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Mesoamerican Long Count calendar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mesoamerican Long Count calendar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Main article: Maya calendar The Mesoamerican Long Count calendar is a non-repeating, vigesimal (base-20) and base-18 calendar used by several Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures, most notably the Maya. For this reason, it is sometimes known as the Maya (or Mayan) Long Count calendar. Using a modified vigesimal tally, the Long Count calendar identifies a day by counting the number of days passed since a mythical creation date that corresponds to August 11, 3114 BCE in the Proleptic Gregorian calendar.[n 1] The Long Count calendar was widely used on monuments.
1 Background 2 Long Count periods 3 Mesoamerican numerals 4 Earliest Long Counts 5 Correlations between Western calendars and the Long Count 6 2012 and the Long Count 7 Calculating a full Long Count date 7.1 Calculating the Tzolk'in date portion 7.2 Calculating the Haab' date portion 8 Piktuns and higher orders 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links
Among other calendars devised in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, two of the most widely used were the 365-day solar calendar (the Maya version is known as the Haab') and the 260-day calendar, with 20 periods of 13 days. In Mayan studies this 260-day calendar is known as the Tzolk'in; the equivalent Aztec calendar is known in Nahuatl as tonalpohualli.
The Haab' and the Tzolk'in calendars identified and named the days, but not the years. The combination of a Haab' date and a Tzolk'in date identifies a specific date in a combination which did not occur again for 52 years. The two calendars based on 365 days and 260 days repeat every 52 Haab' years, a period generally known as the Calendar Round. To designate dates over periods longer than 52 years, some Mesoamericans utilized the Long Count calendar.
East side of stela C, Quirigua with the mythical creation date of 13 baktuns, 0 katuns, 0 tuns, 0 uinals, 0 kins, 4 Ahau 8 Cumku - August 11, 3114 BCE in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.
followed by the Calendar Round (tzolk'in and Haab') and supplementary series.wikipedia. The setting of the three stones centered the cosmos which allowed the sky to be raised. The numbered Long Count was no longer in use by the time the Spanish arrived in the Yucatán Peninsula. Mesoamerican numerals Long Count dates are written with Mesoamerican numerals. it was black. and 0.0. at the beginning of the inscription. the age of the moon on the day and the calculated length of current lunation. like Western numbering. The Long Count calendar required the use of zero as a place-holder.0.0. The August 11 date is based on the GMT correlation (see Correlations between Western calendars and the Long Count calendar section elsewhere in this article for details on correlations).0. First-Three-Stone-Place. The completion of 13 b'ak'tuns (August 11. On this day.0.0. The date sequence is given once. Maya numerals Earliest Long Counts en. Note that the name b'ak'tun was invented by modern scholars. revealing the sun. since the second digit from the right rolls over to zero when it reaches 18. Thus 0. although unnumbered k'atuns and tuns were still in use.org/wiki/Mesoamerican_Long_Count_calendar 2/14 . Because the sky still lay on the primordial sea.0. for example. Next come the 5 digits of the Long Count. A dot represents 1 while a bar equals 5.0 does not represent 400 days. The Long Count is not pure base20. the Long Count syntax is more complex.17.7/15/13 Mesoamerican Long Count calendar . the Long Count days were tallied in a modified base-20 scheme. On Maya monuments. The shell glyph was used to represent the zero concept. And 0. There has been much debate over the precise correlation between the Western calendars and the Long Count calendars. Raised-up-Sky-Lord caused three stones to be set by associated gods at Lying-Down-Sky.0 is equal to 40. 3114 BCE in the proleptic Gregorian calendar or September 6 in the Julian calendar (or −3113 in astronomical year numbering).1. A drawing of a full Maya Long Count inscription is shown below. however.[n 2] The text then continues with whatever activity occurred on that date.0. Rather than using a base-10 scheme. 3114 BCE) marks the Creation of the world of human beings according to the Maya. the free encyclopedia Long Count periods The Long Count calendar identifies a date by counting the number of days from a starting date that is generally calculated to be August 11.Wikipedia.5 is equal to 25. and presents one of the earliest uses of the zero concept in history.2. Instead the Maya were using an abbreviated Short Count.1. and opens with the so-called ISIG (Introductory Series Initial Glyph) which reads tzik-a(h) hab’ [patron of Haab' month] ("revered was the year-count with the patron [of the month]").19 represents 359 days. Thus 0. but rather only 360 days. The supplementary series is optional and contains lunar data. as shown on this table.
