Data Communications and Networking

Chapter 9 High Speed LANs and Wireless LANs

References: Book Chapters 16 and 17 Data and Computer Communications, 8th edition By William Stallings

• Fundamentals of Ethernet

• Ethernet Examples
—10-Mbps Ethernet —Fast Ethernet —Gigabit Ethernet —10-Gbps Ethernet

• 802.11 Wireless LANs


• Most widely used high-speed LANs
— Ethernet (10Mbps, 100Mbps, 1Gbps, 10Gbps) — Fibre channel — High-speed wireless LANs

• Ethernet protocol is developed by IEEE 802.3 standards committee, consisting of
— Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer (CSMA/CD protocol)
• the key part of this chapter

— Physical Layer

• Earlier MAC schemes:
— ALOHA — Slotted ALOHA — CSMA

• ALOHA protocol is developed for packet radio networks, but applicable to any shared transmission medium.
— A number of stations share the transmission medium. Two or more simultaneous transmissions will cause a collision.

— — — — — When station has frame, it sends Station listens for an amount of time If its hears an ACK, fine. If not, it retransmits the frame after a random time If no ACK after several transmissions, it gives up Frame check sequence can be used for error detection

• • •

— If frame is OK and address matches receiver, sends ACK — Otherwise, ignores this frame and does nothing

Frame may be damaged by noise or by another station transmitting at the same time (collision). Overlap of frames also causes collision. ALOHA is simple, but very inefficient
— Assuming random traffic, the maximum channel utilization is only about 18%



was developed. a modification of ALOHA.Slotted ALOHA • To improve efficiency. • Time is organized into uniform slots whose size equals the frame transmission time —Need a central clock (or other sync mechanism) • Transmission begins only at a slot boundary —Consequence: frames either miss or overlap totally • Maximum channel utilization can be improved to about 37% 6 . known as slotted ALOHA .

Slotted ALOHA 7 .

it is not difficult for a station to ᾿ sense῀ the channel status (free or not). collisions could happen.CSMA • Why ALOHA and slotted ALOHA are so inefficient? — Stations donᾼ t check the channel status. 8 . • In fact. which creates too many collisions. • CSMA: Carrier Sense Multiple Access — Stations listen to the channel (carrier sense) — Stations ᾿ know῀ whether the channel is free or not — Stations transmit only if the channel is free — Collisions become rare • Only if two or more stations attempt to transmit at about the same time. They just send out frames without considering whether the channel is free or not.

• To account for this.) • In traditional LANs. a station waits for an ACK • If no ACK after a reasonable time. 1-persistent CSMA. then retransmit • What should a station do if the medium is found busy? — Three different approaches: nonpersistent CSMA. and p -persistent CSMA 9 .CSMA (Cont. there will be a collision. transmit the frame — If two or more stations start at about the same instant. propagation time is much less than frame transmission time — Remark: this may not be true for 1Gbps and 10Gbps Ethernet • All stations know that a transmission has started almost immediately by ᾿ carrier sense῀ • Details of CSMA — Stations first listen for clear medium (carrier sense) — If medium is idle.

If medium is idle. 10 . transmit. go to step 2 2. If medium is busy. otherwise. both will attempt to transmit at same time  collision • Drawback: — Capacity is wasted because medium will generally remain idle following the end of a transmission.Nonpersistent CSMA • A station wishing to transmit listens to the medium and obeys the following rules: 1. wait an amount of time drawn from a probability distribution and repeat step 1 • The use of random delays reduces probability of collisions — Consider two stations become ready to transmit at about the same time while another transmission is in progress — If both stations delay the same amount of time before retrying. even if there are one or more stations waiting to transmit.

