You are on page 1of 166

Energiand Mink& Division Geological Survey Branch

GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS OF THE QUESNEL RIVER - HORSEFLY MAP AREA, CENTRAL QUESNEL TROUGH, BRITISH COLUMBIA
NTS MAP SHEETS 93A/5,6,7, 11,12,13; 93B/9,16; 93G/1; 93W4

By A. Panteleyev, P.Eng., D.G. Bailey, P.Geo. M.A. Bloodgood, P.Geo. and K.D. Hancock, P.Geo.

BULLETIN 97

Canadian Cataloguingin Publication Data


Main entry under title: Geology and mineral deposits of Ule Quesnel R i v a Horsefly m a l a r e a ,central Qnesnel Trough, British Columbia NIS map sheets 93A15,6.7.11,12,13: 93BR. 16: 93W1; 93W4
~

(Bulletin ; 97)

Issued bv Gecloeical - Survev Branch. Includes bibliographical references :p.


ISBN 0-7726-2973-0

2. Geochemistry - British Columbia - Qnesnel River Region. 3. Geology, Economic British Columbia - Qwsnel River

1 . Geology - British Columbia - Quesrvel Riva Region

VICTORIA BRITISH COLUMBIA CANADA August 1996

Employmentandlnvesunent) ;97.
QE187.G46 1996

Region. 4. Mines and m n ie dresources British Columbia QuesnelRiver Region. I. Panteleyev, Andrejs, 1942 U. British Columbia. Ministry of Employment and Investment B h h Cohnnbia. Ceorogical Survey Branch. N. Title. V.Series: Bulletin (British Columbia. Ministryof

m.

557.11'75

w-9-9

Frontispiece. Quesnel River, view looking east (upstream)from the QR deposit towards QuesnelForks

British Columbia

iv

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry of Employment and lnvesnnent

the easternmost part of the map area. Metamorph,c grade in The Quesnel and Horsefly rivers traverse the norththe volcanic rocksis subgreenschist, consistent with burial westerly trending axis of the central Qnesnel belt, also there is extensive chl'xitization known as the 'Quesnel Trough'. Since 1859 the region has metamorphism. Commonly been thesite of significantplacer gold prcductiou including of mafic minerals; zeolite and calcite fill arnyf;dules and some very large-scale mining operations. The identification occur in fractures in rocks throughout the regi.on. Some of M o c k source areas for the placer gold and definition of zones of epidote, chlorite, tremolite, calcite andminor the various mineral deposittypes in this region are the main quartz represent locally developed propylitic alteration that objectives of this field study. Recent economic interest has can be related to nearby intrusive activity. Copper-gold and been concentrated on the Mount Polley (Caritno-Bell) algold mineralization is associated with a number cf the I k i y kalic porphyry copper-gold deposit, the QR intrusion-relurassic diorite and zoned alkalic gabbro to syenite sl.ocks lated propylite-type gold deposit and the Frasergold and that are intrudedalong the axisofthevolcanic arc at CPW (Spanish Mountain) auriferous quartz vein prospects intervals of about 11 kilometres. in the black phyllite basal map unit. Recent road building The predominantly fine-grained clastic basil-fill rocks related to ongoing logging in the area provides new bedrock structurally overlie a thin, tectonically emp1acf:doc(:anic exposures in this region of otherwise sparse outcrop. crustal slice, the Crooked amphibolite, part of the Slide Studies in the map area, all within 'Quesnel Terrane', Mountain Terrane.It defines the terrane boundary with the confirm the presenceof a regional synclinal structure older metamorphic rocks of the Barkerville Subterrane (a formed within a Triassic continent-margin basin. It was subdivision of Kootenay Terrane) to the east. Middle Jurasinfilled first with Triassic sediments and then Triassic to sic and (?) younger polylithic conglomeratelensesand Jurassic volcanic rocks.Together these rocks constitutethe thinly bedded, fine-grained clastic rocks are preserved in Qnesnel Trough.The basal lithologic unitsconsist of midnarrow fault-bounded wedges along the west-rn te:rrane Triassic siliceous rocks to mainly younger pelitic, thinly boundary of the Quesnelrocks with Cache Creek Terrane. bedded deposits with overlying, more massive volcaniclas- In addition, a sinuous band of distinctive conglomerates o f tic sediments. The younger epiclasticunits pass upward or possible Cretaceous age and fluvialorigin overlaps Quesnel interfingerwith Upper Triassic subaqueous volcanic deposarc rocks along Quesnel Lake and Quesnel River iln the its, mainly volcanic flow andbreccia units. They are overcentral part of the map area. lain, in turn, by subaqueous to subaerial Lower Jurassic Eocene extensionalfaulting and magmatis~n disrupted volcanic flow andpyroclasticrocks and overlapping Lower the Quesnel Trough following a period of dc:ep tropical to Middle Jurassic sedimentary assemblages.The volcanic weathering. Graben development, with attendant ash-flow rocks, and some Early Jurassic plutons, form extensive the eruptions and lacustrine deposits, characteriu:s thi!; time magmatic edifice that definesthe medial axis of the Quesnel period. Hydrothermal activity, possibly related to subvolisland arc. canic intrusions, produced tourmaline-sericite and propyiiThe older, submarine lavas, mainly olivine andpytic alteration (for example,theMegabuckscopper-gold roxene basalts of alkalic basalt to basaltic trachyandesite composition, are overlainby both subaqueous and subaerial, prospect). Elsewhereincipient epithermal quanz-carbonate veining is evident. Mid-Miocene and younger basalts covdarkgreen-grey to maroon-purplefeldspathiclavasand ered parts of the Eocene grabens and older arc rocks of pyroclastic deposits of trachybasaltto trachyandesite comQuesnel Terrane,andthetectonicboundarywithCache position, alternativelyclassified as rocks of the absarokiteCreek rocks to the west, a high-angle fault. IIplac:es the shoshonite series or shoshonite association. Many of the basalt flows cap older Miocene fluvial systems that contain lavas are characterized by analcite phenocrysts.Modal placer gold. Both preglacial and postglacial rivers flowing quartz does not occur in any of the arc rock, the majority out of the metamorphic highlands to the east have transof chemical analyses reveal alkalic whole-rock composiportedadditionalgold.Perhaps more importantly,posttions withcharacteristicnormative nepheline. The basal clastic rocks now form a continuous structurglacial rivers and some of the smaller creeks have 'locally redistributed and concentrated gold from oldcr placer deally complex black phyllite to metapelite unit along the appear eastern side of the map a r e a . The rocksare well foliatedat posits. The main bedrocksources for the place~.gold to be in the eastern part of the study area where ('?)Late deeper structurallevelsbut pass upwardinto weakly cleaved Jurassic quam veins occnr in the basal black phy1l:ite unit rocks. They are overlain by thick panels ofthe extensively block faulted volcanic successions. The basal sedimentary near the terrane boundary of Quesnellia and the high-grade rocks are regionally metamorphosed to greenschist facies in metamorphic rocksof the BarkervilleTerrane.

"

Bullerin 97

Brirish Columbia

vi

Geological Survey Branch

M i n i s t r y of Employment rmd Znveslment

TABLE OF CONTEIV'TS
Page Page

SUMMARY........................................................................
CHAFTER 1 INTRODUCTION.............................................................. Project Location and Objectives ................................. ............................. Project Summary and Publications Access ......................................................................... Physiography............................................................... Previous Work ............................................................. Acknowledgments.......................................................

1 1
1 2 2 5 6

CHAPTER 2 ................................................... 7 REGIONAL GEOLOGY Tectonic Subdivisions Belts, Terranes and Tectonic Assemblages ............................................. 7 Regional Map Units and Map Patterns ........... 10 Barkerville Terrane (KOB) .................................. 10 2e) Snowshoe Group (PP) and Quesnel Lake ................................... 10 (DMqQ) Gneiss 10 (CC) Terrane Creek Cache .................................. ............. 10 (MTC) Group Creek Cache Slide 11 Mountain (SM) Terrane ............................. Croaked Amphibolite@art of DTS) ............ 11 Quesnellia (Quesnel) Terrane (QN) .......... 11 Harper Ranch Subterrane (DTH) ................. 11 Nicola Group(TIN) a.k.a. Quesnel River, Horseflyor Takla Group ..........11 Sedimentary Overlap Units (JHA) ...................... 13 Tertiary and Neogene to Quaternary Cover Rocks CpTK, NTC, Q) ................................. 14 Intrusive Suites (EJgG. EjycM. Ud. Ug. ................................................ 14 mKg) mKgB. Lithologic . Structural Patterns................................. 14

c 3 -

GEOLOGY OF THE CENTRAL QUESNEL BELT ......17 Map Unit Lithologies and Stratigraphy .......... 17 Sedimentary Basin Fill, Back-Arc or Marginal Basin Deposits Units 1 and l a ............................ 19 Metasedimentary Rocks (Phyllites) -Unit 1.......19 Unit Tral -MicaceousQuartzite ................. 19 Unit Tra2. Micaceous Black Phyllite and Tuff ............................................... 19 Unit Tra3 . Phyllitic Siltstone ...................... 25 Unit Tra4 . Laminated Phyllite and Porphyroblastic Phyllite........... 25 Unit Tra5 Silty Slates................................. 25 Unit Tra6 Graphitic . Black Phyllites .......... 25 Unit Trb -Banded Slates and Tuffs ............. 25

Unit Trc. Volcaniclastic Breccia .................26 Unit Trd. Volcanic Sandstone and 'Nacke ..26 Units TrJa And TrJb . Massive Flows. Agglomerate. Tuffs. Pillow Basalts and Mafic D i k e s :Massive Porpbyrytic Flows.Breccia and Tuff ...................................................... 26 Volcanic and EpiclasticRocks Unit . l a............. 26 Volcanic Successions ofthe Quesnel Arc ............... 27 Basalts .Unit 2...................................... , .............27 Alkali Olivine Fyroxene Basalt (Unit 2a) ............................................... 27 Alkali (Pyroxene) Basalt (Unit 2b .md Clasts Within Unit 2c; Unit 2c) ..........28 Hornblende Pyroxene Basalt 2d)and 2a/2d (Units ........................... 28 Analcite-bearing Pyroxene Basalt .............................................. 28 (Unit Sedimentary Successions Capping 29 Unit 2 (Unit 2f) ................................... Plagioclase-lath Pyroxene-Phyric :Basalt (Unit 2g) .............................................. 29 Polylithic 'Felsic' Breccias - Unit 3........... 30 Subaerial Basalt Unit 4 ...................................... 30 Overlap Units ............................................................ 36 Clastic Overlap Deposits . Unit 5 ....................... 36 Clastic Rocks in Fault Blocks - Unit 6 ...............36 Continental Clasticand Volcanic Depsitr .............. 36 Fluvial Deposits -Unit 9..................................... 36 Tertiary Successions-Unit 10............................ 37 Lacustrine Sediments . Unit 10 .................. 37 Volcanic Flows, Ash Flows and Crystal Ash Tuffs -Unit 37 10a ........................... Neogene Plateau Basalts and Miocene: Fluvial Channel Deposits -Units 11 and l l a ......................................................... 37 Quaternary Deposits-Unit Qal .......................... 4 0 Intrusive Suites ......................................................... 40 A h l i c Gabbro-Diorite-Syenite. Unit 7 ............ 40 Quartz Diorite/Granodiorite -Unit 7a ................41 Quartz MonzonWAlaskite - Unit 8 ...................42

CHAPTER 4 AGE OF MAP UNITS . PALEONTOLOGY .~ N D GEOCHRONOLOGY ...................................................... Microfossils .............................................................. Conodonts ........................................................... Palynomorphs ..................................................... Macrofossils..............................................................

43 43 43 46 46

"

Bulletin 97

vii

Page

Page

Others ..................................................... 80 Propylite Gold Deposits............................... 80 QR (Quesnel River) Deposit; CHAPTER 5 MINFILE 093N121 ........................ 80 PETROCHEMISTRY....................................................... 49 The Propylite Model .............................. 81 Introduction ............................................................... 49 Porphyry Molybdenum, and Copper Chemical Compositions. Differentiation Trends. Deposits and Related Veins CIPW Norms and Petrochemcial Associated with Calcalkaline Classifications........................................................ 49 Stocks .................................................. 83 49 Petrochemical Variation ...................................... Auriferous Quartz Veins in Mehsedimentary CIPW ....................................................... 54 83 Black Phyllite Units ..................................... Alkalinity: Alkalic Basalts and Shoshonites . Frasergold Property; 55 Terminology for Quesuel Arc Rocks ........... ........... 83 MINFILE 093N150 . Multi-Element Variation and Minor Element Spanish Mountain Deposits CPW Discrimination Diagrams ....................................... 58 (Mariner) and Peso Claims; Discussion.................................................................. 59 MINFILE 093N043 ........................ 86 Tertiary BedrockDeposits .................................. 86 CHAPTER 6 Megabucks Propery; MINFILE STRUCTURE................................................................... 63 093N078 .......................................... 86 Regional Deformation and Folding .......................... 63 Possible Epithennal Targets................... 87 Faulting ...................................................................... 64 Other ..................................................... 87 Detailed Structural Studies in the EurekaDeposits Peak Placer Gold Deposits of Horsefly and Quesnel and Spanish Lake Areas......................................... 64 River District ......................................................... 87 Phase 1 Structures................................................ 65 Geology of the Horsefly River Placer Fie1d s......90 Phase 2 Structures................................................ 65 Horsefly Area Placer Deposits (Miocene Fractures and Quartz Veins ....................................... 68 Channels) ............................................ 91 Eocene Extension and Graben Development ............70 Ward's Horsefly (Harpers Camp), 93 MINFILE 093N015 ............ CHAPTER 7 Miocene Shaft, MINFILE093N014 ....93 METAMORPHISM.......................................................... 71 Metamorphism of the Central Quesnel Belt ............. 72 Hobson's Horsefly; ........72 Metamorphic Assemblages Facies and Zones MINFILE 093N015 ........................ 93 .......................................... 72 Crooked Amphibolite Black Creek; MINFJLE 093N016 94 ........ Phyllites ............................................................... 72 Antoine Creek; MINFILE 093N017 ....94 ............................... 73 Metavolcanics Group Nicola Other Placer Workings........................... 95 Conditions of Metamorphism ................................... 73 DepositsRiver Quesnel ....................................... 95 Bullion Pit, Including Dancing Bill CHAPTER 8 Gulch (187?-1884) and China Pit ................................................ 75 ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (1884-1894); MINFILE 093N025 ..95 Lcde Deposits............................................................ 75 Placer Gold Composition and Lode Sources ......97 Intrusion-Related Deposits .................................. 75 Silt and Lithogeochemical Studies ........................... 98 Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposits Regional Geochemical Surveys.......................... 98 Associated with Alkalic Intrusions ......75 104 LithogeochemicalSampling ............................. Mount Polley (Cariboo-Bell) Deposit; MINFILE 093M008 ............. 75 107 REFERENCES............................................................... Porphyry Copper-Gold Prospects Associated With Alkalic Stocks .......... 79 APPENDICEs................................................................ 115 Lemon Lake (Pine. Fly. Lem); A. Composition of Pyroxene From Unit 2............... 117 MINFILE 093N002 ......................... 79 B. Microfossil (conodont)Data for the Quesnel Kwun Lake; MINFILE 093N077 119 Map Area ............................................................ and Beehive (Beekeeper); C. Eureka Peak Quesnel Lake Microfossil MINFILE 093N155 ......................... 79 .................................................. 121 (Conodont) Data Shiko Lake (Redgold); MINFILE D. Microfossils (Palynomorphs) from the Quesnel Map Area ............................................................. 123 093N058 .......................................... Bullion Lode; MINFILE 093N041 E. Microfossil Data fromthe Quesnel Map Area 80 ....... .... 125

Radiometric Dates ..................................................... 46 Stratigraphic Summary and Facies Relationships 48

....

viii

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry of Employment and.lnveshnent

Pnge

]nee

3-8. Generalized geological map showing units10 and 11 Tertiary rocks ............................................ 24 G. 3-9. Diagrammatic stratigraphic section and cross-section showing Tertiary and n. ............................................. 38 Quaternary map units 3-10. Generalized geological map showing units 7 1. and 8 intrusive rocks ............................................ 39 J. 4-1. Central Quesnel belt time-stratigraphic units K. with diagnostic fossils and radiometricagm .........43 4-2. Generalized geological map with radiometric L. dating sample sites; this project, age in M I ...........45 4-3. Ar radiometric ages and stratigraphic relationships of alkalic stocks and otherdated rocks of the central Quesnel belt ............................ 47 M. 5-1. Differentiation index@.I.) with Dl. = normative Q+Or+Ab+Ne+Ks+L.c plotted N. against QuesnelMapunit average major 52 oxide values............................................................ 0. 5-2. Differentiation index @.I.) with D.I. = FIGURES normative Q+Or+Ab+Ne+Ks+Lc plottetl against Quesnel Map-unit average minor 1-1. Cordilleran morphogeological belts after and Wheeler Gabrielse 1 (1972).................................. ................. 1....................................... 53 element values and 1-2. Locationof project area, major lakes 5-3.AFM diagram showing fields for Quesnel ................................... 2 routes access main and rivers units la, 2 and 3 ..................................................... 54 of the south-central 2-1. Tectonic assemblage map 5-4.Normative compositions, CIPW norms fcr all ........................................... 7samples part Columbia of British ..................................... 54 Quesnel analyzed 2-2. Generalized geological map of project area 5-5. Classification of Quesnel basaltson the basis showing tectonic assemblages that border of total alkalis, potassium and silica contmts ........55 Quesnellia and major intrusive bodies within 5-6. NormativeAb-An-& plot for Quesnel Quesnellia ................................................................. 8 55 map-area rocks....................................................... 2-3. Generalized geological map of project area 5-7. KzO versus SiOz plots of Quesnel basaln:.............. 56 showing stratigraphicsubdivisions and major suitfr ............ 56 5-8. Alkaline sodic and alkaline potassic intrusions of Quesnel Terrane and adjoining .............................................. 12 5-9. Ternary plotof minor oxide analyses with assemblages tectonic 57 fields for various tectonic settings ............. 2-4. Generalized cross-sections showing structural styles along the Quesnellia-Barkerville terrane 5-10. Ternary minor element tectonic discrimination 14 and boundary ................................................................. Pearce afterplot Cam ..................................... 57 3-1. Schematic stratigraphic section showing element discrimination plot ................ 57 5-11. T i minor lithologies and ages of map units described in 5-12. V m 1 minor element discrimination plot. ................. 57 trough Quesnel project area.................................... 17 5-13. Comparisonof some minor element contents 3-2. Generalized geological map of the Quesnel of Quesneland equivalent Nicola Group trough project area showing units1 and la basalts..................................................................... 57 metasedimentary rocks ........................................... 18 5-14. Chondrite-normalized minor element p b t .............58 3-3. Schematic section and stratigraphic 5-15. Chondrite-normalized minor element plat for subdivisions after Bloodgood (1990)illuseate high-potassium calcalkaline and shoshonitic correlationsbetween the Eureka Peakand lavas from southern Italy compared to areas ................................................. 19 Spanish Lake basalts Quesnel ....................................................... 58 3-4. Generalized geological map showing unit 25-16. MORB-normalized trace element plotsof basalts ..................................................................... 20 island arc and other typical suites of the: 3-5. Generalized geological map showing unit 3.. association shoshon~tlc ........................................... 58 felsic breccia ........................................................ 21 61. Schematic illustration of the geometric 3-6. Generalized geological map showing unit 4relationships between FI and F2 folding................ 63 subaerial basalt....................................................... 22 ............ 65 6 2 . Schematic structural cross-sections 3-7. Generalized geological map showing units5, 6 and 9 - overlap units ............................................ 23 6-3. Common veingeometries........................................ 68

Petrochemistry Sample Data for the Quesnel Map Area............................................................. 129 Major Oxide Chemistry of Map Units ................ 131 Replicate andDuplicate Analyses (precision and 133 Variability) ........................................................... Minor Element Chemistry of Map Uni t s ............ 135 Major Oxide and Minor Element Chemislq ......137 Quesnel CIPW Norms for all Analyzed 139 Samples, n = 84 ................................................... Analysis of Ferric and Ferrous Iron @ez3 and Volcanic and Fe+2), in Percent, From Quesnel Values Intrusive Rocks Compared to Calculated From Total Fe @eo*) ...................... 145 Lithogemhemical Analyses (125 Assay ................................................. I47 Samples), in ppm Assay Samples (Appendix M) - Locations and 151 Descriptions......................................................... Platinum, Palladium and Gold Analyses ............. 155

Bsrlletin 97

ir

British Columbia

Page

Page

7-1. Metamorphic facies and zones,central Quesnel Trough (Quesnel Terrane) and adjoining Cache Creek Terrane and 71 Barkerville Subterrane............................................ 8-1. Generalized geological map of project area ........... 77 8-2. Mount Polley (Caribm-Bell) simplified geology and proposed pit S-19 outline ................... 78 8-3. Geology ofthe QR gold deposit ............................. 81 84. Cross-sections ofthe QR gold deposit Main, 82 Midwest and West ................................................... o f project area 8-5. Generalized geological map showing locations of structurally controlled, 84 mainly (mesothermal) vein deposits....................... 8-6. Frasergold property work areas, claim boundary and geochemical gold anomaly in soils ......................................................................... 85 8-7. Generalized geological map of project area f volcanic-hosted native showing locations o copper occurrences and other mineral deposi t s . . . . . . 88 8-8. Generalized geological map ofproject area showing locations of placer gold deposi&.............X9 8-9. Placer channels in the Quesnel Lake 91 Horsefly River district ............................................ 8-10. Sketch map from Lay (1932)of probable courses of Tertiary channels in the Horsefly area .......................................................................... 92 8-11. RGS stream survey for Pb, Cu, Zn andAg. ............ 99 8-12. RGS stream sediment survey for As, Sb and Hg ............................. .............. ....... ...................100 8-13. RGS stream sediment survey for U and Mo .........101 8-14. RGSstream sediment survey for Co and Ni ......... 102

3-3. Photomicrographs ofunit 2 basalts ........................ 33 3-4. Photomicrographs of analcite basalt of unit 2e, sandstone and felsic breccias of unit 3................... 34 f unit 3 and 3-5. Photomicrographs of felsic rocks o intrusive rocks of unit 7 .......................................... 35 6-1. Second phaseoverprint of first phase isoclinal fold .......................................................................... 66 6-2. Imbricationalong the contact between the Croaked amphibolite andthe Triassic black phyllites .................................................................. 66 6-3. Second phase folding of the gently inclined bedding hasa conjugate kink-type geometry......... 67 6-4. Plan view ofa slaty cleavage surface (SI) defonned by F2....................................................... 67 6-5. Strongly deformed quartz veins within black phyllites .................................................................. 69 6-6. Small bedding-parallel quartz veins folded 69 about an uprightFz fold ......................................... 6-7. Early formed, folded quartz veins truncatedby a later, blockyvein .................................................. 69 8-1. m i c a l auriferous quartz veins at the ................................................ 86 Frasergold property 8-2. V i e w of the Bullion pit, looking northwest ............ 96

rmLEs
4-1. Radiometric Age Determinations; This Study Potassium-Argon Analytical Data, and Others............................................................... 44 5-1. Average Major Oxide Compositions ...................... 50 5-2. Average Minor Element Compositions .................. 50 5-3. CIPW Norms Map Unit Average .. for .......................................................... 51 Composi~ons 8-1. Principal Mineral Occurrences in the Quesnel Map Area, Classified in MINFILE According to Major Genetic Vpes .......................................... 76 8-2. Placer Gold ProductionSince 1864 From From Reported Bullion Mine, Estimated 97 Production Records ................................................ 8-3. Compositions of GoldGrains Recovered From Placer Creeks and Lode GoldSources ......... 98 8-4. Summary of Stream SedimentData for Total Sample Set, in Project Area and Proximity; N=522 ................................................................... 103

...

PHOTOS Frontispiece Quesnel River, view looking east (upstream) .........iii from theQR deposit towards Quesnel Forks 1-1.View of Quesnel Lake looking northwesterly...........3 1-2. Niquidet Lake, between Horsefly and Quesnel lakes .......................................................................... 4 1-3.Rugged topographywith bedded, metasedimentary Triassic rocks .............. : ................ 4 3-1.1s.pical outcrop appearance andfabric in basaltic uni. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3-2. ?Lpical outcrop appearance andfabric in felsicshoshonitic basaltic rocks ........................... 32

Geological Survey Branch

M i n r s t r y Investment

CHAPTER 1
PROJECT LOCATION AND OBJECTIVES
A geological mapping program inthe Cariboo region of central British Columbia, the Quesnel Mineral Belt Project, was begun in 1985 and conducted over four succeeding field seasons. The main thrust was to remap and re-interpret the central Quesnel volcanicbelt, also known as the Quesnel Trough, in the vicinity of Quesnel and Horsefly lakes and to the north and south of Quesnel and Horsefly rivers (Figure 1-1).A major undertaking was to investigatethe economic potential for gold and copper-gold deposits along the volcanic-intrusive axis of the belt and studythe newly discovered auriferousgold veinsin the basalclastic unit. The project was initially funded by the CanadalBritish ColumbiaMineralDevelopmentAgreement1985-1990 (MDA). In 1987 increased provincial funding enabledthe project to expand along the trend of the Quesnel belt to both the northwest and southeastof the original mapping. Fieldwork was concluded in 1988. This study was initiated and coordinated as a mineral deposits investigation by the senior author. Hemapped mainly in the volcanic terrain in the southern part of the study area between the Horsefly River and Quesnel Lake. David G.Bailey was contracted seasonally during 1987 1988 to remap the central and northern portions of the Quesnel trough from the north end of Quesnel Lake and adjoining the Quesnel River to the northwest as far as the Cottonwood River. Mary Anne Bloodgood, supported by MDA funding in 1986 and as a staff geologist in 1987,
I

INTRODUCTIOlN
studiedthe basal sedimentary facies of the Qnesn9 volcanic arc - the black phyllite map unit.Shejnvesligated the stmtigraphy, structuralsetting and auriferousvejn develop ment in the Horsefly River headwaters, Macka) River and Spanish Mountain areas where the basal assrmblaze of finegrained clastic rocks flanks the main Quesnel volcanic units along their eastern margin. Kirk Hanco:kmapped along side Pantefeyev and summarized muchof the information abwt placer deposits in the study area. Geological mapping was conducted by pace and compass traverses over most heights of land where outcrop potential was evident from study of aerial photographs. Examination of mad cuts and the more deeply iucised creek gullies was effective in locating otherwise scarce bedrock. Data wererecorded on 1:20000-scale blackand white aerial photographs, more recent 1: 15 ooOcoloured photographsor 1:20 WO-scale planimetricmaps. Mapping d a a and interpreted information were plotted on 150 ooO topographic on 1:50 OOO and 1:1000MLscaIe commaps and presented pilation maps. Characteristicsamples were taken fromevery mapunit to describe petrologic features and 1.0 determine the whole-rock and minor element chemical compsitions of the volcanic and intrusive rocks. A 1 1 macrofwsils discovand ered were submitted to the Geological Survey of Canada for examination together with a number of colkctions from limestonesand calcareous beds containing microfossils, mainly conodonts. Hydrothermally altered or unusual rocks were submittedfor geochemical characterizationas 'assay' samples. Stratigraphicinterpretation of the sparse and fa,ult-disrupted volcanic outcrop data is difficultdue to the similarity of lithologies but great lateral diversity in the fabric and textures of the predominantly pyroxene-phyril: rocks. However, a few distinctive breccia and flow units containing analcite phenocrysts or feldspathic lavas provide readily identifiable marker units. Sedimentaryunits with rare fossil-bearing membersare locally intercalated I~twe, *n some of the volcanic units and, where present,are invaluable as time-stratigraphic markers the in volcanic suc1:essions. Considerable assistance in geological interpretation in !southern parts of the maparea is offered by 1968 fedmYprovincia1 1:63 360 (1 inch to I mile)aeromagnetic map!; 52396 1989 1:2SO OOO aeromag(93N6) and 15326 (93NS). The netic map of the northern part of the mapare:! (map 1952G. with four 1:50 OOO component sheets) reveals only highly generalized map patterns.