15).0.16. More recently. The first unequivocally Maya artifact is Stela 29 from Tikal. with the Long Count date of 292 CE (8.Wikipedia.19 BCE December 6. Chiapas.184.108.40.206.[n 3] Although Takalik Abaj Stela 2 remains controversial.12 8.3.16).6.?.org/wiki/File:Abaj_Takalik_Stela2.7. was created in the Izapan style.15 8.13 7.5. Interestingly. Malmström.(6. 300 BCE). Mexico Guatemala Guatemala Guatemala Veracruz.5. the Tuxtla Statuette.11. not Maya.wikipedia. three are on the western edge of the Maya homeland and three are several hundred kilometers further west. besides this being the earliest Maya hieroglyphic text so far uncovered. leading some researchers to believe that the Long Count calendar predates the Maya. the free encyclopedia The earliest contemporaneous Long Count inscription yet discovered is on Stela 2 at Chiapa de Corzo.0 — 295 and 256 BCE.9.5. on the other hand. Guatemala might be earlier. Mexico.7/15/13 Mesoamerican Long Count calendar .0. it would arguably be the earliest glyphic evidence to date of Long Count notation in Mesoamerica. Mexico Tuxtla Statuette March 12. 126 CE May 19. El Baúl Stela 2.3.a. Mexico Veracruz. but that could also be 11 or 16. with the discovery in Guatemala of the San Bartolo stone block text (c.? Guatemala 7. 162 CE Of the six sites.0 and 7.wikimedia. en. showing a date of 36 BCE. although Stela 2 from Takalik Abaj. 37 CE May 19. La Mojarra Stela 1. 32 BCE March 2. 156 CE 7. Mexico Veracruz.16.2. giving the range of possible dates to fall between 236 and 19 BCE.8.2.16.  (http://commons. 143 CE July 11. followed by a k'atun with a tentative 6 coefficient.7 8. this table includes it.3.3.?.4.4. more than 300 years after Stela 2 from Chiapa de Corzo. 103 CE June 3.5. and Chiapa Stela 2 are all inscribed in an EpiOlmec.6.15.2. it has been argued that this text celebrates a period completion of time to fall sometime between and 7.jpg) Takalik Abaj Stela 2's highly battered Long Count inscription shows a 7 bak'tun.18 7. Gregorian date Archaeological site Takalik Abaj Chiapa de Corzo Tres Zapotes El Baúl Takalik Abaj Takalik Abaj La Mojarra La Mojarra Near La Mojarra Name Stela 2 Stela 2 Stela C Stela 1 Stela 5 Stela 5 Stela 1 Stela 1 GMT (584283) correlation Long Count Location ≈ 236 . Mexico Veracruz. Tres Zapotes Stela C. 36 BCE September 1.org/wiki/Mesoamerican_Long_Count_calendar 3/14 .16.3. respectively. style.0.14.5 8.11 8.19.17 Chiapas. as well as six other artifacts with the eight oldest Long Counts according to Vincent H.
32 BCE (Gregorian).0.5. 8 Kumk'u. The numerals 7.18 translate to September 1. This is the second oldest Long Count date yet discovered. Martinez. the free encyclopedia The back of Stela C from Tres Zapotes. The two right columns visible are glyphs from the Epi-Olmec script. "Goodman. or 156 CE. The generally accepted correlation constant is the Modified Thompson 2. the current creation started on September 6. en.7. Detail showing three columns of glyphs from a portion of the 2nd century CE La Mojarra Stela 1. The glyphs surrounding the date are what is thought to be one of the few surviving examples of Epi-Olmec script.6.283 days.0.wikipedia. Using the GMT correlation.org/wiki/Mesoamerican_Long_Count_calendar 4/14 .Wikipedia. an Olmec archaeological site.7/15/13 Mesoamerican Long Count calendar .0.0. Correlations between Western calendars and the Long Count The Maya and Western calendars are correlated by using a Julian day number (JDN) of the starting date of the current creation – 13. 4 Ajaw. Thompson" – GMT correlation of 5220.127.116.11. The left column gives a Long Count date of 8.16.[n 4] This is referred to as a correlation constant.
en.16 correlation. Today. The Dresden Codex contains a Venus table which records the heliacal risings of Venus. Many indigenous communities in the Mexican states of Veracruz. using the GMT correlation. 1521.283.7/15/13 Mesoamerican Long Count calendar .wikipedia. there now is not the slightest chance that these three scholars (conflated to GMT when talking about the correlation) were not right. Coe writes: "In spite of oceans of ink that have been spilled on the subject. The study of correlating the Maya and western calendar is referred to as the correlation question. Tenochtitlan. The GMT correlation is also called the 11.. and archaeological: Historical: Calendar Round dates with a corresponding Julian date are recorded in Diego de Landa's Relación de las cosas de Yucatán (written circa 1566). The evidence for the GMT correlation is historical. The fall of the capital city of the Aztec Empire.".16. in the Long Count is 13.0. A number of different chroniclers wrote that this was a Tzolk'in (Tonalpohualli) of 1 Snake. Pokomchí.4.0.. 1539 = 11. or [an alternate term:] 11. keep the Tzolk'in and in many cases the Haab'.". was analyzed again using more accurate methods and found to agree closely with the GMT correlation.16 correlation we find that A = 584.org/wiki/Mesoamerican_Long_Count_calendar 5/14 . For example: An inscription at the Temple of the Sun at Palenque records that on Long Count 9. The GMT correlation does an excellent job of matching lunar data in the supplementary series. Oxcutzkab and de Landa record a date that is a Tun ending in the Short Count. These are all consistent with the GMT correlation.5 (GMT correlation). This Long Count is also the entry date for the eclipse table of the Dresden Codex [n 5] which gives eclipse seasons when the Moon is near its ascending or descending node and an eclipse is likely to occur. the Chronicle of Oxcutzkab and the books of Chilam Balam. the free encyclopedia 3114 BC in the Julian Calendar or August 11 in the Proleptic Gregorian calendar.0. Astronomers have proposed many correlations.. Archaeological: Various items that can be associated with specific Long Count dates have been isotope dated. The GMT correlation agrees with these to within a less than half a day which is as accurately as these can be observed. Lintel 3 from Temple I. et al. Fuls. In Breaking the Maya Code. Michael D. Thus for the GMT. Recently one of these. for example: Lounsbury.0. 14:31. If a proposed correlation only has to agree with one of these lines of evidence there could be numerous other possibilities. The average carbon date was 746±34 years. astronomical.. 2013 (UTC).10. occurred on August 13.8 there were 26 days completed in a 30 day lunation.16. Astronomical: Any correct correlation must match the astronomical content of classic inscriptions.Wikipedia.10. Sunday July 14. Oaxaca and Chiapas and in Guatemala. Regarding these historical references in The Skywatchers Aveni writes: "All the assembled data are consistent with the equation November 2.. In 1959 the University of Pennsylvania carbon dated samples from ten wood lintels from Tikal. These were carved with a date equivalent to 741 AD. Dates converted using the GMT correlation fall roughly in this eclipse season. principally those speaking the Mayan languages Ixil. Mam.0. and Quiché. Post-conquest scholars such as Sahagun and Duran recorded Tonalpohualli dates with a calendar date. Böhm and Böhm and Stock.
