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G. M. BONGARD-LEVIN,
by M.I. VOROBYEVA-DESYATOVSKAYA,
E. N. TYOMKIN
Among the Central Asian documents from the collection o f N . F. Petrovsky kept in the Manuscript Collection of the Leningrad Branch of the Institute of Asia, USSR Academy of Sciences, under the code S I ~ there is a fragment of a manuscript written in Br~hmi. The fragment is a sheet of yellowish paper, 65.5 x 6 centimetres. 5.5 cm. from the left edge recto there is a circle in black ink, 2 cm. in diameter, with a hole in the centre evidently for a cord. The text is written in black ink, 4 lines on each page. The script is Upright Central Asian Calligraphic Br~hmi, the size of characters is 1 cm. (width) x 0.5 cm. (height). The spacing is 1 cm. On the left margin recto the number of the sheet is preserved - 6. The date of the document is unknown. It was acquired by N. F. Petrovsky, Russian consul in Kashgar at the beginning of the 20th century. The whole collection was passed by him as a gift to the Asiatic Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The text of the document reads as follows :1 recto 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. husavatipusavati, hilihili, yath~tbhaya, yath~tgniyatha param,yathabhaya.myath~tvajreyath~hrdayaro. iyam.vajrap~i.'sumukhanamadh~tra.nitath~tgatenabhas.it~sarvasatv~n~t[ma]rth~t[ya]k~ru~yatay~ahamapibh~.si.sy~tmiyathataipfirvakaisamyaksam, bu[d]dh[aiverso rbh~.sit~dhi~t.hit~tcasatyapratijfienavyavasth~pita, athakhalubhagav~[to]rnako~[n]mah~tpuru~alak~a .n~traw vabhhsapr~durbhfi[t a]tay~tcara~m[y]asaro,codit~buddh~tbhagavatasvakasvakaibuddhaks.etrasar~3prasthit~tsahebuddhak~etrai.h : I I : : ]1
9 The authors express their sincere gratitude to Professor H. W. Bailey for his very valuable notes on this article. 1 The text here is not divided into words. We followed only the line division and punctuation of the original. The marks of division at the end of the text are the same as in the manuscript.
1138a. pp.-" The discovery of the fragment of the Sanskrit text gives us the opportunity to collate the four versions of the Vajrapdn.D. isumukhadhdran.na through dhgran.i is "Excellent Gate of Vajraphn. the Tibetan and the Chinese ones.i (magic formulas) began to take shape. Bodhiruci's translation is in TaishO. The four Chinese versions date back to the 4-5th centuries A. see BHS.e.nL Acad. occurring in the second and third lines of the text recto give a sound basis for considering this fragment part of the Sanskrit text Sumukhadhdra.3 There is a considerable divergence between all translations but Bodhiruci's translation is closest to the Sanskrit text which is at our disposal. 585b(2)-589.~ 151 The content of the text and above all the name of the dhgra. Dictionnaire Encyclopddique du Bouddhisme d'aprks les sources chinoises etjaponaises. i. the achievement of nirvg. the Khotanese-Saka. The creation of the text of Vajrapd!n. N 1137 (Chanfangpien t'o lo ni king). l.ni .i is called 'phags-pa sgo-bzah-po Vajrapg . H r b r g i r i n .A FRAGMENT OF THE SANSKRIT Sumukhadhdran. The discovery of the Sanskrit original is of particular importance because it helps to understand the whole of the Khotanese-Saka version better and. The first mention of the Chinese versions is found in the catalogues of the Eastern Chin but the fifth one was translated by Bodhiruei in the beginning of the 8th century A. p. N 1138b (Kin kang p i mi chart men t' o lo ni tcheou king).D. XX.i". F. to the period when Vajray~na. Oldenburg . in particular. namely.D. N 1140 (Yen cheou miao men t'o lo ni king). for it supplies us with a fragment of the Sanskrit original which was up to the present time regarded as lost and preserved only in the Tibetan. The Sanskrit text should naturally be regarded as original.Sumukhadhdra.nL This text is of considerable interest. 467. Tibetan and Chinese as translations.ni may be referred to the first centuries A. N 1139 (Hou ming f a men chen tcheou king).. vol. Oldenburg was the first to suppose that this document is part of the Sumukhadhdran. the Sanskrit. the Saka. Chinese and Khotanese-Saka translations.ni. 1140. to determine the meanings of those Saka words which are not found in other Khotanese-Saka texts. Fascicule annexe: N 1137. But the analysis and collation of the texts shows that they were not merely translations of the original now found but rather reveal the existence of at least three different versions of the source in question from which they originate. The Tibetan translation of the dh~ran. S. F. . The Tibetan and Chinese versions can be dated with rather close approximation. 1139. (N 1139). b. The Sanskrit name of the dhgran. N 1138a (Kin kang pi mi chart men t'o lo ni king).name o f a B u d d h a or Bodhisattva.L On the paper in which this document was wrapped there was written by S. isumukhadhdra.
