.3 has involved collaboration with WP4 team on the topic of traffic aggregation. benefits and possible solutions Methods to achieve security bootstrap in multihop capillary networks Methods to bootstrap security for broadcast/multicast communications Use of MBMS with lightweight GBA to securely distribute software updates to a large number of M2M devices connected to 3GPP networks. the agreement for presenting the group results in three M2M international conferences. Task 5. It also proposes different security models to secure the connection of multihop capillary networks to wide area networks. Lightweight key management methods in broadcast/multicast M2M communications. Task 4. filing of more than 10 patents by group members.2 public deliverable.4. 3.3 deliverable.2 has involved close cooperation with WP4 team on the topic of M2M device management and with WP3 team regarding the use of broadcast facilities in LTE/LTE-M networks. the submission of four papers (two accepted at time of writing). This report focuses upon the use of broadcast and multicast techniques to perform device management and software provisioning on a very large number of devices. This report deals with ways to bootstrap internal security in standalone capillary networks which use multihop communications. The main contributions of WP5 group revolve around the following points          Contributions to the definition of a new type of an embedded secure element either used for securing 3GPP network access (embedded SIM) or securing M2M applications (MIM) Sharing of secure element to secure multiple layers of data communications Low overhead security Business drivers and architecture solutions to achieve End to End security for M2M communications Bridging LAN and WAN security .2 Embedded secure element The traditional SIM form factor has proved over time to be ill suited to small M2M devices for the following reasons: . The following sections provide further details upon the most significant achievements. Task 5.2 has resulted in the production of D5.

The impact of the security upon energy consumption of the device has been investigated by considering three factors:  The power consumption linked to the execution of cryptographic algorithms inside the device.  The power consumption linked to the need to data overhead associated to security . We have also in collaboration with WP7 explored this type of secure element and the associated security management model. packaged as a simple peripheral connected to an M2M device via industry standard interface (Sp. Subscription change by SIM swap when devices are in inaccessible locations is not possible and dictates the need to support over the air subscription management on M2M devices. alarming) may impose the SIM to be soldered on the device. The case of an embedded SIM holding multiple M2M applications credentials in a multitenant environment (the credentials associated to the different eUICC applications belong to distinct business entities) has been explored. requiring to fit the SIM in the device at production or distribution. The eUICC is a secure element controlled by the mobile network operator and used primarily for securing 3gpp networks access. vibrations.    Various types of appliances are now becoming connected. Different business scenarios corresponding to distinct security models have been identified and described. This work led to one of the prototypes presented by WP7.…) or usages (e. A derivation of the eUICC leads to the “ applicative secure element”. and used primarily for application security. 3. very significant savings will results from the automated subscription delivery and activation costs. These reasons led the GSMA In November 2010.g. humidity. some of them featuring a very small form factor where the accommodation of a traditional SIM connector is not easy. which in most cases cannot be removed. I2C bus). if the cost of the embedded secure element is likely (at least in the years following introduction) to be comparable with the cost of traditional SIM cards.3 Low overhead security LTE-M or M2M devices part of Wireless sensors networks may be highly constrained in terms of energy consumption. The conclusion is that. This event probably marks a turning point in the history of the SIM card. Some devices need to be provided “ready to connect” to the end user. M2M applications involving specific environmental constraints (heat. for which the initial personalization occurs at manufacturing time. WP5 has contributed to the definition of the embedded SIM (eUICC) through the action of its member companies. The cost impact upon security resulting from the introduction of the eUICC has also been investigated. Distribution and operating costs must be very low because the average revenue is currently very much smaller than in the mobile consumer market. WP5 has investigated the overhead linked to security and proposed “low security overhead security solutions”. A cost breakdown of security in existing LTE network was first proposed. as the management model for an embedded SIM differs significantly from the one of the traditional SIM.4. to announce the creation of a task force to “explore the specification of a remotely activated embedded SIM” in embedded devices.

5 Bridging of LAN and WAN security M2M applications often involve the combination of local area network (LAN) and wide area network (WAN) communications.The power consumption linked to factors related to infrastructure choices.1 has identified a number of “energy efficient” block ciphers reducing the energy required for cryptographic operations. the hop by hop security model where each hop of the communication path is secured using a distinct set of credentials managed by different business entities. the devices typically transmit their data through a proximity network (LAN) up to a gateway making the bridge with the internet. D5.4. . This security model is based on a circle of trust existing between M2M service operators and imposes upon them a number of constraints which are detailed in D5. proposals to collapse security layers in an attempt to minimize the architecture overhead have been formulated. In particular we have shown that the resulting architecture opens the possibility to split the responsibility of the M2M service provider between 2 independent business entities: the M2M service provider and the trust manager. 3. Finally. The impact of using short MAC upon security in an attempt to reduce the data transmission overhead has also been investigated.g. Then the data is routed through the wide area network up to the application server.1 and in D2. either directly or via an M2M service provider. The WP5 team has identified and described a number of business drivers for supporting an “end to end security model” in which a single set of credentials is used to secure the data communication from the source to destination. for 3gpp networks.4 End to end security The M2M architecture used in the EXALTED project involves an M2M service platform operated by an M2M service provider. We have investigated the possible solutions to implement end to end security in the Exalted or in the ETSI M2M architecture. e.1.4. The benefits of this have been identified and described. the M2M service platform is expected to provide interoperability between independent M2M applications or devices. From security standpoint. Hop 2 Hop 1 Destinations Hop 3 M2M service platform 1 Source device M2M service platform 2 Figure 2: Trapezoidal communication model. The introduction of M2M service platform in the M2M architecture lead to a well-known “trapezoidal communication model” similar to the one used for Voice over IP or telephony communications and illustrated in Figure 2.: periods between reauthentications.4. number of simultaneous layers of security.  3. The underlying reasons are described in D5. is the most widely adopted model. Pretty much as a PABX enables on demand communication between handsets which are not directly wired together. In this case.

In order to secure the data stream. The responsibility for credential definition belongs to either the M2M application provider or to the M2M service provider when such provider is involved. being able to relay their communications via another foreign network in the immediate neighbourhood 3. In multihop capillary network we studied group device pairing mechanisms and discussed their application in constructing authenticated group key agreement protocols. the data transmitted in the local area network will undergo a double ciphering: one linked to the LAN network security and the other tied to the application security as illustrated in Figure 3 This for small devices can be inefficient and particularly so if they are constrained in energy or computing power. Capillary network Sources Kna+ka 2 security levels in capillary network Network access + application Gateway destinations Ka Capillary network Sources ka Ka Service provider LAN and WAN security linked 1 security level in LAN Figure 3: separate and bridged LAN and WAN security WP5 has investigated the possibility to bridge the LAN and WAN security resulting in a single set of credentials in the LAN and in the WAN. devices usually need to secure their local connectivity.6 Security bootstrap in capillary networks using multihop communications Task 5. We showed that protocols with trusted leader are more communication and computation efficient. the M2M service provider can offer as a service to remotely manage the LAN security thus relieving the device owner for the responsibility to do so. The mechanisms were classified into two categories of protocols: with and without trusted leader. Application security may either stop at the gateway level or extend up to the devices part of the capillary network. We have proposed solutions to achieve this goal and have shown that the remote management of LAN security by an M2M service provider makes possible the support of new use case scenarios to connect capillary networks located in different LANs. We have detailed 2 such scenarios and proposed associated security solutions:   One device belonging to one capillary network. .3 was dedicated to the use of relaying or multihop communications in capillary or infrastructure networks. The execution of the security bootstrapping process to define security credentials is generally under the responsibility of the device owner. Devices belonging to one capillary network. connecting and relaying its communications via a guest capillary network when in a mobility situation.4. Popular communication protocols such as Bluetooth or ZigBee offer network access security between the devices or between the device and gateway. The security of the data transmission after the gateway and up to the destination(s) is part of the application security domain. In such a case. In this case.

1 Overall Progress of WP6 Task 6.5 WP6 WP6 aimed at improving different aspects of M2M devices such as energy efficiency. In particular we proposed an enhancement to the ETSI M2M architecture to define a new service capability layers enabling to bootstrap broadcast security. .2 has also considered the use of device/multicast techniques for device provisioning in “Generic IP” networks (possibly.2. Group keys have usually to be renewed whenever devices leave or enter the distribution group. we compared a sample HTTP based GBA exchange with the CoAP equivalent and showed the expected benefits of using CoAP for the GBA exchange.8 Use of broadcast and multicast for device management/software update in IP networks Task 5. device self-diagnostic and self-healing and M2M device security. WP6 released four (4) deliverables D6.4. Three new group device pairing protocols were proposed. 3. possibly resulting in significant overhead.Our study considered both insider and outsider adversaries and presented protocols providing secure device pairing for uncompromised node even in presence of corrupted group members. We investigate and propose a solution to reduce this overhead.7 Use of MBMS with lightweight GBA for device management in 3gpp networks In the scope of task 5.   3. We have investigated the security aspects of this proposal. We propose a solution (based on the use of Key Derivation Keys) to minimize the key distribution overhead for applications involving multiple group keys.5.2. group MANA II. These work items are described in the deliverable D6. but not necessarily 3GPP networks) and identified security solutions to remotely manage devices located behind a gateway.2 proposed to use the Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service (MBMS) in conjunction with either ELFOMA (the lightweight device management protocol proposed by WP4 team) or OMA device management solutions. 3. 3. D6. namely group numeric comparison. D6.2 which also compiles results related to energy efficiency of other EXALTED work packages.1. D5.4. WP5 has investigated the possible use of broadcast and multicast technique to disseminate the same device management commands or software updates to a large number of devices. For device provisioning occurring in 3GPP networks.1 focused on the broad subject of improving energy efficiency in constrained M2M devices (meaning low cost and low power processing devices) with a particular interest in energy management in capillary networks. at MAC level and at LTE NAS protocol level. and D6. In order to validate the added value of the solution. taking into account the specificities and the threats associated to the LAN part of the transmission (transmission of data behind the gateway to the devices).3. and multichannel group device pairing and communication efficiency of Nguyen and Roscoe’s HCBK protocol and Laur -Pasini SAS-based group key agreement protocol were enhanced. Our contributions on this topic are focused upon 3 points:  How can a capillary device bootstrap its security with a remote device management server located in a wide area network when broadcast/multicast is being used.4. The Generic Bootstrapping Architecture (GBA) is at the core of the MBMS security and we proposed a lightweight version of the GBA based upon a CoAP mapping replacing the traditional HTTP mapping. The initial security bootstrap usually enable secure transmission of one or several group keys to all devices candidates to receiving data.

