Shallow Footing | Solid Mechanics | Civil Engineering

Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design

(Part A)

By U Win Aung Cho B.E.Civil (Y.T.U) M.Civ.Engg. (Hannover) Date: 14-Oct-2006

U Win Aung Cho Table of Content Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation 1 Types of Spreading Footings 1.1 Single Footing 1.2 Combined Footing 1.3 Strip Footing 1.4 Grid Foundation 1.5 Mat Footing 2 Behavior of Spread Footing on Soil 3 Various Critical Stages of Footing 3.1 Soil Failure Stage 3.2 Structural Failure Stage 3.3 Strength Failure Stage 3.4 Serviceability Stage 4 Design Requirements for Spreading Footing 4.1 Design Procedure • Ultimate Strength Design (USD) • Allowable Stress Design (ASD) 4.2 Bearing Capacity 4.3 Settlements 4.4 Codes and Standard 4.5 Strength Design 4.6 Factor of Safety 4.6.1 Selection of Total Factor of Safety 4.6.2 Selection of Partial Factor of Safety 5 Design to Accommodate Construction 5.1 Dewatering During Construction 5.2 Dealing with Nearby Structures 6 Shallow Foundation Subjected to Vibratory Loading 7 Special Soil Conditions 7.1 Collapsible Soil 7.2 Expansive Clay 7.3 Layered Soil 7.4 Seismic Resisting 7.4.1 Liquefaction 7.4.2 Surface Manifestations 7.4.3 Loss of bearing strength 7.4.4 Ground settlement 7.4.5 Foundation ties 8 Work out Examples on Footings 8.1 Determination of Punching Shear 8.2 Single Footing 8.2.1 Footing Size Selection according to UBC 8.2.2 Design and Settlement of Single Footing 8.3 Combined Footing 8.3.1 Design of Combined Footing without Strap Beam 8.4 Mat Footing 8.4.1 Design and Settlement of Mat Footing 9 Analysis of Footing 9.1 Rigid Footing Lecture on Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design Compiled by U Win Aung Cho



3 Twisting Moment 9.4 Unbalanced Punching Shear 10 Exercises in Glance 10.2 Stability of Footing 10. P.1.2.4 Unbalanced Punching Shear 9.2 Flexible Footing 9. Foundation Design Requirements 3) Robert W.1 Bending Moments 9.E.2 Vertical Line Shear 9.1. Shin-Tower Wang.1 Bending Moments 9. Geotechnical and Foundation Engineering.U Win Aung Cho 9. Isenhower. Reese.1 Bearing Capacity for Layer Soil 10.4 Qualitative Estimation on Strength of Footing 10/13/2006 References for Lecture Preparation: 1) Lymon C. 3/18/02 5) Joseph E.2.1. Design of Concrete Structure (twelfth edition) Lecture on Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design Compiled by U Win Aung Cho 14 .1.3 Twisting Moment 9. S. Bowles. Design and Construction 4) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual (UBC Version) Volume I.2 Vertical Line Shear 9. Errata No.E.2.3 Stability of Overall Structure 10. Foundation Analysis and Design (fifth edition) 6) Nilson H. 2. William M. Day. Analysis and Design of Shallow and Deep Foundations 2) 2003 Commentary.2.

rectangle or circular. Lecture on Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design Compiled by U Win Aung Cho 1 .1 Single Footing Shape of single footing may be square. 1.U Win Aung Cho 10/13/2006 Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation 1 Types of Spreading Footings 1. Trapezoidal or any other unsymmetrical shape should be avoided.2 Combined Footing Two columns may be combined because of the area limitation of one column due to existent of property line or other structure.