0.0 8.265 677.906 482. Nov 13.879 508.138 418.104.22.168 12.0.wikipedia.0. 3195 Wed.0.0. Apr 7.0 15.0.0. 830 Sat.0. 2325 BCE Sat.0 14.0.0. 1931 BCE 1 016 283 Tue.323 522.214.171.124 5.0 10.261 626.0. Mar 126.96.36.1999 489. Sep 18. Nov 26. 3590 Sat.281 584.0.280 584. Hochleitner Schultz Escalona-Ramos Vaillant Weitzel 394. Aug 11.0.0. 435 Wed.0.0 19. 354 BCE Thu.0.283 584. Feb 16. 2012 Mon.0. 1537 BCE Fri. 2407 Thu.0. 1143 BCE 1 304 283 Thompson (Lounsbury) 584.0. 1224 Tue.0.723 679.208 674.0 11.0. 2801 Sun.0.0. et al.0.0 17.384 4188.8.131.52 16.927 660.203 660.0 13.org/wiki/Mesoamerican_Long_Count_calendar 6/14 .0. and Aveni 1980) Name Correlation Bowditch Willson Smiley Makemson Modified Spinden Spinden Teeple Dinsmoor −4CR −2CR Stock Goodman Martinez-Hernandez GMT Modified Thompson 1 Pogo +2CR Böhm & Böhm Kreichgauer +4CR Fuls.0 3.0. Jul 11. 3114 BCE Thu. 3984 Tue.0.0.0. May 21. Dec 9. Mar 13.0 1.0.243 622.0. Oct 1.284 588.0 1.622 4184.108.40.206.0.363 546.0.0. 748 BCE Mon.0.0 9.0. 4772 584 283 728 283 872 283 1 160 283 1 448 283 1 592 283 1 736 283 1 880 283 2 024 283 2 168 283 2 312 283 2 456 283 2 600 283 2 744 283 2 888 283 3 032 283 3 176 283 3 320 283 3 464 283 Gregorian date Wed. Feb 220.127.116.11.285 2012 and the Long Count Main article: 2012 phenomenon en.0 18.0. Dec 21. Jun 28.0.408 584.483 438. Jun 15.0.626 622. 4378 Fri.0.0.0. 41 CE Sun.0.0.183 774.0 6. the free encyclopedia JDN correlations to the Maya creation date (after Thompson 1971.0.0. et al. Aug 23.108 679.383 489.0.0. Jan 3.078 Long Count 13. 1618 Fri.7/15/13 Mesoamerican Long Count calendar . Jun 3. 2720 BCE Sun.0.0 Julian day GMT (584283) correlation number Mon.0 4.0 7.0 2.Wikipedia. Oct 13.0. Sep 5.
