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Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment Vol.10 (2): 746-750. 2012

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Model setting of the micromineral supplementation values in laying hens raised in organic system
Dan Drinceanu, Lavinia Stef, Eliza Simiz *, Călin Julean and Domnica Sofian
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Banat, Aradului Street, 119, RO – 300645, Timisoara, Romania. *e-mail: esimiz@animalsci-tm.ro
Received 2 December 2011, accepted 24 April 2012.

Abstract
The experiment on mineral supplementation of feed in egg-laying hens was carried out in concordance with the national and common legislation, with the feeding and maintenance conditions specific to the organic system. According to the experimental organization scheme, a group of 90 egg-laying hens, with the age of 19-34 weeks were used per replicate making ten birds per treatment. The hens were randomly distributed in three experimental variants and fed on a basic CM (concentrate mixture); the differentiating nutritional factor was represented by the level of microelement supplementation, as follows: G1 (30 hens) fed on CM, without mineral premix; the micromineral participation was provided by the CM basic components, determined according to specific chemical analyses, Fe 60.68, Mn 20.33, Zn 28.16, Cu 7.73, Co 0.12, I 0.06 and Se 0.26 mg/kg DM of CM; G2 (30 hens) fed on CM, with supplementation of mineral premix; the microelement participation was adapted to the extensive breeding and the supplementation was Fe 70.68, Mn 40.33, Zn 48.16, Cu 9.23, Co 0.24, I 0.26, Se 0.36 mg/kg DM of CM; G3 (30 hens) fed on CM + mineral premix with double microelement supplementation, adapted to the intensive breeding, reaching the level of Fe 80.68, Mn 60.33, Zn 68.16, Cu 10.73, Co 0.37, I 0.46, Se 0.46 mg/kg DM of CM. In this experiment, we determined the nutritive indices and also the bioproductive indices related to egg quantity and quality. Mineral supplementation of feed in egg-laying hens for an extensive growth significantly influenced on the egg-mass, the feed conversion ratio, and from the egg quality indices, the albumen index and the Haugh index. The results prove the necessity of feeding supplementation with microminerals in the egg-laying hens bred in organic systems as well, but with levels adapted to the extensive breeding. Key words: Laying hens, egg characteristics, organic production, mineral nutrition.

Introduction The use of organic systems for poultry production is growing due to consumer demand for specialty “natural” and “welfarefriendly” meat and eggs 1, 2. In poultry production the organic farming 3 allows the hens to have access to outdoor pens (4 m 2/ hen). They should be kept at a low density (6 hen/m 2 of poultry house) in very small units (3000 hens/house). Moreover the feed must be formulated by using only organic raw materials without including solvent extracted meals, synthetic supplements such as aminoacids, growth promoters, and antioxidants. The nutritional, hygienic, sensorial and technological qualities of products of animal origin (including eggs) are not very different between those raised under organic and conventional methods 4. In an overview 5, concerning the effect of conventional and freerange raising systems on productivity and product quality, it was not established as one being better than the other. There are advantages and disadvantages in both systems. It is more difficult to maintain a stable quality of eggs in the outdoor rearing system than in the cage rearing system 6. However, egg quality is influenced by available pasture 4. The hens that have organically ingested organic grass produced eggs with higher shell weight and percentage darker yolk color and higher alpha-tocopherol, carotenoid and polyphenol contents. The other egg traits were not affected by the rearing system. The rearing systems where laying hens are housed on litter can
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be evaluated positively as they provide eggs with the yolk of distinct orange color which consumers prefer 6. Few studies which have been published on this subject and the results are conflicting due to the great variation in the breeds used production methods, rations used, pasture availability and conservation times of eggs before analysis 4 . Hens of the same breed and age laid lighter eggs and yolks with lower yolk/albumen ratio if kept following the organic method compared to those kept in conventional system5. The bibliographic information 7, 9, 10 regarding the macro- and microelement supplementation levels in poultry feed and implicitly in young poultry are still controversial; the mineral content of the forage representing the base of the concentrated mixtures is usually ignored. The aim of the present work was to compare the effect of supplementation of differentiated microelements, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), iodine (I) and selenium (Se), ingested by the organically raised hens on egg production and quality. Materials and Methods The experiment for the quantification of feed mineral supplement result on the food made for egg/laying hens was carried out on an organic poultry system 3. According to the experimental design (Table 1), a group of 90 egg-laying hens of ISA Brown hybrid,
Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, Vol.10 (2), April 2012