( b1 b2 ) R qe R l2.b1 l2 10/13/2006 b1 b2 l1.3 Strip Footing Two or more columns may be combined in single direction of line for economy (continuous slab is cheaper then cantilever slab) and to reduce differential settlement between adjacent columns.4 Grid Foundation Two orthogonal sets of strip footing are combined in two directions of lines.R ( b1 b2 ) qe .( 2 m) l2 l1.l 3 . Lecture on Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design Compiled by U Win Aung Cho 2 .qe 2 . 1.( n m) l b1 2.b2 qe 1.( n m) 2 .( b1 b2 ) b2 c2 l. 1.5 Mat Footing All the foundation slabs are merged into one resulting mat footing.b1 b2 ) 3. The continuous foundation such as strip.b2 ) c1 3.l .( 2 .U Win Aung Cho 3 . grid and mat may be designed with or without beam and pedestals. l ( b1 2 .b1 R l2. Rigidity is better and it reduces differential settlement and variation or pressure under foundation. A footing without beam is flexible and its analysis may request more accurate method such as finite element or finite difference methods.( l1 l2) l1.

footing is always assumed as a rigid plate which is not bent and pressure under footing is assumed as linearly varied or uniformly distributed.U Win Aung Cho 10/13/2006 2 Behavior of Spread Footing on Soil Load from super-structure is spread to satisfactory soil directly underlies the structure by means of footing. There are uncertainties in determining the actual distribution of upward pressure and foundation elements represent themselves massive blocks or thick slab subject to heavy concentrated load from the structure above. That is why the stresses in foundation can not be determined accurately. Lecture on Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design Compiled by U Win Aung Cho 3 . When one uses simplified method in foundation analysis.

Following factors should be included in bearing capacity calculations. 4.2 Structural Failure Stage Unbalanced conditions between acting loads and bearing pressure under individual footing • Assumed pressure distribution is not enough for equilibrium Over all stability of building and its footings • Overturning • Sliding 3. and in most concrete design under ACI 318. are on a strength design basis. To limit settlements. When seismic effects are considered. the strength of the soil stratum underneath the footing must be sufficient and spread the load over a sufficient area to minimize bearing pressure.1 Soil Failure Stage Weak bearing capacity Foundation on unstable slope Support yielding under side load • Ground water table • Liquefaction 3. 4.2 Bearing Capacity The building foundation without seismic forces applied must be adequate to support the building gravity load.U Win Aung Cho 10/13/2006 3 Various Critical Stages of Footing 3.3 Strength Failure Stage When stress analysis is not accurate. This requires that the designer make a transition from the ASD procedure used to size the footing to the USD procedures used to design the footing. • Eccentricity • Load inclination factors • Base and ground inclination • Shape factor • Depth factor • Water table location Lecture on Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design Compiled by U Win Aung Cho 4 . • One-way shear failure • Two-way shear failure • Flexural moment failure 3.4 Serviceability Stage • Total settlement is larger then allowable • Differential settlement is not acceptable 4 Design Requirements for Spreading Footing Total Settlement of the structure be limited to a tolerable amount and differential settlement of the various parts of the structure be eliminated as nearly as possible. the soil capacities can be increased considering the short time of loading and the dynamic properties of the soil.1 Design Procedure • Ultimate Strength Design (USD) • Allowable Stress Design (ASD) Foundation design procedures typically provide soil bearing pressures on an allowable stress design basis while seismic forces in the 1997 UBC.

85.9. psi αs . f'c Vc 3. bd Mu 1. 2 lyc lxc 4 f'c . Allowable for Two-Way Shear αs 40 βc 2 φvc 0.5. 2500.b . Both total and differential settlements must be considered in design Prediction of immediate and time-related movement of the foundation should be consistent with the stiffness of the superstructure. . differential settlement should be some fraction of the maximum. 4. 4.U Win Aung Cho 10/13/2006 4.d Allowable Bearing at Base of Column Lecture on Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design Compiled by U Win Aung Cho 5 . d . Foundations and Retaining Walls in chap 29.d .4 Codes and Standard Many of the codes are silent on aspect of the design of foundations.5 Strength Design Some ACI 318 Provisions are mentioned as follow. Most of the Uniform Building Code includes requirements for Excavation. f'c .ρ .3 Settlements Maximum settlement should occur under the center of foundation and the minimum under the edges. that is. psi bo 4 βc βc = Allowable for One-Way Shear Vu. but the engineer will study carefully any provisions that are given to prevent a violation. The difference between maximum and minimum.