Simultaneously. 196.ni) themselves. p. E. vol. 2: The History of Buddhism in lndia and Tibet (Heidelberg. The Sanskrit versions I and H which can be reconstructed on the basis of the Chinese translations did not survive. The Sanskrit manuscript that we now possess comes from Central Asia judging by the hand-writing and the place of acquisition . M.i was created (Sanskrit version I). This is demonstrated above all by the dharan. 6 Published in H. . The Saka translation. 7 The collation of the Sanskrit text with the above mentioned translations reveals that neither of them (except for Bodhiruci's version) originates from the discovered Sanskrit version. p. VOROBYEVA-DESYATOVSKAYA. is fuller mainly due to the introduction of some descriptive details. Dresden. ba. The supposition that the short Chinese translation is a summary of the complete one can hardly be accepted for the Chinese translations differ not only in their length but also by the texts of the magic formulas (dhara. XIII (1949).D.is themselves being different in all the above-mentioned texts. 5 In the Tibetan chronicles the activity of the translators Jinamitra. part 5 (1955). which gave birth to another Chinese translation (N 1138). the fragment in question is on f. p. Bu-ston. as compared with the Sanskrit and Tibetan ones. II". "Indo-Iranica. "The J~takastava or 'Praise of the Buddha's former births'". 4 Jinamitra. (earlier than the 4th century.152 BONGARD-LEVIN. D~. for example.D. W.D. that is before the Chinese translation was made) the original Sanskrit version of the dh~ran. we are justified in supposing that in the first centuries A.Kashgar. J. the Saka versions and the Chinese of the T'ang period form one group which clearly opposes other Chinese translations. 48a. 5 The Saka text6 is written ill the so called "late-Khotanese" language and can be dated to the 9-10th century A.King kang pi mi chan men t' o Io ni king (N 1138a). The 4 See Kanjur. Bailey. 138 . Khotanese Buddhist Texts (London. Derge edition. there evidently appeared the shorter Sanskrit version (Sanskrit version II). Closest to the Sanskrit version are the Tibetan text and the Chinese translation made by Bodhiruci. TYOMKIN ~es bya-ba'i gzuhs (the literal translation of the Sanskrit name) and is part of the Kanjur. At the same time the Sanskrit. New Series. 137. BSOAS. 404 and others. Bringing together the chronological data on the translations of the given text and the results of textological analysis. the fragment under consideration is on p. Dfinagila and Ye-ges-sde who lived in the 9th century A. are indicated as translators. See. ObermiUer. 45. vol. 1932). Bailey. pt. on which the Chinese translation bases itself. History of Buddhism.).D. rgyud-'bum. the Tibetan. W. Transactions of the American philosophical society (Philadelphia). p. 7 See H. 1951).nagila and Ye-ges-sde is referred to the reign of Ralpacan (815-839 A. f. 47b-52a. 135-143.
A FRAGMENT OF THE SANSKRIT Sumukhadhdra.ni 153 .