0 specific consumption 187.2 0. Experimental design.68. 0.G3 (30 hens) fed on CM + mineral premix with double microelement supplementation.68.93 kg/head/period.46 supplementary was made for extensive egg-laying hens * Physical analysis -egg weight rearing. . Zn 68.with the age of 19-34 weeks were used per replicate making ten birds per treatment.26 0. as well as the egg mass.26 and Se 0.33. albumen and yolk). -weight of albumen (g and %) with a weekly average of 0.018 kg. This indicator was set once 0.34 kg CM/kg egg-mass.1 60. Mixed feed ingestion varied between 117 and 119 g/head/day.003x4 + 0. I 0.016 kg) and 9.24 0.33 28. Agriculture & Environment. Vol.e.012x2 + 29.feed conversion rate (FCR) calculated. This consumption classifies in hybrids standard.33. weight and color of yolk (Roche scale). Cu 7. 80. FCR) and indices of physical analysis of eggs: whole egg weight. The hens were randomly distributed in three experimental groups and fed on a basic concentrated mixture (CM).10 (2). albumen height.31 kg CM/kg egg-mass).33 average egg weight. Mn 40.G2 (30 hens) fed on CM.16.0 1.73.8% higher than -yolk/albumen in G3 (0. which correlates with albumen height. there were established another bioproductive indicator FCR (Feed Conversion Ratio) presented in Table 2 by the two recognized expression forms: g CM/egg.0 20.5 0. Haugh’s unit was calculated per replicate of the obtained values for albumen height (H in mm) and eggs’ weight (W in g) using the formula: Haugh’s unit = 100 log(H+7.egg-mass . where the mineral 0. Mn 20.0 3. adapted to the intensive rearing system: Fe 80. Cu 9. 27% (p<0.05). with the help of the software IBM SPSS 19. % deposition. Statistic indices of yolk percentage.4 participation produced by the mineral content of feed 0. April 2012 747 . the egg-mass indicator was set by 68. eggs were singularly weighted as well as their components (shell.119x3 – 2.0 consumption was in G1 (234.0 20.06 0.996) Necessary mineral level (mg/kg DM CM) Mineral supplementation by premix * Statistical analysis: -statistical indices of the main bioproductive and physical analysis indicators.68% to G2/G1 and 0. I 0. Mn 60.73 g CM/egg. Co 0. with supplementation of mineral premix with a microelements gain adapted to extensive hen growth. 11.46 mg /kg DM of feed. according to which the feed conversion ratio could be calculated. as follows: Fe 60.37.68 20.223±0.46 The experimental group G2. as follows: .12. we determined indices of productive performances (feed intake. Albumen height was measured and the Haugh unit was Table 1. yolk/albumen ratio and integrity and weight of shell. 16 weeks long.84% to G3/G1 show that different microelement levels of the egg-laying hen food did not influence the CM consumption.37 a week and also during the entire experimental period. we used the ANOVA test. -yolk/egg -albumen/egg Also.16 48. For indices of physical analysis.33 40. the -albumen index experimental group G2 had the best egg-mass evolution -yolk index during the development of experiment. i.33. Haugh unit indicates the albumen quality. produced the highest egg-mass quantity during -weight of yolk (g and %) the entire experimental period. .05) -weight of shell (g and %) more than in G1 (0.16. Co 0. Cu 10.46 and Se 0. The primary data recorded were statistically processed. I 0. On the basis of the feed ingested by hens belonging to the three experimental groups and on the basis of egg-mass production.36 *Productive performances: .24.36 mge/kg DM of feed. Zn 28. 1).26 0.16.food ingestion . and the percentage differences between groups of 1.73 9.23 0. a group with a micromineral 0.68 70.12 0.micromineral ingestion . One could notice that the experimental group G2 (on one hand by the low consumption of CM. in the graphic representation (Fig.57-1.245±0. with the help of Excel software for calculation. the supplementary mineral levels were: Fe 70.06 and Se 0.2 components of CM.016 kg) (p>0. as well as by G3 the egg-mass output production) had the lowest 20.G1 (30 hens) fed on CM.57 g CM/egg.73 mathematical calculations. egg mass.16 10.22 (R² = 0.0 0. In this experiment. Indices of productive performance have been set by weighing the given food and the unused leftovers. respectively 40. To test the significance of differences. respectively 3. Co 0. without microelements in mineral premix. -ANOVA test Journal of Food. respectively kg CM/kg egg-mass. The differentiating nutritional factor was represented by the level of microelements supplementation.23. albumen and egg shell were settled after their transformation in angular degrees.16 7. determined according to specific chemical analyses. egg’s weight and its internal temperature.7W0.194±0. The yolk color was measured using Roche‘s color fan.26 mg/kg DM feed. To this experimental variant.37) 10. which is notified in Table 2. feed conversion rate. The highest specific 40.125 0.25 4. Indicators established Results and Discussion Productive performances: One of the established indicators of the productive performances is represented by the feed intake for the three experimental groups. Specification Fe Mn Zn Cu Co I Se Fe Mn Zn Cu Co I Se G1 G2 10. The egg-mass -Haught index indicator had the following regression: -color of yolk (Roche scale) y 2= -0. Zn 48.53x + 70. 3.68.73.68 According to the number of eggs produced and the 60. the micromineral participation was provided by the CM basic components.