PROJECT SUMMARY AND figure 1- 1. Cordilleran morphogeological belts after Wheeler and PUBLICATIONS

Gabrielse (1972) withrocks of of the Quesnel Terrane (shaded), This report, withits 1:100 OOO geological compilation after Wheeleretd. (1991), shown along theeastem margin of the map, summarizesthe work done in the central Quesnel belt Intermontane Belt The central Quesnel Trough project area in between latitudes 52'15' and 53"IO' north and longitudes mainly NTS 93A is indicated by the dark pattern.

Bulfefin97 I

British Columbia

120O30 and 122% west. Mapping extendsfrom the beadwaters of the Horsefly River in the southeast to Cottonwood River in the northwest approximately 12 kilometres north of the town of Quesnel.The area mapped, centred roughly on the village of Likely, covers about 4600 square kilometres in a northwesterly-trending swath 26 to 60 kilometres wide and 120 kilometres long. The 150 Do0 map sheets completely or partially mapped are: NTS 93At5.6, I, 11, 12, 13; 93Bi9, 16 and small portions of 93Gl1 and 93W4 (Figure 1-1). e a Sample collections with chemical analyses and p logic data from 84 lithologic specimens, 20 macrofossil collections, 36 microfossil samples (6 producingconodonts), 3 palynomorph collections and 125 geochemical determinations (assays) are tabulated in appendices at the end of this repon. Published results of the project include: Open Files (Maps) - 1990-31,(Bailey, 1990); 198914, (Panteleyev andHancock,1989b);1989-20, (Bailey, 1989b) and 1987-9, (Bloodgood, 1987b). Preliminary Maps #67, (Bailey, 1988b). Papers - 1990-3, (Bloodgood, 1990). Geological Fieldwork Paper Series Contributions Bailey and Archibald, 1990; Bailey,1989a;Lu, 1989; Panteleyev and Hancock. 1989a; Bailey, 1988a;Bloodgood, 1988;Panteleyev.1988; Bloodgood, 1987a;and Panteleyev, 1987.

north and Williams Lake in the south (Figure 1-2). Easiest access is from the Carib00 Highway (Highway97) starting at 150 Mile House, 25 kilometres east of Williams Lake; there a paved all-weather road, the Gold Rush Trail joins the main highway. The roadsplits after 2 kilometres, intoa southern branch that leads to the community of Horsefly,55 kilometres away, and a northern branch that goes to the village of Likely, 80 kilometres distant. Alternate access to the headwaters o f the Horsefly River in the southeasternpart of the map area is from 100 Mile House. From there the settlement of Black Creek on the Horsefly River can be reached by this scenic route through a series of improved gravelroads that pass by Canim, Hendrix, Bosk and Crooked lakes. Entry into the central partof the project area near Beaver Creek can also be and access to the Likely road gained by way ofthe Gibraltar mine road - Tyee Lake connector road from McLeese Lake, 43 kilometres north of Williams Lake. The northernmost part of the map area is accessiblefrom the Quesnel-Barkerville road (Highway 26) and a number of secondary roadsalong the Qnesnel River. In the project area, and generally throughoutthe central Quesnel Trough,there is a series of well-maintained gravel roads, a network of intermittently upgraded farm and ranch Loaccess roads and numerous unimproved logging roads. roads in various states cal access is afforded by old logging of disrepair, rough tracks, trails and various cattle walks that can be travelled on foot.

ACCESS
The area is readily accessible by road from the major population centres in the region, the towns of Quesnel in the

PHYSIOGRAPHY
The QuesnelTroughand the projectareawithinit occupy the eastern pan of the Intermontane morphogeological belt along its boundary with the Omineca Belt. The region is part of the Cariboo Plateau, the easternmost part of the larger region of Interior Plateaus (Mathews, 1986). The trough andthe region tothe east of it form the Quesnel Highland (Holland, 1964), a physiographic transition zone of hills, valleys and low mountains, that lies between the gently undulating Cariboo Plateauthe inwest and the higher a r i b 0 0 and steeper subalpine and alpine terrain of the C Mountains, part of the Columbia Mountain ranges, in the east. The largest valleys are occupied by Quesnel and Horsefly lakes, both large and deep bodies of clean water that sustain important fish stocks. Numeroussmaller lakes and ponds are found throughout the region. The topography and physiographyare expressions of the predominant underlying bedrock units. Inthe western plateau region, there are mainly flat-lying Tertiary volcanic flows of Early Miocene to Early Pliocene basalts and associated pyroclastic and sedimentary rocks of Mathews (1989) Chilcotin Group. There is generally a thick cover of glaciogenic and fluvial deposits in the area or, rarely, small windows or uplifted fault blocks of the underlying Cache Creek Group. The area forms a plateau with a distinctive rollingtopographyofnorthwesterly trendingundulations 10 of the basalts in to 25 kilometres across. The eastern margin

~~

~~

y e 1-2. Location of project area major lakes and rivers and rin access routes.

themapareaismarkedbyaprominentbasaltrimrockscarp

Geological Survey Branch

Minisfry of Employment and Investment

the study area and are a major tributaryto the Fraser River along Beaver Creek valley. Vegetation varies from pine at Quesnel. The dominantly northwest-southeast drainage forest to scrubby hardwood stands, commonly with interpattern has a subsidiary system perpendicular to it, formed spersed grasslands and marshy ponds. The central and main by many of the tributary creeks and secondary drainages. area of mapping interest, the Quesnel Trough, is a hilly, forested region underlain by Mesozoic volcanic and sediQpical elevations of lakes and in the headwraters of the mentary rocks and some plutons (Photos 1-1and 1-2). The rivers in the Quesnel Highland, for example 2.t Crooked the map area,are slighhtly more higher hills and mountains along the eastern map boundary Jake in the southeast part of the confluence of the are composed mainlyof sedimentary rocks of the Mesozoic than 900 metres. The elevation at Quesnel and Fraser rivers in the northwest cwner of the basal clastic assemblage, their foliated metamorphosed project area is about 500 metres. The undulatin:; plateau in equivalentsand the underlying higher grade basement metathe west varies from900 to 1100 metres in elevation. The morphic rocks (Photo 1-3). central part of the map area, alongthe volcanic axis of the Evidence of glaciation is extensive and evident in the landforms. Largeareas are covered by fluvioglacial depos- Quesnel Trough, is predominantly rolling hills with :a few clustered heightsof land rising gently to elevations around its, till sheets, moraines withtrains of large glacialerratics 1500 metres. The easternmost part of the area mapped is and ice-scoured, generally small, outcrop areas. Northwest2000 erly glacial transport is consistent throughout the area with more rugged with a number of mountains clc.se to metres in elevation; farther to the east the highe:rt peaksare local zones showing more westerly ice-movement trends. Glacial striae have a pronounced northwesterly orientation in excess of 2500 metres. with a dominant 305" ice-flow direction. Outcrop in the extensively glaciated area is relatively The overall northwesterly flowing drainage system es- scarce except along the eastern map boundary where the tablished in the maparea originates in the Cariboo Mounmore severely deformed and metamorphosed rocks form the area Most tains. The largest river in the south is the Horsefly River and highland areas, ridges and mountain peaks. of its tributaries. In the north the main rivers are the Cottonis underlain by volcanic rocks and topography is subdued; bedrock is exposed locally or where the generdly shallow wood and Swift. The Horsefly River and outflow from overburdenhasbeen disrupted by industrial activities, Horsefly Lake drain into Quesnel Lake. Its outflow, the an? frequently Quesnel River, and a northeast branch at Quesnel Forks, chiefly the logging and road building. Outcrops found along ridge crests, commonly at the southt:astend (the C a r i b River, form the main river system inthe centre of

Photo 1-1. View of Quesnel lake looking northwesterly towards Likely from the Shiko Lake property. The forested low hills with intervening broad valleys are typical of the region that is underlain by the Quesnel arc volcanic rocks.

Bulletin 97

Photo1-2.NiquideiLake,betweenHorseflyandQuesnellakes,lookingeastwardiowardstheCaribooMountains.Thesubduedtopography is typical of the area of basin-fillTriassic sedimentary rocks of unit 1 that underlie the Quesnel arc volcanic deposits.

Photo 1-3. Rugged topgraphy with bedded, metasedimentary Triassic rocks in the eastern part of the map area near the Quesnellia BarkerviUe terraneboundary. View to east towards Eureka Peak,elevation 2426 metres.

Geological Survey Branch

5 Invesrmenf
Quesnelbelt rocks, forexample,Nelson eral. (1591,1992). upice or stoss side) of the glaciated ridges. Bedrock is also Equivalent rocks to the south, mainly between Kamloops exposed insome o f the more deeply incised river and creek gullies and locally along lake shores. Overall there is an and Princeton, are generally referred to as Nicola Group extensive wver of glacial, fluvioglacial and fluviaI deposits (Schau, 1970; Preto, 1977,1979; Mortimer,1987).The that support forest resources of good quality. Timber has rocks mapped during this project in the centr;ll Qu(:snel Trough havebeen variously correlated with eithx TalJa or been extensively harvested throughout much of the area and the cut blocks, especially the fire breaks along their perime Niwlarocks.Bailey(1978)poiutedoutthesimilarityofthe ters,are places where bedrock is frequently exposed. Quesnel volcanic units with both the Nicola Group rocks to the south andthe TakIaGroup rocks to thenorth but did not indicate any preferred correlation or inclusion OF his QuesPREVIOUS WORK ne1 area mapunitswitheither group.Hesubsequently referred to them as Nicola Group (Bailey, 1983a). In this the south of the QuesTriassic rocks near Kamloops to study we continue to correlate our map units with the Nicola ne1 area were first described byG.M.Dawsonin 1877 Group simply to emphasize the association of these rocks (Dawson 1877,1879). In 1887 Amos Bowman recognized withQuesne1Terrane. The term Takla leads tc. ambilguity rocks in the Questhe volcanic nature and Mesozoic of age because in northern British Columbiait has be:n used for ne1 River region. He referred to the volcano-sedimentary Stikine terranes. units as the Quesnel Riverbeds (Bowman, 1889). Cock- rocks in both Quesnel and field and Walker (1932) mappeda portion of the same belt The alkalic nature of the volcanic rocks in Quesnellia, to the west of the Quesnel Forks placer mining district. Their and their related plutons, became evident during the 1970s work supported Bowmans conclusions about the distribulargely from the work by Fox (1975) and near Princeton by tion of regional map units. Cockfield and Walker described Preto(1972,1977, 1979). Similar rocks in the no.rthem the layered and intrusive units in more detail and noted the Quesnel Trough were described by Koo (19158).Meade presence of syenites. Wlth the use of faunal collections they (1977) and Gamett (1978). Detailed mapping and petroresolved that Jurassic argillites are interbedded with the chemical studies the of alkalic rocks were done lby Lelebure purplish brown volcanic successions the Morehead in Creek (1976), Morton (1976) and Bailey (1978). Modimer (1986, 1987) has investigated area. the major andminor element petrochemistry of the volcanic rocks.He has discussed the largeThe broadextent of Triassic(andsomeassociated scale correlations of the map units and concludes that Jurassic) arc rocks as part ofa volcanic belt that is virtually continuous throughouttheCanadian Cordillera was docu- chemically equivalentrocks extend far to the south in the United States. The relationship inthe belt between aIkalic mented in the 196Os, mainly by workers fromthe Geological volcanism, plutonism and related mineralizathn ha:$been term Quesnel Trough was fmt used Surveyof Canada. The by Roddick er al. in 1967. Comprehensive regional studies discussed by Barr et al. (1976). Hodgson et al. (1976) and in the Quesnel Riverarea during the late 1950s and 1960s Bailey and Hodgson (1979). In the northern part of the Quesnel Trough similar rocks in the Mount Iblilligan are c ~ p p e r1959,1978; , Campbell, 1961,1963; andcampbell by Nelson et al. 1:1991., 1992, and Campbell, 1970)are summarized by Campbell (1973, (NTS 93K93N) are discussed 1978) anddiscussed by Souther (1977). Campbell referred 1993) and Nelson and Bellefontaine (1996). tothevolcano-sedimentary units as the QuesnelRiver The boundary of the Intermontane Ominxa morphoGroup. geologica1 belts or, alternatively, the Quesndlia BarkA detailed geological description and definition of reerville terranes, has been subject the of a numbx of studies, gional stratigraphy in the central part of this study area was mostly unpublished, concerned mainly with the tectonic done during the 1970sby Morton (1976) and Bailey (1976, evolution, structural development and metamorphic histow 1978). Morton interpreted the volcanic assemblage inthe of the region (Campbell, 1911; Montgomer/, 1918;FilHorsefly Lake area, designated by him as the Horsefly lipone, 1985;Elsby. 1985;Carye. 1986;Struik. 1986,1988a; Group, to be a cyclical sequenceof alkalic volcanics gen- Bloodgood, 1987c;Rees,l981,1987;Radloff, 1989).Much erated by C N S rifting. ~ Bailey, on the other hand, considof the workis summarized by Ross et al. (1985,1989) and ered that the rocks formed in an island arc, above a McMullin ef al. (1990). To the east of the Quesnel belt, in convergent plate margin. Baileys mapping the in Morehead the Carib00 Mountains of the Barkerville Subterrane, the Lake area established a regional stratigraphy that serves as Upper Proterozoic through Paleozoic stratigraphy. smca geological mapping standard and reference framework for tures and metamorphic history havealso been extensively this project as well as other geologicaI studies in the region. studied(SutherlandBrown,1963;Fletcher,1972;Engi, His stratigraphic succession is demonstrable and reliable in 1984;Elsby,1985Getsinger,1985;Montgomery,1985; the map area and is generally applicable to other parts of the Ganvin,1987;Lewis,1987).Majorrecentadvances in Quesnel trough. understandingoftheareahavecomefromworkduring1980 Wlthin the Quesnellia tectonostratigraphic terrane in to 1986by L.C.Struik of the Geological Survcy of Canada, north-central British Columbia, commonly referred summarized in Struik (1986,1987,1988a.b). Two other to as the comprehensive and insightful summaries m i discussions e r m Takla northern extension of the Quesnel Trough, the t are those of Rees (1987) and McMullin (1990). The major or Takla Group has been applied to rocks identical to the

Bulletin 97

British Columbia
~ ~~~

regional tectonostratigraphic units that make up the map area and the terminology of the terranes Quesnellia, Stikinia,Cache Creek, Slide Mountain,Barkerville, Kootenay and others, are described by Monger ef af. (1991). Interest in the mineral potential of the area has been evident since 1859 when placer gold was discovered near the site of present-day Horsefly and elsewhere in the Quesne1River drainage system.The first reports on the economic potential of the district were prepared after a reconnaissance of the area by G.M. Dawson in 1894. A record of annual gold production and mining activity has been kept since 1874 and published in the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines. Reviews of the major placer mining operations at Cedar Creekwere done by Johnston (1923), Quesnel Forks area by Cockfield and Walker (1 932) and the Horsefly River and other areas by Lay (1939). Recent reviews of the geological settings and stratigraphy of gold placers in the Qnesne1 Trough and Carib00mining district to the north are those of Levson and Giles (1991,1993). The first synopsisoflodemineralpotentialin the Quesnel Trough was by Campbell and lipper (1970). Bedrock explorationin the area was active during the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s mainly for copper and coppergold deposits (Saleken and Simpson, 1984). During that time, the Cariboo-Bell (Mount Polley) porphyry coppergold deposit was located (Hodgsonet aL, 1976). Exploration activity peakedin the early 1980s after release of the 1980 Regional Geochemistry Survey (RGS) and recognition of the districts lode gold potential, as indicated by discovery of the volcanic-hosted, propylite-associatedQR gold deposit (Fox et al., 1986;Melling eful.;1990; Foxand Cameron, 1995). Discovery and exploration of auriferous quam vein deposits in the Spanish Lake and Mackay River areas focussed attentionon the gold potential of the basal black phylliteunits.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Discussions about t h e geology of the Nicola beltat the outset of this project and enlightening observations in t h e field were provided by Bill McMillan and V c Preto. Ted Faulkner, Regional Geologist in Prince George, introduced Branch.ShaunPattendenassembledmuchofthesamp1eand the writers to the project area and a number of the main early analytical data. We acknowledge the assistancein data mineral deposits. Macrofossils and microfossils submitted to them were assembly and computer processing from colleagues Chris Ash, Wayne Jackaman, Ray Lett, Don MacIntyre, Aaron expertly identified, respectively, by Howard Tipper and Penipas and Steve Sibbick. Editorial comments about draft Mike Orchard of the Geological Survey of Canada. Terry manuscripts, by John Newel1 and Brian Grantare incorpoPoulton and Tim Tozer provided consultations on certain rated in this report. The geological compilation maps were fauna. Glen Rouse of The University of British Columbia completed by Martin Taylor. A special mention is reserved identified palynomorphs. Bert Struik of the Geological Surfor Victor Koyanagi who has generated most of the illustravey of Canada provided insightsinto many facetsof regional tions, tables, appendices and draft copies of the maps preand structural geologyas did John Ross and Jeff Fillipone sented here. of The University of British Columbia. Specialized analyses

by electron microprobeon gold grains were performedby John McKnightat TheUniversity of British Columbia and on pyroxene crystals by Mitch Mihalynuk at the University of Calgary. Potassium-argon radiometric dating was done by Joe Harakal at TheUniversity of British Columbia and Ar-Ar dating by Doug Archibaldat Queens University. A number ofexploration geologists, most notably Pete Fox and John Kerr, sharedtheir knowledge about the project area and, in a number of cases, provided data and reportsto the authors.Additionvaluableinformation,discussions, assistance and hospitality were provided by Rob Cameron, Vin Campbell, Rudi Durfeld, Geoffrey Goodall, Charlie Greig and Bill Morton. A number of claim owners, prospectors and placer operators provided access to their properties, and in some cases, rock and mineral samples and tours of their operations. The visit with Lyle Shunter at his Black Creek placer mine and discussion about Beaver Valley placer creeks withthe late Milt Lonneberg were especially infonnative. Land holders throughout the area were consistently cordial and helpful with information about local access, outcrop locations and placer mining history. Horsefly residents Susan andBill Hall extended their hospitality at the Birch Bay Resort on Horsefly Lake. James Allard offered boat launching facilities at his family property on Horsefly Lake and provided site information and rock samples from a new quany in the area. Lu Jun ofthe Ministry of Metallurgical Industry, Hefei City, PeoplesRepublic of China, a visiting scholar funded in 1987/1988byWorldUniversity Services ofCanada, conducted somefield investigations ably assistedby Mike Fournierof the Ministry. The work within the central Qnesne1 belt in the vicinity of Cantin Creek was in an area of economic interest investigated by Pete Fox; the use of his data and mapsis acknowledged. This work (Lu, 1989) has been incorporated in the regional 1 5 0 OOO and 1:lW OOO geology maps. Ministry employees working on a seasonal basis as field and mapping assistants were: John Nicholson, Kari Marks, Lany Elgaa, Giovanni Pagliuso, Mike Game11 and Jan Hammack. Analytical work wasdone or expedited by the Analytical Sciences Laboratory, Geological Survey

Geobgical Survey Branch

Ministry o f Employment and Znvestmenr

CHAPTER 2
TECTONIC SUBDMSIONS - BELTS, TERRANES AND TECTONIC ASSEMBLAGES

REGIONAL GE0LOG.Y

structural, as does Bloodgood (1988). On the other hand, Struik(1981,1985a)referstoadepositionalcon~lctinr;ome places. Also Rees (1987) suggests that the two map units have a depositional contact and were linked zs a single composite terrane by the Late Triassic. He considers the The Canadian Cordilleracan be divided into five major amphibolite to be correlative with rocks of the Slide Mybunlongitudinal morphogeological belts of generally similar tain Terrane but refers to it as the 'Antler Formation'in (order physiography and geology;from west to east these are the to supress the implication that it might be tectonically :repaInsular, Coast, Intermontane, Omineca and Forelandbelts rated from Quesnellia. Basement for Quesnellia .isprobably (WheelerandGabrielse, 1972;seeFigure1-1).Thebeltsare rocks of the Harper Ranch (QNH) Subterranc:(Monger, now interpreted to be made up of a number of geologic 1977; Struik, 1986; Monger ef ai., 1991). These are Deterranes representing crustal blocks of fundamentally convonian to Permian oceanic marginal basin or a n :volcanics trastinghistories~ongeretai,,1991;WheeleretoL,1991). and sediments that locally contain maficintrusion!;and Terranesarecharacterized(JonesefaL,1983;Keppie, 1988) alpine-type ultramafic rocks. No Harper Ranch rocks are byinternallycontinuousgeology,includingstratigraphy, known to crop out in the project area. Along the Eureka structure, fauna, metamorphism, igneous petrology, geof Quesnel Terrane, rocks of physicalproperties, paleomagnetic record and metallogeny. thrust, the eastern boundary o Quesnellia are superimposed on the intenslydefo:rmed, The t e ~are ~ commonly s bounded by faults and melanges variably metamorphosedProterozoic andPaleozoic pericrarepresentingtrench complexes or (collisional) suture zones. tonic rocks of the Barkerville Subterrane (KOB). The westNeighbouring terranes maybe far-[ravelled and exotic and em part of the Intermontane Belt, Stikinia (ST), is separated therefore have distinctivegeological records. Alternatively, if the terranes are similar they maybe distinguished only by the presence of telescoped oceanic lithosphere along their ', boundaries. In mostoftheCordillera,terraneandbelt j*/ . . .*: boundariescoincidebutlocallyterranes transect the ; 9 boundaries of belts. Eleven allochthonousterranes in additionto the ancestral North American craton have been described in the el ai.. 1982,1991). Some of the Canadian Orogen (Monger terranes, or parts of them that are of uncertain origin with respect to N o r t h America, have been referred to as 'suspect terranes' (Coney ef aI., 1980). The terranes have been assembled within ascenario of continent-margin amalgamation and accretion summarized by Monger (1993). This study has investigated an area that lies along the eastern margin of the Intermontane Belt along its tectoNc boundary with the Omineca Belt. project The area is almost entirely within Quesnellia (QN),sometimes alternatively 8p? referred to as Quesnel Terrane (Figure 2-1). The western terrane boundary of Quesnellia with Cache Creek (CC) rocks is marked by a zone of high-angle, strike-slip faulting that is probably the southern extension of the Pinchi fault system (Gabrielse, 1991). Along the eastern margin of the map area rocks of Quesnellia and a thin slice of underlying 'Crooked amphibolite', part of the Slide Mountain Terrane (SM), are structurally coupled and tectonically emplaced by FiL the Ewka thrust onto the BarkervilleSubterrane(KOB)of British Columbia including QGsnelbroject area and surroinding the Omineca Belt (Struik, 1986,1988a). region; tectonic assemblages are those o f Wheeler md McFeeley (1991). Terranes: BR Bridge River;CAc - CaritWx, Sul;,terrane, The predominantly Triassicand Early Jurassicvolcanic partofCassiar,CC-CacheCreek;HR-HarperRan:hSub,terrane; Mand related volcaniclastic rocks that characterize QuesKO Kwtenay; KOB Barkerville Subtenme; MT .Methow; NA nellia overlie a thin, discontinuous slice of Crooked amphi- -North America; SM-Slide Mountain. T T e r t i a r y overlap units; bolite (Campbell, 1971). Struik (1986, 1988a) regards the older (Jurassic) plutons hatchured pattern;younger (Cre%,acaus) amphiboliteasthebasalunitofQuesnelliaandconsidersthe plutons cmssed pattern. Rocks ofQuesnel Terrane are shown in contact between Quesnel rocks and the amphibolite to be dark grey pattern.
!I!

Bulletin 97

MAP UNITS

NTS S3.W 12 and alts of 931US,7.11.13,'938/9.~30/1.93H/4

Figure 2-2. Generalized geological map of project area showing tectonic assemblages that border Quesnellia and major intrusive bodies within Quesnellia.

pianintrusiveunit(Mottensenetal., 1987;Montgomeryand Ross, 1989).FurthertotheeastoftheBarkervilleSlubterrane are Kaza and Carib00 Group rocks of the Upper Proterozoic to Carboniferous C a r i b Subterrane (CAc), a continental margin assemblage. To the a small west of Quesnellia and in part of the area mapped (see Figure 2-2) are Permian and (?) older limestone and Mississippian to Upper Triassic :redimentary rocks ofthe Cache Creek assemblage INTC), an oceanic milange. Two other minor map units the in norihern part of the Quesnel Trough include small fault-bounded, fragments of tectonic assemblages. These are oceanic ultramafic rocks(DTUo), part of the Slide Mountain Group, exposed along a northern segment of the Eureka thrust, and a small wedge ofCambrian shale, sandstone and limestone (PCG))byDragonLakenearQuesnel,reportedonbylIEpper (1978) and Struik (1984b). Some parts of the main tectonic assemblagzs in Quesnellia and the adjoining terranes are extensivelyoverlapped by younger successions of sedimentary and volcanic rocks and intruded by post-accretionary plutons. Within Questhe ne1 Trough,near Quesnel and near its western margin along the Fraser River, these units include Lower ;md Middle Jurassicarc-derived clastic rocks(JHA).Th,:rock .s are considered (Wheeler and McFeely, 1991) to bc equivalent to the Hall and Ashcroft formations of southeastern and southern Quesnellia. This unit in the Quesnel River area contains a number of undifferentiated clastic successions including rocks as young as Cretaceous. Subae~ial volcanic rocks and the clastic aprons and lacustrinedepsits derived from them include Paleogene Kamloops Group transtensional arc volcanics (PTK) and Neogene Chilcotin back-am volcanics(NTC).LocallyNeogeneFraseralluvial sediments are exposed through a regionally wider;pread cover of Quaternary deposits (Q). Intrusive rocks in Quesnellia include pre.accretionary and accretionary Early Jurassic plutons and al!.o some midCretaceous post-accretionary stocks (\l'heelcr and andWheelerandMcFeely(199l)outlinethevariousasseml . , blages of the Canadian Cordillera. The Quesnel Lake por- McFeely, 1991, Armstrong, 1988 and Woodrworth et a 182Ma) includeboth tion ofthe maps shows the four main tectonic assemblages 1991).Ear?yJurassicintrusions(214that are equatedwith intzusionsof the in the project area as illustrated by Figure 2-2. The assem- calkalkaline plutons alkaGuichon Creek batholith (ElgG) as well as hij:h-level blage namesand mnemonic codes used in the figure and in line stocks similar to the Copper Mountain suite (EJyCM). the following discussion are those of Wheeler and McFeely Some other unclassified intrusions form suites of dioritic (1991). The principal assemblage in Quesnellia, the pre@Id) and granodioritic(Elg) stocks. Post-ac~:retiomary indominant unit in the project area, is the Triassic-Jurassic trusions(130- 87 Ma) are equivalent to the Bayonne granitic Nicola island arc - marginal basin sequence (TJN). The suite (mKgB) as wellas some additional unclassified graunderlying rocks are the Crooked amphibolite, part of the Slide Mountain assemblage (DTS), a mylonitized mafic and nodioriticintrusions(mKg).Tertiaryplutonicrocksbavenot been discovered in the project although Kbceni: alkalic ultramafic unit of oceanic marginal basin volcanic and volcanic rocks and lamprophyric dikes are kuown 'LOoccur sedimentary rocks. The Barkerville Subterraneto the east, (this study). a continental prism sequence, is made np of two units,the Snowshoe Group(PP)and Quesnel Lake gneiss @MqQ). The terminology used for the Mesozoic: volcanic arc The Snowshoe rocks are Hadrynian (Upper Proterozoic) to rocks in Quesnellia has been inconsistent. It has created Upper Devonian metasediments that a x considered to be dificulties in correlating the rocks in the cmtral Quesnel wrrelative in age with Eagle Bay rocks (PPEK) of the Trough with similar rocks in other areas, even though all to the south. The Quesnel Lake these rocks occur in the same terrane. The adjoining Kootenay Terrane rocks in the gneiss, found locally near Quesnel Lake within regions of project area have, at various times, been given their own predominantly Snowshoerocks,isaDevoniantoMississipgroup names, for example, Quesnel River Group(Tipper,

from Quesnellia by rocks of the Cache Creek Terrane (CC). It is composedof mainly Mississippianto Middle Triassic oceanic and island arc volcanics and sediments. The presence of accretionary prism mblange and alpine-type ultramaficassemblages,temneboundariesalongmajorfaults and the presence of Tethyan fauna attestto the exotic and complex origin of Stikinia. Terranes of the Intermontane Belt Stikinia, Cache Creek and Quesnellia, collectively called (amalgamated) Supemrrane I, were assembled by the Early Jurassic w o n l . , 1972, 1982; Monger, 1993). This conclusion is ger et a based largely on dated crosscutting plutons. Quesnellia and Slide Mountain terranes are tied byLate Triassic to Middle Jurassic overlap assemblages.The Stikinia and Quesnellia arc assemblages and Cache Creek oceanic m6lange were accreted to terranes of North American afftnity by latest Early to Middle Jurassic time, based on ages of magmatic emplacements (Mongeret a l . , 1982; Armstrong 1988; 01dow et u l . , 1989). The fundamental geologic components that make up the terranesare referred to as 'tectonic assemblages' (Wheeler and McFeely, 1991; Monger et al., 1991). The assemblages represent rocks deposited in specific tectonic settings during certain periods of time and, therefore, are commonly bounded by unconformities or faults. They r e p resent distinctive successions of stratified rocks and other characteristic lithologies,mainly coeval metamorphic, plutonic and ultramafic rocks. The assemblages are categorized intermsoftheirpredominantdepositionalsettiugorposition relative to the orogen, for example, island arc, back-arc, ocean basin or continent-margin foredeep clastic wedge or passive-marginsediment,and so forth.Tectonicassemblages arecommonly named after their principal constituent formation, groupor region in which the assemblage is best described. The tectonic assemblage maps of Tipper ef al. (1981)

area.