7/15/13 Mesoamerican Long Count calendar .0. eight days later. as a doomsday event or moment of cosmic shifting." says E. the previous creation ended at the start of a 14th b'ak'tun. Wyllys Andrews V. The inscription notes[citation needed ] that this day would fall eight days after the completion of the 1st piktun [since the creation or zero date of the Long Count system]. en. is "a complete fabrication and a chance for a lot of people to cash in.12.17. a section of the text projects into the future to the 80th Calendar Round (CR) 'anniversary' of the famous Palenque ruler K'inich Janaab' Pakal's accession to the throne (Pakal's accession occurred on a Calendar Round date 5 Lamat 1 Mol. executive director of the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies in Crystal River. beyond the completion of the 13th b'ak'tun of the current era). In the Maya Long Count.Wikipedia. To render December 21.[n 6] There are only two references to the current creation's 13th b'ak'tun in the fragmentary Mayan corpus: Tortuguero Monument 6. If the completion date of that piktun—13 October 4772—were to be written out in Long Count notation. 2012. "For the ancient Maya.0. Most of these are in the form of "distance dates" where some Long Count date is given." Calculating a full Long Count date As stated.4. we are living in the fourth world.10. "We know the Maya thought there was one before this. director of the Tulane University Middle American Research Institute (MARI). Maya inscriptions occasionally reference future predicted events or commemorations that would occur on dates that lie beyond 2012 (that is.16 (Long Count) 5 Kib' (Tzolk'in) 14 Yaxk'in (Haab').000 years in the future from Pakal's time—the day 21 October in the year 4772.19. and that implies they were comfortable with the idea of another one after this. Another 12. followed by the start of the 14th b'ak'tun. but the 2-character Tzolk'in and the two-character Haab' dates as well.19.0.0. This calculation arrives at the 80th Calendar Round since his accession.wikipedia. 2012. but which lies over 4. 2012 (Gregorian Calendar).0.9. stated that "We have no record or knowledge that [the Maya] would think the world would come to an end" in 2012. Susan Milbrath. Florida. 13.19. would be 1.19. together with a Distance Number that is to be added to the Long Count date to arrive at this future date. it could be represented as 1.org/wiki/Mesoamerican_Long_Count_calendar 7/14 .8 equivalent to 27 July 615 CE in the proleptic Gregorian calendar).0.19 occurred on December 20. The five digit Long Count can therefore be confirmed with the other four characters (the "calendar round date"). The previous creation ended on a Long Count of 12.9.19. One can check whether this date is correct by the following calculation.5.0. a day that also has a CR date of 5 Lamat 1 Mol. she says.0. at Long Count 9. it was a huge celebration to make it to the end of a whole cycle. curator of Latin American Art and Archaeology at the Florida Museum of Natural History.8.[n 7] It does this by commencing with Pakal's birthdate 9." "There will be another cycle.0 8 Ajaw 13 Pop (24 March 603 CE Gregorian) and adding to it the Distance Number 10. Despite the publicity generated by the 2012 date.8 5 Lamat 1 Mol.0.0.13.0.0. on the west panel at the Temple of Inscriptions in Palenque.2. part of a ruler's inscription and the recently discovered La Corona Hieroglyphic Stairway 2.11. the free encyclopedia According to the Popol Vuh. Block V. The 80th CR anniversary date.17. where the piktun is the next-highest order above the b'ak'tun in the Long Count.0.8.2." says Sandra Noble. Taking as an example a Calendar Round date of 9. a book compiling details of creation accounts known to the K'iche' Maya of the Colonial-era highlands. The Popol Vuh describes the first three creations that the gods failed in making and the creation of the successful fourth world where men were placed. For example.0. on December 21. a full Long Count date not only includes the five digits of the Long Count.
9 9 Muluk 7 Sak.1. To calculate the numerical portion of the Tzolk'in date. Calculating the Haab' date portion The Haab' date 8 Kumk'u is the ninth day of the eighteenth month. and then divide total number of days by 13. en. There are 17 days to the start of the next year. B2. …. and show how the date 5 Kib' 14 Yaxk'in is derived. Subtract 17 days from the total. the Tzolk'in date is 5 Kib'. and the numerical portion of the Tzolk'in date is 5. and the remainder 134 is the 135th day in the new Haab'. 878 (GMT Gregorian). (4 + 1383136) / 13 = 106395 (and 5/13) This means that 106395 whole 13 day cycles have been completed. the free encyclopedia It is perhaps easier to find out how many days there are since 4 Ajaw 8 Kumk'u. 1383136 / 20 = 69156 (and 16/20) This means 16 day names must be counted from Ajaw. divide the total number of days in the long count by 20 since there are twenty day names. equivalent to July 28. Chichen Itza Initial Series inscription.2.wikipedia. add 4 to the total number of days given by the date. 1383136 − 17 = 1383119 Divide by 365 1383119 / 365 = 3789 and (134/365) Therefore. to find how many complete Haab' years are contained. Therefore. A5) is 10.9. 9 × 144000 = 1296000 12 2 0 16 × 7200 × 360 × 20 ×1 = 86400 = 720 =0 = 16 Total days = 1383136 Calculating the Tzolk'in date portion The Tzolk'in date is counted forward from 4 Ajaw. since a remainder of 0 would indicate the first day. This date (glyphs A2. To calculate the day.Wikipedia. 3789 complete Haab' have passed. This gives Kib'.org/wiki/Mesoamerican_Long_Count_calendar 8/14 .7/15/13 Mesoamerican Long Count calendar .