2 focused on improving the Linux Kernel when used in M2M gateways. thus help avoid unnecessary retransmissions of the same information.3.3 described a framework for a self-diagnostic mechanism targeting M2M devices as well as networks of M2M devices. 3GPP’s LTE and MTC specifications and ETSI’s M2M service requirements with a focus on devices and on sleep mode managemen t in data collection scenarios. which consumes devices battery energy. system improvement and an interrupt filtering solution. as multiple data traffic flows are generated at a large number of network locations simultaneously. Different constraints peculiar to M2M networks were drawn out such as the support of various communication demands and capabilities and the support of large number of devices whilst maintaining the energy efficiency of the devices. Towards this objective. delivery of summarized information to related end-users. The two protocols are complementary to each other in a sense that the MAC protocol for collision reduction is one-hop oriented. the end result is a high traffic load on forwarding nodes where these flows merge. Task 6. low power consumption. which leads to early depletion of their energy resources as compared to devices that do not have much traffic load. low power and energy efficient pairing mechanism for constrained devices that materializes as a secure element for M2M devices. These activities were performed as a combined effort with WP3 and WP4. In order to improve the energy efficiency of the network. These results were described in D6.2 Energy efficient MAC scheduling In M2M applications. while the second one designed for congestion avoidance is based on multihop scenarios. including the high number of devices. This is achieved by cooperative collection of regular or instantaneously generated data by multiple measurement devices.1 provides a study that covers dynamic voltage scheduling (DVS). two complementary MAC protocols are proposed. . and scheduling of individual traffics to ensure equalized load on forwarding nodes.5. usually wireless sensors. 3. Public deliverable D6.Task 6. Task 6. different strategies can be taken.3 were published in D6. Trying to satisfy these requirements without considering device power consumption levels may considerably deteriorate network energy efficiency. namely MAC level measures. 3. However. the low duty cycles. the energy consumption throughout the network should be equalized as much as possible. locations where nodes are under heavy burden of data forwarding. 3. automated data storage and processing servers that reside somewhere else.1 Hierarchical capillary network structure One application of M2M networks consists in the monitoring of phenomena related to environment.2. to the gateway in multiple transmissions. These protocols provide adequate solutions for collision reduction and congestion avoidance.2 Energy Efficiency This task started with literature survey on gateway functionalities on sensor networks.2. Such locations emerge as Network Hotspots. A multi-hop transmission is required when data is generated far away from the gateway location and a direct transmission is either too costly or simply not possible by the device. and traffic patterns that are based on a hop -by-hop and many-to-one logic towards the gateway. Hence. The results of task T6. Cluster Head (CH) selection algorithms.5.4.4 aimed at defining a new low cost. To tackle the hot-spot problem. various requirements arise. routing level measures such as selection of best forwarding node. although the data rate of these flows may be low. an imbalance in traffic load is likely to exist in multi-hop networks and is especially expected for M2M networks with large number of data sources.5.

Tasks with equivalent priorities do not interleave anymore as tasks consumes their allocated resources in a single run. 3. Better energy efficiency is performed through significant reduction of system transactions at NAS level. Current tickless idle mechanism considers removing the tick event during idle mode in order to prevent regular wakeups. The interrupt filtering solution that was proposed is based on the idea that an efficient device should only wake up to tackle “interesting” tasks. An improvement over the tickless idle implementation was suggested in order to get a complete tickless system. Energy efficiency is reached as the complex Linux mechanism of handling interrupts is only invoked for valuable tasks while a focused mechanism discards uninteresting events and returns the system to sleep mode much quicker than the Linux scheduler would.5. as a consequence. Improvements in the NAS management of registration update procedures in order to maintain the device registration status over long offline intervals were also proposed.3 Duty cycle mechanism for LTE capable M2M devices This mechanism aims at providing an answer to two requirements the EXALTED project identified as area of improvement regarding M2M communications. Carefully designing the windows of opportunity for M2M data communications. The underlying idea is to improve the resources dedicated to useful tasks over resources dedicated to system tasks.3. it is possible to regulate its traffic and move it or part of it to moments the network resources are underused by legacy users. They do not impact legacy systems as they are per device policies and. It is therefore interesting to seek for energy efficiency optimizations in a Linux embedded system. a lightweight and prompt to return to idle mode operating system. first during the initial network registration procedure and eventually during each data transfer. Negotiation happens at subscription level between the network provider and the M2M service provider. . or high-end M2M devices.5. its network registration status remains. These improvements are a consequence of a timer management policy that is M2M device specific. can be applied to M2M devices that are duty cycle capable only. Implementation of DVS in the Linux Kernel was detailed and a simple DVS algorithm was suggested.2. it is not expected to perform full network registration procedure prior to initiating communication yet. The duty cycle enables offline intervals the device can use to apply strong power saving procedures up to a complete power off during offline intervals. The first one is to be able to achieve better energy efficiency for LTE/LTE-M capable devices and the second one is to limit the risks of traffic saturation when M2M traffic and legacy traffic are competing for network resources. Intervals for data communications are scheduled and pushed to the device at NAS protocol level.2. tend to use Linux as operating system since Linux is very popular for embedded systems. A solution based on TinyOS. The cost of such modification to the kernel is a difference in the task switching dynamics. The network provider and the M2M service provider can decide when a device is authorized to transmit or receive data and when it is not. Improvement to the device’s energy efficiency is performed by introducing negotiated duty cycles. T6. The main result is that.4 Enhancements to Linux Kernel for Energy Efficiency M2M gateways. was suggested in the document.2 considered the benefits of removing the tick event also during active intervals relying on high resolution timers to schedule tasks. Traffic saturation can be avoided thanks to the control duty cycles enable over M2M communications. when the device reaches online granted interval.

As it is defined. A software development kit that enables interfacing M2M applications with the secure element was produced. .4 M2M Device Security Task 6. a limited number of them. This secure element is built upon two main blocks. Based on this result a predefined or contextual reaction is initiated.3 aimed at designing a self-diagnostic and self-healing framework for the M2M devices. I2C. The task worked in close cooperation with Device Management in WP4 to provide an interface for the remote device management system in order to reduce the number of transactions. The logic of self-diagnostic is made of a set of hierarchical and interconnected rules that produces a diagnostic result.3.4 focuses on device pairing mechanisms paying attention to the low resources. Such a reaction ranges from “doing nothing” to launching a self -healing procedure should the diagnostic be interpreted as an indication something goes wrong in the device. it becomes possible to get the status of a network addressing the SDM of a single device or at least. A network status may not rely on a “per device” addressing of every devices belonging to said network (every request would transit through the main LTE/LTE-M link) but on a single request sent to the diagnostic server running in the device that acts as the device network access node. the M2M Identity Module (MIM) that takes care of the security function and a configurable bridge that enables easy integration into M2M device designs supporting a collection of widely used interfaces (UART. The diagnostic logic applies to local state variable but it is possible to locally maintain a set of state variables that represent the current state of other connected devices as provided by these devices’ own diagnostic servers.5.2 that details the pairing mechanisms and applies them to common EXALTED use cases (automotive. considerably reducing the amount of maintenance traffic over a main radio link such as a LTE/LTE-M connection. Task 6. Guided by a set of updatable rules the device is able to decide which action results from a diagnostic it performed on itself with the resulting actions ranging from notifications to self. This task proposed a new low cost.3 published in M18. if the network of devices is carefully designed.5. etc). the diagnostic server may not be limited to local diagnostic. hence to reduce the overall network resource cost of device management. A low cost secure element based on a single wire protocol (SWP) interface is also described in the document and proposed for further prototyping stage. eHealth and smart metering use cases). The self-diagnostic capable device can also participate to a broader network diagnostic mechanism that is built upon the device self-diagnostic mechanism. Studies on M2M device specific threats were performed. low power and power efficient mechanism for device pairing under the form of a new secure element able to fulfill the different requirements related to the security of constrained devices directly and indirectly connected to a LTE/LTE-M network. 3.4 also produced interim report IR6. SPI.repairing procedures. Both mechanisms are described in the public deliverable D6. Interconnection of SDMs enables virtualizing the diagnostic resources and.3 M2M Device Reliability Task 6. The diagnostic in the device is performed by an embedded self-diagnostic server that applies rules logic to a device context made of state variables. leading to the definition of a set of requirements regarding device security. The underlying idea is to improve the maintenance of large numbers of devices by introducing an autonomous device management which can also be described as a local delegation of some usually remotely performed device management tasks.

Major scenarios defined in WP2 are selected and represented by these testbeds. .4 includes the chip definition and design stages as well as a chip prototyping stage.6 WP7 WP7 is the convergence point of all technical work packages (WPs). As the result of efforts undertaken within these tasks.2 aims to fully define testbeds building blocks and integration aspects. These findings confirm the theoretical results from WP3.2 LTE-M testbed This testbed is dedicated for the LTE-M air interface. interfaces.6. thus the intended reusability of hardware is demonstrated. 3. Two complementary and energy efficient MAC algorithms.Task 6. Fully tickless Linux OS and interruption filtering A device self-diagnostic framework that also enables optimized network status monitoring. E2E connectivity and device management) leveraging most valuable algorithms identified in WP3 through WP6. This assessment was performed using a transmission scenario involving two LTE UEs and one LTE-M device. building blocks and interfaces are presented. 3.   In addition to the aforementioned public reports. A secure element optimized for constrained M2M devices. A M2M duty cycling mechanism for LTE/LTE-M capable M2M devices that is “harmless” for legacy users and enables M2M traffic regulation. The main purpose of these PoCs is to validate selected algorithms by assessing performances and coverage of technical requirements needed in various use cases. A physical LTE-M radio signal can be sent over the air.3 is dedicated to validation of testbeds.5 Summary of Technical Achievements       A network structure for devices connected to a capillary network that achieves better energy efficiency at network level through energy equalization.1 Overall Progress of WP7 WP7 comprises 3 tasks: Task 7. namely General Frequency Division Multiplexing (GFDM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). algorithms and technologies developed in WP3 through WP6. 3. Task 7. Task 7. most important testbed achievements are summarized below.3 [11] reveals performance measurement and verification procedures. Architecture. D7. It can be shown firstly that superimposed LTE and LTE-M signals can be separated from each other and decoded successfully and secondly that the performance of the LTE UEs is not affected at all. It aims to develop Proof of Concepts (PoC) by integrating key concepts and algorithms from WP2 through WP6. It consists of lab equipment that emulates the PHY layer uplink with two candidate LTE-M algorithms.1 [9] defines 3 testbeds (LTE-M. 3. the following public deliverables have been produced:  D7.1 focused on selection of use cases defined in WP2 along with most important concepts. This testbed provides the proof that LTE-M can coexist with LTE in the same frequency band. As the same receiver is utilized for both communication systems.2 [10] details components.5. functionalities and algorithms for each subtestbed along with the tracing of technical requirements.6. D7. functionalities.

Number of addresses mapped. 3. Moreover. VIN-based generated addresses enables the addressing of a total 2^16 (65536) distinct devices in the capillary network. the required overall QoS concept was evaluated.6. The leaf M2M Gateway relies on its neighbour for accessing the M2M services provided by the M2M application domain.1 Extended E2E connectivity with Capillary-to-Capillary-to-Infrastructure This subtestbed reflects a scenario in which an ambulance transmits patient vital data to hospital over a V2V2I communication type. This KPI determines the limits of the V2V2I system in terms of technical bottlenecks.6. but also from different ones connected to the LTE/LTE-M network End-to-end security between M2M devices and M2M server In order to address various use cases. This was shown by a comparison of the measured spectral power density with a respective simulation.3 End-to-End communication testbed This testbed implements selected novelties developed in three main fields:    Concepts developed within capillary networks End-to-end connectivity between M2M devices. It makes use of an eHealth application as a proof of concept. which scales up the number of supported devices.     Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) based IPv6 addressing IPv6 prefix delegation over Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) Network mobility support using MIPv6/NEMO Extended E2E connectivity scenario Moreover. E2E IPv6 connectivity and mobility features.   .A second measurement scenario without the two LTE UEs primarily aimed at the verification of the spectral properties of GFDM. a reasonable match between results from WP3 and the measurement campaign is claimed. Payload Size. The NDP extension Prefix Delegation (ND-PD) is compared to the DHCPv6-PD extension. spreading factor. this testbed can be seen as a composition of five subtestbeds each one based on its capillary network.3. This represents the real-life sub-networks each one addressing a set of requirements for the end user. The architecture is connected through an IPv6 networking technology involving two neighbouring M2M gateways where only one is connected to the infrastructure. In particular. not only belonging to the same capillary network. The following techniques have been implemented in this testbed to demonstrate the addressing scalability. the following KPIs have been measured:  Throughput. it can be shown that Capillary-to-Infrastructure model can be extended (with limited additional effort) to the pattern Capillary-to-Capillary-to-Infrastructure. It demonstrates the feasibility of capillary-to-capillary-to-Infrastructure IP communications. 3. and transport block size can be successfully decoded. This extension (hybridation) allows supporting an additional M2M capillary network through one LTE-M infrastructure connection. It was further shown that CDMA-overlay Tx vectors representing different settings of modulation scheme. Again. The BER depending on the SNR was determined using GFDM and compared against simulation results. heterogeneity. The efficiency of the control plane and the overall overhead generated has been evaluated.