1-persistent protocol can be used • A station wishing to transmit listens to the medium and obeys the following rules: 1.1-persistent CSMA • To avoid idle channel time. If medium is busy. otherwise. continue to listen until the channel is sensed idle. a collision is guaranteed. 11 . If medium is idle. then transmit immediately. • 1-persistent stations are selfish • Drawback: — If two or more stations are waiting to transmit. go to step 2 2. transmit.

and delay one time unit with probability (1 ᾶ p) • The time unit is typically equal to the maximum propagation delay • 2. If the medium is idle. transmit with probability p. continue to listen until the channel is idle and repeat step 1 3. If transmission is delayed one time unit. repeat step 1 • Question: — What is an effective value of p? 12 . and reduce idle time.p-persistent CSMA • p-persistent CSMA is a compromise that attempts to reduce collisions. If the medium is busy. like nonpersistent. like 1-persistent Rules: 1.

.e. as p is made smaller. which results in very long delays. 13 . n) times the probability of transmitting (i. However.. all stations try to send • Continuous collisions. stations must wait longer to attempt transmission. p): np If np > 1. p should be small such that np < 1. the expected number of stations attempting to transmit is the number of stations ready (i. zero throughput • • • So np should be less than 1 for expected peaks of n Drawback of p-persistent: — If heavy load is expected. on average there will be a collision — Repeated attempts to transmit almost guarantee more collisions — Retries compete with new transmissions from other stations — Eventually.Value of p? • • Assume n stations are waiting to transmit while a transmission is taking place At the end of transmission.e.

2. Stations listen whilst transmitting. referred to as backoff . continue to listen until the channel is idle. transmit a brief jamming signal to assure that all stations know that there has been a collision and then cease transmission After transmitting the jamming signal. The problem of CSMA: — A collision occupies medium for the duration of a frame transmission. If collision is detected. wait a random amount of time. Collision Detection: — Rules of CSMA/CD: If the medium is idle. which is not good for long frames. transmit. 3. then attempt to transmit again (repeat from step 1) 14 . otherwise. then transmit immediately If a collision is detected during transmission. 4. stop transmission immediately.CSMA/CD: CSMA with Collision Detection • • • 1. go to step 2 If the medium is busy.

CSMA/CD Operation C detects a collision! A detects a collision! 15 .

16 . using carrier extension or frame bursting . For 1Gbps Ethernet.Collision Detection The amount of time that it takes to detect a collision is no greater than twice the end-to-end propagation delay. the frame length is at least 4096 bits. the frame length is at least 512 bits. then collision detection does not occur. Frames should be long enough to allow collision detection prior to the end of transmission. If shorter frames are used. For 10 and 100Mbps Ethernet.

3 and Ethernet use binary exponential backoff 17 . stations involved in a collision are unlikely to collide on next tries —To ensure backoff maintains stability. IEEE 802.3 uses 1-persistent • Both nonpersistent and p-persistent have performance problems • 1-persistent seems to be more unstable than ppersistent.Which Persistence Algorithm? • IEEE 802. due to the greed of the stations • But wasted time due to collisions is short (if frames are long relative to propagation delay) • With random backoff.

it is at least as stable as the other techniques • Problem: Backoff algorithm gives last-in. 1-persistence guarantees that a station can seize channel as soon as the channel goes idle — At high loads. • 1-persistent algorithm with binary exponential backoff is efficient over a wide range of loads — At low loads. first-out effect — Stations with no or few collisions will have a chance to transmit before stations that have waited longer 18 . stations back off by larger and larger amounts to reduce the probability of collision.Binary Exponential Backoff • Rules of binary exponential backoff: — A station attempts to transmit repeatedly in the face of repeated collisions — For the first 10 attempts. the station gives up and reports an error • As congestion increases. the mean value of the random delay is doubled — The mean value then remains the same for 6 additional attempts — After 16 unsuccessful attempts.

IEEE 802. excluding the preamble and SFD. Pad: octets added to ensure that the frame is long enough for collision detection 19 .3 Frame Format ᶟ ᶟ Preamble: 7 octets of 10101010 SFD: 10101011 Length: the maximum frame size is 1518 octets.

10Mbps Specification (Ethernet) • IEEE 802. • The nation follows the rule of — <data rate in Mbps><Signaling method><Max segment length in hundreds of meters> 20 .3 defined a number of physical configurations.