"

Bulletin 97

(quartzose) schist, micaceous quartzite, feldspathic schist, 1959,1978; Campbell, 1978) and Horsefly Group (Moaoa 1976). The volcanic arc m k shave been commonly referredmetasiltite and phyllite with lesser grit, calcareous phyllite, micriticlimestone,marble, calcsilicate, amphiboliteand to as Nicola Group because of their similarity with rocks to amphiboliticgneiss (McMullin, 1990). the south (Bailey, 1978; Bloodgood, 1990). Alternatively, The rocks resemble, comparisons with similar rocks and stratigraphy to the north in pan, the Paleozoic Eagle Bay assemblage of the Adam permit a valid correlation with the Takla Group (Zpper, Plateau - Clearwater area (Schiarizza and Preto, 1987) and 1978; Rees, 1987). Much recent work in the northern Ques- have also been correlated with the Lower PaleozoicLardeau ne1 trough refers to the Triassic-Jurassic arc assemblages GroupandtheCarboniferousMilfordGroup of the Kootenay Arc (Struik, 1986). there as Takla, for example, NelsonandBellefontaine, (1995) and Femi et nl. (1992). Comparisons can also be Quesnel Lake gneiss (DMqQ) forms tabular to sill-like made with the similar but somewhat younger rocks near (Fletcher, 1972) intrusive bodies generally about 2 to 4 Rossland in southern Quesnellia, referred to as the Rossland kilometres in widthandup to 60 kilometreslong Group (Hay and Andrew, 1988). (Montgomery, 1985; Rees, 1987). Anumber of bodies ofthe Nomenclature applied in the Quesnel Lake areafrom megacrystic quartz-feldspar augen gneiss have been 1971 to 1990 by various workershas been summarized by mapped adjacent to the Barkerville Quesnel terrane boundMcMullin (1990, page 47). The basal sedimentary unit has ary (Rees, 1987). The gneiss along this boundary has a well been referred to by t developed mylonitic fabric in places and is mechanically h e .following terms: pelite;black pelite; graphitic pelite; Quesnel River Group; black phyllite; phylintercalated withCrookedamphibolite.Reesrecognized lite; black shale, slate, argillite and so forth; graphitic phyl- two major phasesof deformation in this unit. lites and argillites; Eureka quarzite and CrookedLake Quesnel Lake gneiss shows considerable variation in phyllite; Nicola Group; Quesnel River or Nicola Group; and composition from diorite to granite to syenite. m a major The upper, volcanic unit varieties of granitoid orthogneiss withintheSnowshoe Slocan King Salmon assemblage. has been referred to a s : Quesnel River Group; Horsefly Group metasedimentsare described on the basis of minerGroup; Takla Group;Nicola Group; possibly Takla or Nialogy and grain size. The.main variety is charactexized by cola Group; Takla - Nicola assemblage and simply volcanic pale outcrops composed o f potassium feldspar megacrystic e : Triassic;UpperTriassic; rocks. Ages are stated to b rockswithamafic-poorgroundmassofquartz,feldsparsand Middle. - Upper Triassic; Middle to Upper (?) Triassic; white mica. Four distinctlithologiesaredescribed Upper Triassic Lower Jurassic; Triassic - Jurassic and (Montgomery and Ross, 1989) from the larger intrusive Jurassic. bodies: a micaceous quartz-feldspawhornblende gneiss, a The usage for all the Triassic-Jurassic volcanic arc and pinkish pyroxene-hornblende-feldspar gneiss,and rarer related rocks in Quesnellia currently preferred and advodark green amphibolite and garnetiferous syenitic gneisses. cated (Gabrielse and Yorath, 1991; Wheeler and McFeeley, The second type of gneiss is found t o the south of Quesnel 1991) is Nicola Group. The term Takla Group possibly Lake. It is a more homogeneous, medium-grained, streaked should be discarded except for informal, regional usage in black-grey-white gneiss to fine-grained schistose rock. It the northern Quesnel Trough. The term Stuhini should be forms a discrete map unit in the Boss Mountain and Mount reserved for the similar (some would say identical) Triassic- Perseus areas but is thought to be related to the main gneiss Jurassic, akalic volcanic arc rocks of Stikinia. unit (Mortensenet al., 1987). Rossand co-workers (1985) indicate that emplacement of this orthogneiss precededor was contemporaneous with first-phase deformation. REGIONAL. MAP UNITS AND MAP The emplacement ageof the gneisses is interpreted to PATTERNS be Late Devonian to middle Mississippian basedon U-Pb dating (Mortensener 01.. 1987). Geochronological datafor BARKERVILLE TERRANE (KOB} all the gneisses in thedistrict have been tabulated by Rees (1987, pages 36-41). Dates range &om 752 to 106 Ma for SNOWSHOE GROUP (PP) AND QUESNEL LAKE various minerals dated by different radiometric methods. GNEISS (DMqQ) The data suggest a long and complex tectonic history for Pericratonic pelitic and psammitic metasedimentary gneiss with a Late Devonian or early Missisrocks of the Snowshoe Group and intrusive Quesnel Lake Quesnel Lake sippian intrusive age, Middle Jurassic metamorphism and gneiss are exposed in thenorthern and eastern parts of the later, possibly mid-Cretaceous, igneous resetting. projectarea.SnowshoerocksareLateProterozoic (Hadrynian) to mid-Paleozoic (Devonc-Mississippian ?) in CACHE CREEK TERRANE (CC) age. The successions consist mainly of moderately to thinly interbedded gritty siliciclastic and pelitic metasediments CACHE CREEK GROUP (MTC) (Struik,1988a).Metamorphic grade rangesfromgreenschist to amphibolite facies. The rocks are commonly finely Cache Creek rocksare found in only a very small part foliated due to strong deformation and dynamic recrystalli- of the project area to thewest of Beaver Creek,north and zation, especially near lithologic contacts and the top of the south of the Likely Tyee Lake road junction @ITS 93N5). unit. Majorlithologiesincludepelitictosemipelitic The Cache Creek Group is the mainassemblage underlying

10

GeoIogical Survey Branch

Ministry ofEmployment and

J e @

the plateau regionto the west of the Quesnel maparea but is extensively covered by Tertiarystrata and younger surfcia1 deposits. The older bedrocks are poorly exposed

(Rees,1987),possiblyadisconformity.Wbetherthiscontact between Quesnellia rocks and Crooked amphibo:3te is deor unconpositional (Rees, 1987). smctural (most authors) For throughthedeepcoverofTertiaryandyoungerrocks.Major formable (McMullin,1990)remainsuncertain. rock exposure consists of liestone that forms a number of convenience inmapping and map representation, Crooked to be part of C!uesnt:llia large bluffs withinan overall poorly exposed succession of amphibolite is generally considered and is regarded to be the base of the terrane (Smlik, 1986: Mississippian to Upper Triassic (probably Pennsylvanian Rees, 1987; Bloodgood, 1990). andor Permian) argillite, siltstone, chert and greenstone (Campbell, 1978). The limestone is a grey to pale grey QUESNELLIA (QUESNEL) TERRANE(QN) weathering major unit in a Permian and possibly older succession that includes minor greenstone, chert and HARPER RANCH SUBTERRANE @TH) argillite. The Harper Ranch Group (Monger, 1977) 'or assemSLIDE MOUNTAIN TERRANE (SM) blage is considered to underlie the Mesozoic strata of Quesnellia in southern British Columbia (Read and Okulitch, CROOKED AMPHIBOLITE P A R T OF DTS) 1977). The Devonian to Permian, possibly arc-related,assemblage consistsof highly folded and faulted clastic and The Crooked amphibolite,a name proposedby Struik volcaniclastic units and carbonate bodies which include (1985a). forms a thin, recessive map unit that effectively chert, argillite, basalt and associated ultramafic ro : k s (Monmarks the boundary between the Barkerville and Quesnel ger et aL, 1991). No Harper Ranch rocks are knownto crop terranes. The amphibolite in much of the map area is about 250 metres thick;locally it is only a few metres in thickness out in the project area; the nearest exposures underlying Nicola rocks are approximately 130kilometres sclutheast of or discontinuous (Rees, 1987). In the western part of the rocks, possib;y correlaHorsefly, near Kamloops. Similar project area it isup to 800 metres thick and insome places, tive with Harper Ranch rocks, underlie theTakla volcanics for example, the hinge zone of major foldsto the south of belt (Nelson. and Quesnel Lake, it reaches 1200 metres in thickness (Carye, in the Lay Range in the northern Quesnel Bellefontaine, 1996). 1986; Bloodgood, 1987b). h e basis o f The Crooked amphiboliteis correlativeon t NICOLA GROUP(TJN) a.k.a QUESNEL RIVER, some lithologic similarities and mainly structural position HORSEFLY OR TAKLA GROUP with rocks of the Antler Formation, part the of Slide Mountain Group (Campbell, 1971; Campbell,1978). Struik Two fundamental lithostratigraphic subdivisions of the (1987) considers it to be the sheared and metamorphosed QuesnelTerrane are evident: a basal, domin:mntly fineequivalent of the Antler Formation and, therefore, Missis- grained metasedimentary unit and an overlying cqominantly sippian to Permian in age. Crooked amphibolite is distinvolcanic arc assemblage (Figure 2-3). The Middleto Late Triassic sedimentary rocks forma broad, continuous map guished fromother metamorphic rocksby its shear fabric, highly suained contacts, mechanical imbrication, mylonitic unit along the northern one-third to one-half of the Quesnel fabric and abundanceofamphibolite. Rees (1987) describes project area. They also occur a in series of fault blocks along three major (schistose) constituent rock types: greenstone, the southwestern terrane boundary. The observed thickness In the Eureka Peak area of the sedimentary unitis estimated by Rees (1987) to be metagabbro and meta-ultramafite. map units consist of coarse-grained hornblende schist, talc- about 2500 metres: Bloodgood (1990) suggests thicknesses chlorite schist and actinolite schist. Along strike, nonh of of 2500 to4000 metres from her work in theSpanish Lake Quesnel Lake,there are units of mafic metavolcanics,amLate Trias ric to :Early and Eureka Peak areas. The overlying phibolite, chlorite schist, serpentinite and ultramafic rocks, Jurassic volcanic rocks occupy the central and southern parts of the northwesterly trending belt and #outline the pillow lavas are present.locally.Chemicalanalyses are interpreted by Rees to indicate subalkalic tholeiitic compoQuesnel magmatic arc. Volcanic deposits overlying eruptive sitions of basalts formedon an oceanfloor. centres inthe central part of the map area are thein order of 6.5 kilometres thick in addition to the 2.5 kilometres of If the crooked amphibolite is equivalent to the Antler sedimentary rocks for a total thickness of 9 kilometres Formation and is part of the Slide Mountain Terrane, it is (Rees, 1987). We estimate a thickness of 7 kilometm for separated from the underlying Barkerville Terrane along a the sedimentary-volcanicarc succession. thntst fault (Campbell, 1971). The fault, or more generally a wide zone of mylonitization,has been termed the Quesnel The basalunit of dominantly blackphyiliticrocks Lake shear zone (Brown and Rees, 1981; Rees, 1987) or overlies Crooked amphibolite along a variably tectonized Eureka thrust depositional contact or unconformity. Locall); as in the (Struik, 1985a). Crooked amphibolite and the contact is folded and imbricated by overlying m k s of Quesnellia are st~~cturally coupled and Spanish Lake area, the the raonotonous emplaced tectonicallyonto Barkerville Terrane. The upper a number of thrusts. Bloodgood subdivided metasediment succession o f black graphitic phyllites and amphibolite contact has been described by various authors to be a sedimentary, albeit tectonized, contact. Alternatively slates into nine lithologic subdivisions. Contacts between it isinterpreted, at least locally, to bea depositional contact the lithologic units appear to be gradational but *e package

Bulletin 97

11

MAP UNITS

NWk"
CWLlla" Anlslan Lsdlnlsn

PENNSYLVANIAN. PERMIAN
MISSISSIPPIAN.UPPERTRlASSlC
PROTEROZOIC.MlSSlSSlPPlAN

Figure 2-3. Generalized geologicalmap of project area showing stratigraphic subdivisions and major intrusions of Quesnel Terrane and adjoining tectonic assemblages.

and more differentiatedfeldspathic rocks and a variety of is strongly tectonizea internally and not all the units are grey, green and purple-maroon-red volcaniclastic l o c k sd e presentthroughoutthestudy area. At deeper structurallevels the rocks aremoderately to strongly metamorphosed and are rived from them. Volcanic breccias predominate as thick lenses of polylithologic subaqueous, shallow water "slump" well cleaved with penetrative phyllitic to slaty foliation. More commonly they are weakly metamorphosed and dis-or subaerial debris-flow and possibly laharic deposits. u f f ,volcanic-source sandplay only a spaced cleavageand widely spaced fracturing. Flows, crystaland crystal-lithict stoneandcong1omeratearealsopresent.Thecoarsr:breccias Lithologicvariations along saike are of regional extent and probably reflect changes in sedimentation during evolution grade laterally outward into conglomerate and finer grained volcaniclastic rocks. This sequence and the presence. of of the low-energy, stagnant Quesnel basin, but maybe in intrusive clasts can be used to outline eruptive volcrmic part structuraI. There was some volcanic activity during centres. A number of volcanic centres are cored, or are latest stages of sedimentation. Volcanicrocks and succesinferred to be underlain, by high-level intrusive bcdies. 'The sions with dominantly volcaniclastic components are prepresence of felsic volcanics and polylithologicbraxias with sent in some younger parts of the map unit. The age of this felsic volcanic and intrusive clasts characterizes this map is unit, basedmainly on conodonts and some macrofossils, unit and provides a basis for distinguishing it from the Middle to Late Triassic (Anisian to Camian and Norian). underlying, less variable basaltic volcanics. The overlying volcanic rocks outline a northwesterly trending belt of subaqueous and lesser subaerial volcanic Early Jurassic. The Theage oftheuppervolcanicunit is Sinemurian ammonite Badowrin camdensis and bivalve a rocks 5 to 25 kilometres wide. They were deposited along Weylaoccurextensivelythroughoutthisunit.Ayoimger,late series of coalescing volcanic-intrusive centres that define Lower Jurassic age is inferred for the upper pats of the the Quesnel island arc of predominantly alkalic basalts. A grossly consistent stratigraphy is evident throughout the succession by stratigraphic relationships and fmm radiolength of the volcanic belt in the project a r e a . It is very metric dating by Bailey and Archibald (1990) 2nd earlier workers (see radiometric dating, Figure 4-3; Appendix F ) . similar to thatin the northern Quesnel Trough some 325 to 425 kilometres to the northwest, describedby Nelson and The Iast volcanic events in the arc depositt:d marmn Bellefontaine (1996). In addition, the alkalic volcanic rocks analciteandolivine-beaxingbasalt.TheserDcksaxeexp~sed are lithologically and petrologically similar to some of the in a limited area that extends from the Quesnel River south distinctive Nicola volcanics of southern Quesnellia (Preto, towards Horsefly. The basalt was erupted subaerially and 1977; Mortimer, 1987). forms massive flows that pass upward into vesicular brecThe oldest and most widespread volcanic rocks are ciated flow tops. The age of the rocks is unce:rtain. The alkalic basalts. They are dark green and grey, olivine and distribution and outcrop panern suggest an unccnfomrable pyroxene-bearing flows, pillow basalt, breccia and tuff derelationship with the underlying Sinemurian volcanic r w k s posited in probably relatively deep marine settings. The and an age probably older than the nearby Plimsbachian younger volcanic rocks of this map unit are dark green to sedimentary strata. maroon, rarely vesicular flows, tuff, volcaniclastic sandstone andbreccias. Younger andpossibly coeval flows SEDIMENTARY OVERLAP UNITS (JHA) include amphibole-bearing and analcite-bearing pyroxene basalt Thepresence of pyroxene basalt flowsand breccia Sedimentary rocks were deposited in a post-volcanic containingeuhedralanalcitephenocrystsupto2centimetres basin that developed along the flanks and panially overin diameter provides a useful marker unit. Sedimentary lapped the volcanic arc.The predominantly dark gre:y siltrocks within and mainly nearthe top of the basaltic succes- stones and sandstones are similar to those of the basal black siunconsistofgenerallythinmembe~ofdarkgreytogreen, phyllite unit but contain syngenetic or diagenetic pyrite, pyroxenerich sandstoneand siltstone, calcareous sandstone suggesting an euxenic depositionalenvironment North of and graded grey to green sandstone. Many of these rocks are Likely these rocks are in fault contact with older voilcanic calcareous and occur together withsmall lenses of massive rocks; elsewhere contacts are not exposed. APliensbachian grey limestone. Limestone also occurs as bioclastic matrix age is indicated by fauna from similar rocks to the west of in a reef-derived basalt breccia. Locally, a thin, distinctive the map area. maroon sandstone marks the top of this volcanic unit. rocks to the west and south ofthe Other conglomeratic The basal contact, whereit is exposed on the shore of arc volcanin are characterized by their grey rmd maroon Quesnel Lake, is a depositional contact between the volcolour, polylithologic character and presence of granitic canicsandthebasinalsediments.Alongthesoutherncontact clasts. This conglomerate and associated thin-bedded siltnear Beaver Creek the volcanics interfinger with the sedistone and sandstone beds overlap both Cache. Creek and ments. Where the contact is visible there is no suggestion of the project area and Quesnellia rocks in the northern part of faulting or any type of tectonic disruption. The age at the farther to the south near Granite Mountain ('Xpper, 1978). top of the unit is defined by conodonts and macrofossils and It is also exposedinnarrow,fault-boundedblocksand ranges from Camian to Norian. wedges along the westernside of the Quesnel 'Jlongh. This Overlying the main basaltic unit, probably above an unit is Aalenian and possibly Bajocian in age on the basis angular unconfomity, is an upper volcanic unit of basaltic of (limited) faunal evidence.

Bulletin 97

13

British CoIumbia

gabbro, pyroxenite andperidotite; syenite with megacrystic texture and large oahoclase phenocrysts; and a markedly silica-undersaturatedsyenitecharacterized by modal nepheline, sanidine and sodic amphibole. All three rock groups lack modal quartz and have normative nepheline compositions. Anumber of the alkalic stocks host porphyry copper-gold deposits, for example Mount Polley( C a r i b Bell), Shiko Lake, Kwun Lake and Cantin Creek.The QR (Quesnel River) stock is associated with a significant volcanic-hosted gold deposit. Radiometric dates indicate Early Jurassic coolingages (see Chapter 4). A small number of stocks and dikes of leucocratic TERTIARYAND NEOGENE TO QUATERNARY granodiorite, quartz monzonite and granite occur in the map NTC, Q) COVER ROCKS(PTK, area and contain some copper and molybdenum. They are Tertiary rocks are poorly exposed in the region and thought tobe equivalent to the Naver plutonic suite to the consist of a variety o f intermediateto felsicflows, ash flows, north, on the basis of their similarity in appearance and crystal and lithic tuffs and epiclastic lacustrine beds. They Cretaceous age. unconformably overlie granitic rocks to the southeast of Horsefly and occur in a postulated graben tothe west and LITHOLOGIC STRUCTURAL north. They overlie or interfinger with sedimentary rocks PATTERNS that are.exposed along the upper reaches of the Horsefly River. The Horsefly River beds comprise a sequence of The synclinal aspect of the Quesnel Trough, rmly a lacustrine, varved, flaggy, pale-coloured h e - p i n e d tuftrough in both a depositional and structural sense, is demfaceous mudstones and clayey siltstones in which Eocene onstrated by thebasal sedimentary unit.In the east the rocks fossil fish have been found CApllson, 1 9 7 6 ,1977% b). Radip and face southwesterly overall, and in the west they dip diometric datingof the volcanic rocks and pollen from the and face or become younger tothe northeast The general sediments determine a Middle Eoceneage for this unit. structural model evident for the Quesnel Trough is that ofa A discrete unit of alkali plateau basalt subaerialflows SW NE r e a . The basalts appear to be covers some of the map a

forms a thin belt Another polylithologic conglomerate with a sinuous map pattern along the north shore of Quesnel Lake and Quesnel River. It consists of well rounded and sorted clasts of numerons lithologies, mainly metamorphic rocks. The conglomerate has a distinctive orange-weatheringcarbonate matrix and displaysfining-upwards sequences of conglomerate, sandstone and mudstone typical of fluvial or estuarine environments. A similar rock type faaher to the south inthe Beaver Creek valley, collected by R.B.Campbel1, is said to contain Cretaceous(Albian) pollen (H.W. Tipper, written communication, 1993).

bearing diorite, lesser monzonite and syenite with minor

depositedoverpartsoftheplateanregionbothasathincover at a present elevation of850 metres and as local valley-fill deposits near Horsefly River and Beaver Creek Theflows locally overlie a thin unit of palagonitic (bentonitic) tephra, breccia and conglomerate. A number of the valley-fill d e
posits cover fluvial and channel-gravel deposits. A Middle Miocene age is determined for most of the flow units but the

presenceofyoungerflowsisdocumentedbydetailedstudies and radiometric dating (Mathews, 1989).

INTRUSIVE SUITES (EJgG, EJyCM, EJd, EJg, mKgB, mKg) l b o intrusive suites are represented in the study area, those associated with Early Jurassic volcanism and those related t oa period of younger, probably Cretamus magmatism The older intrusions, with the exception of the quartzbearing rocks of the large Takomkane batholith south of Homfly, are generally small stocks of alkalic composition and are. devoid of modal quartz. They mainly form small high-level intrusive bodies that are emplaced at approximately 9 to 13 kilometre intervals along the axis of the
volcanic arc. They represent subvolcanicintrusions formed Afew intrusionsof varioussizes in, ornear, eruptive centres. and diorite to syencdiorite composition also occur in the rocks in the northern part of the map area. basal sedimentary The alkalic rocks are subdivided accordingto composition and textureinto three groups: a dominant pyroxene-

Figure 24. Generalized cross-sections showing structural styles along the Quesnellia-Barkerville terrane boundary. Schematic for the Spanish Lakearea (a) after Rees (1987), and for the Eureka Peak area @) &r Bloodgood (1987). VIew to the northwest;see Figure 2-3 for locations. PP Snowshoe Group, DMqQ Quesnel Lakegneiss, DTS Crookedamphibolite,TJNvNicolaGroup volcanics,THNmsNicoiaGroupmetasedimentaryrocks, FJ intrusive rocks.

14

Geological Survey Bmnch

Minktry o f Employmen2 and IIEE

synclinorium with tightly folded rocks at deeper structural levels having welldeveloped penetrative cleavage. Upper parts display open,upright folds with less well developed cleavage. In the uppermost, volcanic portion of the belt, compression and deformation in the structurally massive volcanic units is accommodated by block faulting. Regional mapunit contacts and structural trends are outlinedbythemajortectonicconractalongtheBarkervilleQuesnellia terrane boundary marked by the Crooked amphibolite. The structural patterns to the north, near Spanish Lake, are shown schematicallyby Rees (1987) and to the

south, nearEureka Peak, by Blocdgood (1990, Figure 2-4). They describelarge-scale, second phase, Jurassic fold stn~ctures of the Quesnel belt sedimentary units and Crookd amphibolite structurally coupled together with Snowshoe metamorphic rocks that outline the regional map panem. In the Eureka Peak area the folds range from upright to overturned and recurnbant structures and tend to be isoclinal to tight at depth and more open at higher structural levels. In the Spanish Lake area large second phase fol3s define recumbant, southwesterly verging structureswith complicated map patterns.

.. . ..

...

~~

Britbh Columbia

16

Geohgical Survey Branch

Ministry o f Employment and In

CHAPTER 3
MAP UNIT LITHOLOGIES AND STRATIGRAPHY

GEOLOGY OF THE CENTRAL QUESNEL BE:LT


~

- a basal fme-grained sedimentary unit that represents a

The Quesnelbelt consists of two fundamental elements

basin-fill succession (UnitI) and an overlying volcanic arc subaqueous to lesser subaerial assemblage (Units 2,3 and 4) (Figure 3-1). The sedimentary-volcanic arc succession has been estimated to have a thickness o f 7 or 9 kilometres (Bailey, 1978 andRees, 1987, respectively). This two-fold the lithologic distinction of major map units corresponds to (sedimentary) Rainbow Creek Inzana Lake Formations and (volcanic) Witch Lake - Chuchi Lake Formations of Nelson etal. (1991) andNelson andBellefontaine( i n preparation) in the Mount Milligan Nation Lakes areas of the northern Quesnel Trough (NTS 93K, 93N). The same twofold sedimentary-volcanic distinction is also evident some-

what farther to the north in the Uslika Lake area (Fem el d., 1992). The geometric defintion of the Quesnel Trough is provided by Unit 1- the basin411rocks commonly referred to as the black phyllite unit. In the eastern part of the map area the rocks dip toward the southwest;in the wwem part, they dip to the northeast. This Middle to Late Triassic succession has been subdivided into nine map units and described in detail by BloOagoOa (1990). In this repit eight ofher subunits areincludedinunit 1; theninthisconsidered to be equivalent to unit 1A a volcanic and volc;miclWiC unit within the upperpart of the basin-fill succession. These clastic rocks are weakly metamorphosed and weakly to strongly deformed at deeper structural levels. The main Late Triassic to Early 3urassic volcanic assemblage occupies the central, northwesterly trending elongate axis of the volcanic-sedimentary belt. It comprises

Bulletin Map units


0 NTC PTK
JHA

Lithologies

Age
QUATERNARY TERTIARY

Qal 11,lla 10.10a


9

EJ,mK
JHA

7,8
5,6 4

olivine basalt; conglomerate sandstone, mudstone: ash tuff cobbleconglomerate, sandstone UPPER JURASSIC/CRETACEOUEi? f aranodiorite. ouartz monzonite JURASSIC diorite, monzonite,syenite 208 182 Ma WAr granodiorite siltstone, sandstone, conglomerate: Toarcian? Aalenian andesite

amygdaloidal olivinebasalt polylithic breccia, flows lahar, tuff, sandstone sandstone, siltstone, limestone; ? . I plagioclase p roxene basalt analate p roxeneiasalt 2e pyroxeneiornblendebasalt 26 polylithic breccia 2c basalt breccia, tuff, sandstone 2b 2a alkali olivine basalt wacke la pyroxene basalt sandstone. siltstone. shale 1 phyllite Crooked amphibolite Harper Ranch

Pliensbachian Sinemurian TRIASSIC

TJN

Norian Carnian Anisian Ladinian PENNSYLVANIAN PERMIAN DEVONIAN PERMIAN PROTEROZOIC MISSISSIPPIAN

DTS

DTH

&

PP
L

Quesnel Lake gneiss Snowshoe

Figure 3-1. Schematic stratigraphic section showing lithologies and ages of map units described in Quesnel Trough prcject a r e a .