The safety factor should be increased in local failure of soil (loose soil).0003db 4.2 Selection of Partial Factor of Safety The partial safety factors are considered separately to reduce the strength of material.5CaID+ρEh 6 Lecture on Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design Compiled by U Win Aung Cho .0005db At 0.fy .fy 0.02.φ .6L for D > L 1.4D 1.db .6 Factor of Safety The engineer must refer to the building code covering the project for a list of requirements. 0. In allowable bearing capacity estimation. Some partial safety factors are expressed according to ACI318 and UBC. to account for deficiencies in fabrication and for inadequacies in the theory or model of design.φ . The idea of limit states provides the basic consideration of factor of safety.A1 .5 while 3 for single footing.85.005.f'c .fy ls 0. total safety factor is mostly used and it is assumed between 2.A1 .A1 0. ASD D+L+S D+L+E/1. All of ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states should be considered.2D+0.2D+1. A study to determine the quality of data related to the design can help to decide factor of safety.1 Selection of Total Factor of Safety The total factor of safety can be expressed as follow. . F = Rmean/Smean F = factor of safety Rmean = mean value of resistance Smean = mean value of loads Soil resistance should be selected lower-bound values with the service loads which lead to either overstressing a component of foundations or excessive deflection.9D±E/1.4 USD 1. For the fairly stiff footing such as grid and mat factor of safety may be reduced to 2.5L+0.U Win Aung Cho 10/13/2006 φ Pn A2 0. .5 and 3. A1 0. 4.f'c .2 AllPu min( φ Pn ) Dowel Bars Minimum dowel bar length for developement length Minimum lapped splice length Minimum dowel steel area ls max . f'c .6.

Lecture on Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design Compiled by U Win Aung Cho 7 . The will remain under moderate loads.U Win Aung Cho 0. vibration is likely not to be a problem. bond and anchorage Compression member. To avoid uplift from expending clay. There is a suggestion that a plasticity index of 15 or less means that the swelling potential of clay is expected to be little. Preventions from rising water table and saturation are essential. engineer must use stiffened slab on grade or truss ground beam with deep foundation. the soil will collapse.85 0.75 0. 6 Shallow Foundation Subjected to Vibratory Loading The analysis and design of foundations subjected to machine vibration or impact from earthquake is a difficult problem because of the complex interaction between the structural system and supporting soil.2 Expansive Clay During dry weather. on becoming saturated.5CaID+ρEh) Where E = ρEh+Ev Design Consideration Moment without axial load Two-way action. 7 Special Soil Conditions 7.9D-(0. Vibration of sand can cause densification of the sand with consequent settlement of the foundation. If the relative density of the sand close to unity.70 10/13/2006 5 Design to Accommodate Construction 5. The improvement can be treated using chemicals such line. beams and floors should not be contact to such soil. spiral Compression member. The use of well point of good control is acceptable. Make an attention to nearby building not to be affected by lowering the water level beneath the building. however. tied Unreinforced footings Bearing on concrete fi 0. Therefore soil-improvement method must be implemented to make the sand to vibration.90 0. Extraordinary measure must sometimes be taken. including possible underpinning of the foundations of adjacent structures. If clay soil is expensive. If the stratum is thick to remove or stabilize.1 Dewatering During Construction When the foundation is placed under water table. deposited over long periods of time.70 0. the thickness of layer is determined and shallow layer should be removed out. pumping from a sump in the excavation is frequently unacceptable because of the danger of the collapse of the excavation as a result of the lowered effective stress due to the rising water. there will be seen cracks in the surface soil and may extend several feet below ground surface. 5.1 Collapsible Soil Such soil consist of thick strata of windblown fine grains.2 Dealing with Nearby Structures An excavation with a substantial depth for a mat could create several problems. 7. and reinforced by remains of vegetation or by cementation.65 0.