Preserves good accuracy level with significant complexity reduction and processing speed improvement. Upon detecting the NFC tag. On the long-term. the energy spent on sending a message from an eHealth end device through the Android Cluster Head is measured. it is put into a box containing an NFC reader. weighted fair aggregation. Seamless connectivity can be shown for constrained low power devices.3 E2E connectivity for low power devices This subtestbed exhibits a logistic monitoring scenario which consists in monitoring drug stock levels in hospitals using low power devices. or experience better QoS through neighbouring M2M gateway. These algorithms are suited for environmental monitoring use cases in which the following M2M data aggregation treatments are applied in the gateway:     Adaptively adjusts different offset and amplitudes as measured from environmental sensors (e. the latency is enhanced. the following KPIs have been assessed: . The gateway is able to achieve payload size reduction in the dimension of both time and amplitude. this setting should enable gradual integration of other sorts of machine-type networks and allow them accessing LTE-M services through a heterogeneous adhoc radio access.6. The extended capillary technique reflects early stages of EXALTED solutions deployment during which an M2M gateway may be disconnected from the infrastructure.g. similarity avoidance approximation. humidity. A lightweight address translation scheme has been implemented at the M2M gateway. The application server uses the counterpart algorithm to decode in order to recover the original sensor data. For the extended vehicular use case. which is specified as the next IPv6 prefix delegation standard for LTE-R8. 3. Collected data is then aggregated using the aforementioned algorithms prior sending to the application server. which interconnects low power devices to the IP world. and faulty detection and recovery. CO2. in that only key data are selected for data aggregation Provide reliability by intelligently detecting wrong data reported from faulty device and prevent those data from being considered in the aggregation algorithm. involving the eHealth scenario. Reduce the complexity in both dimensionality and numerousity. the box informs a central server that the health care department is running short of that particular medicine. may not be LTE-M enabled. Moreover. This contributes to enhance the spectrum efficiency thus increasing the scalability of the system.75% of the original sensor data (actual payload size) being collected at the gateway. Energy per message. The principle consists in attaching an NFC tag to medicines. etc) and scales them into a unified scale via performing normalization amongst all streams before data aggregation. Whenever the medicine package is empty.2 E2E connectivity with data aggregation This subtestbed implements several key algorithms: adaptive data scaling. Besides the fact that the number of messages can be reduced. The intelligent gateway is able to heterogeneously collect data from various sensors operating within mismatching types of wireless technologies. It can be shown that the amount of aggregated sensor data transmitted (transmission payload size) over the LTE-M link to the application server represents only 3.3.6. temperature. 3.3.

37% at the capillary network. Transmission payload size. Mean Square Error (MSE) varies highly depending on the use case.   Number of addresses mapped.5 Offloading capillary network traffic This new subtestbed has been introduced during the last phase of the project. The security requirement is the data integrity.6. When the alert is dismissed. the SE operates 3 times faster to cypher/decipher a message while consuming 44% less power.6. The service provider may want to send commands to solar panels. 3. Although theoretically the proposed lightweight address translation is able to support up to 65536 nodes behind a single gateway. The sensor collects N samples of x signal. 3. Consumed energy per message has been measured for Zigbee devices sending various chunk sizes of data. Measurements performed on different encoding strategies. 3.3. this solution can reduce traffic load both at the capillary network and at the LTE-M main link.2 aims to reduce traffic load at the LTE-M link.6.3. 64 samples collected by the sensor are compressed onto 32 samples for transmission. For various reasons the server may ask some devices to stop generating electricity. A low power Secure Element (SE) has been integrated in this subtestbed and served to prevent the upstream and downstream data from being tampered. where L << N. The following 3 KPIs have been measured:    Actual payload size. Cryptography performances and KPI related to the computational energy consumption of the SE have been measured for a couple of operational figures. Energy service provider needs to remotely read the amount of electricity produced by solar panels in the farm. In the subtestbed. While the subtestbed described in 3. there is limitation in a real world implementation. This implemented solution is currently being deployed in several hospitals in Spain. prior transmitting to the M2M Gateway. either because the electric network is near overloading or because of security reasons like a fire alarm in the installation and so no more electricity must be produced. the vector x is then compressed onto L samples.4 E2E security This subtested emulates a SMM use case which consists in monitoring a solar farm.3 as these subtestbeds share the same software and hardward framework. Distortion. either the M2M GW sends the information to the application server for decompression or recovers x by itself. . such as start or stop the production. MSE around 10-2 has been measured when compressing solar panel samples during several days while monitoring temperature every minute yields a rate around 10-6 Radio energy consumption is comparable to those obtained in 3. Depending on the use case.3. The traffic is thus offloaded by 34. the server may resume the production.4 Device Management (DM) testbed This testbed validates novelties in the field of device management. This algorithm is suitable for SMM use cases in which the sensor signals being monitored are highly compressible. The payload reduction rate could be achieved up to 80%.6. Compared to a smart card. Considered aspects in the three subtestbeds are the lightweight device management message encoding and a novel self-diagnostic for reliability and monitoring.6.3.

Turning heaters off for 15 min on a round robin basis would not affect the comfort level in houses.x servers to incrementally manage new constrained M2M devices. the amount of available radio resources for M2M is limited. (ii) Actual payload size. enables operators to save cost by reusing existing OMA-DM v1.6. Therefore device management (DM) control and data flows exchanged over LTE-M must not be verbose. turn on/off heater. such as ITS and SMM. ELFOMA is 22. within a reasonable timeframe. the application server may send commands to the gateway over the DM protocol.3.3 times less CPU demanding to parse than OMA-DM. Depending on the use case. LTE-M.2 Self-Diagnostic This subtestbed is oriented towards use cases. in case of energy consumption peaks. the number of devices communicating simultaneously over the radio access network can be scaled up by a factor of 9.    3. The covered scenarios are root failure cause detection and assisted self-healing. This is the purpose of the self-diagnostic rule engine running in the device. electricity provider can control the overall energy consumption level across the energy distribution network.e.7 times less memory demanding to parse than OMA-DM. 3 KPIs have been measured (i) Transmission payload size.x servers to manage constrained M2M devices. namely ELFOMA (Exalted Lightweight DM For OMA-DM v1. The average size of an ELFOMA message is 100 bytes.6. Compared to the standard OMA-DM protocol and for a given bandwidth. The CPU processing capability of devices can be downsized to save device cost. the purpose of the self-diagnostic feature is to enable the device to collect autonomously as much relevant data as possible on its operational status before reporting these data to a management module. the gateway may read meter indexes and heater actuators status on a regular basis then post the reading to the application server over the DM protocol. i. Operators not relying on existing OMADM server can use the second DM solution which is based on CoAP. . Commands. (iii) resources consumption. i. such as read meter. Only standardized protocols are considered in WP4. In order to minimize the number of transactions that would occur on a resource constrained radio access network. The first DM solution.4. On the downstream. ELFOMA is 3. Having this mechanism. stakeholders can reuse their existing OMA-DM v1. The device cost could thus be further lowered. that require as few human attendance as possible. We could assume that devices implementing ELFOMA are consuming 3 times less energy to parse DM payloads.1 ELFOMA . are translated by the gateway prior being forwarded to the targeted sensor devices. LTE-M. Besides enhancing the reliability of the M2M devices per se. This subtestbed aims to evaluate performances of ELFOMA against OMA-DM.e.Lightweight DM This subtestbed emulates a SMM use case by providing a novel procedure to electricity supplier to avoid importing electricity from abroad or starting a fossil fuelled thermal power plant. yielding the following outcomes:  With the proposed ELFOMA DM solution.x). As LTE-M is a system co-existing with LTE in the same spectrum. the device ought to process these data first to extract the most meaningful information. Thus messages can be exchanged over a low latency radio access network.4.

All public deliverables are available for download. Project Website: http://www.ict-exalted. Standardization Activities: 48 contributions have been made to standardization bodies (3GPP.Therefore.6. and IETF). Summer School: Successful organization of EXALTED’s Training School in collaboration with other ECfunded projects. Journal and Magazines: 10 articles have been published or accepted.eu) represents one of the main media for dissemination of the project’s activities toward specialized public and non-technical or general readers. Project Impacts Finally. Project Website The EXALTED portal (http://www. It can be shown that only one query is necessary per diagnosed component. EXALTED standardization and dissemination activities have been very active during the life time of the project and are as summarized below. eHealth and SMM.ict-exalted. Internet-of-Things – Enabling Technologies (IoTET) in IEEE WCNC 2012 and IWM2M in IEEE GLOBECOM 2012 have been very successfully organized with numerous participants. Technical requirements have been traced and fulfilled per proof of concepts basis Subtestbeds enabled the measurement of 20 Key Perfomance Indicators (KPIs) Concept and algorithms developed with EXALTED satisfy various use cases and actually contribute to: o Increase the scalability of the system: o Improve the energy efficiency o Lower the cost of devices 4. Presentations: 16 presentations have been made at scientific and technical events and other project meetings. Book Chapter: 1 book chapter has been produced. ETSI. Conference and Workshop Papers: 53 papers have been published or accepted.eu . Patents: 14 patents have been filed. Workshops: 3 international workshops namely International Workshop on Machine-to-Machine Communications (IWM2M) in IEEE GLOBECOM 2011.5 Summary of Technical Achievements     Novel algorithms have been selected and integrated onto 8 proof of concepts covering different use cases: ITS. an appropriate performance measure is given by the KPI: Frequency of queries from the Device Management server to the M2M device. Other activities: Edition of 2 journal special issues and a Project booth in Future Network and Mobile Summit 2012. 3. 5.

version 2.2 .fr/fi/c_844404/tel-4-des-communications-machine-a-machine-a-l-internet-desobjets.supelec. “D7. functionalities and interfaces.” project report.0. “D3. [4] FP7 EXALTED consortium. July.11.” project report. “D7.1 – First report on LTE-M algorithms and procedures. August 2012. to a 3GPP or ETSI document) Cognitive Radio CDMA SIM Core network & Terminals Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications Dynamic Host Configuration Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Device Management Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks Standards Committee Energy Aware Radio and neTwork tecHnologies European Commission IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Society E-UTRAN Node B . “D3.888 – Study on provision of low-cost Machine-Type Communications (MTC) User Equipments (UEs) based on LTE.1 – Selection of scenarios for proof of concept testbeds and specifications for key building blocks. [3] FP7 EXALTED consortium. Jan.2 – Study of commonalities and synergies between LTE-M and the heterogeneous network.html [9] FP7 EXALTED consortium. [10] FP7 EXALTED consortium. References FP7 EXALTED consortium.” project report. “TR 36. “D3. 2011. February 2013. [2] FP7 EXALTED consortium.3 .” project report.” project report.2 – Integration of selected algorithms into platforms and interfaces finalization. “D7. [5] 3GPP. “D3.g. August 2011.” Rel.4 – LTE-M performance evaluation.“Final specification of the reliable device implementation” [8] http://www. [1] List of Acronyms Acronym 3GPP 3GPP2 6LoWPAN API ARO ARQ AT AUTOCONF BARG BeFEMTO BoF C2POWER CDMA CHOSEN CoAP CoRE CR CR CSIM CT DECT DHC DHCP DM DySPAN-SC EARTH EC EMC eNB Meaning 3rd Generation Partnership Project 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Network Application Programming Interface Address Registration Option Automatic Repeat-reQuest Attention Ad-Hoc Network Autoconfiguration Billing and Accounting Roaming Group Evolved FEMTO Networks Birds of a Feather Cognitive radio and Cooperative strategies for POWER saving in multistandard wireless devices Code Division Multiple Access Cooperative Hybrid Objects in SEnsor Networks Constrained Application Protocol Constrained RESTful Environments Change Request (e. Jun. 2012.3 – Final report on LTE-M algorithms and procedures. 2012 [6] FP7 EXALTED WP6 D6.” project report. 2013.6. [11] FP7 EXALTED consortium. 2012. Jan.” project report.“Final specification of the energy efficiency implementation” [7] FP7 EXALTED WP6 D6.3 – Final proof of concept validation results and analysis. Aug.