10.13. Ring Numbers are intervals of days between the Era Base date 4 Ajaw 8 Kumk’u and an earlier Ring Base date.13.13.5. Each one consists of 20 of the lesser units.) 12. Most inscriptions that use these are in the form of distance dates and Long Reckonings . 18.104.22.168 1.13. So.0. Schele (1987 p.13.0.13. and a remainder of 14.0.13. These are Ring Numbers.0.0.13. but Wilson (1924:24–25) later clarified the way in which they operate.org/Distances_across_Era_Date.13. 77) (http://www. Specific dates within the Dresden codex are often given by calculations involving Ring Numbers. where the placeholder for the numeral of days in the interval is circled by an image of a tied red band.13.13. where the units are 13s in the nineteen places larger than the b'ak'tun.13. So the date of the long count date 9.10.0.org/wiki/Mesoamerican_Long_Count_calendar 9/14 . The fifteenth day of Yaxk'in is 14.wikipedia.13. For example a Late Classic monument from Coba. the date in the Haab' lies in the seventh month.13.). 3.13.0 4 Ajaw 8 Kumk'u Palenque Temple XIX. kalabtun.0 8 Ajaw 18 Tzek in the prior era 6. which is Yaxk'in.0 4Ahau 8 Kumk'u.0. 3.13.traditionalhighcultures.0 Distance number linking to the "era date" 13.16 5 Kib' 14 Yaxk'in is confirmed. 60. Dividing the remainder 134 by 20. 8.7/15/13 Mesoamerican Long Count calendar . 8.0.0.pdf) Palenque Temple of the Cross.13.they give a base date. 8. All of these words are inventions of Mayanists. South Panel G2-H6 Stuart (2005 pp. a distance number that is added or subtracted and the resulting Long Count.12. Förstemann identified these. leading to a final date within the Long Count that is given as an entry date to be used within a specific table in the codex.Wikipedia.19. 77) 12. this date also in Temple of the Cross) The tablet of the inscriptions contains this inscription: 9.4. indicating the 15th day. which Thompson refers to as a Long Round. The second is from Stuart (2005 pp. the free encyclopedia Find which month the day is in. The first example below is from Schele (1987 p. and alautun. 2 9 Ik' 15 Keh (rebirth of GI. 0 1.0.13. Piktuns and higher orders There are also four rarely used higher-order periods above the b'ak'tun: piktun. k'inchiltun. Added to this earlier Ring Base date is another count of days forward.0. thus the Haab' date is 14 Yaxk'in.13. tablet. is six complete months. 2 9 Ik' 5 Mol (seating of GI in the prior era) 2. Many inscriptions give the date of the current creation as a large number of 13s preceding 13. The date of creation is expressed as 13.0. Stela 1.2. 22.214.171.124 8 Ajaw 13 Pop 10. 1. Some authors think that the 13s were symbolic of a completion and don't represent an actual number.13. en.0. 126.96.36.199.8 The Dresden codex contains another method for writing distance numbers.
6. 3114 BCE in the Julian calendar and −3113 in astronomical year numbering.0.wikipedia. observers can see and photograph the crescent moon less than one day after conjunction. 755 (Julian calendar).1.19 before (13) 13. most observers can't see the new Moon with the naked eye until the first evening when the lunar phase day is at least 1. 2.Wikipedia. not “0”. ^ To clarify." Using the third method the new moon would have been the first evening when one could look to the west after sunset and see the thin crescent moon. 5.2 Long Count 10.3. Modern astronomers refer to the conjunction of the Sun en. on rare occasions.0. as in the Maya date for today: 188.8.131.52.5.0.0. and Tzotzil villages in Chiapas. August 11. 2013 (UTC)).0.0.13. using binoculars or a telescope. 0.org/wiki/Mesoamerican_Long_Count_calendar 10/14 .17. This is easily confused when the “13” bak'tuns has the actual value 13 in the current bakt'un. It has been connected with the cycle of Lords of the Night known from colonial era sources in Central Mexico but alternate explanations have also been offered. which equates to September 6. known as the (modified) GMT or Goodman-Martinez-Thompson correlation. The possibilities are disappearance of the old moon. there are Long Count inscriptions which refer to dates earlier than the 1st century BCE. 2. from an excellent site.7 (26 days counting from zero) at 6 pm after a conjunction at 1:25 am October 10.3 13 Ak'bal 1 Kank'in Ring number (portion of the DN preceding era date) 7. The "Serpent Numbers" in the Dresden codex pp. the free encyclopedia Ring number (12) 12.0” as a base date in calculations. ^ According to Thompson "The point from which the moon age is counted is not surely known.6.1 13 Imix 9 Wo (7. 4.0) distance number (0) 10. as if it were written as “0. ^ Notable in this sequence is the glyph with nine variant forms labeled G by early epigraphers.. 3. Sunday July 14. Chol.14. ^ The correlation between the Long Count and Western calendars is calculated according to the one used by a majority of Maya researchers.10. ^ All extant Maya inscriptions that represent this base date wrote it with a “13” bak'tuns.14. 0. 755 and a new Moon when the lunar phase day was 1. 0.10.8.0”. 3114 BCE is a date in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.482.7 at 6 pm on October 11.0. when the crescent Moon is favorably located.0.. See Thompson. conjunction. 61–69 is a table of dates using a base date of 1. In this example the lunar phase day was 27.19 Add Ring number to the ring number date to reach 13. See Correlations between Western calendars and the Long Count calendar section elsewhere in this article for details on correlations.7/15/13 Mesoamerican Long Count calendar ..2.16 in the prior era (5.0. the “13” bak'tuns has the numerical value 0.12.096 days) See also Mesoamerican calendars Aztec calendar Maya calendar Maya codices Notes 1. This works well for many but not all lunar inscriptions. But when using “13. An alternate correlation sometimes used puts the starting date two days later. but these were carved much later in a retrospective fashion.3.  If one assumes that that the new moon is the first day when the lunar phase day is at least 1.0.. Given our modern ability to know exactly where to look.5 (=14:31. or appearance of the new moon. Generally.0.5 at six in the evening in time zone UTC−6 (the time zone of the Maya area) the GMT correlation will match many lunar inscriptions exactly. Beyer (1973a) believed that the calculation was made from the disappearance of the old moon. The latter method of counting (disappearance of the old moon) is still current in some Tzeltal. 0 Thompson contains a table of typical typical long reckonings after Satterwaite.