03 114.05% higher than in the control group (G1).92 6.30 1064. Yolk/albumen ratio 31.43 100 121.17 141.90 100 928.223a.8% higher) but differences between the in the group with mineral supplementation tends to decrease being experimental groups were not significantly different (p>0. Micromineral ingestion in laying hens of experimental 2.03%.95 g (12.29% smaller in G3 in comparison Weight of albumen was between 33.91 3.31 100 Experimental groups G2 G3 117 118 98.64±0. the shell weight was 13.47% less than in G3.98 131.75 Se 3.86% higher in G2 and Cu 103.39 4.43 groups can be influenced by mineral supplementation of 748 Journal of Food.546 6.34 77. b±0.21 3.9%.10 100 5. April 2012 . but the differences were small Physical analysis indicators: Egg weight. weight of albumen (g (p>0.336% of total egg mass) in G1. Agriculture & Environment.67 796.621% of total egg mass in G3 statistically significant (p>0.27-13.16 and 36.05).63 g (63.10±1. Figure 1.48 100 4.Table 2. Albumen/yolk ratio was not with nonsignificant difference between experimental groups significantly influenced by different mineral food supplementation. the hens from G1 is ensured by the mineral contribution of feed weight of yolk varied between 10. according to age.34 167.6-25.506 0.018.07 174. and 0.194a±0.256% of total egg mass) with difference of 4.05).36 292.36b±0.15 195.016 100 234. the intensive rearing system.25% for iodine.57 79.5% than the experimental group G1.64 136.15 and 59. Yolk/albumen ratio 55. The yolk % albumen ratio of 0.531% of total with reference. Yolk index was not yet Fe 811.13%.05). Albumen index groups (mg/hen/period).48 g for G1 and for eggs produced in conventional system 7.63±0. but differences between groups were not egg mass) in G1 and 34.461±0.12. which constituted their food.002 set in G1 was 5.42% and Table 3.30% for the levels in microelements did not significantly influence these iron to 326.05).010 to G1 being with only 0.4 g groups is shown in Table 3.018).17% for iron to 658. b±0.12-8.174±0. the ratio value in G2 and G3 being with only 1.11 3.17 Mn 272.77 107.49 0. with nonsignificant differences (p>0. Haugh index Co 1.02 100 529. after testing these indicators on ISA Brown hens raised in organic system.73 100 4. The indicator’s variability was small (max 6.05).27%). microelements at the necessary level of the rearing extensive In Fig. these differences being statistically mg % mg % mg % significant (p<0.80 100 3.88 and 15. who polynomial regression of fourth degree.10 (2). weight of albumen between 29.19 117.67%). The weight of egg shell in the experimental group G2 was 6. Egg average weight (g) was between 53.70a.245b±0.75% for iodine in comparison with the was similar in groups supplemented with microminerals G2.78 100 632. we noticed produced by hens from the three experimental groups shows that an increase of microelements ingestion starting with 14.361±0.53 194.05).16±0.38 is smaller than in eggs and %).83 899. by a specific mineral premix.71 238.490 0.01) (Table 5).11 set for eggs produced by hens in the three experimental I 0.41 426.73 135. Vol.018 127 187. starting with by hens from the three experimental groups .32 99.25 6.79 0. yolk (g and %) and shell (g and %) are presented in Table produced in organic system in comparison with the value of 0.82a±0.07 g (24. 2 the percentage structure of components of eggs system. A supplementation of microelements at indicators.69 85. Productive performances of the laying hens in the experimental groups. well as G3 (0.00 85.98% to the experimental group G1 (lacking the micromineral supplementation).17% lower than in G2 and G1 G2 G3 Specification 7.93 3. found that egg weight varied between Micromineral ingestion in egg-laying hens of the experimental 46.94 with 3.05). with 6. (p>0. the variability of indicator was small (max 3.07 758.33±0. in comparison with the group of reference G1.77 g (23. Weekly evolution of egg-mass shaped with the help of The received data were similar to those of Mitrovic et al. Table 5 shows the ratios and quality indices of eggs produced increased the mineral level of food from variant G3. yet the differences between groups were still small (p>0.65 4. Mass of yolk had values between 12. smaller with almost 6.26% more decreased in G3 (Table 5).10% smaller in G2 and with 5.016 115 200.20 3.41% and in egg’s of a mineral premix in CM structure which provided the structure it weighed between 6.621±0.89 g.47 g and the weight components.16 117. indicator value of Zn 376. Microelements ingestion in laying and a weight in egg structure between 60.88 303. Specification Consumption CM* Adc*** (g/head/day) Percentage differences total/group/period total/hen/period Percentage differences /group/week /hen/week Percentage differences g CM/piece egg Percentage differences kg CM/kg mass egg Percentage differences G1 119 100 93.61 Egg-mass (kg) FCR** *CM concentrated mixture **FCR feed conversion rate ***adc –average daily consumption Means with different superscripts in the same horizontal row are significantly different (p<0.61 100 3.57 127 115 7.57 % of total egg mass) in G2 and 13. as reference group G1.43 g (64.69 and 63. By the incorporation was 23.09±1.35 g for G2 (3. of 0.76 influenced by the mineral level of food.364±0.