ESMIG ETSI eUICC EURASIP EXALTED HSPA ICT IEEE IETF IMS IP IPv6 GBA GENESI GHC GINSENG GSM GSMA GPRS HA HTTP LOLA LTE LTE-A LTE-M LWIG M2M MAC MEXT MFF MIF MIP MME MNO MTC MVN NAS NEWCOM++ NIMTC NGMN OEM OMA OSA OTA P-GW PHY PKI RAN RAS REQ REST RFC ROLL RP RPL European Smart Metering Industry Group European Telecommunications Standards Institute Embedded Universal Integrated Chip Card European Association for Signal Processing EXpAnding LTE for Devices High Speed Packet Access Information and Communication Technology Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Internet Engineering Task Force IP Multimedia Subsystem Internet Protocol IP version 6 Generic Bootstrapping Architecture Green sEnsor NEtworks for Structural monItoring Generic Header Compression Performance control in wireless sensor networks Global System for Mobile Communications GSM Association General Packet Radio Service Home Agent HyperText Transfer Protocol Achieving LOw-LAtency in Wireless Communications Long Term Evolution LTE-Advanced LTE for Machines Light-Weight Implementation Guidance Machine-to-Machine Medium Access Control Mobility EXTension for IPv6 M2M Form Factor Multiple InterFace Mobile IPv6 Protocol Mobility Management Entity Mobile Network Operator Machine Type Communications Mobile Virtual Network Non Access Stratum Excellence in wireless Communications++ Network Improvements for Machine Type Communications Next Generation Mobile Networks Original Equipment Manufacturer Open Mobile Alliance Open Standards Alliance Over-The-Air Packet data network GateWay Physical Layer Public Key Infrastructure Radio Access Network Radio Access Spectrum Requirements Representational State Transfer Request For Comments Routing Over Low power and Lossy networks RAN Plenary Routing Protocol for Low power and lossy networks .

RRC RRS S-GW SA SAS SCAG SCC SCP SID SIM SIMTC SME SMS SUPELEC TC TCCC Tdoc TEC TR TS TSG TSG-SA TSG-RAN UE UICC UMTS URI USIM VITRO WG WP WWRF Radio Resource Control Reconfigurable Radio System Serving GateWay System Aspects Security Assessment Scheme Smart Card Application Group Standards Coordinating Committee Smart Card Platform Study Item Description Subscriber Identity Module System Improvements for Machine Type Communications Small and Medium Enterprises Short Message Service Ecole SUPérieure d'ÉLECctricité Technical Committee Technical Committee on Computer Communications Temporary document Technical Technical Report Technical Specification Technical Specification Group Technical Specification Group System Aspects Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network User Equipment Universal Integrated Chip Card Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Universal Resource Identifiers Universal SIM Virtualized dIstributed plaTfoRms of smart Objects Working Group Work package Wireless World Research Forum .

S2-112899. R2-112247. China. Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell.Bhat. S1-110139. P. Shanghai. MediaTek. May 2011. Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell. Sierra Wireless (SW). 3GPP: 33 contributions 1) “M2M Specific Optimisations for LTE”. Use and Dissemination of Foreground 7. Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell. Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell. Alcatel-Lucent (ALUD). Spain. including any scientific publications relating to foreground. Oct 2011. Its contents is available to the public domain. 4) 'Merits of the Slotted Access Methods for MTC'. USA. Nov 2011. Slovakia. 48 standards contributions with a direct mapping to EXALTED were carried out. 3GPP TSG RAN WG2 #75. As the standardization process for MTC is still ongoing within many of these bodies some of the ideas conceptualised in EXALTED may be adopted in the future by the standards bodies. Bratislava. R1-114068. 8) “Draft SID for further work on MTC for prioritized use cases by TSG SA”. Gemalto (GTO). 10) “Integrated Slotted Access with EAB for MTC”.1 Standardization activities Some of the concepts of EXALTED proposed by EXALTED partners have been discussed and/or accepted to include in the specification by 3GPP. April 2011. Sagemcom SAS (SC). 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 #66bis. May 2011. Greece. Xi'an. 3GPP SA WG2 #86. R1-113334. RP110899. Nokia Siemens Networks. RP -110912. Feb 2011. July 2011. April 2011. 2) 'MTC device migration from GSM'.1. Alcatel-Lucent (ALUD). Vodafone (VGSL). R1-113443. Vodafone (VGSL). San Francisco. 3) 'LS to ETSI M2M on potential co-operation between 3GPP work on MTC security and ETSI M2M'. 3GPP TSG RAN #52. China. 3GPP RAN1 #66bis. 5) 'Proposed SID: Provision of low cost MTC terminals based on LTE'. China. Alcatel Shanghai Bell (ALUD). Athens. RP-110419. 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 #67. Alcatel-Lucent (ALUD). Oct 2011. 3GPP TSG RAN #51. Zhuhai. 11) "Considerations on potential solutions for low-cost MTC UEs”. Zhuhai. Barcelona. 12) “Proposals on RAN1 aspects for study of Low cost MTC device”. June 2011. Naantali. Kansas. Vodafone (VGSL). 14) “Next steps for Study on Provision of Low-Cost MTC UEs”. Nashville. R2-114391. 3GPP SA WG1. May 2011. USA. 6) 'M2M: Small data transmission using optimised SMS'. 7. Slovakia. Nokia Corporation. R2 -113183. Oct 2011. 3GPP TSG RAN WG2 #74. 7) “Further Study of Access Performance for MTC”. Alcatel-Lucent. S2-113826. Vodafone (VGSL).1 Section A This section describes the dissemination measures. Vodafone (VGSL). Bratislava. S3-110558. 3GPP RAN1 #66bis. Alcatel-Lucent (ALUD). 3GPP SA WG2 #85. P. Zhuhai. 3GPP RAN2 #73bis. March 2011. 13) “Draft skeleton TR proposal "Provision of low-cost MTC UEs based on LTE”. USA. China. 9) 'Efficient small data transmission'. Vodafone (VGSL).7. Overall. IPWireless. Vodafone (VGSL). 3GPP SA3#63.Bhat. Chengdu. Alcatel-Lucent (ALUD). Vodafone (VGSL). ETSI and IETF. . R1-113604. 3GPP TSG-RAN #52. August 2011. Finland.

888 v1. March 2012. Feb. 2011. P. Jeju. P. 22) “Text proposal for TR 36. 3GPP RAN1 #68. 3GPP RAN1 #69. . Germany. R1-123073. 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 #72. 3GPP RAN1 #69. Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell. 2012. 17) “Support of reduced maximum bandwidth for low-cost MTC UEs”. P.Bhat. P.Hardouin (Orange). R1 -122505. 3GPP TSG RAN1 #68. 18) “Report of email discussion on TR inputs for "Cost drivers of reference LTE modem“.15) “Summary of E-mail discussions on MTC application scenarios and evaluation methodology”. Sophia Antipolis. Feb. Korea. Vodafone (VGSL). 3GPP RAN1 #68. ETSI TC SCP. Jeju. Prague.Bhat. 3GPP RAN1 #67. Vodafone (VGSL). Gemalto. Vodafone (VGSL). 2012.Bhat. Germany. Prague. 3GPP RAN #55. 20) “Views on Cost reduction techniques for "Low cost MTC UE based on LTE”. Prague. March 2011. R1-121255.888” . Korea. 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 #68bis. R1 -130462. S. R1 -130463.Bhat. Vodafone (VGSL).0. Czech Republic. 3GPP RAN1 #68. P. Vodafone (VGSL). 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 #68bis. Feb. Supporting companies: Alcatel-Lucent (ALUD). March 2012 27) 3GPP TR 36. May 2012. Dresden. 31) “SI conclusion for low cost MTC UEs”.Bhat. R1-121256. 3GPP RAN1 #68bis. Jan. Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell. ETSI SCP REQ #29. Vodafone (VGSL). Malta. 21) TR 36. ALUD. Dresden. P. R1-123074. March 2011. SCP (11)0147r1. Sophia Antipolis. 24) “On single receive RF chain for low-cost MTC UEs”. 2013. R1 -120925.888”. Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell.Bhat (VGSL). SCP (11)0088. Nov. Jeju. Xiamen. P. Germany. 2011. Alcatel-Lucent. March 2012. St. 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 #68bis. Dresden. 2) 'Embedded SIM Task Force Requirements and Use Cases'. ETSI & GSMA: 11 contributions 1) 'Proposed WID: Use cases and requirements related to Embedded UICCs'. Vodafone (VGSL). 30) “Text Proposal for clause 7 of 3GPP TR 36. 2012. 3GPP RAN1 #67. 3GPP RAN1 #69. AT&T. P.Bhat. 2012. Prague. Sagem Orga. Julians. R1-121720. R1-120797. 2012. 26) “On half duplex operation for low-cost MTC UEs”. 3) 'Liaison Statement on new Work Item for eUICC . ”. R1 -114303. P. ETSI SCP REQ #29. 25) “On reduction of maximum transmit power for low-cost MTC UEs”. St. Vodafone (VGSL).Bhat. Korea. 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 #69. 28) “Text Proposal on some aspects of section 9 of 3GPP TR 36.Bhat. R1123075. Feb. Korea. R1-120891. China. May 2012. Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell. P. 23) “Updated TR 36. Germany. Jan. Czech Republic. 2013.Bhat. SFO. AlcatelLucent Shanghai Bell. 32) “Feasibility of coverage extension of physical channels for MTC devices”.888”. 2012. Vodafone (VGSL). Jeju. 3GPP RAN1 #69. Germany. 33) “Channel characteristics and channel estimation for extended coverage MTC”. Vodafone (VGSL). R1-114443.888”. Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell. Czech Republic. USA. Dresden.“On half duplex operation for low-cost MTC UEs”. May 2012. RP-120270. Alcatel-Lucent. SCP (11)0146r1.888 to include agreements from RAN1#69. USA. Malta. March 2012. R1-123072. E.3 of 3GPP TR 36. R1-121257. P. Vodafone (VGSL). 19) “Text Proposal for section 5. ETSI SCP REQ #29. R1-121257.to 3GPP and 3GPP/2'. R1-120795.Bhat. 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 #72. Julians. Nov. Multiple Authors. P. Czech Republic. SFO. May 2012. Mar. Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell.888 on restriction of techniques to low performance MTC UEs”.Bhat. 2012.0. 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 #68bis. GSMA. May 2012. Jeju. Feb.888” . 16) “Text Proposal for Traffic model/characteristics for MTC”. Dresden. Feb. March 2011. Czech Republic.Korea. Sophia Antipolis. R1-120510. 29) “E-mail discussion summary for TP to clause 7 of 3GPP TR 36. et al. 3GPP RAN1 #68. Prague.