It is used instead of the sign yen ("Salt") similar to it in shape and having the reading which corresponds to the Sanskrit one. puso(sa)pati.D. ao This sign read chien. This supposition is backed up by the existence of the Chinese translation. but we presume. belonging to the beginning of the 8th century A.D. Ch'angan. The cases of the supposed deviations from modern p'u t'ung hua which we draw from the dh~ran. Karlgren. i using characters adopted for modern p'u t'ung hua.n? 155 version which it contains is closer to the Tibetan. The date of the compilation of the Tibetan translation being exactly known. N. I-ching. lo ya(ye)t' apachelan(/am). si(hi)lisi(hi)li. . ye(ya)t' ahelito(ta)yen(yam). Every line of the Sanskrit text is counterposed by the corresponding passages from the Tibetan and Saka texts (and for mantras also the Chinese ones). ye(ya)t' aach'i(k'i)ni. vol.A FRAGMENT OF THE SANSKRIT Sumukhadhdra. ye(ya) t' apo(pa)lan( lam )che( cha). Bodhiruci etc. which was evidently made from the Sanskrit version found in Kashgar. ye(ya)t'a 9 she(che)ya. Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities (Stockholm). "Grammata Serica Recensa'. Tunhuang.i texts in Chinese are indicated in brackets. huso(sa)pati. n 8 B. judging by the Sanskrit text. It is necessary to point out that Bernhard Karlgren a bases his reconstruction of T'ang phonetics on the classic literature of the T'ang period. However. G. The remarks on the transcription of the Chinese dh~rani and translations of the Chinese versions have been made by L. Menshikov and L. N. That's why we will first give the transcription of the text of the dh~ran. that this is a mistake. and the possibility of approximately determining the time when the Saka one appeared. or maybe even earlier. 29 (1957). Gerzenberg whose help in the analysis of the Chinese and Saka texts was invaluable. allow us to suppose that the discovered Sanskrit version (III) became known in Central Asia no later than the 8-9th century A.ni that the hieroglyph t'a must be read long. Saka and Chinese one of the T'ang period. Menshikov.is and the transcription of the Sanskrit untranslated names and terms in the translations of Buddhist texts made at the time of the T'ang dynasty (Hsiian-tsang. 11 The authors express their sincere gratitude to L. For the textological analysis of the above mentioned four versions the table below is provided in which the Sanskrit text divided into lines according to the division in the manuscript serves as a basis for comparison.. ye(ya) t' apayen(yam ). the dh~ran. 9 Here as well as henceforward it is clear from the text of the dhhra. above all on poetry.) convince us that the translators transcribed the words most probably on the basis of the Northern dialect of the regions of Loyang. puso(sa)- pati. the phonetics of which is almost completely identical with that of the modern northern dialects.
thitfi ca satya.gi safls-rgyas-kyi iifi-dagdh~ bhagavata ~ svaka = dha-k.[5.s~tdina vh..s. see p.sthflna~ tti mi hid svakai buddhak.mpra.s~trufi gyasta ba'ysa] nas chas-te ] hajavi.mci] bg'y~i pagS.na-vajsama vyacha sarva.setrail) I] pastgta [tti gyasta ba'ysa 'dir byon-nas ttira ku mara ttifia] sahelovadeta 5. .la suma- Tibetan lag-ha rdo-rje 'di-ni sgo bzafipo 2 (end) iya.snafi-ba des bskul-bas raft-raft~ye ysamaw bierS.mgatena bh~ifft sarvasatv~ng. bu[d]dh[ai]dftrfifi pa(lf~mjsya gyasta ba'ysa ies bya-ba'i gzufiste ] de b~inggegs pa-rnams-kyi[s] thugsrjes sems-can-rnams-kyi dondu bgad-do I ji-ltar sflon-gyi de-b~in-g~egspa yafi-dag-par rdzogs-pa'i safls-rgyas-rna. bfi'y~n/i hivya skyes-bu 'chen-t3o'i mtshan smin-mtsham-skyi mdzodspu-nas 'od-zer gyur te I safls-rgyas-kyi iifl thams-caddu 'od-zer-gyi vabhftsa k pradfirbhfit [ta]yfd h a r r ~ m a cira himya ~ cara~m[y~] ~asa.san.Lines of Sanskrit original with corresponding parts of Saka and Tibetan Text Lines Sanskrit Saka .md~i ide u khvi ba.s~'mi . bud.mda]de ~ u khvi hi.mdai vira harbigvft buddha-k.sfi' vajrrap~l.mcoditfin bud.st.m vajrap~n.s.thi khalu bhagavfi[to]g prattifia vara vistS.tyS.ta.ms-kyis gsufls~in byin~-gyis brlabs-pa daft I bden-pa'ithugs-dam-gyisrnam-par b2ag b~in-du flayafl 'chad-do I ye1"8o 1 r bhfi.mu'gdi' pracaina aysi vafia .a 'jig-rten-gyi khams mi-mjed sthitgq sahe buddhak. .kha n4ma d~r~fi~t [~ ma.de-has bcom-ldan-'das-kyis pratijfiena vyavasthfipitfi r atha dharma] hvfi.setrasa .[ttyau bS?yyau jsa nfi harbi. ve sfi' mi bi~e ysama~a .dama ttina] mahfipurusa-lak.syfimi yathatai a pfirvakai p~tca' hv~.d~.sitfidhi. fi [hudaht~lfi gt~aina] vasve [pattava.sya himya ttina aye.sa'. 159.isumu- kha n~na dhfira.ni tathft.fiim~i ~ khu ra tv• samyaksam.drr~n/i pata cu pa.hivi buddha-k.setru~.md~iide tti mi ttya bfidfi [~akyamuga~i gyastS~n/i] gyast/i ba'ys~i rnhko~fi[n] h mah~purusalaksanfi[d] i ra~mi~ pramukt~ sarvabuddhaksetresu [rag]my[~]- urfii jsa [vh ham.si. ~For the notes to this table..jsyau avam~yyau] gyastyau ba'[ma]rth~[ya] ysyau jsa b hvata ~ bi~nu sarvasatvgnu kgmwatayh ~ aham api bh~..