14. J. ^ Boot. ^ Freidel. 18 (2007). 2. Sky & Telescope. see Fig.pdf) ^ Maya Hieroglyphic Writing by Sir John Eric Sidney Thompson (http://books. 102–106 ^ "Young-Moon Hunting in 2005". 23. February 2005. 95.html) ^ The Correlation Problem (http://www. en. Sky & Telescope. 14 ^ "In Quest of the Youngest Moon". 22. p.org/research/vanstone/2012/faq. so this seems impossible.com/books? id=VrSVFTyTOegC&pg=PA73#v=onepage&q=&f=false) ^ Clarifications: The Correlation Debate (http://alignment2012. 27. The Sky Watchers.0. 11/14 5. the free encyclopedia and Moon (the time when the Sun and Moon have the same ecliptic longitude) as the new moon. p.edu/~izapa/CS-MM-Chap. 5 for a line drawing of the monument) ^ Vincent H. ^ Diehl (2004. 9. notably on December 23. ^ Various sources place this on other dates. 18 (2007).17. 24. 273–282 Cambridge University Press. this would be 2. spherical trigonometry. 21. 15. Using the third method it should have a moon age of 26 days when in fact it records a new moon.0)." In Acculturation in the Americas. 25. Schele & Parker (1993. 6. 18.87) ^ Saturno et al.ch/cal_stud/maya/chap2. Page 236 ^ "Sighting the Crescent Moon". p.htm) ^ What is this correlation constant? (http://www.com/fap3. 201. 273–282 Cambridge University Press. Ancient Mesoamerica.25 days before conjunction. Sky & Telescope.  7. 75–76 ^  (http://books. "An Analysis of the Modern Middle American Calendars: A Study in Conservation.biblioteces. 104–105 ^ "Young Moons and the Islamic Calendar".google. February 2004. Eric S. 7. ^ "A sketch of prior documentation of epi-Olmec texts".0. 13.net/ciencia/dresden/dresdencodex03. The first method seems to have been used for other inscriptions such as Quirgua stela E (9. ^ Miles.186).com/books? id=GdlzA3yUlTUC&pg=PA40&lpg=PA40&dq=Quirigua+Stela+E+Lunar+age&source=bl&ots=GQ0UpGuLZV& sig=-N0jb28b-ZTTpchPGJglR2zBN4c&hl=en&sa=X&ei=uCALT_6BtDMiQKRrLS6CQ&ved=0CD0Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=Quirigua%20Stela%20E%20Lunar%20age&f=false) ^ Andreas Fuls Ancient Mesoamerica. 12. 208–210.Wikipedia. July 1994. 20. ^ The Dresden Codex eclipse table by Michael John Finley (http://www. 10. after Robertson 1991: Vol.com/lunarglyphs. p.com/publications/CAA_14/Thompson1935. 114. pp. etc. 3. p. pp.59–75).331. using GMT correlation JDN=584283. ^ Coe & Koontz (2002.htm) Malmström's Gregorian dates are three or four days later than a correlation of 584283 would give (the Wikipedia table has been corrected). Sky & Telescope. Fuls Analysed these inscriptions and Concluded: "Analysis of the Lunar Series shows that at least two different methods and formulas were used to calculate the moon’s age and position in the six-month cycle…" 6. References 1.mesoweb. 1952.org/wiki/Mesoamerican_Long_Count_calendar . Susanna W. ^ Anthony F. December 1996. 11. Mysteries of the Moon (Chapter 6) (http://www.astras-stargate.%206. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Cycles of the Sun.htm) ^ Thompson.html#correlation) ^ Breaking the Maya Code. Time and the Highland Maya Revised edition (1992 Page 1) ^ The Supplementary and Lunar Glyphs (http://www.dartmouth. 2. so it could record the first day when one could not see the waning moon. 8.  Using the GMT correlation at six AM in time zone -six. Malmström. December 1996. 106 ^ "Seeking Thin Crescent Moons". 273–84.html) ^ Fuls. 4. Maya Hieroglyphic Writing. 28. 19. 2006 ^ Giron-Abrego 2012 ^ Maya chronology: The correlation question by J.famsi. ^ Barbara Tedlock. Section 5 in Peréz de Lara & Justeson (2005). 1992.hermetic. 17. (1950). 4 : p. ^ Gregorian. Eric Thompson (http://www.google. 29. Sky and Telescope. ^ Graham (1992. Aveni. Edited by Sol Tax. 26. In order for the Maya to have been able to calculate this they would they would have had to have a complete understanding of orbital mechanics.7/15/13 Mesoamerican Long Count calendar . pp.wikipedia. an Introduction. 16.