Telefonica O2. Kaiser. Lozano. draft-kaiser-nd-pd-00. ETSI-STF411. Vodafone. and Books The following book chapter (1) and ten (10) journal publications have been recently published or have been accepted for publication in the coming months: 1. Vodafone Group. Network Working Group. A. S. Alexiou (UPRC-WP4). 9) “Considerations for addressing End-to-end Security in M2M Release 2”. July 2011. 7. UK. ETSI SCP REQ #30. A.2 Publications In this section we list all publications directly related to EXALTED and authored by members of the EXALTED team. IETF: 4 contributions 1) “Scenarios and Requirements for IP in Intelligent Transportation Systems”. London.1. A. 6) 'High Level Components in eUICC First_provisioning'. Z. Magazines. Dec 2012. Ibars (CTTC) et al. 5) 'Discussion document on definitions pertaining to Embedded UICC'. 8) 'GSMA and SIM alliance Collaboration on eUICC Protection Profile'. 11) “Method for a harmonized definition of Low Duty Cycle transmission as a passive mitigation technique used by short range devices and conformance test Methods”. Ganem et al. 2) ”Default Router List Option for DHCPv6 (DRLO)”. M. ETSI SCP REQ #32. Internet-Draft. Giesecke & Devrient. Petrescu (CEA). CEA. USA. Besides the authors. USA. Mouton (CEA). and R. Giesecke & Devrient. To appear in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. Daza. S. R. Petrescu. 10) “Considerations for addressing dIa Security in M2M Release 2”. CEA. May 2011. SCPREQ (11)0064 . San Diego. SCPREQ (11)0044 . Bithas. 2012 . Oct. Tafazolli (UNIS-WP4) “Transmission Range Assignment for Backbone Connectivity in Clustered Wireless Networks”. ETSI-M2M TC. Α. K. GSMA.4) 'CR against TS_102_412. Y. H.1 Journals. GSMA Embedded SIM Task Force: Technical Stream. Ma." accepted for publication in IET on Networks. Atlanta. Renault. Navaratnam. Caserta.1. SCPREQ (11)0043 . HUAWEI. 2012 3. 7) 'Embedded UICC – A high level remote provisioning architecture'. IETF Requirement Draft for Routing over Low Power and Lossy Networks (ROLL). ETSI SCP REC ad hoc #113. ETSI SCP REQ #32. “Addition of requirements for the eUICC'. P. Internet Engineering Task Force. Janneteau. Vural. London. A. P. SCPREQ (11)0118 . H. 2012. ETSI TS 103 060. Tafazolli. in each publication we identify the partner institution and in which workpackage of EXALTED the work was carried out. Petrescu et al (CEA). C. Deutsche Telekom. Lu (UNIS-WP3). “Cluster-Based Differential Energy Detection for Spectrum Sensing in Multi-Carrier Systems”. 4) "A Security Framework for Routing over Low Power and Lossy Networks. Alexander. C. Telefonica O2. 7. Vodafone. work in progress. 3) “Prefix Delegation extension to Neighbor Discovery protocol”. Mischa Dohler. Lioumpas. March 2012. Pentikousis. draft-mouton-mif-dhcpv6-drlo-02. November 2012. Tsao. April 2011. V. R. Deutsche Telekom. and A. July 2012. September 2012. ETSI-M2M TC. "Mitigating Shadowing Effects Through Cluster-Head Cooperation Techniques. 85th edition. A. Italy. July 2011.txt. ETSI SCP REC ad hoc #113. SCPREQ (11)0113 .2. April 2011. Decremps. To appear in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters. UK. S. Internet-Draft. Network Working Group." T. 2. March 2012. Ganem et al. San Diego. draft-petrescu-its-scenarios-reqs-01.

M. G.. Pirabakaran Navaratnam. Chu. 9. D. Ognjanovic. C. Alexiou (UPRC-WP3). Gligoric. “Distributed Point Coordination Function for IEEE 802. Gligoric. 4. Ammary. 10. L. 2. Elsevier Ad Hoc Networks Journal. D. S. 7. special issue on Machine-to-Machine: An Emerging Communication Paradigm. April 2012. Cruickshank. A. on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies. Verikoukis (CTTC-WP4). Matamoros.TKS-WP4). Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications. A.” ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks.11 Wireless Ad hoc Networks”. 8. N.4. G. Bartoli. A. D. “OMA-DM v1. Obradovic (SWIR. Corlay. Serdar Vural. D. 5. In addition. " Machine-to-Machine Scheduling over LTE Networks: Challenges and new Perspectives" IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine. 11. 2. Gotsis.V. (CTTCWP4) "Secure Lossless Aggregation Over Fading & Shadowing Channels For Smart Grid M2M Networks" IEEE Transactions on Smart Grids. Devillers. N. Ibars. N. J. and Rahim Tafazolli (UNIS-WP4) “Asynchronous Clustering of Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks. A. Y. B. Kountouris and D. "Smart Grid Communications and Networking. Barthel. Alagha (CTTC-WP3) "Coverage extension in heterogeneous satellite machine-to-machine networks" Transactions On Emerging Telecommunications Technologies. . Mischa Dohler (CTTC-WP4). 6. Han. A. Wiley. Book Chapter in E. Raouf. J. 2013. Chu. Crespo. "An Energy-efficient Clustering Solution for Wireless Sensor Networks". M. Anton-Haro (CTTC-WP4) "Compressed Spatial Field Estimation with M2M Capillary Networks" Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications. Moessner. Tafazolli (UNIS-WP4). Nov. Tafazolli. No. Mirzadeh. R. special issue on Machine-toMachine: An Emerging Communication Paradigm. 10 . A. S. and R. Poor (Edts). seven (7) more manuscripts were submitted to various journals and are still under review 1. Obradovic (EYU-WP3). Alonso. 844-864. Hernández-Serrano. Ch. Special Issue on Machine-to-Machine: An Emerging Communication Paradigm. Gunduz and C. Gotsis. Zheng. “M2M Device Management over Short Message Service (SMS)” submitted to Trans. A.x compliant Device Management for Lightweight M2M devices”. K. 2012. T. "Analytical Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Realistic Time-Controlled M2M Scheduling over LTE Cellular Networks" submitted to Transactions on Emerging Telecommunication Technologies. (UNIS-WP4) "Secure Device Pairing – A Survey" Submitted to IEEE Communication Surveys & Tutorials 6. 3. Matamoros.EYU. Jin. 2012. “Streaming over Block-Fading Channels with Delay Constraint”. C." Cambridge University Press. pp. Dimcic. Lioumpas and A. F. “A General Framework for the Optimization of Energy Harvesting Communication Systems with Battery Imperfections”. Lioumpas and A. H. on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies. no 4. H. 5. “Radio Resource Allocation in LTEAdvanced Cellular Networks with M2M Communications”. IEEE Transactions On Wireless Communications. Wei. Ning Wang. Dohler. Xiangy. M. Soriano. Gunduz (CTTC-WP3). S. Hossain. Skianis. Dohler (CTTC-WP3). Cocco. 2011. D. Alexiou (UPRC-WP3). J. To appear in Journal of Communications and Networks (JCN). Ibars (CTTC-WP3). N. D. W. S. Vural. S. N. Hu. and M. Alonso-Zárate. Drajic. N. “Machine-to-machine communications in smart grid”. May 2012. J. Cocco. vol. G. J. April 2012. 7. Sep 2012. Alonso-Zárate. Gregoratti. Special Issue on Smart Grid Security.Special Issue On Energy Harvesting in Wireless Networks. C. B. Krco. Trans. To appear in IEEE Communications Magazine. Krco. A. S. G. 11. Vol. June 2011. Z. K. and Ch.

or accepted for. Anaheim (CA). Dec. J. Workshop on Multicell Cooperation. A. A. A. thirteen (13) papers have been submitted by consortium members to the three workshops organized by the project in conjunction with IEEE-GLOBECOM’11.1. 2012. J. and C. 2012. "Large Scale Field Trial Results on Frequency Domain Compression for Uplink Joint Detection". Verikoukis (CTTC-WP4). Perez-Neira. Anaheim (CA). J. C. Y. and C. IEEE-WCNC’12 and IEEE-GLOBECOM’12 respectively. J. Dresden 3. 7. Anaheim (CA). 2012. Alonso. Lioumpas. 8. Tafazolli.Int'l Workshop on Machine-toMachine Communications. Ma and R. Gotsis. L. Anaheim (CA). 11. J. Gunduz and M. 5. Out of them. Lioumpas and A. Dec. IEEE Globecom 2012 . P. M. P. "Energy Efficiency Analysis of a Cooperative Scheme for Wireless Local Area Networks". Anaheim (CA).Int'l Workshop on Machine-to-Machine Comms. 1. "Cooperative Communications: from Theory to Experimental Implementation".Fettweis (TUD-WP3). The following list enumerates papers have been accepted and/or published. G. IEEE Global Conference on Communications (GLOBECOM). 2012. 2012. IEEE Global Conference on Communications (GLOBECOM 2012). Alexiou (UPRC-WP4). C. Vázquez Gallego. Boob. Bithas. Predojev. and L.7. G. Dec. Globecom 2012 . Globecom 2012 . G. N. Globecom 2012. Grieger. Verikoukis (CTTC-WP4). 2012. Qian. "A Hybrid Contention/Reservation Medium Access Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks". Annaheim (CA). and A. "A Learning Theoretic Approach to Energy Harvesting Communication System Optimization". Dohler. S. (UNIS-WP4)"A Novel Adaptive Hybrid-ARQ Protocol for Machine-to-Machine Communications" Accepted IEEE VTC Spring 2013 4. 2012. Globecom 2012 . Anaheim (CA). M. S. S. A. H.Int'l Workshop on Machine-to-Machine Communications. D. Matamoros and C. Blasco. 2012. A. . Zorba. "Optimizing Energy-Efficiency of PHY-Layer Authentication in Machine-to-Machine Networks".2 Conferences and Workshops There have been fifty-three (53) contributions presented to. Bartoli. Dec. Cocco. M. conferences and workshops.2. F. Alonso-Zarate. Alonso (CTTC-WP4). Kountouris and D. Alonso-Zarate. Hernández-Serrano. IEEE Global Conference on Communications (GLOBECOM). Soriano. "Energy Analysis of Distributed Neighbour Discovery Algorithms Based on Frame Slotted-ALOHA for Cooperative Networks". Ibars (CTTC-WP3) "Throughput and Delay Analysis in Video Streaming over Block-Fading Channels" Accepted IEEE International Conference on Communications 2013. Dohler (CTTC-WP4). Alonso-Zarate. Dec. In brackets we indicate the institution/instiution that the partners belong to. J. Barthel (CTTCWP4). T. Anaheim (CA). Sánchez Recacha. as well as the corresponding Workpackage in EXALTED. 10. Gunduz. Dec. D. 9. "Evolution of Packet Scheduling for Machine-Type Communications over LTE:Algorithmic Design and Performance Analysis".. A. Dec. 2. Alexiou (UPRC-WP3). Chen. Antón-Haro (CTTC-WP4) "Traffic Aggregation Techniques for Environmental Monitoring in M2M Capillary Networks" Accepted IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTCspring). 6. Dec. S.Int'l Workshop on Machine-to-Machine Communications.