spread.Translation Sanskrit text Saka text Tibetan text Chinese text Buddha said to the Bodhisattva-maMsattva .i by the This dh~ra~i by name of Excellent gate of name of Vajrap~tni. I at present also for the benefit and out of compassion from the circle of hair between the eye-brows .the mark of a great man . I shall also utter it just as by the former complaely enlightenedBuddhas From compassion to all the living beings I shall now say it again [also] just as the former divine Buddhas out of compassion.buddhas. Then the Bhagavat They proclaimed a vow and established it truly. out of compassion. And urged by the fight of this ray fight spread.beings is uttered merable Buddhas. Over all the Buddha-fields the brilliance of this for all beings proclaim a great vow and estabfish it truly. Buddhas each the Buddha-fields the Buddhas became incited by this magic transformation.gatas for divine incantation. This light illuminated all the Buddha-fields. Then by the Bhagavat arhats who conceived all dharmas.emitted a ray of light. gate of Vajrap~.L Then the Bhagavat emitted light from the circle between the eye-brows . "The Excelthe living beings [and] by the former innu. Urged by that ray the blessed spread.the mark of a great man. proclaimed and produced magically and bytrueclaim established this dhfirarg. it was said and produced magically and by true claim established. Of these rays this brilliance of t h e all over the world in all light. was uttered the sake of all living ram preserving life. part of the Universe people departed. Therefore I say this dMran. where people (live).Buddha-field so many they came from each fields to the world of Buddhas went there to Buddha-field to that that world of people.the stanzas of magic by the tathS.was emitted a ray (of light) and over a l l the Buddhafields I the light of the ray from the circle of hair between the eye-brows . By the magical power of the Buddha all the tath~."The Hand of Vajra": "This This dMral)i by the This dhfiran.gatas in the Buddha-fields saw this light and each of them at the same time went from his field to the world of human beings (sahd lokadMtu). dhftgata for the sake of all formulas.ni) is uttered by the tatM.a VajraNai sumukha (Excellent sumukha. And then from each from their Buddha. Then at that time divine Buddha Sgkyamtmi from the circle of hair between the eye-brows and from other marks [of thel great man emitted a shining ray.name of Vajrap~n. over all Buddha-fields said and blessed and by true claim established so do I proclaim it. .the mark of a great man . All over the world. Just as by the former t a M gatas samyaksarpbuddhas it was lent Gate" was already uttered [and] protected by the former tathagatas samyaksam.
vol. M.mcais repeated here. p. In the Sanskrit text it is absent. hrdaya. The tables on pp. and translation o f the text. pusapati 1~ hili hili yat'ftcheya yat'fiak'ini yat'gpalamcha yat'ftpayam yat'~pachelam yat'fihelitayam The table shows that magic formulas in different versions coincide and diverge in a way which makes it impossible to reconstruct the original Sanskrit variant.rdaya. W.S. yathft param. TYOMKIN I n the table below we suggest the possible reconstructed variant of the reading o f the given dhgran.m in the "late Khotanese-Saka" language should be considered. 917. 1~ The reading of the Khotanese-Saka version suggested by ProL H. 1~ Inseparably from the following word.m. N. 13 Two words instead of one in the Sanskrit text.N. .m __ hasavate phusavate pusavatP z hili hell yathft vajrri yath~ agni yath~ paranacam yathftbhayam.r). Dresden. 38. Bailey should possibly be changed to h~rdayq. The underline sign for ya and r in Upright Central Asian Brfthmi is almost the same and its variations often depend on the peculiarities of the hand-writing ( ~ ya and. Sanskrit Saka Tibetan Chinese husavati pusavati hilihili yathftbhaya yathagni yathftpara . X. 13 Para .i in the T ' a n g period. a yath~h. 1~ This word is present only in the Tibetan text.rdaya ~s sv~h~d 6 husapati pusapati.m yathftbhayam. "The Jgttakastava". 1952 (1953). for the latter in a position before a consonant often proves unstable. 408. 156-157 present the text divided into parts corresponding to the lines of the Sanskrit original with comments on the discrepancies between the Sanskrit. I.. p. J. yathftvajre yath~h. TPhS. p. Asia Major.~. VOROBYEVA-DESYATOVSKAYA. BSOAS. p. See H. 57. __ husavati mupavati hilihili yath~padzuya yathftagni yathfiparantsa yathgnala yathgtvadzran.ca TM yath~ vajrram yathg hyaday~arn 1. Saka and Tibetan text. Bailey.m changing into hyadaya. However. the possibility of Skr.158 BONGARD-LEVIN.