8 35.06 93.465a±0.510 7.539 3.4 12.06 94. Specification Average weight/egg (g) CV Percentage differences Albumen mass (g) Percentage differences % CV Percentage differences Yolk mass (g) Percentage differences % CV Percentage differences Weight of shell (g) Percentage differences % CV Percentage differences G1 53.63 100 63.18 100 13. but there were no significant differences (p>0.570 6.18±0.843 104.98b±0.76 6.57 100 6.361a±0.05).34a±0.76 12.002 100 0. Zn.446a±0.15 100 33. The color of the egg yolk is an important quality feature of the egg yolk.031 100 0. Specification Yolk/albumen ratio Yolk/albumen ratio Albumen/yolk ratio Albumen index Yolk index Haugh index Color of yolk Percentage differences Percentage differences Percentage differences Percentage differences Percentage differences Percentage differences Percentage differences G2 % yolk 23% G1 0.04a±0.33a±0.042 102.90 0.5% in G2 and 1.70 23.77 97.642a±0.531 3.17 0.81% in G3.10a±1.35 9.78 103.48 7. knowing that the basic values in G1 were significantly higher (p<0.61 100.336 3. Feed conversion ratio expressed in g CM/egg respectively kg CM/egg mass recorded the best values in the group with mineral supplementation pertained to extensive hen rearing system being 749 .246a±0. I.10 (2). Co.233a±0.245± 0.05 0.2 64.28 9.95 108.07 100 24. Cu.006 107.4 64.62% in G2 and 4.62 7.010 96.67 102.08 100 0.256 3.02 12.98 G3 53.16a±0.37 105. April 2012 for ISA Brown hens with levels of proper to extensive and intensive rearing systems in relation with mineral contribution of feed components organically produced.64a±0.174a±0. percentage difference being significant (p<0. Table 5. was about 0.12 104. Ratios and quality indices of eggs from the experimental group hens.344 and in mineral supplementation of food groups the average values increased with 3.018 kg/hen/week.71 0.5 to 60.18 100 7.27 94.9.81 Means with different superscripts in the same horizontal row are significantly different (p<0.4 34.299 101. Egg mass indicator set in G2.231a±0.43 102.11b±1.035 101.15 100 Experimental groups G2 55.18 23.61a±0. due to the high quality of eggs and the products made of eggs 6.80 0.018 92.95 100. Se) of food Journal of Food.48 11.05). and also in G3 the percentage difference of 15% with the reference was statistically significant (p<0.333 5.09a±1. Vol.80 0.99a±1.74 82.03 6. Indices of quality of eggs in experimental hen groups.05).75 94. estimated on Roche scale corresponded in control group a medium value of 7.05).646a±0.63a±0.007 100.Table 4.86 83.20 101. Mn. The color of yolk.05a±0.42 0.48% in G3.5 G3 % yolk 23% G3 0.003 105. This index was determined during the experiment in similar clean environment 13 and Haugh unity decreased in time from 80.302 103.47 0.01) with 4.44 95.014 100 0.18a±0.31a±0. G1 % yolk 25% % shell 12% % shell 13% % shell 12% % albumen % albumen 63% % albu- % albu % albumen men 64% % albumen men 65% Figure 2.29a±1.461a±0.42 100.47 12. Percentage structure of components of eggs in the three experimental groups.525 5. allowed the formulation of the following conclusions: 1.89 104.389a±0.43a±0.361a±0.39 100 12.08 Weight of albumen Weight of yolk Weight of shell Means with different superscripts in the same horizontal row are significantly different (p<0.05).018 92. 27% higher than the average in G1. Agriculture & Environment.183b±0. Conclusions Micromineral supplementation (Fe.344 100 Experimental group G2 0. for which the supplementation dose of microelements was diminished with 50% comparing with the requests for the intensive rearing system.20a±0.187b±0.010 100 78.621 3.633a±0. 2. food.