BuIletin 97

17

MAP UNITS

JHA

Figure 3-2. Generalized geological map of the Quesnel Trough project wea showing unils 1 and la - metasedimentary rocks.

. ..

. .

Ministy o f Employmem and " Investment

Eureka Peak

are listed in Chapter 1 in the section dealingwit1 previous work.

SEDlMENTARY BASIN FILL, BACK-AIRC OR MARGINAL BASIN DEPOSITS UNITS 1 AND l a

We consider all Mesozoic sedimentary units that overlie the Crooked amphibolite and that underlie or interfinger with the Quesnel arc volcanics to be partof unit I . Spafially restrictedvolcanic deposits and proximalvolcaniclastic components derived from them occur near the top, but within unit 1 are shownas unit la. The nine subdivisions o f our unit 1 are shown by Bloodgood (1990) as units Tral to Tra6, Trb, Trc and Trd. Our volcanic and volcan,slastie unit l a includes Bloodgood's units TrJa, TrJb, probablyTn: and possibly even some or all the volcanic memlars in the Eureka Peak area of her unit Trb. Her (volcanic:] units TrJa and TrJbin the Spanish Peak area are included in our unit

2abutthevolcanicportionofherunitTrbmaybeequivalent
to our unit la.

Figure 3-3. Schematic seetion and stratigraphic subdivisions after Bloodgood (1990) illustrate correlations between the Eureka Peak and Spanish Lake Unit designations outside stratigraphic columns correspondto map units in this report.

a r e a s .

METASEDIMENTARY ROCKS (PHYLLITES) UNIT 1

The stratigraphic succession and mapunifi; described by Bloodgood(1990, pages 6-11) are described below. The three main map units a main volcanicediface of basaltic sedimentary units collectively constitute unit 1 of this reflows, breccia and flanking volcanic-source detritus (unit2). port; her volcanic members are part of our map units la or an upper, more differentiated pyroclastic and volcaniclastic2a,as discussed above (Figures 3-1.3-2 and 3-2.). unit (unit 3), and a small flow unit of subaerial basalt (unit 4). The volcanic-sedimentary arc rocks are overlain by UNIT T d -MICACEOUS QUARTZITE various successions of late Early Jurassic rocks (units 5 and This is the basal unit ofthe metasedimenfary a? ,sem6 )and younger, possibly Cretaceous, coarse. clastic deposits The micacwus blage that overlies Crooked amphibolite. (unit 9). Subvolcanic alkalic intrusive rocks (unit 7) that are the rocks are continent-margin deposcoeval with the youngest periodsof arc volcanism intrude quartzite implies that Ocean basin fill or fore-arc deposits. along the medial axis of the volcanic belt. Other cogenetic its rather than deep The unit crops out along the limbs of the Eureka Peak intrusions appear to be emplaced at deeper levels and are syncline. It varies in thickness from 10 to 150 mt:tres, either exposed to the east of the volcanic belt in the sedimentary as a result of sedimentary deposition orsmcturd. thickening rocks of the basal clastic unit. A few quam-bearing Early to imbrication and/or folding. Bedding is well defined due Jurassic (unit 7A) and Cretaceous (unit8) intrusive bodies by pale grey, laminated quartzite beds 0.5 to 6 :entimetres are also present in the map area. Tertiary volcanic and thick. A bedding-parallel schistosity is defined by planar of the map sediientaxy rocks (units 10 and 11) cover much alignmentof rusty weathering muscovite. The contactof the m a . Quaternary cover is extensive, mainly as lodgement micaceous quartzite with the underlying Crooked amphibotill, ablation moraine and fluvioglacial deposits (unit Qal). sharp, although both concordant and discordant relaThe map units of the Triassic -Jurassic Quesnel Trough lite is tionships have been documented. The contact is imbricated and t h eoverlying youngerrocks are discussed in =me detail near Crooked Lake. No correlative unit has been recognized below. Lithologic descriptions are, in large part, summaries in the Spanish Lake area. of the extensive petrologic descriptions, chemical analyses and modal and normative determinations of Morton(1976) UNIT Tra2 MICACEOUS BLACK PHYLLITE and Bailey(1978). Generalized distributions of the 11 bedrockunits are illustratedon Figures 3-2 to 3-8 and3-10, and AND TUFF shown in detail on the accompanying 1:IOO OOO map (Map Siliceous dark grey to black, graphitic phyrlite has a 1, in pocket). Theolder rocks of the neighbouring Crooked well developed phyllitic foliation with charactelisticsilvery amphibolite and adjacent terranes were not studiedin the fresh surfaces. Beddingis rarely seen. Where present it is defined by thin,rusty to dark grey quartzite or siltstone beds course. of this project and are not discussedin any fuaher detail. The extensive studies by other authors of these and up to 20 centimetres in thickness and discontinuous tufof chalky weathering the metamorphic rocks of the adjacent Barkerville terrane faceous lenses. SmalI porphyroblasts

"

Bulktin 97

19

MAP UNITS

CBl"la"
Anlslan-Ladlnian

PENNSYLVANIAN-PERMIAN DEVONIAN. PERMIAN


PROTEROZOIC.MlSSlSSlPPlAN

12103

Figure 3-4. Generalized geological map showing unit2 - basal&.

MAP UNITS

NO#*"

Camla"
Mlolan . LadinIan PENNSYLVANIAN. PERMIAN DEVONIAN-PERMIAN PROTEROZOIC. MISSISSIPPIAN

Figure 3-5.Generalized geological map showing unit3 'felsic breccia'.

MAP UNITS

Figure 3-6. Generalized geologicalmap showing unit 4 subaerial basalt.

MAP UNITS

Figure 3-7. Generalized geologicalmap showing units 5.6 and 9 overlap units.

MAP UNITS

1 2 i w

Figure 3.8. Generalized geological map showing units 10 and 11 - Tertiary rocks.

~~

~~

Ministy of Employment am' Investment

plagioclase occur throughout the unit. On the south limb of the Eureka Peak syncline porphyroblasts of garnet up 0.5 to centimetrein size are abundant within 10 metres of the base of the unit. The contact with the underlying micaceous quarzite is not exposed but may be faulted,judging from the noticeable break in slope and the discordant contact relationship ObSeNed on the north limb of the Eureka Peak syncline.NolithologidequivalenttothisunitintheEureka Peak area has been recognized in the Spanish Lake area.

and an upper succession of graphitic phyllite. Then: are minor interbedded quartz sandstone and limestone beds. Bedding is defined invariably by prominent pale.. laminated quartz siltstone beds that rarely exceed 2 cemimetres in thickness. The rocks are exposed south of HomeflyLake, on the south limb of the Eureka Peak syncline ald in :small synclinal cores north of Spanish Lake.

UNIT Trb - BANDED SLATESAND TUFF!;

Unit Trb,the uppermost phylliticunit in the metasedimentary succession, contains a significantvolcanic component. Where volcanic rocks, or their eroded prodllcts, the are This unit contains interbedded paleto dark grey silty the successions are included in unit la slates and lesser phyllitic siltstoneand minor siliceous lime- dominant lithology, in this study. Unit Trb crops out continuously along both the stone. Bedding is well defined by fine banding, thin beds of laminated quartz sandstone and minor interbeds of siliceousnorthern and southern limbs of the Eureka Peak syncline, and underlies much of the western ofpart the basalsedimenlimestone. Well-developed cleavage is defined by a planar, tary belt along Horsefly River, between Horsefly and Quesslaty parting. Narrow bedding-parallel quartz veinlets occur ne1 lakes and northwest of Quesnel Lake. The contact with throughout. This unit has not been recognized outside the the underlying rocks, at least locally in the mea north of Eureka Peak area. Quesnel Lake,is interpreted tob e a fault. In the Eureka PeakHorsefly River area, and probably UNIT Tm4 -LAMINATED PHYLLITEAND generally throughout the belt, there is aprogressiveincrease PORPHYROBLASTIC PHYLLITE in volcanic components at higher stratigraphic levels this in is intergradational with Finely laminated grey phyllite unit. Dark green to black phyllite with interbettdedgrey to the underlying and overlying units. Bedding is outlined by green tuffs comprise the lowermost 50 metres olthe succespale grey to rusty weathering quartzsandstone beds comsion. Siliceous, banded aquagene tuffs become more abunmonly 1to 3 millimetres but up to 1centimetrein thickness. dant stratigraphically upwards and are intertdded with A welldeveloped phyllitic foliation is accentuated by gragrey to black banded slates, massive pale quariz sandstone phitic material. Porphyroblasu of garnet, plagioclase and and minor limestone. Theuppermostpart ofthe unit consists chloritoid occur in these rocks on the south limb of the of fissile graphitic phyllites interbedded with tuffs, and Eureka Peak syncline; chloritoid is associated with ankerite locally with dark brown to black argillaceous limestone and on the north limb. Bedding-parallel quartz lenses, up to 2 minor quartzose sandstone beds. The phyllite; within this metres in thickness and several metresin length, are present. section are recessive, black and sooty in outcrop. Imally They are most evident along the north l i b of the Eureka they are strongly silicified, but throughout the region they Peak syncline,most notably the in Frasergold property area. are typically rusty weathering and pyritiferous. No stratigraphicallyequivalent units have been recognized North of Quesnel Lake, the in Spanish Lake area, black in the Spanish Lake area. n : intersIaty to phyllitic, rusty weathering metsediients a bedded with gritty, dark brown to black-weathering grey UNIT T r a 5 -SILTY SLATES the limestone are Middle Triaslimestone. Conodonts from The porphyroblastic phyllite unit (Tra4) grades upward sic in age (Anisian to Ladinian); east of Spanish Mountain into coarser grained, dark grey to black-weathering silty the rocks have yielded conodonts of Anisian ; m i probable slates with interbedded dark grey quartzose sandstone. BedAnisianage(GSCLocationsC-117649andC-11764.5,M.J. ding is shown by dark grey, dull quartz sandstonebeds, most Orchard, analyst). Struik (1986, 1988a) has snggested that commonly 10 to 12 centimetres in thickness. Thinner, pale imbricationhastakenplacewithinthismapunit,onthebasis layers of laminated quartz sandstone are interbedded of these conodont ages. throughout the unit. Pale weathering quartziteand pale grey The volcanic component includes discontinuous lenses to green-weathering tuffs form discontinuous lenses.Silty of banded tuff, volcanic conglomerate, flow breccia, pillow slates have well developed planar slaty parting. In outcrop lava and a few dikes. The banded tuffs in the :Spani:shLake they are w t y weathering to locally speckled with limonite, area arelithologicallyidentical tothe banded aquagene tuffs probably due to the presence of fine-grained siderite or in the Eureka Peak area but the Spanish Lake succession authigeniciron sulphide minerals. These rocks are the basal also includes volcanic conglomerate, brecciaand flows as map unit andthe dominant rock type inthe Spanish Lake discontinous lenses to up several kilometres in strikclength. area. The volcanic rocks appear to be identical to the pyroxenebearing flowsof the overlying, volcanic unit in the Eureka UNIT Tm6 GRAPHITIC BLACK PHYLLITES Peak area and in the main Quesnel volcanic bdt to tlne south and west. The volcanic rocks in unit Trcare now known to This unit formsa sequence of grey, graphitic phyllites be chemically distinctfrom the main volcanic arc racks (see that gradeupward through blackphyllite, grey silty phyllites

UNIT Tra3 - PEYLLITIC SILTSTONE

Bulletin 97

25

..

. ~ . ..

British Colrunbia

characterized by a brecciated mbbly base, homogeneous, massive centre and coarser porpbyryitic top. Outcrops are pale green to grey but commonlya r e . sty weathering and crumbly or yellowish green in areas of extensive epidote alteration. The coarser porphyritic flows contain black and UNIT Trc - VOLCANICLASTIC BRECCIA green mafic phenocrysts, commonly 2 to 5 millimetres in This breccia unit crops out to the west of Eureka Peak sizebut up to 2 centimetres in length.. The pyroxene crystals where it overlies the tuff-phyllite sequence of unit Trb. It are stubby, subhedral and extensively altered to chlorite. consists of darkgrey, angular clasts in a paler grey matrix. Amphibole crystals are euhedral, acicular to prismatic in chloritization is extensive and readily evident in a cleavage form, and little altered. defmed by well developedchloritic patting. Both the lower and upper contactswith unit Trb and the overlying volcanics VOLCANIC AND EPICLASTIC ROCKS are faults. We consider this unitto be an iutraformational UNIT l a breccia, asfmt suggested by Campbell (1971), and part of Hornblende pyroxene basalt flows, breccia, related volunit la. caniclastic deposits and conglomerate comprise this subunit. Pyroxene-bearing hornblende porphyry members UNIT Trd VOLCANIC SANDSTONEAND also form small intrusive bodies and inmsive breccias WACKE within i t Noah of Quesnel Lake unit Trb is overlain by this unit Unit la has beendefined (this study) as a discrete of coarse-grained, dark green volcanic sandstonesand volcanic subunit within the predominantly sedimentary unit wackes with interbedded siltstone, sandstone and minor 1. It is found at Horn Bluff on Horsefly Lake and in the thin argillite.The argillaceous sediments are interbedded in beds belt of volcanic rocks between Horsefly Lake and Quesnel 3 milliitres to 2 centimetres thiik w i t h dominant green Lake, centred around Vlewland Mountain. There unit l a on sandstone and wacke and give rise to a compositionally the east side of the volcanic belt is in contact with sedimendefined. colour-banded sequence, parallel to bedding. A tary rocks of unit 1along a steeply eastward-dipping reverse rough fracture cleavage parallel to the bedding is locally fault. Unit l a includes rocks of Bloodgoodsunits TIC, TrJa developed but no penetrative cleavage is recognized. and Tdb from the volcanic klippe in the Eureka Peak area, discussed above, and possiblyher unit Trd in the Spanish UNITS TrJa AND TrJb -MASSIVE FLOWS, Lake area. The volcanic rocks of unit l a are not considered AGGLOMERATE, T U F F S ,PILLOW BASALTS to be part of the overlying unit 2 because these volcanic AND MAFIC DIKES; MASSIVE PORPHYRIlTIC rocks form a succession near the top, but entirely within, FLOWS, BRECCIA AND TUFF sedimentary unit 1. Mapping in the Viewland Peak area A succession of matic volcanic rocks 300 metres thick, reveals that the apron of volcaniclastic rocks and conglomreferred to as Nicola Group metavolcanics by Bloodgood erate that surrounds the pyroxene amphibole basalt inter(1990). forms a klippe that occupies the core of the Eureka fingers with the sedimentary rocks of unit 1. In addition, Peak syncline. Shecorrelatedthese rocks with the pyroxenepetrochemical differences are evident between the volcanic bearing volcanics of unit 2, but we now regard them as part rocks of unitsl a and 2. The chemicaldistinctions offer the ofunit la, largely on the basis of their petrology and chemi- most persuasive evidence for subdividing these volcanic cal compositions, as described in Chapter 5. units, as discussed in Chapter 5. Northwest of Likely to the Lithologies described by Bloodgood (1990) in t h e Cottonwood River, unit 1has not been subdivided, although Eureka Peak area .include crystal-lithic tuff,basalt pillow Bailey (1978, 1990) noted that volcaniclastic sandstone, conglomerate and basaltic breccia are locally dominant lava, flows, flow breccia and volcanic breccia and minor limestone. The tuffs form the basal member of the volcanic lithologies near the top of the sedimentary succession. Petrologic descriptions by Bloodgood (1987a)of volsequence 5 to 20 metres thick, but locally they attain a thickness of up to 50 metres. The tuff forms massive, homo- canic rocks in the Eureka Peakarea offer moredetail about primary and metamorphic mineralogy. She describes the geneous, rarely banded, pale grey to green-buff-weathering volcanic rocks to consist of primary phenocrysts clinopyontcmps. Volcanic lithic clasts and mafic epidotechloritea l t e r e d crystals up to 3 m i l l i n e m in size are contained in roxene, hornblende and plagioclase witha groundmass of a fine-pined m a t r i x .pyrite cubes up to 1centimetre across similar composition and tremolibdactinolite, clinozoisite, havebeenobservedandmillimetre-sizedcubesarecommon epidote, sericite,chlorite, biotite, carbonate and quartz, innarrowpyriticbeds.Annitofpillowbasaltupto10metres some of which is a metamorphic or alteration assemblage. The clinopyroxene, with thickoverliesthetuff.Thepillow1avasarepalegreytogreen or without hornblende, is the domiweatheling but dark on fresh surfaces. Pillow structnres are nant phenocryst type in the basal part of the volcanic assemflattened with dimensions of 60 by 30 by 60 centimetres. A blage; amphibole is more abundant in the higher thick sequence of porphyritic basalt flows,flowbreccias and stratigraphicunits. The mafic miuerals comprise from 20 to as phenocrysts and volcanic breccias forms the main part oft h e volcanic unit. 50% of the rocks. Plagioclase, both Individual flow units are 15 to 30 metres thick and are groundmass, accounts for up to35% of the rock but varies

Chapter 5 -Petrochemistry). They are now considered to be a discrete subunit within the sedimentary succession, referred to in this study as unit la.

26

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry o f Employment ml Znvesmtmt

in abundance proportionallywithhornblende.Clinopy(1978)estimatesathicknessof3100metresforthevolcanic succession.The units establiihed a r e : roxene phenocrysts are dominantly euhedral to subhedral and vary in size from 0.01 to 3 milliietres. Hornblende 2a - Green and grey pyroxene-phyric alkali chine occurs as euhedral to subhedml, twinned, tabular crystals and alkali basalt flows, breccia, minor pillow basalt from less than 1 millimetre to 1 centimetre in size. Plagic2b - Grey and maroon pyroxene-phyric alkali basalt clase is variably saussuritized, but where compositions can flows and breccia, minor basaltic tuff and maroon be determined, it is andesine, approximately A w . binsandstone ning is generally preserved with common albite and less b~eccia 2c - Polylithic grey and maroon mafic common Carsbad twinning. Mafic grains are commonly 2d - Greenish grey and maroon hornblende-bearing rimmed by actinolite and biotiteor completely replaced by pyroxene basalt chlorite and calcite. Accessory minemls include apatite, 2e Greenishgrey and maroon anal&4earing sphene and opaque minerals. The flow textures are hypidiopyroxene basalt flows, breccia and mincrt u f f t i morphicgranulartoglomeroporphyritic and variably vesicular. 2f - Dark grey to brown maficsiltstone. sandstone, Pyroxene-bearing hornblende porphyry dikes and subgrey limestone and limestone calcareous sandstone; breccia; grey to greenish grey sandstone volcanic syenodiorite breccia cap the peak of Vlewland Mountain. The porphyries, together with a number of small plugs, indicate the region was the site of subvolcanic intruEach map unit has oneor more dominant rock types; the typical rocks are shown on Photos sive activity in the Quesnel sedimentary basin during peri- photomicrographs of 3-3, and3-4. The appearance ods of early volcanism. of outcrops and rock fabric is shown on Photo 3-4. Phencocrysts of diopsidic augite composition are characteristic of all the basalts and tile pyroxene VOLCANIC SUCCESSIONS OF THE displays very little compositionalvariation tetween the QUESNEL ARC units (AppendixA). The rock types as described mainly by Morton (1976) and Bailey (1978) are as follows: The volcanic deposits of the Quesnel belt island arc succession are subdivided into three major map units (units ALKALI OLIVINE PYROXENE BASALT 2.3 and 4). The two most voluminous volcanic assemblages, (UNIT 2a) units 2 and 3, are funher broken down into subunits. AlThis basalt overlies or interfingers with redimentary though the volcanic rocks generally form lithologically or lens-lie deposits, a stratigraphic rocks of unit 1and forms sequencesof massiveIO brecciated similar prisms, wedges flows and lesser pillow basalt. The flow rocks are m,assive succession can be resolved mainly fromthe superposition aphanitictoporphyritic,commonlywithbrecciated, of units, some paleontological data (discussed in the followare interbedded with ltasaltic clasing chapter) and radiometric dating of crosscutting intru- amygdaloidal tops. They tic r o c k s , mudstone, calcarms mudstone and limestone sions. The present subdivisions are similar to those defined lenses and breccia. by Bailey (1978). They extensively revise and largely inPhenocrysts andother grains discernible by eye make validate the stratigraphy usedby Morton (1976). In general, up from 30 to 75% of the rock and comprise c1inopy:roxene the volcanic succession consistsof subaqueous pyroxene(diopsidicaugite), olivine, plagioclaseand magnetite. Averphyric basalt flows and breccias (unit 2), an overlying age phenocryst content of typical rocks is 30% clinopy?) deposits sequence of pyroclastic and debris-flow (laharic roxene, I to 8% olivine, 20% plagioclaseand I to 4% (unit 3) and an upper unit of subaerial analcite-bearing magnetite. The amounts andgrain size of plagjoclase pheolivine basalt flows (unit 4). Shallow-water sedimentary f the nocrysts varywidelybetween 5 and 40%; most o rocks (parts ofunits 2 and 3) overlap and flank the volcanic plagioclase is contained in the matrix as microlites. The accnmulations. matrix contains small grains of plagioclase :md dinopyroxene, devitrified glass and lesser olivine, magnetiteand BASALTS UNIT2 accessory apatite, calcite and alteration minemls. This major map unit (Figure 3-4) is made up of a The clinopyroxene is green diopsidic augite. It isgensuccession of alkali olivine basalt, alkalibasalt, hornblende- erally euhedral, between2 and 10 millimetre!: and upto 1 bearing basalt and analcite-karing units in the upper part Centimeke long, but with considerable variation in size. of the assemblage. The volcanic rocks are typically darkPyroxene grains commonly display simple twinning and coloured,clinopyroxene-phyric basalts in which the flows optical zoning but little compositional variativm. Analyses near the base of the succession contain olivine and those ofpyroxene (Bailey, 1978; Appendix A) indicatean average near the top have analcite. The map units can be followed composition of ~ao.9~g,FeO)o.g(~,Si)zO6. The pythroughout the length of the central Quesnel belt. Major roxenes have constant calcium content, relatively high aluvariations in appearance are due to differences in deposi- mina between 4 and 5% and an average magnzsiumto iron tionalenvironments, rock texturesandfabricinthe ratio in molecular percent Mg:Fe of 3.3:l. Glivinc! grains average 0.5 millimetre in diameter but some grains and subaqueous, mainly flow and brecciadeposits. Bailey

Bulletin 97

27

..

. . ~

. ..

.~

British Columbia

ANALCITEBEARING PYROXENE BASALT (UNIT 2e) green and maroonanalFlow and breccia units of dark cite-bearing pyroxene basalt crop out in central parts of the volcanic belt. The green basalts have a characteristic coarsely crystalline porphyritic fabric that is emphasized by orthoclase characterize the normative mineralogyof these the presence of large white to buff analcite crystals. The rock rocks but only Morton (1976)reports small amounts of has been described as bird-dropping rock because of the modal nepheline in volcanic rocks from the Horsefly area. white splotchy appearance. The phenocrysts make up about 65% of the rock; on average 25% is analcite and the rest is ALKALI (PYROXENE) BASALT (UNIT 2b AND equal amounts of plagioclase and clinopyroxene. In some CLASTS WITHIN UNIT 2c; UNIT 2c) thicker flows, analciteoccurs only in the upperpart; the base Pyroxene basalts, the most extensive typeof basalt in is pyroxene basalt. The analcites are commonly about 1 the area, axe similar in chemical cornpsition to alkali olicentimetre across but some exceptionalrocks contain crysvine basalt, but differ by the absence of olivine and the tals up to 3 centimetres in diameter. Some of the larger presence of more abundant modal plagioclase. These rocks analcite grains are petal-shaped, composite aggregates of overlie and inteflhger with alkali olivine basalt of unit 2a. lobate, rounded crystals. Also present are laths of plagioThe rocks form flows, flow breccias and minor tuffs. clase up to 11 millimetres in length andgrains of pyroxene Phenocrysts are mainly pyroxene and plagioclase: the 2 to 3 millimetres in size when equigranular and 5 millimeabsence of olivine is characteristic of this rock type. Clitres long when present as laths. Feldspar phenocrysts are nopyroxene grains up to 6 millimetm in length comprise generally strongly altered (saussuritizd). In the rare samfrom 1 0to 35% ofthe rock;plagioclase (An4z-6~) as tabular ples in which compositions can be determined optically, to lath-shaped, 1 to 4-millimetre crystals forms up to 25%. feldspars appear to range in composition from bytownite to In some u n i t s the plagioclase ~ c asm senate, felted trachy- labradorite An77-64in the early formed, strongly zoned toid microlites that are interstitial to the larger pyroxene largest crystals. In themore abundant and ubiquitous smaller grains. The manix is grey, green and reddish brown and laths, feldspars are labradorite/andesine An54-47.Miconsists ofintergranular to subophitic plagioclaseand pycrolites in which compositions couldbe determined froma mxene with accessory magnetite, apatite and patchy altera- few samples from northeast of Horsefly, rangefrom An30 tion assemblagesofhematite, lionite,epidoteand chlorite. to An23 and from Beaver Creek area An55 (Coates, 1 9 6 0 ) . Morton (1976) describes spherulitictextures in amygdaloiPyroxene compositions determined optically by Coates are dal flows that he interprets indicate the presence ofdevihiclassed as augite in the idiomorphic phenocrysts.In adddifiedglass. Mortonalsor e p %the presence o f minor olivine tion, he describes a distinctive grass-green pyroxene in and analcite in the matrix, an observation that was not poikilitic masses of pyroxene-feldspar-iron oxide to be substantiated by this study. aegerine-augiteonthebasisofitsstrongdispersionandlarge Alkalic basalts from mainly unit 2b are the main liextinction angle. Coates considered this to be a local reacthologic and compositional clast type in the overlying brec- tion product @ossibly with seawater). cias of unit Less wmmon members withinunit 2c are Microprobe analyses (AppendixA) suggest typical mafic lapilli tuff, lithic basaltic tuff, pyroxene crystal wacke diopsidic augite compositions. The pyroxene grains are and tuffaceons wacke. These rocks are part of a maroon to weakly zoned from core to rim, with a variation of about 3 grey polylithologicbreccia unit that is distinguished from mol% in iron offset by an antithetic decreasein magnesium overlying breccias of unit 3 by the sparseness or absence of The phenocrysts are contained in a pale grey weathering felsic clasts. homogenous groundmass that constitutes about 35% of the rock. The marix isaphanitic or composed largely of plagioHORNBLENDE PYROXENE BASALT clase microlites and fine-grained orthoclase,pyroxene and (UNITS 2a/2d AND 2d) magnetite. Accessory and minor alteration minerals include Green and grey basalts near the base of unit 2, possibly apatite, calcite, chlorite, rare biotite and iron oxides. The original presence of olivine is suggested by m e relict crysstratigraphically correlative with units 2a and 2b, contain tals now replaced by antigorite and iddingsite. Some flows green hornblende phenocrysts in addition to the usual diop

aggregates are 2 to 7 millimetres in size and occasionally reach 2 centimetres. The olivine crystals, now waxy green pseudomorphs, are recognized by their relict,euhedral shape. They are now virtually all compeletely replacedby chlorite, serpentine, carbonate, magnetite, iddingsite and other alteration minerals. Plagioclase phenocrysts occur as euhedral laths that are commonly aligned.The plagioclase is extensively saussuritized but where compositions could be detesmined optically, the plagioclase is labradorite (An50-58) according to Bailey (1978) and An70-75in cores

sidic augite. The rocks form flow and breccia units along the eastern side of thevolcanic belt near the Quesnel River. In these rocks 5 to 1 0 % hornblende forms euhedral grains up to 3 millimetres in length. Plagioclase occurs as grains of roughly similar size and abundance. Plagioclase compositions range from An54 in crystal cores to An42 near the grain edges. Lmally the unit is predominantly pyroxene grain wacke.

andAn58-65inrimsacwrdingtoMorton(1976).Magnetite is abundant in all the basaltic rocks where it occurs both as an alteration product of olivine and pyroxene and also a s discrete, euhedral g r a i n s .Grains o f magnetite are reported to contain up to 5.5% l Q (Bailey, 1 9 7 8 ) . Nepheline and

2 c .