Ethernet-compatible LAN operating at 100 Mbps.3 MAC protocol and frame format 100BASE-X refers to a set of options that use two physical links between nodes: one for ttransmission and one for reception — 100BASE-TX for twisted pair — 100BASE-FX for optical fiber • • 100BASE-T4 can use Category 3 UTP cable • • Uses four twisted-pair lines between nodes Data transmission uses three pairs in one direction at a time Star-wire topology — Similar to 10BASE-T 21 .3 committee to provide a low-cost.100Mbps Fast Ethernet • • Fast Ethernet refers to a set of specifications developed by IEEE 802. — Use IEEE 802.

• Not necessary for Ethernet switches because there is no contention for a shared medium. • For shared-medium hub operation.3.Gigabit Ethernet • The Gigabit Ethernet uses the same CSMA/CD frame format and MAC protocol as used in the 10Mbps and 100Mbps version of IEEE 802. 22 . there are two enhancements to the basic CSMA/CD — Carrier extension • Appends a set of special symbols to the end of short MAC frames so that the resulting block is at least 4096 bit-times in duration (512 bit-times for 10/100Mbps) — Frame bursting • Allows for multiple short frames to be transmitted consecutively (up to a limit) without giving up control for CSMA/CD between frames. It avoids the overhead of carrier extension when a single station has a number of small frames ready to send.

Gigabit Ethernet Configuration 23 .

10-Gbps Ethernet • 10-Gbps Ethernet can be used to provide high-speed. local backbone interconnection between large-capacity switches. 24 . — Our departmental Ethernet uses 10-Gbps Ethernet at the backbone.

25 .10-Gbps Ethernet Configuration 10-Gbps Ethernet also targets at Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) and WANs.

26 . • Wireless LAN applications —LAN Extension —Cross-building Interconnection —Nomadic Access —Ad Hoc Networking • An ad hoc network is a peer-to-peer network (without centralized server) set up temporarily to meet some immediate need.Wireless LANs • Wireless LAN makes use of a wireless transmission medium.

WLAN Configurations (option1 of 2): Infrastructure Wireless LAN 27 .

WLAN Configurations (option2 of 2): Ad Hoc LAN 28 .

83.4835 GHz) ---.4-GHz band (2.4-2.8-GHz band (5.100 MHz of bandwidth 29 .Wireless LAN Technology • Infrared (IR) LANs —An individual cell of an IR LAN is limited to a single room.5 MHz of bandwidth • 5. three microwave bands for unlicensed use • 915-MHz band (902-928 MHz) ---. because infrared light does not penetrate opaque walls • Spread spectrum LANs —The most popular type —In United States.825 GHz) ---.725-5.26 MHz of bandwidth • 2.

or wireless network — An Extended Service Set (ESS) consists of two or more BSSs interconnected by a DS.11 Architecture — The smallest building block is Basic Service Set (BSS) • A number of stations executing the same MAC protocol • Shared wireless medium • BSS corresponds to a cell — A BSS may be isolated. or may connect to a Backbone Distribution System (DS) through an Access Point (AP) • • • • AP functions as a bridge and a relay point AP could be a station which has the logic to provide DS services AP corresponds to a Control Module (CM) DS can be a switch.11 products • IEEE 802.11 is devoted to wireless LANs.11 • IEEE 802. 30 . — Consists of MAC and physical layer protocols for wireless LANs • The Wi-Fi Alliance (Wi-Fi: Wireless Fidelity) — An industry consortium — To certify interoperability for 802.IEEE 802. wired network.

IEEE 802.11 Architecture 31 .

IEEE 802.11 Protocol Architecture Physic al Layer 32 .

11b • 2.11g extends IEEE 802.11b to higher data rates.5 and 11 Mbps • Most recent in 2002 — IEEE 802. data rate at 5.802. data rate up to 54 Mbps — IEEE 802. up to 54 Mbps • At present — IEEE 802.11 Physical Layer • Issued in four stages • First part in 1997 — — — — IEEE 802.4-GHz band and one infrared All operating at 1 and 2 Mbps • Two additional parts in 1999 — IEEE 802.4-GHz band.11n: data rate up to hundreds of Mbps 33 .11 Includes MAC layer and three physical layer specifications Two in 2.11a • 5-GHz band.