Structural measures that are used to reduce the hazard include deep foundations. A more favorable approach is to employ finite element method. But following should be encountered in judgments.4. For structures supported on shallow foundations. and • The moisture content of the in-place soil is greater than 0.1 Liquefaction It is important to note that soils composed of sands.2 Surface Manifestations Surface manifestations refer to sand boils and ground fissures on level ground sites.005 mm is less than 15 percent of the dry weight of a specimen of the soil. 7. or two or more layers exist in the zone beneath the foundation. and therefore. Flow failures.5 Foundation ties One of the prerequisites of adequate performance of a building during an earthquake is the provision of a foundation that acts as a unit and does not permit one column or wall to move appreciably with respect to another. it is usually important to evaluate the potential for ground settlement during earthquakes.3 Layered Soil Either the soil is of the same sort but with widely varying properties. Flow slides occur when the average static shear stresses on potential failure surfaces are less than the average shear strengths of liquefied soil on these surfaces. • The liquid limit of soil is less than 35 percent. Liquefaction hazard evaluation. • The weight of soil particles finer than 0. They may displace large masses of soils tens of meters. and gravels are most susceptible to liquefaction while clayey soils generally are not susceptible to liquefaction phenomenon. the effects of surface manifestations on the structure could be tilting or cracking. silts. the soils may be considered no liquefiable. 7. The consequence of bearing failure could be settlement or tilting of the structure. The shape of the failure surface is modified to reflect the presence of layers with different characteristics. 7.4.4.U Win Aung Cho 10/13/2006 7. • For soils containing more than 35 percent fines. mat foundations.4 Seismic Resisting In most codes permit a 33% increase in allowable pressure when the effects of wind or earthquake are included. 7.9 times the liquid limit. 7. Well reinforced mat foundations and strongly inter-tied footings have been most effective. or footings interconnected with ties should be considered.3 Loss of bearing strength Loss of bearing strength can occur if the foundation is located within or above the liqefiable layer. Lecture on Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design Compiled by U Win Aung Cho 8 .4. bearing may be based on weakest layer or settlement will control the design. should be consulted when • Gravelly soils are encountered. This amount of settlement could cause tilting or cracking of a building. the amount of ground settlement could approach 3 to 4 percent of the thickness of the loose soil layer in some cases.4. Flow failures or flow slides are the most catastrophic form of ground failure that may be triggered when liquefaction occurs. Standard limit equilibrium static slope stability analyses 7.4 Ground settlement For saturated or dry granular soils in a loose condition. If these criteria are not met.

the resulting seismic actions PE and M E are both positive (+). f1 = 0.ft PL = 30 k PE = ± 40 k VE = 30 k ME = ± 210 k ft (these are the Eh loads due to base shear V ) Snow load S = 0 Wind load W < Eh/1.5. Material data: F`c = 3000 psi Fy = 55000 psi Column Data: Breadth = 30 in Length = 36 in Pu = 1942.ft ( PD includes the footing and imposed soil weight) ML = 6 k . The following information is given: Zone 4.4 ksf 10/13/2006 PunchingSHear.38 kip-ft Muy = 353.1 Determination of Punching Shear Problem: Find punching shear stress for a footing slab having a thickness of 36 in and following 8. Note that when the applied seismic forces on the structure are acting in the left-to-right direction.0. a spread footing supports a reinforced concrete column. Lecture on Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design Compiled by U Win Aung Cho 9 . both PE and M E are negative (-).0 for structural system PD = 80 k M D =15 k . For the right-toleft force direction. and ρ = 1.2. Flexural load M is positive (+) when acting clockwise on the top of the footing. I = 1.4.2 8. it is necessary to define a sign convention: Axial load P is positive (+) when acting downward on the top of the footing.U Win Aung Cho 8 Work out Examples on Footings 8. The soil classification at the site is sand (SW).8 kip Mux = 300.81 kip-ft Soil Data: Qu = 8. Ca = 0.1 Single Footing Footing Size Selection according to UBC Problem: In this example.4 To properly apply load combinations when the interaction of axial load P and flexural load M is involved. The loads given above follow this sign convention.