yalalte.com/srep/2013/130411/srep01597/full/srep01597.cz/paib/) 37. 3 DOI: 10. Irka Hajdas. Hector Neff.0. ^ Academic Confusion by John Major Jenkins (http://alignment2012. composed of 20 B’ak’tuns. ^ Eric Thompson (1972:20–21) 58. ^ Mayan Dating by Vladimir Böhm and Bohumil Böhm (http://www. but in 20's. pp. 148.php? _allSearch=Coba&hold_search=&tab=schele&title=Schele+Drawing+Collection&x=34&y=12 55. Maya Cosmos: Three Thousand Years On The Shaman's Path. 39) 44. p.wikipedia. makes this very plain when it records the completion of 1 Piktun.0. ^ "The Sky Is Not Falling" (http://tulane. ^ Long Count (http://www. 444 in Wagner (2006. Haug. ^ Academic Confusion John Major Jenkins (http://alignment2012. Parker. Anselmetti. ^ Martin Time Kingship and the Maya Universe "…we have clear evidence that the current Bak’tun cycle does not conclude at 13. ^ The Correlation Question by Andreas Fuls (http://www.No. . the free encyclopedia 30. Schele And J.html) 31.doc) 36. p. 2007.org. Jaime Awe. 222-264 57. ^ a b Schele (1992. 51. as the last one did.314.de/English/english.jstor.pauahtun. Freidel. p. ^ Thompson (1960 Appendix IV pp. Harvard University Vol.430). 2:1 54. 2013. This is relevant to the current discussion concerning the Serpent Series. ^ Förstemann.org/wiki/Mesoamerican_Long_Count_calendar 12/14 . ^ Douglas J. Curator of Latin American Art and Archaeology." 49. L. ^ Schele and Freidel (1992.Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Archaeology and Ethnography. ^ D. Retrieved 21 Dec 2012 47.html) 34. 41. Mayan astronomy. Katherine H.pdf) 56. 1993:62. Fig. Gerald H. ^ Mayan dating.0. Ralph (http://www. Wednesday. Culleton.org/Calendar/calglyph.com/docs/21837528/maya_calendar_01) 38. Kennett.org. pp.cfm) New Wave.0. Correlation MD/JD (http://www. ^ Dating the Eclipse Table of the Dresden Codex and the Correlation Problem (http://www.1038/srep01597 (http://www.edu/news/newwave/062508_maya. ^ Grofe. Soumaya Belmecheri. 11D (http://www. ^ Mayan Time Periods and Period Glyphs (http://www.com/2012/06/30/notes-on-a-new-text-from-la-corona/ 42. ^ Fig. Anderson 2008 (http://www. in 4772 CE.20-22 en. ^ Schele and Friedel (1992).0." 50. Yalalte. Michael John 2007 The Serpent Series: Precession in the Maya Dresden Codex page 55 59. Mark Robinson. Mexico. Tulane University.0.0.archaeoastronomie.volny. 149) "I have throughout assumed that the baktuns were grouped. Hodell. Graham.0.0 will be followed by 14. In other words.org/pss/277941) 32. 316. Lee Newsom. Simon Martin. 53. not in 13's. Lentz.2 pp.Wikipedia.html).429–430 40.traditionalhighcultures.htm) 45. for the evidence supporting a vigesimal count of baktuns in Dresden and at Palenque and Copan is too strong to be overridden. such as one Piktun. Pauahtun. 46. but advances to 20. the Maya also recorded intervals of time even greater than 13 B’ak’tuns.baktun.org/glifox/clongur/periodos.0. Ernst Commentary on the Maya Manuscript in the Royal Public Library of Dresden .com/fap9.ch/cal_stud/maya/boehm/korelaceangl.html).wordpress. David L. IV. ^ a b Lloyd B.0. ^ Schele & Freidel (1990. 15. ^ Grofe. Florida Museum of Natural History.hermetic. June 25.html) 33.org/20_or_13_Baktuns_in_Pictun. Scientific Reports. A text at the site of Palenque. ^ Schele & Freidel (1990). quoted in USA Today.0. Norbert Marwan. ^ http://research.0.de/mayaeng/corrtabl.docstoc. Retrieved 21 Dec 2012 48. John Southon. ^ Mayan versus our calendar: astronomy supports the Bohm not the GMT correlation (http://www.org/schele_list. ^ a b Susan Milbrath. Heather V.html) 39. 2008.htm) 35. Freeman.93–95) 43. and so on to 19. Brendan J.7/15/13 Mesoamerican Long Count calendar . ^ http://decipherment. ^ Thompson 1972 pp.0.com/tech/science/2007-03-27-maya2012_n.famsi.283) 52. 13.com/fap9. Flavio S.0. March 28.nature. David A.0. Michael John 2007 The Serpent Series: Precession in the Maya Dresden Codex page 55 "On occasion.usatoday. p. Correlating the Ancient Maya and Modern European Calendars with High-Precision AMS 14C Dating. the next unit above the Bak’tun. ^ "Review of radiocarbon dates from Tikal and the Maya calendar correlation problem" by Elizabeth K.430 n.