Calvanese Strinati. 20-22 November. Barcelona (Spain). Michailow. VID-WP4. Sweden. F. Belgrade. Alonso-Zarate. Krone. M. T. 24. R: Palattella.15. “Data Aggregation Schemes for Machine-toMachine Gateways: Interplay with MAC Protocols”. J. Sydney (Australia). J. "Cooperative System for Avalanche Rescue". D. C Abgrall. Int'l Conference on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC 2012). 20th Telecommunications forum (TELFOR 2012). “LA-MAC: Low-Latency Asynchronous MAC for Wireless Sensor Networks”. Duda (CEA-WP4). D. Serbia 14. 19. and V. Cendón (TST-WP4). Aug. S. Sep. In Proc. in Proc. 2012. 7th International Symposium on Turbo Codes & Iterative Information Processing. Antón-Haro (CTTC-WP4). G. Gligorić. in Proc. Karanasiouy. J. A. J. WP4) "ApplicationLayer Security Mechanism for M2M communication over SMS". 2012. S. Obradović" (EYU-TKSSIERRAW. “Spatially Coupled Protograph-Based LDPC Codes for Incremental Redundancy”. "NFC Enabling Hospital Logistics System. G. “Extending the Lifetime of M2M Wireless Networks through Cooperation”. 20-22 November. Aug. Dejanović. Bucharest. Dimčić. E. Alonso. W. Verikoukis (CTTC-WP4).Boggia (CTTC-WP4). I. Olmedo. 2012. T. A. 17. 2012. M. Serbia 13. Accettura. I. P. N. Matamoros and C. (EYU-TKS-SIERRAW. G. "Traffic-Aware Time-Critical Scheduling In Heavily Duty-Cycled IEEE 802. 2nd Int'l Workshop on Vehicular Communications and Networking (in conjunction with IEEE WiMob 2012). J. 16. J. Sep. B. Int'l Conference on Wireless Communications in Unusual and Confined Areas. 4-6. 21. 2012. 22. Dohler. NFC World Congress Conference". Barcelona (Spain). L.4e for an Industrial IoT". Fettweis (TUD-WP3). M. A. N.Bataller. Clermont-Ferrand – France. N. Gligorić. Imadali. Int 'l Conference on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC 2012). IEEE Int'l Conference on Computer Aided Modelling. Lentmaier. 2012. Diez (TST-WP4). VECON 2012. M. Nice . Future Networks and Mobile Summit 2012. “Joint Pre-Coder Design and Greedy Power Allocation for Compressed Spatial Field Estimation”. 2012. Vèquez (CEA. Aug. 23. Quebec City (Canada). Vehicular Technology Conference 2012 (VTC-Fall 2012). Sep. Rico. Alonso-Zarate. L. A.12. 2012. G. Sifniadisy. V. Calvanese Strinati. Dimčić. S. Dohler (CTTC-WP4). Chu. J.Drajić. R. WP4). Belgrade. Krčo.7). 2012. Sydney (Australia). 2012. M. Lentmaier and G. 28-30. Petrescu. Duda (CEA-WP4). Corbellini. Matamoros and C. Krčo. Berlin (Germany). in Proc. Sep. 25. "Energy Analysis Of Cooperative and DutyCycled Systems In Shadowed Environments". A. Villarroel. Botter. "EHealth Service Support In IPv6 Vehicular Networks".Sophia Antipolis. Oct. Chu.Drajić. Oct. Sancho. T. Grieco and G. Fettweis (TUD-WP3). “Bit Error Rate Performance of Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing”. C. Corbellini. "CoAP over SMS Performance Evaluation for Machine to Machine Communication" 20th Telecommunications forum (TELFOR 2012). Design and Analysis (CAMAD'12). Predojev. 18. 20. 15. in European Signal Processing Conference 2012 (EUSIPCO’12). J. “Energy Evaluation of Preamble Sampling MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks”. Ch. S. Rueda. Workshop on Green . Taipei (Taiwan). J. N. E. IEEE Sensors 2012. 2012. A. Granelli. Nitzold. N. Sep. Jul. Antón-Haro (CTTC-WP4).L. "N. Rico.

S. 35. Paris (France). 2012. Apr. 28th meeting of the Wireless World Research forum. S. A. Grieco. A. Mar. A. Bithas . Elkheir. N. Paris (France). Apr. G. Antón-Haro (CTTC-WP4). J. Greece. Devillers (CTTC-WP3). M. 2012. Valiño (TST-WP4). San Juan. 2012. “Standardized Power-Efficient & Internet-Enabled Communication Stack for Capillary M2M Networks”. A. “Enhancing the Performance of Cluster-based Networks through Energy Efficient MISO Techniques”. “Challenges and New Perspectives on Machine-to-Machine Scheduling over LTE Networks”. P. G. in Proc. Baiona (Spain). Matamoros and C. IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC 2012) . “Energy Efficient Cooperative Scheduling based on Sleep-Wake Mechanisms”. 2012. 29. A. Apr. Boggia (CTTC-WP4). A. Dohler (CTTC-WP4). Lioumpas and A. Multi-hop Communication with Energy Harvesting. G. In Proc. R. IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC 2012) .Workshop on Internet of Things Enabling Technologies: “Embracing the M2M Communications and Beyond”. 28th meeting of the Wireless World Research forum. Lioumpas. 28. Alexiou (UPRC-WP3). J. T. Alonso-Zarate. 2012. 31. May 2012. 27. Datta. GeMiC 2012: the 7th German Microwave Conference. M. M. Ottawa (Canada). Proc. A. IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC 2012) . 2012.Workshop on Internet of Things Enabling Technologies: “Embracing the M2M Communications and Beyond”. December 13-16. 26.Workshop on Internet of Things Enabling Technologies: “Embracing the M2M Communications and Beyond”. EURASIP Cognitive Information Processing Workshop (CIP 2012). Accettura. R. Gunduz and B.Workshop on Internet of Things Enabling Technologies: “Embracing the M2M Communications and Beyond”. “Energy Efficient Cooperative Scheduling based on Sleep-Wake Mechanisms”. Apr. Piraeus. N. Greece. Lioumpas. Dohler. Gotsis. Fettweis (TUD-WP3). Piraeus. Alexiou (UPRC-WP4).Communications and Networking . Greece. Apr. Mar. A. IEEE INFOCOM Workshop on Communications and Control for Sustainable Energy Systems: Green Networking and Smart Grids. “Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing: A Flexible Multi-Carrier Modulation Scheme for 5th Generation Cellular Networks”. "Robust Estimation of Spatial Fields with Compressed Observations and Imperfect Phase Estimation in M2M Capillary Networks". Proc. Palattella. Paris (France). 30.Int'l Conference on Communications (ICC 2012). P. Lioumpas. in Proc. B. Germany. Piraeus. Proc. “Bringing IoT to Hospital Logistics Systems”. J. S. Lioumpas and A. L. S. 36. “Energy Efficiency of Cooperative ARQ Strategies in Low Power Networks”. Apr. Rico. S. D. S. Bithas. Michailow. 34. Cendón. M. Alexiou (UPRC-WP3). Lentmaier and G. Elkheir. The Fourth International Workshop on Computational Advances in Multi-Sensor Adaptive Processing (CAMSAP’11). A. J. 32. 2012. . Ilmenau University of Technology. Puerto Rico. 2012. A. Jun. 33. “Enhancing the Efficiency of Clusterbased Networks through MISO Techniques”. 28th meeting of the Wireless World Research forum. Paris (France). Alexiou (UPRC-WP4). 2012. Krone. A. A. 2012. Alexiou (UPRC-WP3). Predojev. Apr. Proc. IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC 2012) .

A. Globecom 2011 . (CTTC-WP4) “Improving the Energy-Efficiency of Machine-to-Machine Communications with Cooperative ARQ”. Ibars (CTTC-WP3). Antón-Haro (CTTC-WP4).IWM2M. 43. D. Dec. . Carrez. Aachen.. 2010. 49. and C. J. A. Abou Elkheir. the Eighth International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS)". Devillers (CTTC-WP3). In Proc. 42. N. Proc. Dec. “Opportunistic Sampling for Random Field Estimation with M2M Capillary Networks”. Barnaghi. July 2011. G. Matamoros and C. 2011. San Juan.. Alonso. The Fourth International Workshop on Computational Advances in Multi-Sensor Adaptive Processing (CAMSAP'11). C. Verona (Italy). Sep.Int'l Workshop on Machine-to-Machine Communications. Cheraghi. Cocco. Globecom 2011 IWM2M. “A Novel Low Complexity Differential Energy Detection for Sensing OFDM Sources in Low SNR Environment”. Jokić. 2011. “A Mediated Gossiping Mechanism for Large-scale Sensor Networks”. L. Ibars (CTTC-WP3). 50. "Two-hop Communication with Energy Harvesting". Alexiou. Carrez. 2011 46. Proc. Verikoukis. “Power Allocation Schemes for Spatial Field Estimation with Compressed Observations in M2M Capillary Networks”. C. Dec. Lioumpas. Gunduz. Dallas (Tx). Joint Workshop on Wireless Communication (Paris. "Uplink Scheduling for Machine-to-Machine Communications in LTE-based Cellular Systems". Antón-Haro (CTTC-WP4). April 2011. 47. Germany. Proc. F. Gunduz (CTTC-WP3). 2011. Nov. Deployment Phases and Target Scenarios”. Fifth International Conference on COMmunication System softWAre and middlewaRE (COMSWARE). Dec. 2011. Proc. C. and F. IEEE/VDE European Wireless Conference (EW’11). and B. 2011. Z. Belgrade.Int'l Workshop on Machine-to-Machine Communications. D. Lioumpas. A. S. and P. J. France). Alonso-Zarate . Houston (Tx). Lioumpas. April 2011. Dallas (Tx). 2011.9th Nov. G. Aachen. P. S. Drajić. Puerto Rico. “Expanding LTE for devices: Requirements. “Energy Efficient AF Relaying under Error Performance Constraints with Application to M2M Networks”. Barnaghi. P. D. Eighth International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems. A. Globecom 2011 . IEEE/VDE European Wireless Conference (EW’11). “Energy Harvesting Communication System with Battery Constraint and Leakage”. Dec. A. Tafazolli. Ganz. P. Yi Ma.9th Nov. Science telecommunication forum (TELFOR). D. Globecom 2011 . 6th . B. Gligorić. Germany. Matamoros and C. and R. Jakovljević ( EYU-TKS WP4) “M2M Device Management in LTE Networks”. Alexiou (UPRC-WP3). Moessner (UNIS-WP4). Symposium on Personal. Lu. Antón-Haro. 48. Ganz. Devillers. "Real-time broadcasting over block-fading channels.37. Alexiou (UPRC-WP3). Houston (Tx). (UNIS-WP4) “Context-Aware Management of Sensor Networks”. J. D. 2011. A. 40. 6th . Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC). Dec. Krčo.Int'l Workshop on Machine-to-Machine Communications. K. Dec. 13-16 39. “Application of different coding schemes for broadcast transmissions”. 41. 45. Gunduz and B. 38. 2011. Cocco. Houston (Tx). Globecom 2011 . F. F. G. (UNIS-WP3). Gunduz. Navaratnam (UPRC-CTTC-UNIS-WP2). 44.