28

Geological Survey Branch

low-temperature subsolidusisotopic exchange With mete containamygdulesflleded withzeolite(thomsoniteaccording oric waters)or formed from pre-existing leucite crystals. to Coates, 1960)and calcite. consistiof mamon basalt in A second type.of flow unit SEDIMENTARYSUCCESSIONS CAPPING UNIT 2 which the analcites are pink to brown in colour and are both (UNIT 2 0 euhedral and rounded. Pyroxene typically occursas small At the top of unit 2 is a thin successionof sedimentary phenocrysts or is present in minor amounts as minute grains in thegroundmass. Theserocks also contain analcite in the rocks, unit 2f, a consolidationof three sedimentary subunits termed 2f, 2g and 2hby Bailey (1990). Thc rocks are groundmass as irregular, interstitial grains together witha to brown mafic, pyroxenwich sandturbid mass of very fine grained plagioclase microlites and dominantly dark grey stone and siltstone, greenish grey and brown coarsesandorthoclase (?), pyroxene, magnetite, calcite.chlorite, sandstone and siltstone. In opaque dusty material and other minor alteration products. stone and grey medium-grained places these rocks form flaggy,fetid and pyritiferouu beds In some membes the groundmass is aphanitic and comshells and other faunal debri:;. The rocks monly has the appearanceof devitrified glass. Lithic-crystal containing broken are commonlyassociatedwith calcareous siltstoneand tuffs with diagnostic pink to brown analcite crystals, and sandstone and thin, massive micritic and, locally, coarsely mamon to reddish brown laharic deposits with analcitecrystalline limestone beds. bearing clasts,are also present but less common. Flowsare A discontinuous unitof the red to maroon basic sandinterbeddedlocallywith analcibbearing coarsebreccia stone in the Morehead Lake area, described by Bailey members, lapilli, crystal-lithic and crystal-viuic tuffs. (1978), was considered by him to occur at the b ~ of p unit 2. The analcite phenocrysts appear to be a late crystalThe sandstone is derived from the erosion of the underlying lizing mineral, whether primaryor secondary is uncertain. basalts and is composed of50% pyroxene grains and plaMorton (1976). Bailey (1978) and, before them, Coates gioclase, analcite, magnetite, calcite and clay minerals. This (1960) favour a primary origin for the following reasons. rockcontainsTriassic(Norian)fauna.Asandstooeofsimilar The Phenocrysts, in many cases, are euhedral with sharp composition, but dark green in colour and bearing shell outlines and grain contacts. Euhedral analcite grains are debris of possible Early Jurassic age, is expo!;ed north of present as clasts in crystal-vihic and crystal-lithic tuffs. The Shiko Lake. The rocks there are overlain by felsic vc~lcanic white grains are isotropic with no twinning evident, alrocks and sedimentary beds with diagnostic Euly Jurassic though pinkcrystals may display some twinning and weak (Sinemurian) fauna. These sedimentary units might well birefringence. Small feldspar and pyroxene inclusionsare form an unconformable successionat the top of the basalt aligned parallel to the trapezohedral faces within analcite unit and the basal members of the overlying, more ox.idized crystals (ocellar texture). Although many analcite-bearing volcaniclastic unit, unit 3. flows are amygdaloidal, analcite does not commonly fill central a x i s The top of unit 2 on the western side of the, vesicles. The crystals and their adjoining grains are not of the Quesnel belt, from near Gavin Lake to south of the cracked or fractured as would be expected if expansion due Quesnel - Barkerville highway, is also marked by lenses of to sodium replacement of potassium in primary leucite has discontinuous grey limestone which, on the basis of its taken place. Baileys analysis of three analcite samples conodont fauna, is of Norian age (H.W. Tiprer, p:rsonal (Bailey, 1978, page 37 ) reveals no trace of residual K20 communication, 1989). Limestone does not appear to have that wouldbe probable if replacement of leucite had taken developed at a similar stratigraphiclevel to the east o f the place. The average of thet h r e echemical determinations, in central axis o f the belt. Instead, highly calcareous vdcaniweight percent, is: Si& 57.3, AI203 23.9 and Na2O 9.7. clastic sedimenmy rocks occupy this stratigrag hic position. Inmanyrockspyroxenecrystalsarerelativelyunalte~and Bailey (1978) included both the limestone and the calcarefresh-looking, a most unlikely situation if original leucite ous sediments within unit 3 and thus, by inference, considhas been replaced totally by analcite. All this suggests a eredthemtobeofEarly Jurassic age. Hcweve.r,later primary origin for the white-weathering, glassy when mapping(Bailey,1987,1988) clearly shows these rocks freshly broken, analcite phenocrysts, but a secondary origin form the uppermost partof unit 2 and are Trialisic. for the pink and brown, weakly birefringent grains and the interstitial groundmass analcite is possible and probably PLAGIOCLASELATH P y R o x E m - P m m c BASALT (UNIT likely. 29, A discussion of analcite in similar Nicola lavas by This is a minor unit in the Shiko Lake area that clverlies Mortimer (1987) leaves the. problem of their origin unrepyroxene-rich wackesofprobahleEarlyJurassicage. Itboth solved. This long-standingdebate about the primary versus underlies and interfingers with polylithologic: felsic brecsecondary origins of analcite phenocrysts in igneous rocks cias. These rocks were characterizedand analyzed as unit has been reviewed (aid perpetuated) by Karlsson and Clay- 2g because of their basaltic nature but are probably correlaton (1991). Their conclusions from stable isotope and mitivewithrocksofunit3.Themajorrocktypeisaplagioclase croprobe studies favour a secondaryorigin. Their data offer pyroxene basalt with adistinctiveporphyritictaxtureresultpersuasive arguments that despite their euhedral, pristine ing from the presence of large euhedral pyronene crystals of the rock consistsof 4 appearance, the analcite crystals have undergone extensive and plagioclase laths. About 25%

Bdtetin 97

29

~.. .

. ..

. .

.~

Briiish Columbia

to 9-millimetre sized euhedral, generally equant clinopy- andesine (accordingtoMorton, 1976)are present. Therocks roxene crystals and 15% is laths of plagioclase 4 to 6 are predominantly breccias deposited as autobrecciated and subaerial laharic (debris-flow) ~ebreslong.Plagioclaseranginginsizefrommicrolites subaqueous slump units. to 3-millmetrelaths forms an additional 15% of the rock. Flows and pyroclastic breccia and tuff are present butless The presence of this finer grained plagioclase in the micro- common. The breccias are polylithologic witha wide varicrystalline to aphanitic groundmass impartsa senate feldety ofrocktypes, includingintmiverocks.Thedeposits are spar texture to the overall trachytic-texturedrock. The poorly sorted and generally lack stratification. Their pale associated breccias comprise lapilli to ash-tuff sized grey, maroon, red and purplish to violet colour suggeststhat polylithic clasts. Many of clasts theappear to be fine-grained they are more oxidized than the underlying basalt units, microdiorite to dioritelmonzoniteor latite and are contained consistent with their shallow-waterto partly subaerial oriin a milled m gin. The volcanic rocksare flanked by aprons of reworked a & of similar composition. This suggests a breccias, epiclastic sedimentary rocks (wackes) and conor flowdome breccia close to a volcanic subvolcanic source vent. In Beaver Creek valley the predominantly conglom- glomerate derived from the volcanics. eratic rocks of this unit contain abundant feldspathic Compositionsof the breccias clasts vary widely depending on the composition of the dominant and rare granitic cobbles. Small limestone lenses within the lithic clasts derived from assemblage hold Triassic conodonts. The limestones and the underlying strata and local flows and pyroclasticerup enclosing clastic rocks could be part of an olistostrome and tions. Locally, small amounts of monolithologic trachytic or the map unit might be considerablyyounger,possibly fme-grained, equigranular and porphyritic breccia and tuff equivalent to unit 3,or even younger, rocks. suggest deposition in and around volcanic dome deposits. Trachytoid latite to trachyte and equigranular, fme-grained POLYLITHIC FELSIC BRECCIAS UNIT 3 dioritetoporphyriticsyenite clasts consistmainly ofplagicclase a n d diopside to diopsidic augite phenocrysts and inRocks of unit 3 form a heterogeneous sequence of tergranular orthoclase. Most clasts and the rock matrix are basaltic and intermediate composition (felsic) coarse volgenerally too altered to optically determine modal mineralcaniclastic rocks, lesser flows and conglomerate. There are with accuracy. Alteration ogy and mineral compositions f sedimentary and tuffaceous rocks well-defined lenses o within the subaqueous shallow-water succession and more minerals are chlorite, epidote, calcite, clay minerals and zeolite (laumontite). Whereanalcite is present as an erratic limited pyroclastic rocks deposited under ephemeral subaerial conditions.The map unit occupies the upper part constituent in clasts and matrix of some volcanic members of the volcanic arc assemblage along the central axis of the it differs from that in unit2, mainly in form. The analcite grains in this unit are generally less than 2 millimebres in Quesnel belt (Figure 35). The thickest accumulations of are most likelyto these volcanic rocks, including flow-dome complexes and size and roundto irregular in shape. They occur in the more altered rocks, suggestive of a secondary possibly intrusive breccias, outline centres oferuptive volorigin. canism and subvolcanic intrusive emplacement along the The top of the unit consists of lenses o f maroon sandbelt. Bailey (1978) has calculated an aggregate thickness of stone, calcareous sandstone, conglomerate and massive, 2160 metres for this unit. pale grey limestone. Near Morehead Lake there is a thin, in the Morehead Lake area Unit 3 has been subdivided marine fining-upward clastic sequence of grey calcareous and the regionto the north of the Quesnel River by Bailey sandstone,minorconglomerateandcarbonaceous mud(1990, and earlier reports) into three subunits 3a, 3b and stone and argillite. A few kilometres to the north of these 3c. These units, from lower to upper, are:a polylithologic breccia, a heterogeneous assemblage of tuff, sediment and rocks are interbedded sandstone, siltstone and mudstone cropping out along Morehead Creek. On the basisof stratibreccia and a tuffaceous sediment and minor felsic breccia. graphic position and composition, the Morehead Lake secFo the Horsefly area farther to the south, no stratigraphic tion is considered to be correlative with that near Morehead subdivisionswereestablishedin the generallymassive, unstratified and unsortedbrecciaandflankingconlgomerate Creek. Io this latter section Lower Jurassic macrofossils, including the Smemurian index ammonite Badouriu cudeposits (Fanteleyev and Hancock, 1989a, and earlier disnadensis (Frebold),havebeenrecognized,whileat the cussions). We now consider the plagioclase-lath pyroxene Morhead Lake locality an Early Jurassic age is apparent by Lake area, phyric basalt flow and breccia in the Shiko the presence of Weylu sp. previously referredto as unit 2g (Panteleyev and Hancock, 1988aJ to be correlative in age, if not composition, with the SUBAERIAL BASALT UNIT 4 oldest parts of unit3. purple to maroon, vesicuThe rocks of unit 3 are generally pink to pale brown This unitis a distinctive dark weathering and leucocratic in appearance. They contain lar and amygdaloidal, analcite and olivine-bearing pyroxene basalt flow and breccia assemblage. Its limited distribution more abundant feldspars, notably alkali feldspar, than the underlying pyroxene basalts of 2 unit a n d therefore, appear in small segments of the central arc suggests that it was to be more felsic in composition. Both orthoclase (perthite deposited in a rift zone or elongate fault-bounded trough as clasts and in breccia fragments) and intermediate plagio-along the medial axis theof volcanic belt (Figure3-6).There clase (albitic composition according to Bailey, 1978) and is little lithologic variation in this unit. Flows and flow

30

Geob8ical Survey Branch

Ministry o f Employment aM Invesmenf

Photo 3-1.Typical outcrop appearance and fabric in basaltic units. A. Volcanic breccia of clast-supported, momomictic pyroxene phyric basalt typicalof unit 2. B. Lithic crystalash to lapilli tuff containing some cognate euhderal crystals and broken grains of analcite.

Bullelin 97

31

Brifish Columbia

Photo 3-2. Typical outcrop appearance and fabric felsic in shoshonitic basaltic rocks. A. Volcanic breccia with lithic ash matrix containing a wide variety ofclasts including many from underlying volcanic units. B. Breccia with reddish, sand to mud-sized granular m a t r i x and some clasts with reaction rims, suggesting laharic deposition. Clasts are dominantly pink, fine-grained and analcite-phyric, felsic volcanics.

32

Geological Survey Branch

Photo 3-3. Photomicrographsof unit 2 basalts. A. Olivine grains altered to magentite, carbonate and iddingsite (?)partially t:nclou?d by diopsidic augite. B.Alkali olivine basalt. Euhedral olivine phenocrysts completely replaced by serpentine and magnetite, plane polarized light. C. Same as B.,crossed nicols. D. Hornblende-bearing alkali basalt, crossed nicols. E and E Alkali basalt with calcite. Bar scale is 1 nun; scale is the sameon all photographs.

Bulletin 97

33

Photo 3-4. Photomicropphs of analcite basalt of unit Ze, sandstone and felsic brecciasof unit 3. A. Large analcite grain and diopsidic augite in groundmass of plagioclase microlites, analcite and devitrified glass. plane polarized light. B. Primary analcite phenocrysts with sharp, unaltered contacts with rock groundmass. Note lack of evidence for replacement, plane polarized light. C. Same as B., crossed grains of clinopyroxene, feldspar and magentitein matrix of calcite and clay minerals, nicols. D. Matic sandstone composed of rounded crossed Ncols.E. and E Polylithologic felsic breccia. Bar scale is 1 mm.

34

GeologicalSurvey Branch

Ministry o f Employment and Inveslment

Photo 3-5.Photomicrographs of felsic rocks ofunit 3 and intrusive rocks of unit 7. A. Trachytic felsic flow, crossed nicols. Plagioclase is slightly altered, potassium feldspar is almost completely replaced by calcite. B. Felsiccrystal tuff, crossed nicols. C. Calcarecossandstone, niwls. E. Monzonite adjacent to Cariboo-Bell (Mt. Polley) crossed uicols.D. Hornblende and clinopyroxene-bearing monzonite, crossed copper deposit with orthoclase flooding of matrix and replacement plagioclase, of crossed nicols. E Nepheline syenite from the Bootjack stock, crossed nicols. Potassium feldspar has perthitic texture; nepheline is isotropic (black). Bar scale is 1 nun; scale is the sameon all photographs.

Bulletin 97

35

British Columbia

breccias of fairly uniform composition dominate, with mi- CLASTIC ROCKS IN FAULT BLOCKS UNIT 6 nor units of laharic breccia A maximum exposed thickness A younger sequence of Middle Jurassic age, unit 6, of 620 metres is estimated by Bailey (1978). consists of polylithic conglomerate as well as bedded sucThe basalt contains varying amounts and sizes of phe- cessions of finer grained clastic rocks that are similar to nocrysts of pyroxene and plagioclase and smaller grains of rocks of unit5.This unit is characterizedand distinguished analcite and relict olivine. Grainsare euhedral to subhedral from the older clastic unit by the presence of a variety of in shape and average 3 millimetres in diameter. Some dis- clasts derived from the underlying volcanic arc, continental play marked green pleochroism and simple twinning and and oceanic provenance as well as the presence of quartz optical but not compositional zoning. Pyroxene is diopsidic and rare granitic detritus. The map unit is poorly exposed augite incompositionandchemically indistinguishable along the fault-bounded western margin of the Quesnel arc, from pyroxenes ofunit 2 (Appendix A).Plagioclase forms near the boundaryof the map area. Thin-beddedfineeuhedrallaths andanhedral blebs. Thegrainsareextensively grainedsediments in the Beaver Creek area contain replaced by sericite, clay minerals and zeolite. Plagioclase Aalenian fauna (Poulton and Tlpper, 1991). Coarse clastic compositions range from An48 to An42 and, thus, are about sedimentary units of unceaain include age grey and maroon 10 molecular% more albitic than feldspars in the alkali polylithic conglomerate with granitic clasts and quartzose olvine basalts of unit 2a. No olivine remains, but idiomor- sandstone. A Bajocian age for these rocks is suggested, phic relict grains about 0.3 millimetre in diameter are rebased on observations outside the map area (H.W. Tipper, placedbyalterationminerals,mainlymagnetite and personal communications, 1987, 1992). Some of the isoiddingsite. Theolivine is commonly enclosed by pyroxene lated conglomerate outcrops in the Beaver Creek valley grains. It forms about 10% of the rock but constitute may up contain Cache Creek chert, limestone,greenstone and argilto about 50%.The analcite occurs as euhedral phenocrysts lite and are, therefore, derived largely from western source averaging 0.5 millimetre in size and also as small grains in areas. These rocks also contain rare clasts of granitic and the groundmass. It is generally pink in colour but lacks the quartz-bearing dike rocksand quartz-bearing sandstone. twinning seen in the maroon to red analcite-bearing rocks Other conglomerates and associated clastic rocks contain are magnetite, of unit2e. Other minerals commonly present abundant basalticdetritus and are derived from the Quesnel calcite and zeolite; the latter two mineralsare locally abun- volcanic arc. The age of some of these conglomerates is dant in vugs and veinlets. Zeolite minerals identified by uncertain: they might as beyoung as Cretaceous and equivax-ray diffraction are thompsonite, scolecite and analcime. lent to rocks of unit 9. Thegroundmass is hematitic and extensivelyaltered. Where grains can be recognized, they are analcite, magnetite and, CONTINENTAL CLASTICAND in some cases, felted aggregatesof plagioclase microlites.

VOLCANIC DEPOSITS

OVERLAP UNITS

FLUVIAL DEPOSITS UNIT 9

Conglomeratewithabundantroundedcobblesand Sedimentary units in the Quesnel belt are found in two boulders of chert, quartzite, other metamoxphic and sedinorthwesterly trending belts (Figure 3-7). The clastic detrimentary rocks, various volcanic lithologies, some ultus, at least the coarsest part, is derived largely from the tramafic detritus, rare graniticclasts and white to grey (vein) volcanic arc. The two sequences are distinguished on the quartz clasts occurs as narrow sinuous belts of overlapping basis of age and, to a lesser extent, lithologic type and clastic deposits on the northern flank of the volcanic belt in provenance ofclasts in congomerate. the Quesnel Lake and Quesnel River areas. The conglomerate is readily identified by its rounded polylithic clasts and CLASTIC OVERLAP DEPOSITSUNIT 5 calcareoussandy matrix. Commonly the carbonate forms an The older, Early Jurassic sequence, unit 5,was depos- orange-weathering, fine-grained interstitial matrix such as that seen in the rocks of Cariboo Island in Quesnel Jake. ited as volcanic-source epiclastic deposits. Them k s overlap the volcanic arc rocks and flank them in fault-bounded Elsewhere, for example, the Rose Gulcharea,orangetroughs or a postvolcanic marginal basin. This unit forms a weathering carbonateoccurs in veinlets of spany dolomitic sequence of dark to medium grey, thin-bedded, fine-grained calcite. This carbonate cementation and vein filling appears to be due to the action of late thermal fluids or groundwater. calcareous sandstone andsiltstone along the eastem side of the volcanic arc. The rocks are similar in composition and McMullin (1990) hasdescribed the conglomerate near appearance to rocks of unit 1 as well as the flaggy beds of Likely as well as the lithologically similar rocks near Cottonwood Riverat the northeast comer of the map area. The pyritic siltstone and sandstone ofunit 2f. The sedimentary rocks of this unit are best exposed along the banks of the latter may beequivalent to the Likelysite but are probably Jurassic in age and possibly equivalent to rocks of unit 6. Quesnel River to the northwest of the village of Likely. Lithologicallysimilar rocks also occur in small fault blocks There, in the south bank of the river, the bedsare overlain by basalts of unit 2 along a shallow, west-dipping thrust in the Beaver Creek valley. There the conglomerate unconfault. formably overlies volcanicrocks of unit 2 at Antoine Creek,

36

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry of Employment ano'lnvesrment

"

brownbiotite-phyric sanidinebearing latitic flows(unit above a thin layer of hematitic r e d sand and soil derived loa). The rocks consists of about 15% plagioclase crystals from the volcanicrocks. At Rose Gulch, near Quesnel Forks, grains 'up to there is a rhythmic sequenceof fming-upward conglomer- and pale yellow and honey-coloured dolomite 2 millimetres in size. Rare grains and crystal ag::regates of ate, sandstone and thin-bedded siltstone, some of which to 4 millimetres insize are also present. contains dolomitic veinlets. The mudstone commonly con- glassy sanidine up Biotite flakes up to 2 millimetres across form about 3 to 5% tains leaf impressions of monocotyledons (Bailey, 1978) of the rock. This rock type is present as clasts and is the and similar rocks on the south side of the Qnesnel River contain nondiagnostic carbonaceous plant trash. biotite grains in the pebbb: conglomsourceof the abundant erate at the base of unit 10 where it is exposed along the Provenance of many of the clasts in the conglomerate is the eastern metamorphic belt of the Barkerville Terrane HorseflyRiver at the historic Hobson placer mining s:ite. A Middle Eocene radiometric date has been obtain XI from the and, to a lesser extent, oceanic rocks of the Slide Mountain biotite contained in the flow rocks. Abiotite-hming lamTerrane(McMullin,1990).The age of the map unit is prophyre dikeof similarage (unit IOc) that cuts nxks c t unit possibly Albian, or younger, (H.W. Tipper, personal com1 in the Beaver Creek valley is probably a feeder for the munication, 1992). if the rocks are equivalent to the conflows. Tertiarydikes are rarely seen inthe map area. glomerate in Beaver Creek valleyat Antoine Creek. This To the north of Quesnel Forks, near the confluence of age is based on unreported data from palynology samples the Qnesnel and Cariboo Rivers, biotite-bearing vol.canic collected by R.B. Campbell and examinedD.C. by McGre rocks are exposed which, although superficially resembling gor (H.W. lipper, writtencommunication,1993,Report the brecciasand tuffs of unit 3, are probably corrdative with F1-12-1967-DCM). These coarse clastic deposits are sugthe similar biotite-bearingrocks near Horsefly. gested by Tipper to represent ancient fluviatile systems of The second volcanic lithology consists of pale grey to possible Cretaceous age that had their origins in an Omineca to purple plagiobrown, commonlyiron stained, and mauve highland following uplift in the Toarcian. Alternatively,all ctase-phyric crystal ash-flow tuffs (unit lob). Small lithic or part of the channel-fill conglomerate unit may be Tertiary. clasts are commonly present but are generally kss than 5% Certainly Quesnelliaarc and cover rocks have been repeatin abundance. The rocks are usually compacted with blocky edly eroded. fracturing outcrops. Locally, there is faint, indistinct layering defined by a weakly developed foliation is im:parted tha!. TERTIARY SUCCESSIONS UNIT 10 by plagioclase crystal alignment. Some outcrops, notably Tertiary felsic and sedimentmy rocks in the map area those with foliated rocks, display slahby to platy fracluring. (Figure 3.8) are Middle Eocene in age according to both Plagioclase crystals less than 1 millimetre up to 5 millimefossil and radiometric data. The rocks can be observed in tres across make up about 50% of the rock. The plagioclase places, tooverlie rusty basaltic Nicolarocksalonga crystals are euhedral and blocky to tabular in shape and have lateritic-looking soil horizon that marks the unconformity. welldeveloped albite and Carlsbadalbite twinning.The This deep weathering in the basalts suggests there was composition is oligoclase Ann-29. Mafic minerals, origiconsiderabletropical weathering at the start, or during, the nally probably amphibole,are completely replaced by calEocene. The Eocene rocks have been subdivided into sedicite, epidote, dusty hematite and other opaque minerals. mentary andvolcanic subunits: Magnetite grains are extensively to complete:.y altered to maghemite. Grains of rounded, resorbed quartz occur spoLACUSTRINE SEDIMENTS-UNIT 10 radically throughoutthe rock. The quartz and small, #cloudy Pale grey to fan andyellow,thin-bedded to varved grains of interstitial orthoclase form less than 15% of this lacustrine deposits o f clay, silt and fine-grained sandstone rock. The ash tuffs overlie Middle Eocene sedirnenkuy beds withsometuffaceuonscomponent are foundalong the at Hazeltine Creek. Elsewhere, for example the Megabuck Horsefly River, near the mouth of Hazeltine Creek at Quesproperty to the south of Horsefly village, feldspathic ash ne1 Lake and along Victoria Creek, north of Quesnel River. flows occur together and possibly intedinger witin tineThe well-bedded succession containsabundant plantdebris grained tuffs and tuffaceous sedimentmy rocks. The tufand floralimprints. Abundant palynomorphs confirm aMidfaceous sediments are variably purple to green and grey in dle Eocene age of deposition. Rarely, fossil fish and insects colour. Some beds andsuccessionscontain h g e clots and can be found. Wilson (1977a,b) regards the Horsefly River spherules of fine-grained epidote. These subaqueous tuffs locality near Horsefly village, locally referred to as 'The probably grade laterally and interfinger with the lacustrine Steps', as one of the type localities in Canada for Eocene sediments of unit 10. fossil fish.

VOLCANIC FLOWS,ASH FLOWS AND CRYSTAL ASH TUFFS - UNIT 10a


' h o main lithologic types are recognized. A single exposureonaknolltothewestoftheHorseflyRiverconsists of platy, fine-grained homogeneousto porphyritic, grey to

NEOGENE PLATEAU BASALTS AND MIOCENE FLUVIAL CHANNEL DEPOSITS UNITSI1 AND l l a Dark grey to black and maroon alkali olivine hasalt

subaerial flows and tephra cover much of the southwest part of the maparea (Figure 3-8). The rocks are lypical of the

Bulletin 97
~

37

British Columbia

UNIT Qal 11

..

. . . .

11
white dominantly with

QUATERNARY Glacial fluvioglacial deposits, alluvium MIOCENE 14.6 Ma - Dark grey to black alkali olivine plateau basalt

Ila
10b

EOCENE polymicticGravel: honate-cemented quartz cobbles; locally carbonate52 Ma

10 ___\j
.

." L " " " "


"

. __
"

I
1O b

" " "

" "

- clasts,of 10a
1O a
52 Ma

Pale grey to yellow and tan thinly bedded lacustrine siltstone and sandstone; abundant wood trash and floral imprints; rare fossil fish. Locally polymictic conglomerate; contains some tuff beds Pale grey to brown, commonly iron-stained or pale mauve and purple feldspar-phyric crystal-ash flow tuffs; locally compacted and layered Grey platy biotite-phyric latitic flows

JURASSIC (Sinemurian Pliensbachian)

3
v"v"vvv"vvv"
"""VV"VVVV

186 Ma - Grey to olive-drab hornblende porphyryflows

v vv

"V"

and/or sills TRIASSIC (Norian) Pyroxene-phyric flows and breccia

sw

NE

sure 3-9. Diagrammatic saatigraphic section and cross-section showing Tertiary and Quaternary map units and the Miocene chann
uiferous) gravel deposits.