10 Fasuyi. I. Agriculture and Environment 8(3&4):430-433. C. 17:383389. 2009. S. Ştef. etichetarea şi controlul 4 Mugnai. Luca. Variation in egg colour in different systems of rearing laying hens. 18:348-354 3 Regulament (CE) nr. Effect of rearing system and season on the performance and egg characteristics of Ancona laying hens. S.. and Mic. Nutrition and Feeding of Organic Poultry. Egg quality traits of laying hens reared in organic and conventional system. E. Anim... and Ştef. E. Journal of Food.with 22. 2009. Agriculture & Environment. Vol. 2005. R. B. F. Anim. Sci. 6 Dvořák. C. Ital. Quality indicators of eggs expressed in yolk/albumen ratios. Sirri.. 2009. C. Folegatti. tehnici şi reglementări. S. L. I. 5 Milelli. Animal Science and Biotechnologies. 4. Skřivan. 2008. Overview of natural and organic egg production: Looking back to the future. and Olujimi. Journal of Food. 889/2008 al Comisiei din 5 septembrie 2008 de stabilire a normelor de aplicare a Regulamentului (CE) nr. Sci. For the following indicators. D. G.. 2010. Timisoara.. E. and Zita. Meluzzi. Poult. April 2012 . Acta Vet. Res.5/S/63258 “Postdoctoral school for zootechnical biodiversity and food biotehnology based on the eco-economy and the bio-economy required by eco-san-genesys”. V. project number 1070. 42(1):351-358. the differences between the experimental groups were nonsignificant (p>0. 6(1):728-730. 12 Mitrovic. J. did not have significant differences by a supplementation with different levels of food microelements.. P.. A. housing system and egg collection time on egg quality in egg type hens.12% than in G3. Smith.. F. Dal Basco. and Man. Czech J. The effect of genotype.. E.. 5. and Castellini. Scientific Papers. V. J. 2007. Appl. M. Appl. A. PNII – IDEI code 897/2008 and the European Social Fund through Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007-2013. Rice.05) and thus we can appreciate that the supplementation levels of minerals have no influence upon those indicators. O. A. D. and Franchini. L.. and Doležalová. yolk/egg. V. F. T.. 8 Drinceanu. Poultry Res. Milic. albumen (g and %). 54(1):17-23. 2010. K.. weight of yolk (g and%).. the yolk index and color. and Sauber.. project number POSDRU/89/1. Djekic. Anim. Protein supplementary quality of vegetable leaf meal (Amaranthus cruentus) in the diets of laying hens: Egg laying performance. C. D. T. Straková. G. Brno 79:S13-S19. shell (g and%) of the full egg.51% lower than in G1 and with 8. Dairo. 2 Anderson. Englmaierová. 3. and Djermanovic. Sci. C. J.. J. Acknowledgements This work was supported by CNCSIS –UEFISCDI. References 1 13 Scheideler. egg quality and haematological implications. Suchý. 750 Journal of Food. E. 2010. A. P. Editura Risoprint. Journal of Food.. Julean. O. Evaluation of nutritional equivalency of corn grain from DAS-R15R71 (Herculex 1) in the diets of laying hens. Simiz.10 (2). 8:175-188. 9 Drinceanu. Dana. L. Cluj-Napoca. D. 7 Blair. 2007. M.. 11 Tůmová. In the albumen index and Haugh index there were significant differences between the reference (G1) and the two structures premix mineral added. E.. T. Ital. Model setting of the micromineral supplementation values in heavy breed avian youth raised in organic system. Agriculture & Environment 8(3&4):580583. Weight and egg quality correlation relationship on different age laying hens. Ştef. Man. 834/2007 al Consiliului privind producþia ecologică şi etichetarea produselor ecologice în ceea ce priveşte producţia ecologică. Simiz. A. J... Avicultură ecologică -Principii. Pandurevic. Agriculture & Environment 5(3&4):294-300.. Julean.. Luca. 2009. Cab International. E. 2008. The mineral supplementation of poultry feed in organic farms (review). A.

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