E. Hong Chen. J. In addition. Ibars. Greece. USA. S. April 2011. 2010. Smart Energy Management “From Innovation to Deployment”. Project presentation in NEWCOM++ Smart Grids Workshop. The 12th annual Post Graduate Network Symposium on the Convergence of Telecommunications. WWRF25 meeting. C. Imadali. to be held in conjunction with the 27th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA-2013). Proc. Ganz. 2011. April 2011. M2M conference: M2M standards as growth enablers . "S. 6. B. Sweden. (UPRC-WP3) “On the Switching Rate of ST-MIMO Systems with Energy-based Antenna Selection”. Project presentation at FUTURE NETWORKS concertation meeting. 3. December 2013.1. Spain. 53. 2. J. Sofia-Antipolis (Nice). Vellidou. 2010. August 2011. Athens. October 2010. C. Saur. J. “EXALTED overview”. A. F. Anton-Haro. Newbury (UK). Ericsson Research seminar. Petrescu. Kista. “Machine-to-Machine: An Emerging Communication Paradigm”. 2. Valiño. namely. 52. Veque" (CEA-WP4) "VULA: VIN-based Unique Local IPv6 Address Auto-configuration for VANET" Submitted to IEEE WoWMoM 2013. Petrescu.2. WWRF25 meeting. 2010. Lioumpas. Alonso. D. 2011. “New Scalable Network Architecture for M2M Communications: The ‘EXALTED’ approach”. I. Feb. Srdjan Krco. 4. and P. Alexiou. S. . 7. 1.” ETSI M2M Workshop. St Petersburg. Rico. 4 more contributions were submitted to various conferences and workshops and are still under review 1. (PGNet2011). Angelidis (CEA-VIDAVO. (UNIS-WP4) “Designing Smart Middleware for Wireless Sensor Networks”. Petrescu. Thierry Lestable (SC). Networking and Broadcasting. A. Yi Ma and Rahim Tafazolli (UNIS-WP3)" Improved Fountain Codes for Short Block Transmission over Noisy Channels " Submitted to IEEE GLOBECOM. V. March 2013. D. Communications and Security (EASyCoSe 2013).51. Sept. A. 4. Antón-Haro. Raouf. Joint ALUD and Heinrich-Hertz-Institute (HHI) M2M Workshop in Berlin (ALUD). Raouf. Epifanio (TST-WP4) "Cluster Head Assignment in Networks controlled by Gateway Entities (CHANGE)" Sumbitted to First International WorkShop on Energy-Aware Systems. M. International Conference on ITS Telecommunications (ITST 2011).. Karanasiou. C. 5. Feb. Sifniadis. Barcelona. A. A. Rome. Imadali. Atlanta. 3. A. Boc. WP7) "Integration of eHealth Service in IPv6 Vehicular Networks"Submitted to the 3rd Int'l Conference on Ambient Media and Systems (Ambi-sys).3 Presentations in Scientific and Technological Events The dissemination activities conducted by EXALTED partners also encompassed the following presentations in various S&T events. Petrescu. Liverpool.TIA (Atlanta). (CEA-CTTC WP3-4) “Joint IP Networking and Radio Architecture for Vehicular Networks”. Newbury (UK). Dec. EuCap 2011. “General overview of EXALTED”. May 2011. E. Corlay. A. March 2013. Boc. 7. M. Italy. 2011. 8. Nov. Nov. “Expanding LTE for devices.

10. “EXALTED project”. The . as well as technical and business challenges. T. Future Networks and Mobile Summit (in the context of a WWRF-organised workshop). ITU Academy Workshop. Ibars (CTTC). Paris. D. Saur. S. resource allocation. Texas. 13. CA. 7.9. N. Lestable (SC). “M2M Communications”. Alexiou (UPRC) . RAS Cluster – 10th Concertation Meeting.1. C. July 2012. members of the EXALTED project team have organized Journal Special Issues. on December 9th. The senZations training school. Alexiou (UPRC). and the TPC included worldwide experts from both academia and industry. and directly reporting results from the Project. March 2012. Smart Santander. LOLA. and given keynote speeches. an international workshop entitled Internet of Things Enabling Technologies: “Embracing the M2M Communications and Beyond” took place at the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC) on April 1st. Moreover. November 2012. General Assembly of the ICT-LOLA project. 2012 in Paris. 2013. It covers in depth a range of advanced topics from wireless sensor networks to M2M to Internet of Things. May 2012. 12. Nitzold (TUD). as well as their applications. 4G and Beyond. Sept. all these in the topic of M2M. Athens (Greece). The organizing committee included members from several EXALTED partners. Sept. W.2. now in its seventh edition. “EXALTED Preliminary Results”. namely. Barcelona. such as networks. 11. among others.2. 2011.1. on December 7th. “EXALTED achievements” at M2M Workshop at University of Siegen. Besides the IWM2M. A. D. tutorials at IEEE ICC and Globecom.4 Journal Special Issues and Training School EXALTED project partners have also engaged in the organization of one Journal Special Issue in Wiley’s Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies (ETT). Presenting EXALTED within the Industry Partnership Program at TU Dresden. 2012. “M2M communications . 15. Raouf. and one Journal Special Issue in IEEE’s Communications Surveys & Tutorials. D. 14. The special issues are aimed at enlarging the project’s footprint in the scientific community EXALTED’s training school was organized in cooperation with other EC funded projects. has become an annual event on the agenda of young researcher talents across Europe and other parts of the world. May 2012. A second edition of the successful IWM2M took place in IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom) in Anaheim. HOBNET and IoT6 in the context of senZations training school in Mecavnik (Serbia). 2012.Technology trends and research challenges”. A. Raouf. October 2012 16. “M2M Communications”.5 Workshops The first EXALTED International Workshop on Machine-to-Machine Communications (IWM2M) took place in the IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom) in Houston. LTE World Summit. Supélec – Gif-sur-Yvette. energy efficiency. USA. Poster Session within the Industrial Partner Program at TU Dresden. Ognjanovic. The technical program featured topics of high relevance. participated and chaired technical committees. “EXALTED Preliminary Results”. 2011. Feb. 7. Drajic.

. Four technical sessions. were included. Application and Experiment. M2M Network Architecture. in the topics of Smart Grid and RFID Technologies. and Energy Efficiency.workshop organizing committee also included members from several EXALTED partners.

9. Procédé de contrôle de l’accès d’un équipement pour réseau de type machine-à-machine aux ressources d’un réseau de téléphonie cellulaire. 10168318. Febr. 14. 12. W. Krone. French Patent. WO2012085593: SIM Locking . 8. Dispositif et Procede pour Generer une Adresse Internet Protocol (IP) a Partir d’un Numero d’Identification de Vehicule (VIN). Nhon Chu. French Patent. Krone. Sept. C. 5.VERGNES Fabrice.1 and 7. Sep 2011. P.BERARD. Nicholas. Inventors: Nhon Chu. filed 22/03/2102 . 13/565. French Patent.MATHIAN Nicolas. March 2012. 2. W. Aug. Inventors: G. . Krone.1 Patents The following patents were filed by EXALTED partners. Nitzold. 2012. GEMALTO SA WO2012076461 : METHOD FOR SWITCHING BETWEEN A FIRST AND A SECOND LOGICAL UICCS COMPRISED IN A SAME PHYSICAL UICC. Denis. Method for reduced resource usage in system synchronization. Inventors: G. Xavier.ROUSSEL. Gil. Inventors: G. Steven BONE. Djelal Raouf. July 2012. Inventors: G. Janneteau. T. Fettweis.2. VODAFONE IP LICENSING LIMITED WO2012035335: AUTHENTICATION IN A WIRELESS TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORK. Nicolas. Nitzold. 2011. S. Nicholas.3. W. Imadai. BABBAGE. Method for reduced resource usage in system synchronization. T. IMOUCHA Franck. Secondary wireless communication terminal integration. Inventors: Djelal Raouf.2. Nicholas. French Patent. Applicant: Sagemcom. Applicant: TUD (assigned to Vodafone). filed 22/03/2012 BONE.BONE. VODAFONE IP LICENSING LIMITED WO2012076437 : IMPROVEMENTS TO UICCs EMBEDDED IN TERMINALS OR REMOVABLE THERE FROM :file 17/08/2012 MERRIEN Lionel. MATHIAN Nicolas. filed 05/12/2011 VERGNES Fabrice . Method for minimizing the collision of multicast acknowledgments. Applicant: TUD. Djelal Raouf. Rost. Aug. 13. Applicant: Sagemcom. Filed. 4. Système de communication entre un équipement non connecté et un serveur de gestion. Gill. Nicholas. 11180527.HOWARD. 2012. Inventors: S. Gill. European Patent. 2011. Steven BONE.BRADLEY Paul . Fettweis. Applicant: TUD (assigned to Vodafone). (assigned to Vodafone). 7. 2011.FARIA Frédéric . W. S.PROUST Philippe. Applicant: CEA. 11176361. 7. 6.029.2. Fettweis. filed June 21 2012. 11. Filed. Applicant: Sagemcom. European Patent. Fettweis. VODAFONE IP LICENSING LIMITED Procédé de transmission d'un message d'urgence entre un véhicule et un centre d'appel. US Patent. Filed. Nitzold.2 are confidential unless stated otherwise. 12/56772.GACHON. Jérémie Dumont. related to the technical developments in EXALTED 1. Peter. T. Petrescu. 3. 10.GIRARD Pierre. A. KEY DERIVATION. S. Applicant: TUD (assigned to Vodafone). filed June 28. 2010. European Patent. VODAFONE IP LICENSING LIMITED WO2012080740.7.2 Section B The content of the two following section 7. Inventors: Bruno Corlay. GEMALTO SA WO2012035338 : AUTHENTICATION IN A WIRELESS ACCESS NETWORK. Nitzold. BABBAGE.

2020 SWIR General advancement of knowledge NO M2M devices TUD .Wireless telecommunications activities 2015 None CTTC General advancement of knowledge New advances in device management protocols for low resources devices. M2M systems approx. and will be used to enhance the content of tutorials presented in major international conferences/workshops and relevant industry short-courses.0 . NO Not applicable None UNIS Advancements in M2M networks 2.Wireless telecommunications activities Wireless Communication. The final aim is to use the outcomes of EXALTED as basis for future scientific endeavours. commercial or any other use Patents or other IPR exploitation (licences) Owner & Other Beneficiary(s) involved 2011 General advancement of knowledge The University of Surrey. intends to exploit its participation in the EXALTED project by exposing post-graduate researchers to highquality deployable technical work thus training future researchers and engineers strengthening the future European workforce. This knowledge will also be used to enrich the material of relevant MSc courses.0 . being a higher-education institute with a strong focus on research and innovation. Scientific research and development Timetable. The acquired knowledge will be widely disseminated through publications in journals and conferences and through the participation in trials and demonstrations.Part B2 Please complete the table hereafter: Description Confidential Click on YES/NO Type of Exploitable Foreground of exploitable foreground Foreseen embargo date dd/mm/yyyy Exploitable product(s) or measure(s) LTE-M system concepts Sector(s) of application 1.2.2. LDPC code design for efficient multicast transmission NO M2M devices J61. Higher education 2013 General advancement of knowledge New advances in communications protocols and algorithms for energy and cost costrained LTE-like devices No Communications protocols and algorithms J61.