38

Geological Survey Branch

MAP UNITS

*""'"""
Narlan

camIan
Anlslan .LadinIan

PENNSYLVANIAN-PERMIAN DEVONIAN. PERMIAN


PROTEROZOIC~MlSSlSSlPPlAN

w i w

Figure 3-10. Generalized geological map showing units7 and 8 intrusive rocks.
~

widespread plateau basalts, termed Chidcotin Group volsmaller stocks and plugs, domes, dikes, sills and intrusive canics by Mathews (1989). that cover much of south-central breccias, all within a complicated three-cycle sequence of intrusive-extrusive magmatism. He places olivine and alkali British Columbia. Commonly flows display well formed gabbros, syenodiorite, monzonite and dikes of syenite and rise to flat-topped outliers and columnar joints. They give trachyteintheoldestmagmaticcycle,andassigns rimrock scarps that are the eroded remnantsof previously more exteusive plateau basalt flows. At least two ages of nepheline-bearing syencdiorite,monzonite andtheirrelated dikes as well as analcitebearing olivine teschenite, tesflows are present in the map area according to Mathews chenite, tephrite, phonolite and other dikes to the two (1989): a 14 to 16 Ma series and a 7 to 9 Ma flow series.A younger series of flows, 1 to 3 million years in age, has not younger cycles. His proposed intrusive scheme has not been been recognized in the map area. In places the flows contain substantiated by this investigation but some of his rock descriptions and petrological data ultramfic,orthopyroxene-bearingxenoliths.Locally,the are incorporated here. base of the basalt unit has a bentonitic palagonite ash and ALKALJC GABBRO-DIORITE-SYENITE tephra layer with abundant basaltic scoria. A conglomerate unit underlies the basalt flows in a UNIT 7 number of gravel-filled river channels. It is shown as unit Stocks ranging from diorite to syenite in composition 1l a (Figure 3-9). The gravels consist of a distinctive white intrude sedimentary rocks of units 1 and l a and the older quartz cobble congomerate that placer miners in the area volcanics of unit 2. They appear to be coeval and cogenetic refer to as the Miocene (placer gold) channel. The white with the alkalic volcanics of unit 3. Anumber of the dioritic quartz clasts appear to be derived from coarsely crystalline bodies are composite stocks or are zoned due to differentiavein quartz. At its base, at least in the HorseflyRiver valley tion into monzonite and syenite phases. The intrusions are in thehistoric Hobsonplacer mine, the gravel is cemented assigned to unit 7 on the basis of their alkalic compositions with calcite. It forms a resistant conglomerate in which adits and Early Jurassic ages (see following chapter).The K-Ar and other underground openings were drvien that permitted radiometric dates from the stocks, including some samples extensive underground mining of the auriferous gravels. of hydrothermal minerals, range from 208 to 182 Ma. A mean age of 195 Ma (Early Jurassic) is obtained from ten of QUATERNARY DEPOSITS UNIT Qal the most merit K-Ar radiomehic determinations (see Table 4-1). More recent U-Pb dating indicates intrusive ages of A durable blanket of one or more tills, local ablation approximately 202 Ma (Ghosh, 1993;1994). moraine and widespreadfluvioglacial deposits with anextensive thin cover of colluvium and other overburden is Unit 7 has not been subdivided in this study but can be readily split into subunitsthat are differentiated on the basis present throughout much of the map area. Drumlins and crag-and-tail features that indicate northwesterly ice-flow of composition and texture. For example, Bailey (1990) directions are common on the plateau. Fluvioglacial depos- describesthreesubunitshedesignatedasunits7a,b,c,These its and some thick accumulationsof glacial silt are found in a r e :7a - pyroxene-bearing diorite, monzonite and syenite themajorvalleysoccupedbyBeaverCreekandtheHorsefly with lesser gabbro, clinopyroxenite and peridotite; 7b and Quesnel rivers. syenite with characteristic large othoclase phenocrysts and megacrystic texture; and 7c - nepheline-bearing syenite, in partorbicular. All therocks contain normative nephelineand INTRUSIVE SUITES lack modal quartz. Two groupings of intrusive rocks are evident, based on The mcst abundant intrusive rock type is fine to methe age and compositions of the major intrusions (Figure dium-grained, equigranular to weakly porphyritic syeno3-10). An oldeq latestTriassic to Early Jurassic alkalic suitediorite and less commonly diorite. The syencdiorite is grey (unit 7) is coeval with some of the younger arc volcanism. in colour and composed mainlyof fine to medium-graiued These m k s represent the most commontype of innusions plagioclase, orthoclaseand clinopyroxene. Crystal size genfound in the project area. A single pluton of quartz-bearing erally ranges from 0.5 to 1.5 millimems. The rock contains, granodiorite in the southern part of the map area, part the of on average, 50% plagioclase of andesine composition Takomkane batholith, is evidently also Early Jurassic age in (An34-52), 15% diopsidic augite and up to 25% anhedral, (Campbell,1978). Itrepresents a separate, calcalkalic poikilitic orthoclase. as the main groundmass component magma type that is distinct from the main group of silicaHornblende occurs in variable amounts together with accesundersaturated alkalic dioritic magmas. The stock is insory magnetite (up to 5%). apatite and sphene. Biotite is cluded in the Early Jurassic unit 7 as a silica-saturated present, generallyas a replacement of clinopyroxene: some subdivision (unit 7A) on the basis of its similar age. The of the pyroxene is rimmed by aegerine or aegerine augite younger suite of intrusions (unit 8) are calkalkaline, quartz- (Bailey, 1978). Other alteration mineralsare sericite, calcite and chlorite. Monzonite has the same mineralogy but has an bearing stocks of probableCretaceous age. orthoclase. content of about 35% and, in places, abundant Morton(1976)described the intrusive rocksin the Horsefly area in detail and classified many rock types ac- biotite. The rock is usually pale grey to pink in colour. cording totheir compositions. He subdivided the intrusive Syenite contains abundant microperthite andorthoclase of bodies according to their size into major plutons and related which much,if not most,appears to be a secondaq replace-

40

Geological Survey Branch

mineraliraton. The ment of groundmass and plagioclase phenocrysts. Plagio- ated hydrothermal alteration and copper plutons in the sedimentary rocks of the underlying basin-fill clase compositions range fromoligoclase to albite (An22assemblage, and presumably at greater depths, tmd to have 6). BothSchink(1974)andMorton(1976) report the presence of small amounts of flnorite in syenite. Gabbro is thindry-lookingthermal aureoles (hornfels)with little a minor component of the Polley and Lemon Lake stocks evidenceof deuteric alterationwithinthe stosk, or hy(Hodgson et al., 1976; Morton, 1976) and both gabbro and drothermal products in the country rocks. serpentinized peridotite form parts of the Cantin Creek comprised of a number of intrusive The largest pluton, intrusions &u, 1989; RE. Fox, personal communication, 1976, Bailey, 1978), is the Mount phases (Hodgson et al. 1987). Polley stock.It is a high-level compositestock made up of a laccolith-like series of sills, dikes and intrusica breccias A number of the stocks, even the smaller ones, are zoned. Some display symmetrical zoning with gradational (Fraser, 1994). It is possibly the highest level pluton exposed changes from cores of monzoNte or syenite to a rim of in the Quesnel belt and coincides with the largest accumudiorite, for example, the QR stock. The dioriticrims contain lations o f felsic volcanic deposits of unit 3. Note that the more abundant mafic minerals and magnetite than the cen- term high-levelis a relative term. Onthe basis of intrusive tres of intrusions and consequently have a strong magnetic morphology, Sutherland Brown (1976) estimated the emsignature. Other intrusions, probably the higher level subplacement ofthe Mount Polley stock at a depth of about a his discussionsof young island volcanic stocks, are commonly composite. They have intru- kilometre. Sillitce (1989), in arcs in the southwest Pacific and their intrusion-related sive (and possibly metasomatic) internal contacts, for deposits, considers 0.5 to 1-kilometre emplacenent depths example the Bullion Pit stock. In the composite stocks, the various constituentmap units may display irregular shapes tobeshallow.Inanycase,theMountPolleystor:khasbeen and geometries. emplaced in an epizonal environment and has ;ample evidence of high-level, subvolcanicintrusive phenomena such Coarsergrained to megacrystic variants of mainly monzonite and syenite are present, usually as minor components as extensive brecciation and related hydrothermal activity. ofanumberofthestocks.AtboththePo1leyandShikoLake Other stocks in the Quesnel belt,especially tho% intruding :ylinClrical stocks there are small zones or pods of pegmatitic syenite. lower stratigraphic units and those with regular, shapes and steep, sharp contacts, appear to be deeper intruJanprophyric dikes and irregular zones o f granophyric sions. For example, Schink (1974) suggested a 6.5-kilomesyenite that contain coarse flakes of biotite and long, thin tre, or deeper, depth of emplacement for the Shiko :Lake hornblende needles are also found within the stocks. Pegstock on the basis of geological mapping evidewe. matitic, orbicularand granophyrictexturesare foundlocally A hornblende-bearing syenodiorite intrusive breccia in stockso f nepheline syenite such as the Bootjack Lake and exposed on the peak of Viewland Mountain was for sampled Mouse Mountain stocks. The coarsest grained parts of the radiometric dating. It produced one of the older IGAr dates intrusive bodies are the core regions; grain size typically diminishesoutwards into very fine grained, more mafic-rich in the map area - 203 million years. Morton (1!)76, pages border zones. The comer grained rocks contain nepheline, 37-40) describes the breccia as an intrusive mcozodiorite orthoclase, aegeriue augite and less abundant biotite, horn- brecciacomposedmainly of roundedfine-grained syendiorite clasts and minor clasts of other lithclogies. He blende, albite and magnetite. Pseudoleucite and analcite are 500 reports that this rock type occupies a by 400- metre area present in places, commonly as cores of the orbicular strucnear the peak of the mountain. The dated sample in this study turessurrounded by nepheline, orthoclase andmafic is also from the Vlewland Mountain peakarea, presumably minerals. from the same outcrop examined by Morton, but is from a f the The plutons are emplaced alongthe central axis o of hornblende porphyry. The clast of monolithologic breccia volcanic arc or, less commonly, are to the east of it in the breccia formsa body, a100but less than 200 metres across, sedimentary rocks of underlying units 1 andla. There is a that caps the peak of the mountain. the On slopes below the frequency of intrusive emplacement at approximately 11peak the breccia is underlain hy pyroxene basalts unit of la. kilometre intervals along the volcanic belt. The intrusions The porphyry contains about 40% hornblende laths 1 to 2 appear to coincide with centres of eruptive volcanism and millimetres in length or as rare glomeroporphylitic g:rains arc construction. Intrusive lithologies thatoutline the intru- up to 4 millimetres across. Smaller phenocrysls and misive-extrusive centres are present as clasts in ventand crolites in the plagioclase crystal groundmass account for proximal breccias as well as in the surrounding laharic and about 50% of the rock volume. Plagioclase composition is slump deposits. The plutons intruded at higher stratigraphic labradorite(An58-70). The rock is weakly alterej and conlevels, as a generalization, appear to be more irregular in tains minor chlorite,calcite and epidote. shape, have late dikes and are associated with proximal volcanics that are more differentiated felsic magmas with QUARTZ DIORITE/GRANODIORITE hydrous mafic minerals hornblende and biotite. Some of the UNIT 7A intrusions have associated pegmatites and intrusion or hyOtherLateTriassic to Early Jurassic plutonsincludethe drothermal breccias. A number of the subvolcanic stocks granodiorite, quartz monzonite and quartz diorite intrusions display some evidence of deuteric or other types of associ-

of the Thkomkane batholith that cmp out to the south of Horsefly village (Campbell,1978) and in the adjoining BonaparteLakemapareatothesouth(CampbellandTipper, 1971). The rocks a few kilometres south of Horsefly are grey medium-grained, equigranularto weakly porphyritic quartz diorite. Plagioclase grains up to 5 millimetresin sizeconstitute about 55% of the rock. The finegranular groundmass is made up of approximately 15%quartz, 10%hornblende and roughlythe same amount of orthoclase. Epidote, chlorite and calcite extensively replace the hornblende. At the Megabuck property these rocks are hydrothermally altered andcutbyquartzvein1ets.Thealteredrockscontainepidote. sulphide minerals,magnetite,andlocally clay minerals, sericite and black tourmaline. A second intrusion, possibly belonging to this subunit, is a crumbly and rusty weathering, medium-grained quartz

diorite exposed in a single road cut 2.5 kilometres to the northwest of Shiko Lake.

QUARTZ MONZONITEALASKITE UNIT 8


Quartz-bearing rocks with calcalkaline compositions form stocks ofmedium to coarse-grained granodiorite, quartz monzonite and minoralaskite. These rocks occur in the large Nyland Lake stock, the smaller Gavin Lake stock and dike complex anda number of small, unnamed quartzbearing dikes 7 kilometres tothe southeast of Gavin Lake. The rocks are most commonly pale grey, medium-grained quartz monzonite whichin places ranges from fine-grained quartz monzonite to porphyritic alaskite. They are considered to be of Cretaceous age (Bailey, 1978) and possibly equivalent to the NaverPlutonic Suite of the northern Quesnel Trough.

42

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry o f Employment ond Ien

CHAPTER 4

AGE OF MAP w r s PALEONTOLOGY AN:D GEOCHRONOLCIGY

separates of hornblende and biotite was performedat the The ages and correlations of lithologies were estabUniversity of British Columbia Geochronology lished by studies of macrofossils and microfossils from L~boratory. sedimentary rocks and radiometric dates from igneous rocks Thirteen new K-Ar age determinations from r0c:ks of the (Figure 4-1). Thii-six samples from beds of limestone and various intrusive and volcanic units are reported in Tabk4-1 silty limestone to calcareous siltstone were collected for and shown on Figure 4-2. conodont extraction.The samples were dissolved in acetic acid; the sieved, dried residue was examined and conodonts MICROFOSSILS wereidentified by M.J. Orchard,GeologicalSurvey of Canada. Three samples taken forpalynologywere examined CONODONTS and reportedon by G.E. Rouse ofthe University of British Six samples, all from unit 1, yielded conodonts. Key Columbia. Twenty sites in which macrofossils were discovered were sampled and the collections submitted to H.W. taxa identified are: Chiosella fimorensis of early Ani.sian age, Neogondolella constricta of late Anisian-t:arly l i d Tipper for study or referral to T.P. Poulton and E.T. Tozer, ex g,: nodosus of lale Carnian of Canada. b o of the fossil inian age,Metupolyg~fhus all with the Geological Survey age, and Epigondolella sp. ofNorian age (Orchard,in sites located to the south of Quesnel Lake (C-117285 and Appendices B, C). In addition, a number of the samples C-117286) were resampled by lipper and later reported on contained ramiform elements and indeterminate ifxhyoliths, to the authors. Allsite locations and other data are given in shell fragments, worm tubes and a single, nondiapostic Appendices B,C, D and E. Radiometric datingon mineral

I \i-mMam M a
mnodonis

Anisian

Crooked amphibolite

Figure 4-1. Central Quesnelbelt time-stratigraphic units with diagnostic fossils and radiometric ages,

BuIlelin 97

43

Briiish Colwnbin

TABLE 4-1 RADIOMETRIC AGE DETERMINATIONS; POTASSIUM-ARGON ANALYTICAL DATA, THIS STUDY AND OTHERS
Sample N2lBlt.S

Localion

Material

Ar@(lO.")

A r @

Apparent

W m
629Mx) 5802300 624800 5810200
591300 581%50

Lithology
Horsefly Mountain sulek diorite Wcwland Mountain breccia hornblende porphyry clast Bootjack stock nepheline syenite

Analysed
0.918 hornblende

%K
94.3

(molerlg) Total A r e Age (Ma)


3.507

I. 88AP4l8-12

2086

2.88AP?.SI1-76

hornblende

1.01

3.792

90.7

204+7

3. DB-87-2

hornblende

"ArFAr plateau age


(Bailey and Archibald, ISW)
14.565 3.95

203.1 Q.0

4.85AP21i2-120

581450 5835300

QR stock
diorite

biotite 95.2 (chloritized) hornblende

20k7

5.85AP7t2-63 603750 5812800 6.85AP811-64 M)3550 5813000 7.85APsl1-64 603550

Shiko stock hornblende porphyry dike

0.828 91.8

2.067

196t7

Shih Emck
mommite c a t m e
Shiko Emck momnite core wne

biotite

16.408

4.67

86.7

192t10

biotite 86.7

16.408

4.94

1826

5813000
8.85APW-71 591900 5831900 617600 586D750 592050 5822850

Bullion pit n a k

biotite

19.037

5.4

193*7

87.7

diaite
LemonLakeEmck mndiorite Mount Polley stock Cariboo-BeU deposit cotmnwood ~ i v estock r pyroxene hornblende gabbro

9.

w analytical data, 187+Ma age reported by Pilcher and McDougall(1976); age recalculatedw i t h new constanll

192

10.
11. DB88-03

hydrothennal biotile(Harigson et d.. 1976) repoaed as I88e7 184t7 Ma; recalculated using constanll from Steiger and lager (1977) hornblende 91.2 1.98 6.776 187i7

546800
5881500

12.87AP6/3-16

605670 5799080
611250 5806MX)

Unit 3 hornblende porphyry flow or dike

hornblende

0.642 t o . 2 4 0 5.00

2.181

97.2
89.8

1 8 ~ 7

13.86AFZW6-64

K w n surk biotite monzonite


Unit

biaite

16.932

18.56

14.88AF'11/5-36

581500 5811000
603440 5799080 601710 5797170 6 1 W

ICC

6.08

biMite

5.702

72.6

53.3A.7

biotite lampmphyre dike


Unit 1OA biotite 7.250

15.87AP3/14
16.87API8/8-44

to.020

6.662

93.2

52.2i1.8

biotite lrachyandesite flow

u n i t I1
plaleau basalt
Frasergold quam vein

whole m k

0.722 M.008

0.1838

33.4

14.6M.5

17.87MAB35632

serieite

872iO.10 91.3 23.759

15M

44

Geological Survey Branch

Figure 4-2. Generalized geological map w i t h radiometric dating sample sites; this project, age in Ma.

Canada. Much of the site data andidentificationsare listed in Appendix E and have been utilized by Campbell (1978) in preparation of his Quesnel Lake 1:125 000 geological map. New collections and identificationsfrom this project, and some older data, are contained in Appendix E and summarized on Figure 4-1; these data, andother information, are have been reported byH.W. Tipper (written communications,Report J1-1993-HWT, 1993,andolder reports). Unit 1, in addition to conodonts, contains beds near the top of the succession with Halobia. This fauna, and possibly Monotis, is also found in rocks of unit 2, mainly in small lenses of reefoid limestone and limestone-cemented basalt breccias. Thetop of the basalt successionis marked locally by fetid beds with a trigonid-bearing, rich shelly faunal accumulation. The Sinemurianrocks of unit 3 contain the diagnostic ammonites Badouxia canadense and Bodouxia columbiae ofthe Early Jurassic, lower Sinemurian, Canadensis Zone, as well as the bibalve, Weyla. Badouxia bas been referred to in some earlier reports as Psiloceras (Calo-. ceras) canadense. The presence of both Pliensbachian and Aalenian clastic assemblages is documented by a number of PALYNOMORPHS ammonitesincludingArieticeras,AmaltheusandEryciThree samples from the Tertiary,lacustrine,varved toides. Tertiary rocks and conglomerate of 9 of unit possible sedimentary beds of unit 10were submitted for palynologiCretaceous age commonly contain abundant wood debris cal analysis. They include two from the area of waterfalls and plant fragments, but none collected are diagnostic. on the Horsefly River known as The Steps, 7 kilometres Palynormorphs, fossil fish and insects are characdownstream from Horsefly village, and one from Hazeltine terisitic of theMiddle Eocene varves of unit 10. The HorseCreek near its mouth at Quesnel Lake. The samples were examined by G.E. Rouse at The University of British Co- fly River samplesite at The Steps is also a type locality for and lumbia. He confirms the presence of a mid-Eocene assem- Eocene fossil fish, including Amyzon aggregatum, other blage of angiosperm pollen, conifer pollen, fungal spores, fossil materials describedby Wilson (1977a,b; 1984). The Amyzon was a fresh-water lake fish related to the living algal cysts and fern glochidia. Diagnostic palynomorphs buffalo fishes and suckers. Fossil insects collected by are: Pistillipollenites mcgregorii,Sabalgranopollenites. R.B. Campbell (GSC Catalogue No. 20 and 22) and deAilanthipitesberryi, Gra~tisporitescotai~, Rhizophagites scribed by H.M.A. Rice (Report No. Misc. l 60/61 HMAR, cerasifonnis, Rhoipites retipillatus, Araliaceoipollenites H.W. Tipper, written communication, 1993) contain a varigranulatus, Pluricellaesporites, Multicellaesporites -6, ety of well-preserved Diptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera Tetracellaesporites sp., Diponsporites sp., and glochidia of thewaterfernAzollo.Alistofallpa1ynomorphsdocumented similar to those from other Tertiary basins in theprovince. The most common species are Plecia pictipennis (Hanis given in Appendix D. lirsch) (March fly)and Plecia similkameena Scudder, The overall assemblage represents a mixed mesophytic forest, similarto present forests of southeast N o r t h America among others, all indicative of a tropical or semitropical climate. and central China. Temperatures were warm, borderingon subtropical, and precipitation was much greater than present amounts. The presence of Lejeunia algal cysts confirms RADIOMETRIC DATES aquatic, probably lacustrine deposition. The Horsefly River The thirteen K-Ar ages, a single Ar-Ar date and other Hazeltine Creek assemblage of unit 10 is correlativewith data generatedby this study are listed in Table4-1. Sample other mid-Eocene assemblages between48 and 52 Ma in age, equivalentto rocks of the Kamlwps Group. The Horse- locations and the matigraphic relationships of dated liare shown onFigures 4-2 and 4-3. Radiometfly River sample site at TheSteps also contains abundant thologic units ric agesof the diorite to monzonite stocks range from 208 fossil plants andlesser fish and insects. to 182 Ma (NorianEZettangian to Toarcian) with a mean of et ai. 193 Ma (Pliensbachian), on the time scale of Harland MACROFOSSILS (1990). A mean age of 196 Ma (late Sinemurian) is obtained from the hornblende dates, and 190Ma (late Pliensbachian) Extensive collections of faunacollected at various Recent U-Pb dating using zircons times in the Quesnel Lake area, notably from outcrops and from the biotite analyses. provide4datesaround202 placer mine workings on Morehead Creek and other nearby (Ghosh, 1993; Mortensen, 1994) Ma from the Mount Polley and Bootjack stocks that are a r e a s , are in the repository of the Geological Survey of

formaniferid (Appendices B, C). Three samples from unit 2a were banen. The presence of Middle Triassic (Anisian) fauna in rocks overlying youngerrocks near Spanish Lake is interpeted by Smik (1986,1988a) to be due to thrusting within the metasedimentarysuccession of unit 1. Bloodgood's work in the area supports Smik's interpretation for the Spanish Lake area but the existence of similar relationships throughout the region is not demonstrable. The colour and preservationstate of the conodonts, as of Epstein et indicated by the colour alteration index (CAI) al. (1977),showsaconsistent relationship withstratigraphic position andincreasing metamorphic grade within the metasedimentary succession(see Chapter 6). The least metamorphosed, subgreenschist, zeolite to prehnite-pumpellyite grade volcanic rocks of the central Quesnel belt have a CAI of 2.5 to 3.5 in the contained Norian sediments. The underlying sedimentary rocks have CAI from 3.5 to 4.5 at the top of the succession (unit 1) and 4.5 to 5.5 in the deeper and structurally more disrupted older parts of the Quesnel belt.

46

Ceobgicai Survey

Ministry o f Employment und l e % r

BAJOClAN
I

AALENtAN

1
I

UNIT

d
Y

t-

m ,(I)

180
TOARCAN

PLIENSBACHW

1
240

I
NORIAN

2201"-l
CARNlAN

UNIT 1

0 K-Ar hornblende a Ar-Ar hornblende 0 K-Ar biotite - 1 K-Ar biotite? X U-Pb

Figure 4-3. K-AI radiometric ages and stratigraphic relationships of alkalic stocks and other dated rocks of the central Quesnel belt. Data in brackets from other shldies; numbers referto data in Table 4-1. 'lime scale is that of Harland er aL (1990). Mid-Tertiary magmatic activity is confirmel by the52 203 Ma Ar-Ardate Of theBootjack stock repow by Ma date of biotite from latite flows of unit loa. These rocks and Archibald (1990). An interpRtationofthese data is that have provided the distincitive biotite-bearing c l a s ~and , the ageof intrusive emplacement was around200 Ma and biotite flakes in basal beds of the Eocene lacwtrine sedithe younger dates represent a loss of argon dueto thermal effects, probably during late deuteric activity or h y & , t h e r mentaryunit.AdikeofS3Mabiotite-bearing 'lamprophyre' meonly volcanic arc rock dated is a that intrudes unit I attests to the more widespre2.dpresence ofTertiary rocks inthemaparea.They are probablya zeolitized hornblendeporphyry of uncertainflow, dike or subvolcanicplug origin; its I86 Ma age is compatible with manifestation of the widespread, regional extmsion that its correlation with unit 3. took place in central British Columbia during Fncene time. considered to be the age of intrusion. These are close to the

Bulletin 97

47

tains a Norian Trigoniid fauna in strata which underlie Miocene and younger volcanic rocks referred to by Badouxia beds of Sinemurian age. Elsewhere in the central three as the Chilcotin Group occur in Mathews(1988) 9 and 1 to 3 Quesnelbelt,however, the uppermostNorian and Hetgroupings according to their age: 14 to 16,6 to tangian appears to be marked bya hiatus in volcanism and Ma. The older rocks form extensive flat-lying flows that sedimentation which, in places, may be represented by a cover extensive areas of the interior plateau; the two slight angular unconformity. A similar relationship exists younger groups of flows fill valleys. The oldest group is between Triassic mafic volcanic rocks and overlying, more represented in the map area by 14.6 Ma basalt flows. The dated rocks overlie thin units of Tertiary sediments (unit 10) felsic, volcanic rocks of Early Jurassic age elsewhere in Quesnellia (Nelson er al. 1993; Nelson and Bellefontaine, and a Miocene channel-filling gravel (unit lla) at Gravel 1996) and in Stikinia (Monger, et al., 1978); Logan and Creek. Similar basalt flows capping auriferous Miocene Koyanagi, 1994). gravels occur a short distance away in China Cabin and Moffat creeks.The dated sample is from the same outcrop Earliest Jurassic volcanism (unit 3) probably began as specimens with a 12.1 Ma age reported by Mathews during the Sinemurian and, unlike Late Triassic volcanism, (1988). An identical 14.6 Maage was obtained by him fromoccurred from discrete volcanic centres. Productsof Early similar flows at Miocene, 16.5 kilometres to thewest. The Jurassic volcanism are trachyandesitic to latitic in composipresence of younger flows near Opheim Lake and MacIntion and were erupted mainly as breccias. Monolithic brectosh Creek 33 kilometres northwest and 26.5 kilometres cias were deposited close to vent areas whereas polylithic south of the dated Gravel Creek site is documented by breccias are distal with clasts of the same composition as the Mathews. He reports dates of 7.5 and 8.7 Ma, respectively, surrounding volcanic rocks as well as those of previously from those two localities. Rocksof the youngest suite have deposited underlying rocks. The degree of reworking of the not been recognizedin our map area. clasts, and the proportion of underlying rocks, increases away from the vent areas, suggesting most polylithic breccias formed as the result of slumping down the sides of the STRATIGRAPHIC SUMMARY AND largely submarine Lower Jurassic volcanoes. FACIES RELATIONSHIPS Following the eruption and deposition of volcanic rocks The oldest exposed rocks of Quesnellia in thecentral a brief period of mafic volcanism recurred (unit 4) of unit 3, QuesnelbeltareMiddletoUpperTriassicsedimentaryrocks and produced alkali olivine basalt flows of limited extent of unit 1, which from their composition (Bloodgood 1987) andapparentsubaerialorigin.While there is no direct and from that of accompanying tholeiitiic basaltswith evidence of these rocks being younger than Sinemurian, MORB-like character, were probably deposited in a back- indirect evidence suggests a Pliensbachian age. a r c ,or marginal basin, developed crustal by rifting adjacent Comagmatic and, in part, coeval with Early Jurassic to the Triassic margin of continental North America. This volcanism are a number of dioritic stocks and many small sedimentary assemblage which underlies the eastern of part intermediate to felsic intrusions which formed in the vent the central Quesnel belt, is also exposed near the western areas of the volcanoes from which unit 3 volcanic rocks margin of the belt, suggesting thatthe volcanic arc which erupted. Cooling ages of these intrusions rable 4-1) indiformed during Late Triassic Early Jurassic times is undercate that emplacement began during uppermost Hettangian lain across its width by sedimentary rocks of unit 1. Camian time but with successively younger phases being emplaced epiclastic sedimentation was accompanied by the onset of from Sinemurian through to possibly the Toarcian stage of mafic alkalic volcanism (unit 2) which continued into the the latest Lower Jurassic, well after volcanism had ceased Norian stage. Eruptive locii were possibly controlled by in the belt. extensional (listric normal?) faults which developed subparA period of epiclastic sedimentation within restricted allel to the marginsofthebelt. Early mafic volcanism basins followed the cessation of volcanism in the central occurred underrelatively deepwatermarineconditions but, Quesnel belt. These sedimentary rocks, dominantly siltstone with time, the volcanic pile grew to the point where late and fine-grained sandstone and containing a Middle Jurassic mafic volcanic products were deposited in shallow water fauna, formed an overlap assemblage which now is p r e and, in part, probably subaerially. Served in the eastern and western parts the of belt. had ceased and a By late Norian time mafic volcanism Further sedimentation in lacustrine settingsand volcanperiod of erosion of the volcanic piles beganandwas ism occurred during a period of Eocene crustal extension, accompanied byepiclastic sedimentation andthe develop and which was followed by the widespread eruption of ment of limestone reefs in intervolcano basins. In Morehead Creek a sectionof mudstone, siltstone and sandstone con- plateau basaltsof Miocene and, locally, younger age.

