Bolting Torque Data - Torque Required to Produce Bolt Stress

The torque or turning effort required to produce a certain stress in bolting is dependent upon a number of conditions, some of which are: • • • • Diameter of bolt Type and number of threads on bolt. Material of bolt. Condition of nut bearing surfaces.

• Lubrication of bolt threads and nut bearing surfaces. The tables below reflect the results of many tests to determine the relation between torque and bolt stress. Values are based on steel bolting well lubricated with a heavy graphite and oil mixture. It was found that a non-lubricated bolt has an efficiency of about 50 percent of a well lubricated bolt and also that different lubricants produce results varying between the limits of 50 and 100 percent of the tabulated stress figures. Data for Use with Machine Bolts and Cold Rolled Steel Stud Bolts Load in Pounds on Bolts and Stud Bolts when Torque Loads Are Applied
Nominal Diameter Of Bolt (Inches) Number Of Threads Per Inch) Diameter At Root Of Thread (Inches) Area At Root Of Thread (Sq. Inch) 7,500 PSI Torque Ft. Lbs. Compression, Lbs. 15,000 PSI Torque Ft. Lbs. Compression, Lbs. 30,000 PSI Torque Ft. Lbs. Compression, Lbs.

1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2 1-5/8 1-3/4 1-7/8 2

20 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 7 6 6 5-1/2 5 5 4-1/2

0.185 0.24 0.294 0.345 0.4 0.454 0.507 0.62 0.731 0.838 0.939 1.064 1.158 1.283 1.389 1.49 1.615 1.711

0.027 0.045 0.068 0.093 0.126 0.162 0.202 0.302 0.419 0.551 0.693 0.89 1.054 1.294 1.515 1.744 2.049 2.3

1 2 3 5 8 12 15 25 40 62 98 137 183 219 300 390 525 563

203 338 510 698 945 1215 1515 2265 3143 4133 5190 6675 7905 9705 11363 13080 15368 17250

2 4 6 10 15 23 30 50 80 123 195 273 365 437 600 775 1050 1125

405 675 1020 1395 1890 2430 3030 4530 6285 8265 10380 13350 15810 19410 22725 26160 30735 34500

4 8 12 20 30 45 60 100 160 245 390 545 730 875 1200 1550 2100 2250

810 1350 2040 2790 3780 4860 6060 9060 12570 16530 20760 26700 31620 38820 45450 52320 61470 69000

Data For Use with Alloy Steel Stud Bolts Load in Pounds on Stud Bolts when Torque Loads Are Applied
Nominal Diameter Of Stud (Inches) Area At Number Diameter Root Of 30,000 PSI Of At Root Of Thread Torque Ft. Threads Thread (Sq. Lbs. Per Inch (Inches) Inch) STRESS 45,000 PSI Torque Ft. Lbs. 60,000 PSI Torque Ft. Lbs.

Compression, Lbs.

Compression, Lbs.

Compression, Lbs.

213 1.068 0.292 5.68 1.162 0.728 0.345 0.98 2.423 4.027 0.731 0.838 2.463 1.963 1.4 0.304 2.324 4 8 12 20 30 45 60 100 160 245 355 500 680 800 1100 1500 2000 2200 3180 4400 5920 7720 810 1350 2040 2790 3780 4860 6060 9060 12570 16530 21840 27870 34650 42150 50400 59400 69120 79560 102690 128760 157770 189720 6 12 18 30 45 68 90 150 240 368 533 750 1020 1200 1650 2250 3000 3300 4770 6600 8880 11580 1215 2025 3060 4185 5670 7290 9090 13590 18855 24795 32760 41805 51975 63225 75600 89100 103680 119340 154035 193140 236655 284580 8 16 24 40 60 90 120 200 320 490 710 1000 1360 1600 2200 3000 4000 4400 6360 8800 11840 15440 1620 2700 4080 5580 7560 9720 12120 18120 25140 33060 43680 55740 69300 84300 100800 118800 138240 159120 205380 257520 315540 379440 Installation Tips .259 6.202 0.652 3.24 0.088 2.126 0.093 0.338 1.588 1.405 1.338 2.551 0.507 0.838 0.045 0.838 0.62 0.155 1.088 1.588 2.929 1.713 1.1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2 1-5/8 1-3/4 1-7/8 2 2-1/4 2-1/2 2-3/4 3 20 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 0.454 0.185 0.302 0.294 0.419 0.