Check resistance to sliding. Determine the design criteria and allowable bearing Lecture on Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design Compiled by U Win Aung Cho 10 . 3. 10/13/2006 Footing Size. Determine footing size. 2.U Win Aung Cho Find the following: 1.

psi fy 55000 .in 1 1 1 2 .d .2 y1 0 .boy) Vu boy) .x2i x3 i L .5 .41 γvy 1 1 box 2 0 .38 .psi 40 . y23 y3 2 .y2i x3 = 0 in y3 i L .5 y4 boy boy Ixx d .in d qu lyc h 3.d 3 Li .5 .1 / 1 .kip .84 .5 y3 = 0 in x4 .kip Mux lxc ( box 0 . box 3 boy d boy 300. L 3 + 12 3 L2 .25 in x2 y2 Li . boy 3 box 1 2 .39 0 .25 0 36.1 d' Es h Determination of Punching Shear 2.d . 2 12 L2 . L0 12 box 2 0 .d .542 ft boy = box = 5.d .d 12 L0 .d .in γvy = boy 2 0 .in boy 2 boy L box boy box x2 = i 0 . 2 ft 36 .kip .25 0 33.ftMuy lyc d Vu 353.6 kip ( box .qu = Slab Thickness = 36" Column Size kip 8.042 ft αs 40 βc lyc lxc βc = 1.0.400 .psi d = 36.5 in lxc Vu box bo x1 γvx 30 ..0.d . y21 2 y3 2 L3 .2 γvx = f'c 3000 .. y20 3 y3 2 L1 . y22 y3 Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Compiled by U Win Aung Cho Solution 8.81 .d i .d i box box L0 .ft Vu . 3 33.25 0 in y2 = 0 36..Work out Examples on Footings 29000000 .

x4j y3 x3 γvy . Iyy. Ixx .d + vu = vuj .254 164. x20 3 x3 2 L1 . x23 x3 2 . Ixy .226 psi Shear Ratio max ( vu ) min ( φvc ) = 0. 2 f'c .d . L3 12 L0 .d .( x3 Ixx . 1 γvx . x21 2 x3 2 L3 . 1 Vu bo .d 12 12 d .703 162. Provide Shear Reinforcement Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Compiled by U Win Aung Cho Solution 8.. x4j x3 Ixx . k k 0 .803 151. x2i i x3 .d .618 psi 186. k 2 4 βc psi max ( vu ) = 176.( y3 4 Ixy = 0 in 4 vuj .d .Work out Examples on Footings Iyy L1 .d 3 d .301 337.. y4k 176.254 psi Actual Shear Stress 248.( Muy Vu . k y1) ) .d . psi bo 4 min ( φvc ) = 186. x22 y3 x3 Li .( Mux Vu ..1 / 2 . psi φvc = αs .85 .427 in Iyy = 8179124. y2i 4 Ixx = 9284919.. L1 3 + Ixy 12 3 L3 .Iyy Ixy 2 . L2 .552 in j 0 .Iyy Ixy x1 ) ) ..251 vuj .946 OK it less then 1 If Shear Ratio > 1..d .226 Allowable Shear Stress φvc 0. y4k 2 y3 Ixy .

2. criteria for determining footing size are also on this basis. Following load combinations are choosed.4 PE Pa2 = 81.429 kip ME Ma1 = 171 kip .2)(1.kip 210 .ft or 1.4 Ma2 MD ML ME Ma2 = 129 kip . E=ρEh +Ev Since Ev = 0 for allowable stress design.Work out Examples on Footings Solution: 1. These are default values to be used in lieu of site-specific recommendations given in a foundation report for the building.50 +(4 ft -1 ft)(0.ksf V E 30 . reduces to E=ρEh=(1. 2.kip PD MD Pa D 80 . The earthquake loads to be resisted are specified.50)=2.ft 1.ft M L L E 1.kip P E 6 .kip PL 30 . lateral bearing pressure. (UBC 1612. The trial design axial load and moment will be determined for load combination and then checked for the other combinations.kip .9D+E/1.3. They will be used in this example.4 1.4 0. but the positive values are used in this calculation to create the largest bearing pressures. Determine footing size.0)Eh Table 18-1-A of UBC 1805 gives the allowable foundation pressure.ft 15 .2. pa 2.kip . and the lateral sliding friction coefficient.kip .4 .1/1 .4 Because foundation investigation reports for buildings typically specify bearing pressures on an allowable stress design basis.571 kip Pa1 Pa2 Ma1 PD PD MD 1.4 0. Earthquakes loads are in both directions.9D-E/1. For the sand (SW) class of material and footing depth of 4 feet.40 ksf One-third increase in pa is permitted for the load combinations that include earthquake load. the allowable gross foundation pressure pa is pa = 1.4 PL PL ML PE Pa1 = 138. Determine the design criteria and allowable bearing pressure.) D+L+S D+L+E/1.ftM E 40 .4 Lecture on Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design Compiled by U Win Aung Cho Solution 8.