Exploitation of R&D results via standards Promotion of new mechanisms for coverage extension and scalability in LTE-like communications systems for M2M NO Performance measures of a LTElike communication system Research and experimental development on natural sciences and engineering Contributions to 3GPP standardisation 20132016 Owner: AlcatelLucent Exploitation of R&D Results via standards Optimised LTE-based radio interface for low data rate M2M services Industry SIG formed to agree appproach for implementation of the above. infrastructure and device suppliers. using EXALTED results as input. Commercial exploitation of R&D results Differentiating features in future Alcatel-Lucent base station product releases YES LTE-M enabled base station Manufacture of communication equipment Release of products 2014-2018 Owner: AlcatelLucent . where available YES juin-14 Network and protocol architectures for efficient carriage of M2M user data and network signalling Wireless telecommunications activities First draft specification Jun-2014 (depending on outcome of initial studies and LTE WI progress) Not yet identified Vodafone Group: Commercial entities including network operators.

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As well as producing certain statistics. 258512 EXALTED Dr. Thierry Lestable Grant Agreement Number: Title of Project: Name and Title of Coordinator: B Ethics 1. Please indicate whether your project involved any of the following issues (tick box) : RESEARCH ON HUMANS  Did the project involve children?  Did the project involve patients?  Did the project involve persons not able to give consent?  Did the project involve adult healthy volunteers?  Did the project involve Human genetic material?  Did the project involve Human biological samples?  Did the project involve Human data collection? RESEARCH ON HUMAN EMBRYO/FOETUS  Did the project involve Human Embryos?  Did the project involve Human Foetal Tissue / Cells?  Did the project involve Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs)?  Did the project on human Embryonic Stem Cells involve cells in culture?  Did the project on human Embryonic Stem Cells involve the derivation of cells from Embryos? PRIVACY  Did the project involve processing of genetic information or personal data (eg. the replies will also help identify those projects that have shown a real engagement with wider societal issues. Report on societal implications Replies to the following questions will assist the Commission to obtain statistics and indicators on societal and socio-economic issues addressed by projects. sexual lifestyle.8.2. A General Information (completed automatically when Grant Agreement number is entered. The replies for individual projects will not be made public. Did your project undergo an Ethics Review (and/or Screening)?  If Yes: have you described the progress of compliance with the relevant Ethics Review/Screening Requirements in the frame of the periodic/final project reports? 0Yes 0No Special Reminder: the progress of compliance with the Ethics Review/Screening Requirements should be described in the Period/Final Project Reports under the Section 3. ethnicity. religious or philosophical conviction)?  Did the project involve tracking the location or observation of people? RESEARCH ON ANIMALS  Did the project involve research on animals?  Were those animals transgenic small laboratory animals?  Were those animals transgenic farm animals? NO . health.2 'Work Progress and Achievements' 2. and thereby identify interesting approaches to these issues and best practices. The questions are arranged in a number of key themes. political opinion.

plant etc)?  Was the project of benefit to local community (capacity building. PhD holders) PhD Students Other 4. indicate the number of men: . animal. education etc)? DUAL USE  Research having direct military use  Research having the potential for terrorist abuse   No No C 3. Workforce Statistics Workforce statistics for the project: Please indicate in the table below the number of people who worked on the project (on a headcount basis). Number of Women Number of Men Type of Position Scientific Coordinator Work package leaders Experienced researchers (i. access to healthcare.Were those animals cloned farm animals? Were those animals non-human primates? RESEARCH INVOLVING DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  Did the project involve the use of local resources (genetic. How many additional researchers (in companies and universities) were recruited specifically for this project? Of which.e.

in implementing the research Yes. 6. DVDs)?  Yes. .2 G 11a Engaging with Civil society and policy makers Did your project engage with societal actors beyond the research community? (if 'No'. participation in science festivals and events. did you engage with citizens (citizens' panels / juries) or organised civil society (NGOs. patients or in trials. websites. for example. Synergies with Science Education Did your project involve working with students and/or school pupils (e. users. go to Question 14)   Yes No 11b If yes. prizes/competitions or joint projects)?  Yes. consumers. kits. Did you carry out specific Gender Equality Actions under the project?   Yes No Which of the following actions did you carry out and how effective were they?      Not at all effective  Design and implement an equal opportunity policy  Set targets to achieve a gender balance in the workforce  Organise conferences and workshops on gender  Actions to improve work-life balance Other: Very effective     7.g. patients' groups etc. Interdisciplinarity Which disciplines (see list below) are involved in your project? 2  Main discipline : 1.French course at Supelec on M2M No  9. Was there a gender dimension associated with the research content – i.in determining what research should be performed Yes .1 2  Associated discipline2:  Associated discipline : 2. was the issue of gender considered and addressed?  Yes. in communicating /disseminating / using the results of the project 2 Insert number from list below (Frascati Manual).D Gender Aspects 5.please specify  No E 8.e. open days.please specify  No F 10. wherever people were the focus of the research as.)?     No Yes.g. explanatory booklets. Did the project generate any science education material (e.

in implementing the research agenda Yes.multiple answer possible)  No 13b If Yes. Training.11c In doing so.multiple answers possible)  Yes – as a secondary objective (please indicate areas below . did your project involve actors whose role is mainly to  No organise the dialogue with citizens and organised civil society (e.in framing the research agenda Yes .g. professional mediator. in communicating /disseminating / using the results of the project 13a Will the project generate outputs (expertise or scientific advice) which could be used by policy makers?  Yes – as a primary objective (please indicate areas below. Youth Employment and Social Affairs Energy Enlargement Enterprise Environment External Relations External Trade Fisheries and Maritime Affairs Food Safety Foreign and Security Policy Fraud Humanitarian aid Human rights Information Society Institutional affairs Internal Market Justice. Did you engage with government / public bodies or policy makers (including international organisations)   Yes    No Yes. freedom and security Public Health Regional Policy Research and Innovation Space Taxation Transport . science museums)? 12. in which fields? Agriculture Audiovisual and Media Budget Competition Consumers Culture Customs Development Economic and Monetary Affairs Education. communication company.

Use and dissemination How many Articles were published/accepted for publication in peer-reviewed journals? 10 To how many of these is open access3 provided? How many of these are published in open access journals? How many of these are published in open repositories? To how many of these is open access not provided? Please check all applicable reasons for not providing open access:  publisher's licensing agreement would not permit publishing in a repository  no suitable repository available  no suitable open access journal available  no funds available to publish in an open access journal  lack of time and resources  lack of information on open access  other4: …………… 10 15. 4 For instance: classification for security project. Trademark Registered design Other 17. For your project partnership please estimate the employment effect resulting directly from your participation in Full Time Equivalent (FTE = 81 one person working fulltime for a year) jobs: 3 Open Access is defined as free of charge access for anyone via Internet. or In large companies   None of the above / not relevant to the project  Decrease in employment.13c If Yes. or  Safeguard employment. 13 16. Please indicate whether your project has a potential impact on employment. . How many new patent applications (‘priority filings’) have been made? ("Technologically unique": multiple applications for the same invention in different jurisdictions should be counted as just one application of grant). in comparison with the situation before your project:  In small & medium-sized enterprises  Increase in employment.  Difficult to estimate / not possible to quantify Indicate figure: 19. Indicate how many of the following Intellectual Property Rights were applied for (give number in each box). How many spin-off companies were created / are planned as a direct result of the project? Indicate the approximate number of additional jobs in these companies: 18. at which level?  Local / regional levels  National level  European level  International level H 14.

communication engineering and systems. Media and Communication to the general public As part of the project. vulcanology. microbiology.5 2 2. have any beneficiaries received professional media / communication training / advice to improve communication with the general public?  No  Yes Which of the following have been used to communicate information about your project to the general public.3. aeronautical and space. OECD 2002): FIELDS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 1. applied sciences such as 1. entomology. . genetics. other allied sciences) Biological sciences (biology. hardware development should be classified in the engineering fields)] Physical sciences (astronomy and space sciences. science café) 21.4 1. or have resulted from your project?  Coverage in specialist press  Press Release  Coverage in general (non-specialist) press  Media briefing  TV coverage / report Coverage in national press   Coverage in international press  Radio coverage / report  Website for the general public / internet  Brochures /posters / flyers  DVD /Film /Multimedia Event targeting general public (festival. were any of the beneficiaries professionals in communication or media relations?  No  Yes As part of the project. mechanical. physical geography and other geosciences.1 NATURAL SCIENCES Mathematics and computer sciences [mathematics and other allied fields: computer sciences and other allied subjects (software development only. building science and engineering. 1. mineralogy. construction engineering. geophysics.  exhibition. municipal and structural engineering and other allied subjects) Electrical engineering. excluding clinical and veterinary sciences) ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Civil engineering (architecture engineering. palaeoecology. electronics [electrical engineering. forest products. oceanography.2 1.1 2. metallurgical and materials engineering. zoology. 22 23 In which languages are the information products for the general public produced?   Language of the coordinator Other language(s)  English Question F-10: Classification of Scientific Disciplines according to the Frascati Manual 2002 (Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development. meteorology and other atmospheric sciences including climatic research. electronics. and their specialised subdivisions.2 2. computer engineering (hardware only) and other allied subjects] Other engineering sciences (such as chemical.3 1. other allied sciences. biophysics. other allied subjects) Earth and related environmental sciences (geology. biochemistry.Difficult to estimate / not possible to quantify  I 20. conference. botany. physics and other allied subjects) Chemical sciences (chemistry. bacteriology.

miscellaneous social sciences and interdisciplinary .1 6. pathology) Clinical medicine (anaesthesiology. paediatrics. metallurgy.3 5. etc.2 6. clinical chemistry. economic and social). animal husbandry. textile technology and other applied subjects) 3. religion. Physical anthropology. clinical microbiology. history of art. horticulture. neurology. pharmacology.1 5. 4. theology. physical geography and psychophysiology should normally be classified with the natural sciences]. HUMANITIES History (history. historical and other S1T activities relating to the subjects in this group] 6. physiology. fisheries. sculpture. hygiene. painting.geodesy. surgery. organisation and methods. mining. law. e. dramatic art excluding artistic "research" of any kind. pharmacy. linguistics. etc. toxicology. specialised technologies of interdisciplinary fields. town and country planning. prehistory and history.1 3. 3. together with auxiliary historical disciplines such as archaeology. therapeutics. 5. palaeography. the science and technology of food production. 6. nursing. forestry.g.2 3. psychiatry.) Languages and literature (ancient and modern) Other humanities [philosophy (including the history of science and technology) arts. other allied subjects) Veterinary medicine SOCIAL SCIENCES Psychology Economics Educational sciences (education and training and other allied subjects) Other social sciences [anthropology (social and cultural) and ethnology. methodological. systems analysis. forestry. radiology.1 4. genealogy. numismatics.2 5. demography. dentistry. cytology. industrial chemistry. epidemiology) AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES Agriculture.3 4.2 5. geography (human. other fields and subjects pertaining to the humanities. genetics. social medicine.. immunology and immunohaematology. ophthalmology) Health sciences (public health services. methodological and historical S1T activities relating to subjects in this group. management. political sciences. fisheries and allied sciences (agronomy. musicology. sociology. otorhinolaryngology.4 MEDICAL SCIENCES Basic medicine (anatomy. art criticism. obstetrics and gynaecology. internal medicine.3 .

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