each nut. Torque bolts in a minimum of four stages as listed in Steps 7. it is extremely important to follow a proper bolting sequence. . they cannot be brought back parallel. increasing the torque to the final torque value. pitting. When flanges will be subjected to high temperatures.) 6. If the joint is vertical it may be necessary to use some cup grease or a few dabs of gasket cement or some other adhesive compatible with the process fluids. Torque the bolts up to a maximum of thirty percent of the final torque value required following the sequence recommended. (See charts for bolting sequence. Make sure the material is as specified. improper installation procedures. and to compensate for all flange movement due to thermal changes. The importance of proper lubrication cannot be overstressed. replace that item. and the facing on the flanges against which the nuts will rotate. 2. the flanges can be cocked. scratches or pitting by corrosion and make sure that the gasket seating surface is proper for the type of gasket being used. center the gasket midway into the recess or the groove. the gasket is expected to make up for any and all deficiencies in design. 8. If remachining of flanges is not possible. 3. Gasket Installation Procedures (And Bolt Torquing) 1. 9. Repeat step 7. Insert the gasket between the flange facing to allow the bolts to center the gasket on the assembly." This is not strictly true. There are available on the market today a vast variety of suitable lubricants that can be selected to provide the necessary low coefficient of friction for installation and adequate anti-seize properties for high temperature application. Install the balance of the bolts and nuts and bring all to a hand-tight or snug condition. If this sequence is not followed. Experience in investigating leaky joints over the years has indicated the most common cause of leaky joints improper installation procedures being followed. vibrations. Look for tool marks.etc. of course. Then. Repeat step 8. Inspect the gasket. pressure changes. increasing the torque to approximately 60 percent of the final torque required. 9. to keep the gasket in position until the flanges are tightened. With raised face and flat face installation. Look for severe galling. loosely install the stud bolts on the lower half of the flange. This problem. 7. design and installation. the more consistent will be the actual achieved bolt stress at installation. Unfortunately. investigate the use of patching cements such as Devcon which can be fairly effective in repairing the gasket seating surfaces. each washer. high-temperature applications. 5. Radial tool marks on a gasket seating surface are virtually impossible to seal regardless of the type gasket being used. 8. 10. No joint should be made up without the proper lubricant being applied to the threaded surfaces and to the nut facings. The better the lubricant. Inspect the gasket seating surfaces. etc. Inspect and clean each stud or bolt. the use of an antiseize compound should be considered to facilitate subsequent disassembly.Installation and Maintenance Tips For All Gaskets All too often we hear "the gasket leaks. it is suggested that the flanges be retightened to the required stress after 24 hours at operating pressures and temperatures to compensate for any relaxation or creep that may have occurred. cracks. It is the joint that leaks and the gasket is one component of several that make up the joint. With any gasket material. and 10 below. therefore every attempt must be made to minimize these. regardless of the amount of subsequent torquing. look for any possible defects or damage in the gasket. If any of the above mentioned items are damaged beyond repair. is maximized on metallic gaskets more so than on nonmetallic. 4. On high-pressure.) Number bolts so that torquing requirements can be followed. In many cases the gasket will do these things but only when careful attention is given to all the aspects of gasket selection. (if the gasket is being installed in a recess or a groove. Lubricate all thread contact areas and nut facings.

Bolt Torque Sequence .

8 Bolts 12 Bolts 16 Bolts 20 Bolts .

Troubleshooting Leaking Joints One of the best available tools to aid in determining the cause of leakage is a careful examination of the gasket in use when leakage occurred. .

i.D. If flanges are warped. Review gasket dimensions to insure gaskets are proper size. re-machined or use softer material. Indicative of "flange bridging" between bolts or warped flanges. than I. Provide reinforcing rings for flanges to better distribute bolt load. Provide additional bolts if possible to obtain better load distribution. more dense.D. Gasket mechanically damaged due to overhang of raised face or flange bore. Make certain gaskets are properly centered in joint. select replacement material with better load carrying capacity . Select replacement material with better load carrying capacity. Alter gasket dimensions O. . Select thicker gasket material. No apparent gasket compression achieved Select softer gasket material. Select gasket material with lower seating stress. Reduce gasket area to allow higher unit seating load. Improper bolting up procedures followed. to move gasket reaction closer to bolts to minimize bending movement. Gasket unevenly compressed around circumference Gasket thickness varies periodically around circumference.e.. Make certain proper sequential bolt up procedures are followed. Provide stiffness to flange by means of back-up rings. Gasket Substantially thinner Indicative of excessive "flange rotation" or bending. Select soft gasket material to lower required seating stresses. provide means to prevent crushing the gasket by use of a stop ring or re-design of flanges. Reduce gasket area to lower seating stresses.Gasket Badly Corroded Gasket Extruded Excessively Gasket Grossly Crushed Select replacement material with improved corrosion resistance Select replacement material with better cold flow properties.

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