9 . o. A positive (+) PE cannot occur at the same time as minus (-) M E since each sign corresponds to the particular direction of the applied seismic force loading.33pa =1.118 kip ft p = 0. e1 e2 Ma1 Pa1 Ma2 Pa2 e1 = 1.5 kip .571 kip 1.2.1/2 .P D 0.L 6 S = 121.12 ksf <1.9 .D Pa1 E 1. 3.4 ME Ma1 = 163.40)= 3.M D 0.5 kip .k.9 .33 ( 2.Work out Examples on Footings Select trial footing size.ft or Ma2 = 136.4 or Pa 0.9 .4 Note that according to the stated sign convention.143 ft Check for partial uplift.303 2 or p kip ft 2 Check bearing pressure against gross allowable with the one-third increase for seismic loads.ft Ma2 1.4 or 0.ft A 3 B . Footing area A and section modulus S are computed as B S 9 .4 Ma1 ME 1. where L = width of footing and L/6 is the limit of the kern area Lecture on Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design Compiled by U Win Aung Cho Solution 8.P D 0. Check for the next load combination Pa 0.M D PE Pa1 = 100.9 .429 kip 1.626 ft e2 = 3. and minus (-) values are due to the right to left load direction.4 Pa2 PE Pa2 = 43. This occurs when the magnitude of e exceeds L/6.D E 1.20 ksf.5 ft Calculated soil pressures P due to axial load and moment using the largest values of Pa and M a are p Pa1 A Pa1 A Ma1 S Ma1 S p = 3.9 .L 2 L 9 . the positive (+) values for PE and ME correspond to an applied seismic force loading from left to right. Try 9 ft x 9 ft footing size.ft B .

L 3 If p had been greater than 1. For the load combination 0.33pa . 1 Pa1 .pa = 3. = 3. check the gravity load combination for p < pa = 2.40 ksf .5 k . must be checked. there is partial uplift.192 ksf a2 .5 ft Since the magnitude of e = 1.ft . 1 Pa2 . L for e1 = 1.4. ( 3 .357 ft 2 ( 3 .4 kips and Ma = -136.5 k .63 or . the load combinations with Pa = 43.33 . Lecture on Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design Compiled by U Win Aung Cho Solution 8.192 ksf e2 = 3.371 ksf < ft 2.592 ksf < 1.9D .a .ft or with Pa = 100.a ) .874 ft a2 = 1.15 > 1.6 kips and Ma = 163.143 ft the bearing pressure is 2. For the footing free-body: Pa Rp p.626 ft for e2 = 3. p2 = 2.5.B 2 Rp = Pressure resultant Note that Rp must be co-linear with Pa such that the length of the triangular pressure distribution is equal to 3a. and a triangular pressure distribution is assumed to occur. a1 a2 2 L e1 e2 a1 = 2.L 3 the bearing pressure is p1 = 2.L ) 2 e1 = 1.Work out Examples on Footings L 6 = 1.33 . a1 .1/3 . This is shown below.E/1.143 ft Pa for p1 for p2 p. the footing size would have to be increased.