Guatemala" (http://www. DIEHL. GRAHAM. London: Thames & Hudson. and JOHN JUSTESON (2005). Mesoweb Articles.htm) (online edition).. p.org/oclc/56746987). Andrews.com/features/boot/DPLHS4. In Deborah M. London: Thames & Hudson. Mexico: from the Olmecs to the Aztecs (5th. Encyclopedia of Archaeology. MARIO (2012).mesoweb.org/wiki/Mesoamerican_Long_Count_calendar 13/14 . Hermann 1933 Emendations of the ‘Serpent Numbers’ of the Dresden Maya Codex. Exploring Ancient Skies: an Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. The Foundation Granting Department: Reports Submitted to FAMSI. Escobedo and S. Cong. Ancient peoples and places series. Berlin: Springer Verlag. MAC DONALD.worldcat.P.worldcat. "An Early Example of the Logogram TZUTZ at San Bartolo" (http://www. London and New York: Thames & Hudson. COE. ^ http://www. FREIDEL. WILLIAM A. Retrieved 2013-03-16. Brady) (Guatemala: Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología): 325–334. (2005).org/notes/wayeb_notes0042. DAVID STUART. Retrieved 2007-04-04.pdf table from Thompson 61. KELLEY.). (FAMSI). Reading the Maya Glyphs.org/oclc/27430287).worldcat.worldcat.org/oclc/50131575). JOHN A. The Olmecs: America's First Civilization..wayeb.pdf) (PDF). KELLEY. Inc.org/notes/wayeb_notes0022.1–7.worldcat. 62. Retrieved 2013-03-15. SATURNO. RICHARD (2004). "The Dos Pilas-Tikal Wars from the Perspective of Dos Pilas Hieroglyphic Stairway 4" (http://www. Retrieved 2013-03-15. IV Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala. COE.pdf) (PDF). MICHAEL D. ^ Beyer. ISBN 978-0-500-28553-4.worldcat. with REX KOONTZ (2002).7/15/13 Mesoamerican Long Count calendar . Retrieved 2007-04-04. (1992). ^ Grofe. 11D.org/issn/1379-8286). GIRON-ABREGO. (Spanish) GRONEMEYER . OCLC 56746987 (//www. Of Amer. ISBN 0-387-95310-8.org/Distances_across_Era_Date. "Glyphs G and F: Identified as Aspects of the Maize God" (http://www. London and New York: Thames & Hudson. Victoria Reifler Bricker (general editor). 27th Int.worldcat. Breaking the Maya Code. Bricker (Volume ed. OCLC 27430287 (//www. E RIC (2002). MICHAEL D.. G. 1943 The Long Count Position of the Serpent Number Dates.famsi. ISBN 0-292en. JEFFREY (27 March 2007).asociaciontikal. SVEN (2006). ISBN [[Special:BookSources/0-88810-081-5|0-88810-0815[[Category:Articles with invalid ISBNs]]]] Check | i s b n =value (help). Science. 451–464. Vol.). 1990 (edited by J.org/oclc/26605966). Retrieved 2009-05-28. (1992). 5: Epigraphy. with Patricia A. PÉREZ DE L ARA. Michael John 2007 The Serpent Series: Precession in the Maya Dresden Codex page 63 Bibliography BOOT. Maya Cosmos: Three thousand years on the shaman's path. revised and enlarged ed. the free encyclopedia 60. Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies.pdf) (PDF).com/tech/science/2007-03-27-maya-2012_n.org/issn/0734-7456). "Does Maya calendar predict 2012 apocalypse?" (http://www. VA: Gannett Company). pp.abstract). Oxford: Academic Press.html). SCHELE. Science. ISSN 1379-8286 (//www.1–23.wayeb. Austin: University of Texas Press. 1: A . "Escultura en bulto Olmeca y Maya en Tak'alik Ab'aj: Su desarrollo y portento" (http://www. ISBN 978-0-12-548030-7.. OCLC 50131575 (//www.sciencemag. H. DAVID H. Vol. COE. USA Today (McLean. Wayeb. "Photographic Documentation of Monuments with Epi-Olmec Script/Imagery" (http://www. 401–405. ISBN 0-500-050619. and L INDA SCHELE and JOY PARKER (1993). L INDA (1992).90%20-%20John%20Graham.usatoday. OCLC 26605966 (//www. "A New Look at the Dynastic History of Palenque". Pearsall. OCLC 2007931569 (//www. DAVID. Wayeb Notes 22: pp. 1939 (Mexico) I: pp.org/oclc/2007931569). Wayeb Notes. ISBN 0-500-02119-8. MICHAEL D. ISSN 0734-7456 (//www. New York: William Morrow. (2008).org/reports/05084/index. DAVID H. and MARK L VAN STONE (2005). pp. Retrieved 2007-03-15. In Victoria R. JORGE. Proc. Mexico.traditionalhighcultures.org/content/311/5765/1281. Laporte. 82–109. Mesoweb. Supplement to the Handbook of Middle American Indians. "Early Maya Writing at San Bartolo.pdf) (PDF online edition). Anthropos (St.Wikipedia. ISBN 0-500-28346-X. and BORIS BELTRAN (2006). Gabriel Mödling bei Wien) 28: pp. "Archaeoastronomy".wikipedia.com/pdf/34.
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