48

Geological Survey Branch

CHAPTER 5
INTRODUCTION

PETROCHEMISTRY

The major oxidedata are regarded as high quality and appear to be reliable and reproducible. Analytical results Representativesamplesofigneousrocks, 84inal1, were compared by paired replicateanalyses and the precision of analyzed for major oxide and minor element compositions majoroxide analyses quotedbytheGeologicalSu~rvey by standard, commercially available, combined x-ray flucBranch Analytical Laboratory are shown in Ap.pndi:r H. rescence, atomic absorption spectophotommetry and neuMinor element analyses, on the other hand, show much tron activationtechniquesin order to characterize their variability due to both differences between sarnp1e.sfrom the chemical compositious. The sample suite consists of 59 of same map unit and inherent problems with analyi:ical accuthe least altered looking rocks collected during this study racy and precision. Minor element data used and recarded in Table 5-2 are the meanarithmeticvalues that represent a from the various, mainly volcanic, map units. The remaining data represent suitable samples from previous studiesin the composite of various numbers and types of analyses fiom map area, including twenty-two analyses by Bailey (1978) different laboratories. In general, elements with consistent concentrations in the samples analyzed by x-ray flouresh r e eby Morton (1976). The loss on ignition (LOI) from and t cence methods (XRF - barium, strontium, rubidium, ytthese samples is generally in the order of 3%. or less. In trium, titanium, vanadium and probably zirconiun) have addition, 29 analyses by Bloodgood (1987) from rocks of sufficient accuracy and precision to adequately demonstrate unit la havebeenincludedin this study. The data are major differences between the map units. Elemtats deterpresented in Appendices F to L. The analytical data are mined by instrumentation neutron activation ONAA - rare summarized as average valuesfor the various map units in earth and some large-ion lithophileelements, scandiuml and Tables 5-1, 5-2 and 5-3. All the analytical data are documented in the appendices, including: sample locations and terbium)should be regarded as approximate,especially because no comparisons to higher precision atomic absorp) ; major oxide and minor element tion or x-ray fluorescence analyses have been made. Anadescriptions (AppendixF analyses (Appendices G,I , J); replicate analyses (Appendix lyticalresultsfor niobium,neodinium,tantalumand H ) : comparison of analyzed and calculated ferrous-ferric probably uranium and thorium are suspect, as are ,myvalues values (Appendix L ) ;and calculatedCIPW norms (Appen- near the analytical detectionlimits of the elements (shown dix K). The data can be compared with, or expanded to in Table 5-2). include, anadditional 38 analyses by Bailey (1978) and 43 analyses reported by Morton (1976). Further comparisons CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS, can be made with similar rocks in British Columbia, the Nicola volcanics to the south (Preto, 1979) and Takla rocks DIFFERENTIATION TRENDS, CIPW to thenorth (Bartie, 1993;Nelson and Bellefontaine, 1996). NORMS AND PETROCHEMCIAL arc rocks elsewhere CLASSIFICATIONS ComparableTriassic - Jurassic volcanic in the North American Cordillera are discussed by Mortimer (1986,1987). PETROCHEMICAL VARIATION Variationsincomposition between samplesare evident; Analytical data (Appendices G to I) were assembled in their range within map units is indicated by the standard dBase tile format and processed by computer to produce deviations of mean values, as shown in Tables 5-1.5-2 and various calculationsand plots. The data for the vicious map 5-3. Differences are generally greater between map units units are summarized in Tables 5-1 and 5-2as mcan values, than between samples of the same unit. This allows the with standard deviations. Most plots shown on ligure:; use recognition of map units andtheir correlation on the basis unit-mean valuesto illustrate chemical trends and relationofcomposition.Differences are regularandcontinuous ships in a simpified manner; a few plots utilize all analytical between the map units, as shown on various variation dia- values in order to show the scatter and more dc:tail of the grams, and are consistent with processes of magmatic dif- data distribution. The computer program used :o inil.ially ferentiation andcrystal fractionation. The post-depositional reduce and study the data is the GSB petrochernicol program oxidationand related changes from ferrous to ferric iron are developed within the Geological Survey Branch by 'D.G. considered to be consistentthroughout the region. The man-MacIntyre. Final calculations and graphic output is .from ner in which ferroudfemc ratios were established is disNEWPET, a petrochemical shareware program devehped by cussed below. The effects oflocal metasomatism, mainly I987 to 1991 byDarylClark,MemorialUniversityof are not evident in thin sectionor in potassium and sodium, Newfoundland. staining tests and are, hopefully, negligable in the selected Crystal-liquid fractionation processes in Quesnel basalleast-altered samples. Nonetheless it is possible that some tic arc magmas canbe illustrated by any number of Harkersodium was introduced the byinteractionbetweentheisland type variation diagrams that depict fractionation indices (Cox ef a arc rocks and seawater. i . , 1979). Bailey (1978) effectively utilized the

Bulletin 97

49

TABLE 5-1 AVERAGE MAJOR OXIDE COMPOSITIONS


MAP
INIT

*N
1

Si02 TiO,
46.92 47.70 1.26 0.75 0.66

Alto,

FeO-T
8.39 10.47 1.19 9.88 1.22 11.27 1.27 10.12 11.83 1.71 9.72 2.05 1.37 7.20 1.75 9.94 1.61 10.59 1.70 11.64 1.04 9.56 7.78 268 5.57 0.37 9.11 12.71 11.23 1.55 10.70 1.33 9.19 1.90

MnO MgO
0.18 0.19 0.02 0.17 0.02 0.20 0.03 0.21 0.22 0.02 0.21 0.02
0.05 0.19 0.05 0.22 0.02 0.18 0.09 0.20 0.03 0.18

CaO

NazO
1.76 2.54 1.28 3.33 0.32 2.97 1.15 4.02 2.78 1.17 4.09 1.03 1.21 5.09 2.07 4.65 0.76 3.14 1.64 4.42 0.42 3.01 4.41 0.50 3.43 0.81 2.63 2.91 2.10 1.43 3.08 1.14 4.53 1.27

KzO
1.32 2.09 1.52 2.07 056 2.61 1.51 2.55 1.85 1.00 3.40 1.55 1.83 3.44 1.22 297 0.91 3.60 0.46 2.17 1.17 2.60 1.29 1.29 3.30 1.42 0.96 0.77 1.73 0.95 2.40 1.40 3.16 0.91

P205 FeO
0.22 5.52 0.34 7.48 0.12 1.08 0.31 6.88 0.04 1.07 0.57 8.08 0.10 1.03 0.47 6.92 0.39 8.51 0.13 1.31 0.53 6.96 0.10 1.97 0.19 0.34 0.09 0.40 0.12 0.30 0.01 0.48 0.08 0.37 0.18 0.06 0.48 0.42 0.89 0.33 0.35 1.15 4.54 1.48 6.29 1.33 7.17 1.58 8.22 0.82 6.52

Fe2O3 UII
2.25 2.16 0.11 2.13 0.12 2.20 0.08 2.28 0.99 0.14 2.23 0.18 2.13 0.08 0.11 2.15 0.17 2.32 0.13 2.35 5.28 3.43 0.94 3,
0.06

Tots1
100.20 99.52 99.48

COz

DIF
24.1 32.7 42.2

I "","> r V l . , mmPY I . " . _

16.64 13.17 2A SD 0.11 253 2Anr, 5~~ 56133 6. 13 15.99 M D SD 1.21 0.12 0.31 13.04 2B 16 47.51 0.70 1.75 2B 1.10 0.08 SD 2C 5 49.03 0.78 16.59 2 C ? SO 1.03 0.07 2.06 1.55 1.32 2.43 0.14 1.79 0.03 1.12 1.88 2D 4 1251 48.05 0.73 3.14 2D SD 1.61 0.18 4 15.71 2E 48.36 0.74 2 ! 3 SD 2.57 0.08 2.29 13 2G 3 3 3A 3A 3B 3B 4 4 7

1A 2A

5.68 13.06 7.70 11.23 2.33 2.37 5.62 8.05 0.46 0.66 7.47 10.29 1.77 1.99 5.02 8.60 9.25 10.41 3.08 2.98 4.77 7.33 1.54 2.95 0.79 2.26 1.25 3.81
1.11

--

--

3.24 0.83 2.95 2.83 1.40 4.66 1.37 0.23 3.32 0.75 3.04 1.13 3.37 0.70 3.51 0.50 1.78 2.98
0.06

---100.85 -100.34

99.87

99.52

--

1.81 10958 0.64 17350 0.81 0.32 17184 0.14 0.30 21667 0.35 0.22 21169 0.30 --0.02 15358 0.03 0.24 28225 0.16 0.06

---

" .

SD
3 SD 9

SD
2

SD
3 SD IO

~3.6 53.92 4.56 50.82 3.26 48.80 2.40 48.93 1.31 51M

0.11

0.65 0.17 0.82 0.13 0.85 0.04 0.83 0.11 0.79

0.54 17.39 1.14 17.36 2.02 18.45 0.07 15.92 1.50 16.05 15.34 2.00 14.71 4.01 11.43 13.06 13.78 . 1.77 ~ 2.13 17.52 1.69

4.29 1.08 4.78 0.89 5.24

3.27 5.76 2.35 7.05 1.71 7.67 1.48 8.08 0.28 9.26

0.04 233
0.11 2.29

----101.08 -101.24 --100.96 --99.56

0 . 9 9
0.46 0.07

0.W

-----28557 24655 -

." ." 32.8 ."


45.6 51.1
"

37.2

46.6 64.2

."
"

53.9 46.1 46.7

."

0.16 29885 --0.00 0.16 18014

"

99.84
99.77

--0.00 0.25 21584


10709 27395

42.0

8 2 57.01 0.84 8 SD 3.85 0.29 10 54.91 0.71 10 SD 5.20 0.42 loc 1 4554 1.11 11 1 48.55 2.04 MAB lM9 49.84 0.68 3.w ~ 0.17 MAB IASD ~ . .~ . 0.70 48.14 ZA to E 47 13.95 2AlaESD 1.58 0.11 3BAnB14 51.20 0.79 3BAnBSD 3.59 0.15

0.13 0.01 0.15


0.06

0.16 0.17 0.19 0.04 0.20 0.03 0.21 0.04

4.33 5.48 0.70 0.60 3.29 6.32 3.03 0.93 8.86 8.77 8.43 8.92 9.65 10.43 3.72 2.59 7.00 9.89 1.93 2.30 3.55 6.86 1.27 1.79

4.90 2.16 3.03 0.05 5.85 8.25 8.14 0.08 0.00 0.45 2.20 7.60 0.12 1.15 0.37 6.04 0.11 1.54

2.33 0.29 2.21 0.42 2.61 3.54 2.18 0.w


~~~

6.49 3.18 8.94 1.88

0.00
0.00
~~~~

0.65 _.. 0.69 99.36 4.65 4.07 98.40 5.60 99.77 1.71 99.98 0.00

-. ."

54.7 59.8

." ."
"

7969 6392 14359

"

3.33 0.11 0.93 2.29 3.15 0.15 0.96

9 9 . 8 4
100.53

--

0.00 0.36 19945 -0.43 0.99 26275 0.46

-_

31.4 30.1 28.3


"

38.4

" .
"

55.0

TABLE 5-2 AVERAGE MINOR ELEMENT COMPOSITIONS

-R I 2E

2G

3
3nMB

3A 3B
4

8 1
10
1oC 11

2 A . Z

- 1 1 W 43 831 10% 25 2 8 ~ 5457 190 935


r)

18 296 269 51 0.4 9 0.7 02 818 31.1 --82255-----2932 IW8 1.9 33 260 0.9 54 1.1 17 0.1 922 214 4 0.1 10 195 3.0 0.2 33 25 0.1 865 0.3 285 57 1.0 147 49 0.2 5w 17 29 105 0.9 34 242 52 0.2 2.0 14 0.1 1322 43 597 r) 3.2 221 334 22 1.1 1.4 14 0.4 1 0 1 4 8 10% 9 30 0.2 0.2 8 0.1 1298 34 1.0 146 Ism 34 1.0 5 143 30 0.2 0.2 8 0.1

- 386

270

- - -- -

141

16 36
41 50 9 51
14 63 127 63 ~6 % ~ 12 56 54 21

31 32.8 0.2 2.5 0.5 10.0 2.3 0.1 403 0.1 19.6 0.6 0.1 21.8 0.1 0.1 ~ -. ~1.6 ~ 4 9.5 1.1 0.1 4 9.5 0.1 0.1
4

1.2

I I I

907 18.0
542

m E X 65 14248 28.10 0.1 1504


4091
"

43

685

14.2 124

3917 4373
4237

2.1.
1.1

933 12.8
115

I 5
1.4

I Icm8 21.0
1

- -

2 4 4

1.8 1.7 1.7

0.8 5532

595

22 619 21.3 3 - 2.0 .- 16.0 4


11.0 1.0

15.7

4672 4359
4 4 % 4933 ""

0.1 10.0 0.7 0.7 20.0


0.8

10.3 191 297 10.3 220 272 Y 0.6 1.2

- - 0.1 305 465 - 124 1 6 4 1.5 104 281 - 170 138 - 520 221

- -. -. -. -. -. __ ___ __ __ -..- -. - - _. so9091 02 11 2.0 0.1 4 44 4 19.0 0.1 0.1 1.5 2.4 I 955 16.0 4951 0.9 - _.-. - - 25 21 _- - - - _. - _.23.0 427 5% 46 1.0 12 1.2 0.3 IO 64 36.7 0.3 3 0.0 1.8 1.2 19.4 751 4863 13.0 0.8 2 - - -. - - 62 73 - -. 1.1 - - 16.5 s 903 22.5 4254 0.7 - - -- - -. I60 20 - - - - - - -. I W 4 6655 23.0 - .--..- -- 7 141 - -. 0.1 - - 10.0 1 481 22.0 12219
I 542 9.0
14 0.1

26.3 151 3

821 2 5 . 0

3911 4728 4918

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.1


0.8 0.8

61 11350 80 17184 10.4 62 21663 14.7 119 21165 9.0 45 n 15355 10.0 18 2 8 2 2 0 13.0 5.0 80 18841 9.1 108 10707 9.8 114 28552 10.0 132 26228
"

9.6 9.0

1484

1353 2488
2051

37.20 45.w 1102 32.80 2313 51.10 1521 46.w 786 54.70
M.20

46.60

34.W

. .

.- 29880 15.0 61 13W

1484 1484 24651 I746

55.w

53.10

0.8
1.1

46.10

48

44

3 34.6 0.4 0.4 1.9

1.0

160

14.1

20 4 M 19962 71 1961 9.9 13.8 0.1

. . .

18011 2095 5 0 21580 66 1615 42.M 9.0 161 27390 m s 9.0 164 7968 3884 15.0 I24 6391 1440
120

12.5

46.70

59.80
30.10

31.40

50

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry o f Employment nnd lnveshnenr

"

TABLE 5-3 CJPW NORMS FOR MAP UNIT AVERAGE COMPOSITIONS


AVE AVF, AYE AVE AVE AVE Mapunit 1A 2C 2A2B 2AJW OXIOSS AS DEYERMND

__
AVE 10%

AVE

AVE

AVE

AVE

AVE

AVE

AVE

AVE

AVE
IOb

hvB
1%

W 2G

2E

3A 4

3B

AVE I1

S i 453.92 52.55 48.36 48.06 49.03 47.51 50.33 47.70 49.78 790.830.850.820.650.650.740.730.78 0.700.730.660.69 ?IO* 13.06 11.43 17.54 11.87 15.34 16.05 15.92 Alto, 18.45 17.36 17.39 16.76 15.71 12.51 16.59 13.04 15.99 13.17 13.73 2.33 2.35 2.32 2.15 2.15 %Os 2.24 2.23 2.28 11.23 2.20 2.23 2.16 3.062.994.906.528.227.186.294.54 5.606.878.516.92 -8.086.887.48 pso 0.200.190.220.190.190.210.220.21 0.200.170.190.19 Mno 5.244.784.293.812.264.684.779.255.02 7.709.55 M g7.47 o 5.62 8.05 11.23 10.52 8.77 5.66 6.97 5.48 9.26 8.08 7.67 7.05 5.76 10.29 7.42 7.33 10.41 8.64 G O 8.92 209 254 3.33 2.97 4.02 Ne9 2.61 1.71 2.07 255 2.09 KP P9, 0.34 0.34 0.31 0.57 0.47 1.81 032 0.30 0.22 0.64 co, 3.24 Lo1 5.28 3.43 3.W 295 T & 9.89 98.70 98.71 98.88 99.43
OXIDESREC~VOLATILEFREE 49.92 33.08 5259 54.52 51.29 49.59 50.83 49.68 Si4

~0.82 48.55 45.54 58.59 51.23 57.01 51.00 48.93 48.80


1.01

0.41 I91

1.11

2.04 354

229

2.34

251

2.61

0.11 0.170.160.19

2.78 1.85 0.39 0.02 284 9 9 . 7 7

4.09 3.40 053 0.24 4.66 98.91

3.72 2.27 0.35


0.04

5.09 3.44 0.34


0.99

4.65 2.97 0.40 0.07


3.04

3.14 3.61 0.30


0.W

245 98.79

332 w.06

3.37 99.75 1w.18

4.42 2.17 0.48 0.16 351 99.87

3.01 2.60 0.37 0.23 1.78 99.08

4.41 1.29 0.18 0.66 298 99.20

2.85 4.31 0.78 753 8.74 98.80

9 9 . 2 3

4.W 2.30 0.18 1.77 424

2.63 0.96 0.89 5.60


8 . 9 4

97.75

2.91 0.77 033 1.71 1.88 98.85

56.29 56.88 59.25 52.40 50.78 50.42 52.56 61.a 50.07 51.28 79 0.76 0.81 0.73 0.76 0.69 0.69 EO, 13.47 12.87 18.47 13.18 15.94 16.50 16.53 19.06 A 17.93 18.16 I S 17.40 16.67 , 12.92 17.21 13.65 16.70 13.84 13.78 2.302.36 %O, 2.302.332.27 11.24 3.652.942.012.792.432.352.422.43 238 2.402.252.23 8.78 7.17 8.447.197.84 730 4.755.81 650 8.51 7.41 6.593.22 853 3.325.096.71 pso 4 0.18 0.21 0.19 0.23 0.20 0.20 0.23 0.22 0.22 Mno 0.21 0.18 0.20 0.19 5.19 957 7.805.878.07 954 4.86 5.06 394 238 5.394.964.43 451 1.21 6.03 998 8.69 Ma0 8.387.927.286.037.737.80 10.73 8.41 11.78 10.55 9.20 9.88 952 5.96 7.74 5.69 G8.89 O 10.75 3.10 4.35 4.81 4.21 Na,O 2.09 2.67 3.47 4.18 2.86 3.85 5.31 3.25 458 3.09 4S8 3.16 2.96 3.W 1.72 2.16 2.74 2.64 1.92 3.60 2.36 3.64 3.08 2.26 2.67 4.79 242 1.08 2.19 3.73 1.35 0.79 KP 0.60 0.56 Pa< 0.35 0.36 0.33 0.49 0.40 0.37 0.35 0.42 0.31 050 0.38 0.87 0.19 1.W 0.34 0.19 .. Tanl lW.W 1W.W 1W.W 1 W . W 1W.W lW.W lW.W 1W.W 1W.W 1W.W lW.W 1W.W 1W.W lW.W 1W.W 1W.W 1W.W l W . W cipw NORM VOIATILE FREE 0.48 1.50 12.99 0.W O W 0.W 0.99 8.06 0.00 0.W Q 0.19 O W 0.74 0.W 0.W 0.W 0.00 0.37 10.15 12.97 12.78 15.78 15.63 11.32 21.26 13.93 21.29 18.20 2 4.69 n 2 . W 13.33 15.76 7.92 28.28 14.31 6.39 ab 15.73 16.41 27.49 15.10 23.89 14.74 21.74 32.55 39.50 27.85 20.7s 26.98 23.11 38.73 26.n 35.62 25.05 25.38 a0 7.64 24.35 18.64 m 23.12 19.29 23.61 15.21 m.42 16.75 15.38 23.25 15.10 18.43 26.45 17.90 23.29 19.00 . 9 4 1.07 1.03 6.05 5.14 8.13 2.91 6.78 6.38 1.64 0.03 3.92 115 3.36 619 0.W 0.W 0.W 0.W 0.00 s + 0.W 0.00 0.00 0.W 0.W 0.W 0.W 0.W 0.27 0.00 0.W 0.00 0.W 0.W 0.00 0.W 0.00 0.W di 13.m 29.89 21.91 n.92 16.83 n.53 10.37 16.15 10.35 12.35 3.32 19.05 18.12 8.94 16.93 17.51 650 19.82 0.W 0.00 k 0.00 0.W 0.33 0.00 0.W 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.W 0.00 0.W 0.W 0.00 0.00 0.W 0.W 11.83 7.97 0.00 5.72 0.W 11.69 1.57 1.31 5.53 14.24 5.27 17.52 16.73 0.20 0.W 0.W 0.W 7.84 hY 01 13.16 11.13 2.51 3.92 8.42 12.58 12.23 6.37 0.03 0.00 0.W 4.41 4.07 9.85 12.47 7.76 13.53 IO.% 3.18 3.33 3.34 3.45 3.35 3.41 2.92 329 3.38 3.43 3.24 3.26 426 5.29 ml 3.52 3.50 3.52 4.04 1.31 1.30 1.61 1.54 0.82 il 1.31 1.45 1.39 1.54 1.44 150 1.63 2.13 1.29 1.67 1.65 2.37 4.W 0.81 0.76 1.40 0.93 1.32 0.82 0.97 0.44 2.02 0.89 234 0.79 0.84 1.13 0.85 0.73 1.15 0.43 ap 31.92 41.61 58.15 40.85 5106 32.29 22.19 40.60 42.67 45.21 AN= 46.59 58.13 61.92 54.69 42.23 41.77 53.71 49.22

~~

~CIPWnanrcalculll~b~GSBprogmmfDonM~~l~~~199292) ~ ~ A v r m g r r ( A V E l c a k ~ ~ ~ d f ~ r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ p l u r 2 9 ~ y l . l y r u o ,1987 funalAfmmBlwdgood ***Fep, w k ~ f x u n h l A = F c > O , Total

.-

. -

differentiation index @.I.) of Thomton and Tuttle (1960) and we continue its use in this report. The differentiation index is expressed as: D.I. =normative Q + Or + Ab +Ne + Ks + L C .Major oxide trends(Figure 5-1) show the least differentiated rocks are basalts of the oldest and youngest basalt units units la and 11. The main arc basalts, unit 2, show progressive evolution and increasingdifferentiation in magmas from earliest to the latest subunits 2a to 2g; the subaerial basalts of unit 4 and the coeval intrusive suite of diorite to syenite are similar. The most differentiatedrocks are those of units 3, the younger quartz-bearing intrusions The differenof unit 8 and the Eocene volcanics of unit 10. tiation trends of the major oxidesare normal andconsistent with fractional crystallization. Increases in differentiation index are largely due to increases in KzO, NazO and a decrease in CaO (with attendant decreases in FeO* and MgO). Potassium showsconsiderablevariation, especially in the more felsic rocks. Silica, titanium and phosphorus

have little variation. The sole exception to simple, wntinuons trends is alumina which appears to have .a bimodal distribution. The two populations show little variation :From concentrations either around 13%or 16to 17%. The larger amounts of alumina are present in units la, 7 and the more differentiated subunits of unit 2 compared to m k s of units 2a. 2b, 2d, 10 and 11. The rocks with the greatcr alumina content tend to contain larger amounts of modal plagioclase and hornblende in addition to ubiquitous pyroxme. These chemical differencesare evident in terms of silica saturation as indicated by calculated norm compositions, discused below. Minor element concentrations plotted againr.t differentiation index (Figure5-2)show similardistinctionsbetween the map units. Similarbehaviour is shown by barium, nlbidium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium which rise in more differentiated rocks, andchromium together withnickel which decrease. Vanadium has two concentration levels

Buiierin 97

5I

British CoIumbia

15

5
4
10
3

2
1

4
3

5
03

2
1
0

CaO

2 . :
2

T i 0 9 L

10

1.f
1

.5

5
18

0 . 7 .6

16
14

. 5
.4 . 3 -

12 10 20

. 2
010b
J

08
J

.1
40

30

50

60

70

OL

20

30

40

50

60

70

Dl

Dl

Figure 5-1. Differentiation index @.I.) of Thornton and Tuttle (1960) with D.I. = nonnative Q+Or+Ab+Ne+Ks+Lc plotted against Quesnel mapunit average major oxide values.

52

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry of Employment and Investment "

26
30

03a

2100 1600 -

3a

25

I100 600
70
-

4 *2e

3,3$,3b

20

*2b ? C o b $ $ *la 026 29


011

100 -

-Rb
-

07 o2b
02c *4

60 50 30 20 10 0 1000
40

d e 3

010

15 *2a/2d 10

2e *2b *2d

04

3,3a,3t
30C

'29

*la

*2d *2a

%a

"I
O3

*lob
011

*2a/Zd 08

2oc
1oc

011

2c

*8

*3a,,10

3,3&3b

Sr

*lob

*2c o2b

.la

*4
03

010

125
100 75

800

*2a

50 25

I
Cr

160 140 120 100

zr

'lob
3a
*I1
2S.8

YO

.2d

600
*lob

03 *2e
02d 2g*2a/2d 2a. 02b *7 04

400

80

20

3,3a,3b
200

60 40-

1 . a

30

40

50

70 60

20

30

40

50

60

70

D l

D l

figure 5-2. Differentiation index (DL)of Thornton and Tuttle (1960) with D.I. = nonnative Q+Or+Ab+Ne+Ks+Lc plotted against Quesnel Mapunit average minor element values.

