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Final Review Handout General Chemistry Mr.

Ginex-Orinion This is the review handout for the final exam for the first semester. Listed are the topics and vocabulary words to be covered on the final. Chapter 1 (vocab on page 25) Know the branches of chemistry Atom --> element --> compound Extensive vs. intensive Physical properties vs. chemical properties Physical changes vs. chemical changes Mixture vs. pure substance Homogeneous vs. heterogeneous Chapter 2 (vocab on page 58) System vs. surroundings Hypothesis vs. theory Steps of the scientific method Mass vs. weight Base unit vs. derived unit Density calculation Accuracy vs. precision Calculations on percent error Direct vs. inverse proportion Chapter 3 (vocab on page 86) Law of conservation of mass (matter) Law of conservation of energy Daltons atomic theory Strong nuclear force Atomic number, mass number and how to calculate for the # of ps, ns, and e-s Calculating between atoms/molecules to moles to mass, and in reverse Chapter 4 (vocab on page 117) Know the symbols for wavelength, frequency, energy, and the speed of light Colors of the rainbow High energy electromagnetic radiation vs. low energy EM radiation Be able to explain the photoelectric effect Define a quantum and a photon Ground state vs. excited state Faults of the Bohr model Orbit vs. orbital Explain the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Be able to identify the set of quantum numbers for an electron in an orbital diagram shapes of s and p orbitals know how to write complete electron configurations and abbreviated (noble gas) notation Know the Aufbau Principle, Hunds rule, and the Pauli Exclusion Principle Chapter 5 (vocab on page 155) Contributions of Mendeleev and Moseley to chemistry Locations of blocks in the periodic table Groups vs. periods

How the periodic trends of atomic size, ionization energy, electron affinity, and electronegativity exhibit themselves on the periodic table Be able to organize elements according to the periodic trends Be able to explain why ion size decreases with increasing positive charge, and why ion size increases with increasing negative charge Explain electron shielding

Chapter 6 (vocab on page 195) Ionic vs. covalent bonds Non-polar covalent vs. polar covalent vs. ionic Know the diatomic gases The relationship of bond length with the number of bonds The relationship of bond energy with the number of bonds Know the octet rule Be able to draw lewis dot structures Be able to explain why metals conduct electricity (metallic bonds and delocalized electrons) Define malleability and ductility Be able to identify simple shapes of molecules and their bond angles Be able to count bonding areas and lone pairs of electrons around the central atom Dipole-dipole vs. induced dipole vs. hydrogen bonding Chapter 7 (vocab on page 234) Monoatomic vs. polyatomic ions Be able to name simple compounds using ion names, and using prefixes Be able to use criss-cross method to form new ionic compounds Be able to calculate for the percent composition of a compound Be able to calculate for the empirical formula of an unknown compound Be able to calculate for the molecular formula of an unknown compound Chapter 8 (vocab on page 269) Be able to tell the signs of a chemical reaction Be able to balance chemical equations Be able to identify certain symbols used in chemical equations (page 246) Be able to identify types of chemical reactions (exo, endo, synthesis, decomposition, etc.) Chapter 9 (vocab on page 295) Be able to find the theoretical yield of a chemical reaction given the mass of on of its products. Be able to find the percent yield of a chemical reaction given the measured and theoretical masses. Be able to identify the limiting reactant in a reaction Define mole ratio Be able to find the percent error in a reaction Chapter 10 (vocab on page (326) Know the statements of Kinetic Molecular Theory be able to explain why they are assumptions Know the mathematical definitions of the gas laws Know the Gas Laws and be able to do calculations with them Know how to find the density of a gas by using P, T, R and formula mass Chapter 11 (vocab on page 356) Know how to perform calculations using the Ideal Gas Law equation (PV=nRT) Know how to do calculations using Grahams Law of effusion equation