Medium Access Control • MAC layer has three functions —Reliable data delivery • Different from Ethernet. —Access control • Distributed access • Centralized access —Security 34 . wireless LANs suffer from considerable unreliability.

retransmit • To further enhance reliability. because collision only occurs on the RTS frame. so they refrain from transmission in order to avoid collision — Destination responds with ACK • The purpose of RTS/CTS — The collision time is shortened. four-frame exchange may be used — — — — Source issues a Request to Send (RTS) frame to destination Destination responds with Clear to Send (CTS) After receiving CTS.11 includes frame exchange protocol — Station receiving frame returns acknowledgment (ACK) frame — The exchange of these two frames is treated as atomic unit • Not interrupted by any other station — If no ACK frame received within short period of time. source transmits data RTS and CTS notify other stations that a transmission is under way. which is very short compared with data frames 35 .Reliable Data Delivery • • 802. interference. frames may not successfully be received 802. and other propagation effects result in loss of frames — Even with error-correction codes.11 physical and MAC layers subject to unreliability — Noise.

36 . B and C can hear each other.e. C When A is sending data to B.e. B).. This will cause a collision at B.. A collisio n B Consider the effect of RTS/CTS: RTS alerts all stations within range of source (i. But A and C cannot hear each other. CTS alerts all stations within range of destination (i. C cannot sense this activity and hence C is allowed to send data to B at the same time.Hidden Terminal Problem A and B can hear each other. A) that exchange is under way.

11 products. DCF is widely used. 37 .Medium Access Control • Two sublayers • Lower sublayer is distributed coordination function (DCF) — Uses a contention algorithm to provide access to all traffic • Higher sublayer is point coordination function — Uses a centralized algorithm — Contention free — Implemented on top of DCF (PCF) • Remark: PCF has not been popularly implemented in todayᾼ s 802.

If the medium is idle. which is determined by the absence of an ACK. Why not collision detection? — — — Collision detection is not practical on wireless networks The dynamic range of wireless signals is very large The transmitting station cannot distinguish incoming weak signals from noise and/or effects of own transmission 38 . 4. the station delays another IFS. During the backoff time. Once the transmission is over. it waits to see if the medium remains idle for a time equals to a delay called Interframe Space (IFS). if the medium becomes busy. If the medium is busy. the station may transmit immediately. where CA refers to as Collision Avoidance 1.Distributed Coordination Function: CSMA/CA • DCF sublayer uses CSMA/CA protocol. If the medium remains idle for this period. then the station backs off a random amount of time and again senses the medium. If so. then it is assumed that a collision has occurred. A station with a frame to transmit senses the medium. 3. binary exponential backoff is used. 2. If the medium is still idle. If the transmission is unsuccessful. • • To ensure that backoff maintains stability. the station defers transmission and continues to monitor the medium until the current transmission is over. the backoff timer is halted and resumes when the medium becomes idle. the station may transmit.

ACK (Acknowledgement). etc. or data • Control Frames: • RTS. 39 .11 MAC Frame Format ῆ Frame Control: Indicates the type of frame • control. management. • Management Frames: • to manage communications between stations and APs. CTS.IEEE 802.

receiver address ῆ Sequence Control: ᾷ 4-bit fragment number subfield used for fragmentation and reassembly ᾷ 12-bit sequence number used to number frames between given transmitter and receiver ῆ Frame Body: ᾷ MSDU or a fragment of an MSDU 40 . indicates the time (in s) the channel will be allocated for successful transmission of a MAC frame ᾷ In some control frames.MAC Frame Fields ῆ Duration/Connection ID: ᾷ If used as duration field. destination address. contains association or connection identifier ῆ Addresses: ᾷ The number and meaning of the 48-bit address fields depend on context ᾷ source address. transmitter address.