sydmi "I shall also say" when translated into Tibetan were placed at the end of the sentence na). The given text is notable for the absence of the final visarga.pr6durbMtta "spread over. the corresponding Sanskrit to the part of the Tibetan sentence from the words byin-gyis to b~in-du is found in the next line.. but the agreement in the Sanskrit text is evidently directed to this word.s. so we leave the text without changes. P Saka ayest.tydznda. sg. pp. "buddhas".st. most examples are concerning Mah~vastu).na. 1. h In the manuscript [gt]r. It is possible in BHS. incite. it corresponds to Skr. pl. e Due to the rules of Tibetan syntax the words aham api bhd.~yatayd "out of compassion."departed (pastdta) as many Buddhas as here to this world of people (Sahelova-deta) came (6ta)". m In the manuscript only ra~md is written. The Saka word ddr~ii (see the preceding line) "in dMra.nii hudahttnii gttnaina.~in-gAegs-pa-rnams kyi thugs-rjes. pl. Mdlanges prdsentOs Georg Morgenstierne (1964). e Skr. pattavamei bd'yii. "Saka Miscellany".46-48. ef. The translation does not reflect this duplication. In the Saka text the Sanskrit words and their Saka equivalents are doubled: mahdpuru. sa. May be it is possible to have ~ in BHS with d (see Edgerton.a~i'ehad-do.ni" has no correspondence in the Sanskrit text. The Saka ddr~ii should evidently be regarded as Loc. k Skr. In classical Sanskrit it is ~ dd. o The text is characterised by the absence of the final visarga. because the participial forms bhdsitd. Visarga is absent in the manuscript.t.lprasthitd[.. n Skr.. magic. II. It is possible in BHS. hajua "wise"). which is possible in BHS. for the benefit of" exactly corresponds to the Saka mu'Adi' praeaina. See H. Pali adhit. adhi.ni] is said by the tath~gata [sg. a We leave here the reading of the manuscript. for the subject here is gyasta ba'ysa Nora.]" correspond. The Saka text is more complete than the Sanskrit one. Indo-Iraniea. adhis."to the world of human beings (sahe) the blessed Buddhas went".nakoAd[d] with d in (trnd. adhiti. b To the Skr. incited". 8-9. tathdgatena bhd. agrees with Buddha[hi.sthati. arthdya kdrul. pp. sg.8. corresponds to Saka hajavLsya. W.t. Evidently.hdna) means here."[dh~ra. san. sg. Individual Saka and Tibetan words and forms unparalleled by the Sanskrit ones are explained in the notes.ni] is said by the tatMgatas [pl. One must read bhagavd[to]r.h] meaning "urged. We suggest the reconstruction [ta]yd.meoditd[. in the Saka . The Sanskrit text helps reveal the meaning of the Saka ba. supernatural appearance. The Tibetan text proves this meaning to be correct: bskul-bas "urged. exhort". manifested" is rendered by Saka eira "himya" and Tibetan byu~ "appeared". adhi. In the Sanskrit text .si. i In the manuscript ~ The sense demands here Abl. q Probably Skr. (Tibetan byin gyis brlabs-pa exactly corresponds to S a n s ~ i t and Saka. incited".n7 159 Square brackets [ ] mark those parts of the Saka text which have no corresponding part in the Sanskrit one. Pali eodeti "to urge. founded". avabhdsa "light. .st. fern.]" the Saka gyastyau ba'ysyau jsa hvata and the Tibetan de-b. The form of hajav(sya (appears in combination with himya) shows it to be probably an adjective with the meaning "incited" (cf. fern. brilliance" corresponds to Saka harru~dma. evidently.hita "established.hdna.h] Nom. Edgerton.sitd "[dh~ra. Evidently.sa-laksa. transformation. b~ad-do . 12-13.A FRAGMENT OF THE SANSKRIT Sumukhadhdra. Skr.) Cf.hana (Skr.hitd and vyavasthdpitd are Nora. a mistake of the scribe. Skr. Bailey.
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