2. 3.Work out Examples on Footings Pa D Pa Ma L PL Ma M D ML PD Pa = 110 kip M D M L Ma = 21 kip .ft .9D will be used because it has the lowest value of vertical load ( 0.2 . the friction coefficient and lateral bearing pressure for resistance to sliding can be determined from Table 18-1-A.1 > 21.25 Friction coefficient Lateral bearing resistance pL = 150 psf/foot ´ depth in feet below grade Assume the footing is 2 feet thick with its base 4 feet below grade.185 ksf S A All applicable load combinations are satisfied. therefore a 9ft x 9ft footing is adequate.k.9 .9PD = 0.µ = 18 kip p L .ksf Load combination of 0. The vertical and lateral loads to be used in the sliding resistance calculations are: P = 0. No sliding occurs Lecture on Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design Compiled by U Win Aung Cho Solution 8.1 kip The resistance due to friction is The resistance from lateral bearing is The total resistance is then the sum of the resistance due to friction and the resistance due to lateral bearing pressure. o. Average resistance on the 2 feet deep by 9 feet wide footing face is (300 + 600 )/2 = 450 psf pL 0.B = 8.4 kips.531 ksf S A Pa Ma p2 p2 = 1. Unless specified in the foundation report for the building.9D = 0.9PD ).ft Pa Ma p1 p1 = 1.1/4 . Total resistance = 18.450 .4 0.P D . Check resistance to sliding.1 = 26. These values are: µ 0.0 + 8.9 (80)= 72 kips Lateral Load Fl VE 1.

which includes the footing and imposed soil weight. Factored soil pressure due to load combination D + L + Eh/1. To obtain the moment and shear actions prescribed in UBC1915.1 is interpreted as follows.5 (1.4 and UBC1915.5 for the strength design of the reinforced concrete footing section.4 = 0.5 ( 3.68 ksf or 0.4 = D + L + Eh/1. will be used. Factored soil pressure due to load combination D + L .Work out Examples on Footings No sliding occurs 4.45 ksf Lecture on Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design Compiled by U Win Aung Cho Solution 8. in this example gross value of dead load PD . Determine soil pressure reactions for strength design of footing section.2. UBC1915.30 ksf or1. the resulting strength design reaction soil pressures are: 1. The resulting strength design reaction soil pressures are: 1. The appropriate factor is taken equal to 1.4 The corresponding soil pressures have been calculated in Part 2 of this example.79 ksf b.30 ksf )= 4. The applicable allowable soil pressures to be considered are due to the following allowable stress load combinations: D+L+S=D+L D + L + E/1.53 ksf or1.1/5 . For both simplicity and conservatism.9D ± E/1. This value (which has been approved by the SEAOC Seismology Committee) provides a reasonably conservative envelope for the strength design load combinations for the common case where live load L is less than dead load D. Using the assigned load factor of 1. a. The induced reactions necessary to compute the design moments and shears may be obtained by applying an appropriate factor to the allowable stress design soil pressures found in Part 2 for the determination of the footing area.5.5 for all of the allowable stress load combinations.4 .2.12 ksf or 0.4 0.9D ± Eh/1.19 ksf )= 2.

1 per Exception 1 of UBC 1612. the method may result in unstable solutions. then only 0.2.6 for live.Eh 1.4 is governed by D + L + Eh 1. since it is used as a load for concrete section design rather than for determining footing size. however. Note that the resulting moment and shear actions must be multiplied by 1. Noting that 0.4 load combination governs.2. Factored soil pressure due to load combination 0.4 needs to be considered.5 load factor.0 for earthquake.4 .5 factor” method shown above can be used for the design of individual spread footings without further consideration of the actions on the column. while dead.4.9 or 1.9D + Eh 1.9D . The resulting strength design soil pressure reactions for the triangular distribution are: 1.38 ksf or 0)= 3. and 1.Work out Examples on Footings c. live.1. In this situation. This is because the soil bearing pressure has a 1. f1 or 1. For footings with two or more columns.57 ksf or 0 The factored soil pressures due to the D + L + Eh/1. Note also that the factored value of p need not be less than 1. static equilibrium very likely will not be achieved. The “1.20 ksf. Lecture on Spread Footing/Shallow Foundation Analysis and Design Compiled by U Win Aung Cho Solution 8. the designer may need to determine the contribution of each load case to the “factored” soil pressure.5 ( 2.2 for dead. Thus.9D ± Eh 1.33pa = 3.1/6 . and earthquake loads factors are 0.

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