Bulletin 97

53

BrifishColumbia

Map Units

Si02 %

_I

Figure 5-3.AFM diagram showing fields for Quesnel units la, 2 and3.BasaltsoftheQuesnelislandan;necalcalkaline.Theoldest hasalts of unit la appear to be transitionalfromtholeiitic (subalkaline)to calcalkaline. Boundariesanddifferentiationtrends me from b i n e and Baragar (1971). either 150 ppm or around 275 ppm. Differences between map units are recognizableaccording to their minor element abundances.ThemainarcbasaIticunits2,3and4aresimilar but their minor element concentrations are distinct from those of units la, 10 and 11. The oldest basalts of unit la Ne Ab Q contain the smallestamounts of most minor elements except L Figure 54. Normative coipositi&, CIPWno&forall i k y n for yttrium and nickel which have relatively high concen- Quesnel samples.A. - Composition of basalts on alkali-silica plot trations. The Eocene biotite-bearing flows of.unit 10 are with i d d i norm compositions of Cox ef a!. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Quesnel markedly enriched in barium, strontium, rubidium, zircorocks are dominantly silica undersaturated with normative OI+Ne. B. - Normative Ne-Ol-Q indicatingpredominantlyalkaline nium, chromium and nickel. The Miocene plateau basalts are depleted in barium, strontium, rubidium and vanadium compositions for Quesnel basalts. but are enriched in yttrium, zirconium and nickel. A vast majority of the rocks are silica undersaturated, 60 of The AFM diagram (Figure 5-3)shows some separation the 84 rock analyses provide normativeolivineand of fields for volcanic rocks of the major map units la, 2 and nepheline. Of the remainder, five are silica saturated with 3.Allrocksinunit3andmostinunit2arecalkalkalinerather normative hypersthene and olivine and the remaining five than tholeiitic in character; rocks of unit 4 overlap these samples are silica oversaturated with normativequartz and fields andare not shown in the figure. The compositions of hypersthene. The undersaturatedrocks contain up to 14.7% the volcanic rocks shown on Figure 5-3are minunicked by normative nepheline and as much as 18% olivine; three of the data of Bailey (1978) and Morton (1976) from similar thesamples haveasmall amount of normativeleucite.These rocks in the study area but their data are not shown onthe basaltic rocks are alkali basalts in the sense of Yoder and figure. Rocks of unit l a appear to be transitional tholeiitic Tilley (1962). The ten alkalic intrusive rocks analyzed are rocks that follow a primitive Hawaiian basalt fractionation evenly divided between silica undersaturatedand (slightly) trend. Some of the magnesium and iron these in rocks might silica-saturated rocks.The Eocene volcanic rocks are silica have increased due to metasomatism associated with chloover-saturated according to their norms, as would be exrite alteration (Bloodgood, 1987). Overall, the distinction pected for these quartz-bearing rocks. The Miocene tholeibetween unit la and the other arc rocks shown in the AFM itic basaltic rocks are silica saturated and have normative diagram and in other discriminant plots (see discussion hypersthene andolivine. The relationships showing alkalibelow) seems fundamentally valid. The sample of Miocene silica ratios of the analyzed sample suite compared with plateau basaltis the other lava type that falls in the tholeiitic predicted, ideal normative character and degree of silica field. saturation are shown on Figure 54a. A plot of normative Ne-Ol-Qplaces the majority of Quesnel arc volcanic and CIPW NORMS intrusive rocks in thealkaline field (see Figure 54b). Only Calculated CIPW norms for typical rocks, as indicated a few samples from units 1 and 2g fall in the subalkaline by map unit average values, are shown in Table 5-3 and field; it is occupied bythe rocks of unit la and the younger norms for all the analyzed rocks are listed in Appendix M. rocks of units 8,lO and 11.

54

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry of Employment anrilnvesheni

The oxidation state of iron in the analyzed rocks and used in the normative calculationswas assigned a standard A oxidation state using the convention of Irvine and Baragar (1971).Accordingtotheirconventiontheironreportdfrom the laboratory as Fez03 (FeO* or Fe@) was consideredto 0, m be approximately Fez03 = Ti02 + 1.5 with FeO* = FeO + z + Fe2O3* 0.8998 and Fez03* = Fez03 + FeO* 1.11 135. The convention used resulted in an overall FezOdFeO for the data set of about 0.31. This is fairly close to the empirical value of about 0.39 determined by Morton (1976) and the 0.35 value used universally by Bailey (1978). The value used appears to be appropriate or still possibly slightly too I oxidized, based on the distribution of compositions in the I ideal normative alkali-silica saturationfigure (Figure 4). A less oxidized value would make the sample suite appear even moresilica undersaturated. Femclferrous ratios determined in this study from twelve analysesof typical Quesnel arc rocks (Appendix N) indicate a greater degree of oxidation thanthe calculated values used and those of Morton and Bailey. The measuredFezOfleO is approximately 0.8 for the Triassic-Jurassic volcanic and intrusive rocks of the Quesnel belt.This highly oxidized assemblage is thought to of rocks in the volanic represent post-depositional oxidation belt.

I *I
3
4-

2e

40

50

60

Figure 5-5. Classification of Quesnel basaIts on the basis,of total alkalis, potassium and silica contents. A.- Total alkali-silica (TAS) plot with boundaryofIrvineandBaragar (1971) showing predominanceofalkaliccompositions.Fieldsencompassall Alkalinerocks may be defined @%t on and Upton, 1987, analysesfromunitsla,2and3:unit4analysesareco11tainetiwi~n page ix)as those with higher concentrations of alkalis than thefieldforunit 2. B. Potassicalkalicrockclassificationof can beaccommodated by feldsparalone.Theexcessis taken Peccerillo and Taylor(1976) showing dominant shashonik series affiliationof Qnesnel arc basalts. Map-unit averagevaluesplotted; up in felspathoids, sodic pyroxene, sodic amphibole and fields encompassing all analyses from units 2 and 3 are shown. other alkali-rich phases. The rocks are undersaturated in silica and alumina with respect to alkalis and will have nepheline andor acmite (or leucite) in their norms. More commonly, alkaline rocks are defined simply in terms of theiralkali and silica content. The analcite-bearing, nepheline-normative basaltic arc rocks of the central Quesne1 belt qualify according to both of these criteria. Total alkalis-silica diagrams (TAS), one of the simplest yet most effective indicators of chemical associations and the basis for a number of classifications, showall data and unit average values on Figure 5-5. The compositions reveal a pronounced alkaline character with the exceptionof unit la and the plateau basalt of unit 11 which are subalkaline. According to the TAS diagram and classifications of Zanet-

ALKALINITY ALKALIC BASALTS AND SHOSHOMTES - TERMINOLOGY FOR QUESNEL ARC ROCKS

tin(1984)andLaBasetnl.(1986)theQuesnelbasalticrocks
are mainlybasalt, basaltic trachyandesiteandtrachyandesite. Lass commonlypresent are themore basic and alkali-enriched variants. They range in composition from picrobasalt to basaltic andesite and basalt trachyandesite or include tephrite (normative olivine percent) and basanite (normative olivine 10%) and their more differentiated types - phonotephriteand tephriphonolite. Alternatively,accord- Figure5-6.NormativeAb-An-OrpIotforQuesnelrraparearocks; ing to the classification of Cox er nl. (1979) the (alkaline) Ab = Ab+5BNe. According to this plot, Quesnel racks are evenly basaltic volcanic rocks,if considerednormal, that is, nonand potassic suites. divided between sodic

Bulletin 97

55

British Columbia

potassic rocks, are a suite of basalt-hawaiite-mugearite to trachybasalt, with lesser trachyandesite, benmoriteand phonolitic tephrite (Figure 5-5). However, the rocks fall in the field of potassic alkaliie rocks according to a number of conventional discriminationdiagrams suchas the Ab-AnOr (Figure 5-6) and KzO/NazO versus Si& (Figure 5-8). Therefore the classificationand terminology using schemes f aalkalicpotassicrocks areappropriate as discussedbelow. The basaltic rocks have a relatively high content of (most) are clearly alkaline or alkaalkali metal oxides and lic, silica-undersaturated rocks of mafic composition. The younger, analcite-bearing rocks of unit 4 and some ofthe unit 2 and 3 subunits are strongly sodium-enriched compared to the other basaltic units. The overall potassium to sodium ratio reveals that the rocks are more sodic than potassic. Nevertheless they lie in the potassic field on normative Ab-An-Or plots as shown by Bailey (1976) and this study (Figure 5-6). A similar alkaline potassic designation is given the sample suite according to the alkali ratio classification scheme of de Rosen-Spence (1992). If the KzO versus Si02 variation diagram for potassic rocks of Peccerillo and Taylor (1976) is used, the Quesnel arc volcanics are part ofthe shoshonite series, (see Figure 5-5b). The term shoshonite originates from rock types referred to by Iddings (1895) as the absarokiwshoshonite-bare-established and nakite series. Theterminologywas redefined by Joplin (1968, and references therein) as the shoshonite magma series and later as the shoshonite association. The shoshoniteassociationconsists of assemblages of alkaline rocks of maficto intermediatea s p e c t . Chemical characteristics of the shoshonitic association according to Momson (1980) with modifications by Mutschler e? al. (1987).GillandWhelan(1989),Rickwood(1989)and Mutschler and Mooney (1993) are: basaltic members are nearly silica saturated and can contain up to 5% normative quartz or nepheline high total alkalis (NazO + KzO), generally >5%;

high potassium with 1.8% KzO at 50% Si& and 2.5% K20 at 53% SiOz and KzOiNazO values >0.6% at 50% Si02 and >1.0 at 55% Si02 * steep positive slope on KzO versus Si& at 4 7 % Si02 but zero or negative slope at 57%SiOz high but variable&03, commonly 14 t o 19 % low iron enrichment (flat trend on A M ) low Ti02 ( 4 . 3 %, commonly 4 . 0 %) * high FezOJFeO (>OS) * enrichment in Ba, Sr, Rb, Pb, light rare-earth elements (LRJZE), in accord with high potassium; also commonly high copper, platinum group elements, phosphorusand,locally,carbondioxide and fluorine. Under the shoshoniteseries classification,the rocks of units 2 and 4 are mainly absarokites and those of unit 3 are absarokite to shoshonite. The rocks of units la, and the Tertiary units IO and 11 are calcalkaline to high-potassium calcalkalineseries(Figure 5-Sb). The similar schemeof Gill (1981) utilized by Gill and Whelan (1989) provides further subdivisionsinto medium and high-potassiumcalcalkaline (MK and HK CA) and low, medium and high-potassium shoshonite fields (LK, MK and HK Sh; see Figure 5-7). A further distinction can be made within the shoshonite suite on the basis of potassium and sodium contents; the most basic alkaline rocks with elevated sodium content in the Quesnel arc (Figure 5-8) can be referred to as tristanites according to de Rosen-Spence (1992).

1.4

*ma

Shoshonite

50

60

70

Si02 (%)

imre 5-8. Alkaline sodic and alkaline wtassic suites, diagram o deRosen-Spence (1992). Field of aikalinepotassic &ks of e i s I a n i t e association ofGongh Island, Tristan da Cunha shaded I. Figure 5-7. KzO versus Si& plots of Gill (1981). Quesnel basal& Shoshoniticsuiteshave laq& K20/Na20 and commonly plot H =high, M range from calcalkaline to shoshonitic compositions. outside this diagram. Quesnel map unit average values are shown; = medium, L = low, K = potassium, Sh = shoshonite and CA = of the alkaline potassic the rocks are relatively sodium-rich basalts calcalkaline. association.

56

Geological Survey Branch

Minisrry ojEmpbyment and Investment

Figure 5-11. Tfi minor element discrimination plot for various tectonic settings after Pearceand Cann (1973). Quesnel map unit average values plotted.

MnO 10
CAE = Calcalkaline basalt

P,O,
OIA = Ocean-island andesite IAT = Island arc tholeiite MOR6 = mid-ocean-ridge basalt O i l = ocean-island tholeiite

10

Figure 5-9. Ternary plot of minor oxide anaIyses with fields for various tectonic settings after Mullen (1983). Quesnel map-m lit I average values plotted, shaded field shows spread for all analyvX samples.

A
Z r
D WPB = within-plate basalt B: OFB = ocean-floor basalt A, B: LKT = low-ptassium tholeiite B, C CAB = calcalkaline basalt
Figure 5-10. Ternary minor element tectonic discrimination plot after Pearce and Cann (1973). Quesnel map unit avaerage values p l o w shaded area shows spread for all analyzed samples.

Ti/ 100

I Figure 5-12. V/% minor element discrimination plotof Shervais (1982). Datafor all analyzed Quesnel samples.

Y*3

Figure 5-13. Comparison of some minor element contents of QuesnelandequivalentNicolaGroupbasalts;figurerdifeifrom Monimer (1987). Quesnelmapunit average values plotted.

Bulkfin 97

57

British Columbia

MULTI-ELEMENT VARIATION AND MINOR ELEMENT DISCRIMINATION DIAGRAMS


Multi-element discrimination diagrams pioneered by Pearce and Cann (1973). Miyashro (1975). Floyd and Winchester (1975), Pearce (1982) and others, are commonly used to identify the tectonic setting or interpret the origin of basaltic magma. More importantly,minorelement diagrams, especially plots of elemental ratios and normalized multi-elementplots(Pearce,1983,HawkesworthandNorry, 1983) can provide an effective basis for comparison between similar rock suites. These plots can show significant contrasts not always evident from major oxide and other

analyses. The application, use effectiveness and of discrimination diagrams has been reviewed extensively by Erdman
(1985).

Unit 2

SaRbTh

U K NbLaCsSrNdSmZrWliEu Tb Y Yb Lu

In this study, geological mapping of the Quesnel volcanic rocks bas led us, and others before us, to the interpretation that they were deposited in a (calc)alkaline volcanic island a r c .It is, therefore, reassuring that at least some of thediscriminationdiagramssupportthisconc1usion.Aproblem frequently encountered is that the use of the minor element discriminant diagrams requires analyticalaccuracy and detection limits that are simply not provided by commercially available, large-volume standard analyticalfacilities. A numberof the effective diagrams are illustrated on Figures 5-9 to 5-16 as examples. The mostreliable data are from the suite of immobile minor elements - titanium, yttrium, zirconium, as well as vanadium, and the minor element oxides MnO, T i & and P2os. Plots (Figures 5-9 to 5-12) clustering of the Quesnel basalts into fields for calcalkalinearc rocks; the transitional tholeiites of unit l a in many cases can be distinguished as their analysesplot outside the main basalt unit clusters. The Eocene and Miocene volcanics generally fall in fields separate from theother rocks and are distinct. Comparison of the minor element contents of basalts with studies by Mortimer(1987) of the similar Nicola rocks from southern British Columbia reveals a similarity between the Quesnel basaltic units and the high-potassium calcalkaline to shoshonitic rocks of his map unit 1 (Figure 5-13). Quesnel basalts have barium and vanadium contents that are distinct from calcalkalinerocks and are intermediate between the subalkaliie low to medium-potassium rocks and the enriched shoshonites of the Nicola Group. All the Quesnel basalts and Nicola unit 1 rocks appear to be d e pletedinniobiumcompared to Hawaiian lavas and

Figure 5-14. Chondrite-normapzed extended minor element plot (bulk earth n o m W diagram or 'BEND' plot ofErdman, 1985). Ranges of values for basalt units 2a to 2eare shown as 'unit2' in the shaded a r e a .

1000

r " -

10 -

L Figure
58

Figure 5-16. MORB-normalized trace element plots of island an' and other typical suites of the shoshonitic association after Sloman arc basalts. Rangeand median values :h-potassium calcalkaline and shoshonitic lavas from southern (1989) compared to Quesnel hi] units 2a to 2e are shown. for Quesnel basalts of Itady compared to Quesnel basalts, after Ellam et al. (1989).
I

5-15. Chondrite-normalized minor element plot for

Geological Survey

Ministry o f Employment and lnvesnnent


~ ~~~

mineralogically by the presenceofmodalhc.rnble:nde, shoshonites from the Gough Islands. A number ofsimilar greater than average amounts of plagioclase are and characbivariant plots with various combinations of barium, chroterized chemically by normative hypersthene and quartz. mium, zirconium, vanadium, yttrium andPzOs were used The silica content io these rocks is close to saturatationand by MorIimerto produce the same subdivision the of Nicola typical norm compositions have around IO% olivine with rocks as the niobium-barium ratio and BaPzOs diagrams only a little quartz or nepheline. The oldest parts of the arc, shown on Figure 5-13. representedby the transitional subalkaline (thcdeiitic:) to The alkaline nature and shoshonitic association of Quesnel basalts are possibly best demonstrated by extendedcalcalkalinerocks ofunit la. The silica-saturatedrock!; are interspersed with undersaturated rocks in the upper parts of rare earth diagrams, or spidergrams. These utilize midunit 2 and ultimately are overlain by analcite-karing; baocean-ridge basalt (MORB) and mantle or chondrite-nora sequence from malized multi-element analyses as describedby Pearce salts. Possibly the volcanic belt represents tholeiitic-like basaltsthrough toalkalic basalts (units laand (1983) and discussed by Rock (1987). The alkalic rocks are 2) and then a second sequence (units 3 and 4).repatin;: the strongly enrichedin the incompatible or large-ion lithophile first but under more hydrous conditions. elements (LILE) and slightlyelevatedin the light rare-earth elements W E ) compared to the high field-strength eleThe basaltic rocks are enriched in both potassium and ments (HFSE). The slope and pattern of the chondrite-nor- sodium but the abundance ofsodium generally exceeds that malized orbulk-earthnormalized diagram (the BEND plot of potassium. Sodium-rich compositions are indi1:ated minofErdman,1985,shownonFigure5-14)showstheexpected eralogically by the presence of modal analcite. Chemical alkalic pattern for the Quesnel arc basalts. It contrasts with compositions plotted on various major oxide variation diathe classical concave-upward curve of the within-plate ba- grams and minor element discrimination plots c11:arly show salt (WPB) pattern for plateau basalt of unit l l and the the high-potassiumcalcalkalineto strongly alkaline, potasreference curves for N-MORB and EMORB. sic character of the rocks in units 2, 3 and 4:the main volcanic arc constituents. Exceptions are the oldest volcanic A comparison of chemical compositions can be made with subductionzone, mantle-source alkalic mafic magmas deposits of unit la; these rocks are primitive Hawaiian-type lavas transitional between tholeiite and calcalkalinec o m p of southern Italy which have typical enrichment of LILE in a mar:ginal sitions. They are interpreted to have originated over REE with negative nobium anomalies (Ellam er al. basin or back-arc setting at the onset of (early) continent1989), as portrayed on Figure 5-15. The Quesnel rockson margin rifting (Bloodgood, 1987). The analyse!: from this this diagram occupy positions intermediate between the map unit show large a amount of scatter on various chemical mafic members of low to high-potassium calcalkalineEtna to have undergone some nagnesium and Salina lavas and the low to high-potassium calcalkaline plots. The rocks appear to potassic (shoshonitic association) lava of Stromboli and metasomatism that is indicated by an abundance of magnesian chlorite. Volcano. A comparison using MOB-normalized extended eleClassification of rocks in the upper part of the Quasnel arc as shoshonites or part of a shoshonitesuite is :kgeIy,but ment plots provides similar diagrams as the chondrite-normalized data. Data from typical shoshonite suites from the not totally, compatible with the original definitions, and AbsarokaMountains,Fiji,Aeolian Islands, PapuaNew usage ofthe term shoshonite associationbyJoplin (1968). Guinea and Italian Dolomites are all associated with deShoshonite terminologyis permissible underthe expanded structive plate margins (Sloman, 1989) and are shown on and less restrictive, widely applied recent usage c.fMorrison Figure 5-16 alongside Quesnel data. The similarity in pat- (1980).MutschlerandMooney (1993) and cthen. The terns and element concentrationsbetween the basalts from Quesnel volcanics comply in most aspects with these more the various shoshonitesuites shown and liberal classification requirements for the use of the term the Quesnel basalts of unit 2 is striking. Quesnelrocks in units 3 and 4 display shoshonite. Themain differences betweenQuesnel arc similar patterns but there is insufficient data to adequately shoshonites and those from elsewhere are that tl~e Quesnel detail their element distributions. rocks have sodium in excess of potassium andare strongly undersaturated with respect to silica, rather thm clcse to silica saturation. DISCUSSION Our preference, at least for field usage, is to usedescripThe magmatic rocks of the Mesozoic Quesnel volcanic tive names and mineralogical modifiers, for example, analbelt, at least the major elements of the volcanic arc,are an cite-bearing pyroxene basalt or pyroxene amphibole assemblage of predominantly alkalic olivine basalt, alkalic trachyandesite, feldspar-phyric amphibole pyroxene basalt, basalt to trachyandesite and genetically related intrusions. and so forth. Simple petrochemical terminology would apThe rocks are characterized by silica-undersaturated, ply the TAS classification based on major oxid,: analysis nepheline and olivine normative mafic compositions; they basalt, trachybasalt, basalt trachyandesite, trachyandesite with unusual compositional variants picrobasalc or ba,saltic contain, on average, 3 to 14% normativeolivine and up to andesite and tephrite, basanite andphonotephriteand almost 15% normative nepheline.The lower to lower-middle part of Ihe stratigraphy is characterized by silica-satutephriphonolite. Use of the more restrictive and specific class or series terms shoshonite. shoshoniie suite or rated or nearly saturated rocks. Theyare recognized

Bulletin 97

59

British Columbia

shoshoniteassociationwouldrequiretheutilizationofother and rocks of the Roman region and Sunda-Banda arc, as petrochemical data such as rare earth and other minor elereviewed by Nelson andBellefontaine (1996), where manment discrimination plots, studies or ferroudfemc ratios, tle-source alkaline lava results from a continental crust and so forth. Classificationof the rocks as shoshonites draws contribution, similar to the shoshonites of the western attention to the petrologic affiliation of the Quesnel arc United States of America. rocks with similar alkaline rocks in destructiveplate boundShoshonites commonly postdate the cessation of subary subduction zone settings elsewhere around the world, duction. One of the main settings is the late stages of arc notably the young volcanic island arcs of the southwest evolution near arc termini (Jakes and White, 1972). This Pacific. may be applicable for Mortimers unit 1 rocks in Nicola Alkali basalts of the shosonitic association in the Quesvolcanics to the south where one of the three volcanic units to Quesnelwhere ne1 belt are volcanic products of subduction-related island is shoshonitic,butnotapplicable shoshonites are present througout the entire volcanic sucarc magmatism. These relativelyrare arc rocks in this concession. Similarly,arcreversalsorflippingoverofsubducvergent plate margin setting, compared to commonly pretion direction with alkalic rocks (and copper-gold deposits), sent calcalkaline suites, are characterized by the abundance of potassium, barium, strontium, rubidium and P2O5, and as discussed by Solomon (1990) and espoused by Spence there the lack of enrichment in notably niobium, zirconium and (l985), are not applicable to the Quesnel belt because titanium as well as yttrium, ytterbium andother high field- is no mapping evidence for any changes in polarity of the arc with time. Arc rifting along deep-seated crustal-scale strength elements. The magma generation in this type of oceanic island arc setting is evidently a result of melting of structures as in Fiji (Gill and Whelan, 1989), and possibly alongtransforms,might be an applicable mechanism if the asthenosphere in the deepest parts of the subducted slab modem examplesof lineaments and segmentation southin above deep Wadati-Benioff subduction zones. Alkalic magwest Pacific arcs are considered.This type of tectonic setting matism is probably the result of combined petrogenetic involvingtransform-related extension duringtranscurent processes including source enrichment from the subducted faults has been proposed for the segmentation ofthe northslab, partial melting of a (? repeatedly) metasomatised, ern Quesnel Takla and fractional crysarc by Paterson (1977) to produce a series LILE-enriched, depleted mantle wedge of interconnectedvolcanic edifices with intervening basins. tallization. This type of magma genesis for alkalic rocks A similar tectonic setting with regional strike-slip faulting with nepheline normative, potassium and LILE-enriched basalts, including shoshonites, as slab melts of metasoma- and related Triassic alkalic magmatism is described in the Dolomitesofnorthem Italy bySloman(1989).but the tised mantle wedge-material is proposed by Bailey et 01. volcanism is not equivalent to that in the Quesnel belt due (1989) for rocks in the Kurile arc that are similar to the to the degree ofolder continental crust involvement. Quesnel belt volcanics. The magma generation in the Kuriles, and in other arcs, takes place in a tectonic regime In the Quesnel belt the alkalic basalts of shoshonitic that permits upwelling ofenriched lithosphere, probablyin association occur throughout the stratigraphicsuccessionof zones of localized rifting of ocean basin lithosphere that the volcanic a r c .The presence alkalic of rocks of shoshonite allows hybridized mantle uplift and decompression melting association is a widespread phenomenon throughout the to produce the distinctive alkalic magmas (Mclnnes and northern Nicola Groupvolcanics and is a product of longCameron, 1994). Comparable basic alkalic rocks in intralivedvolcanism(Norian to Sinemurian andpossibly oceanic arcs with similartectonicsettingsoccur in Fiji, Lihir Pliensbachian). The magma generation, therefore cannot and the Marianas. In contrast, other alkalic arcs, have difsimply be related to late or post-subduction, arc-reversal ferent compositions with low K/Na ratios and enrichment events associated with some type of LILE-enriched lithoin niobium and zirconium; these arcs may represent intrasphere upwelling during short-term extension (or transtenplate settings. sion). Thereis considerablesimilarity inthe tectonic setting Mixed source or process magmatism is evident and can with the active subduction-related alkalic submarine magmatismina350-kilometresegmentofthenorthernMarianas be intermittent and repetitive; shoshonites are commonly arc -a nascent shoshonitearc within alarger belt of low-pointerlayered with transitional (high-K to calcalkalic lavas). tassium basaltic magmas (Stem et al., 1988). Possibly the This is evidence for complicated tectonic regimes and a Quesnel arc-building shoshonitic magmatism represents a great diversity of petrogenetic processes. Assimilation of similar, subduction-related compressive volcanism that was sediment and continental lithosphere is a possibility in the reinitiated after earlier continental-margin back-arc rifting generation of some alkaline magma but thisis not evident producedenriched lithosphere alonga steeply dipping in the Quesnel island arc environment where low initial length of the convergent plate margin. strontium isotope values indicate primitive magma sources The shoshonitic volcanics of Quesnellia are a suite of without siginificant crustal contribution (Beddoe-Stevens and Lambert, 1981; Preto et al., 1979). Other mechanisms alkalic basic rocks relativelyrare worldwide, but they confor alkalic magma generation are arc-continent collision,as stitute a significant part of a 500-kilometre long beltthe in in the Papua New Guinea Highlands and Greece, again not eastern Intermontane region of the Cordillera. Analagous applicable in the case of the Quesnel arc. This contrast is alkalic rocks in island chains of roughly the same dimenalso evident for the Aeolian potassiclavas of southern Italy sions as the Quesnel belt occur in the Tabar-Lihir-Targa-Feni

60

Geoiogical Survey Branch

Ministry o f Employmenrrmd?nvesrmenf

1994; Brown e t aI., in as described by Mclnnis and Cameron (1994). The typical preparation). The relationship of these two similar arcs in silica-undersaturated rocks of high-potassium calcalkaline different terranes is discussed by Nelson and Mihalynuk magma series nepheline-normative magmatism (1993). Thealkalic arc volcanics are similar to ii number of are unusual other primitive intra-oceanicisland arcs with alkalic basalt for island arcs and are more characteristicof continentalrifts and andesite compositions but are chemically distinct from or intraplate hot spots. The Cordilleran alkalic arc rocks still other shoshonitic arcs built on continental basement or appear to be the products of a combination of complex tectonic eventsand magmatic processes, possibly indicatinginvolving continent-margininteractionsduring subduction. unusual chemical compositions the in mantle-wedge source In the Quesnel belt, as elswhere in shoshonilic terranes, region or subducting plate edge-effectsin a primitive ocethem is a persistent presence of economical1:y important anic arc setting. There are identical, time-equivalent rocks copper-gold and gold deposits (Muller and Groves, 1993; Mutschler and Mooney, 1993. in the adjoining terrane, Stikinia, in the so-called Stuhini
arc,Papua New Guinuea, and theadjoiuingNew Britain arc, volcanics (Logan and Koyanagi,

Bulletin 97

61

62

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry o f Employment a d Invesimenr

CHAPTER 6
REGIONAL DEFORMATIONAND FOLDING

STRUCTURE

Barkerville Terrane which is not part of Quesnellia. The first four phasesproduced coaxial foldswithnorthwesterly trending axes and variably dipping axial planes. These folds are overprinted by northeasterlystrikingfolds with vt:rtical The structuresof the central Quesnel belt were initially axial planes. McMullins phase one structures are present produced during accretion of Quesnellia arc rocks and the only in rocksof Barkerville Terraneand pxsibly the underlying Crooked amphibolite with rocks of the North Crooked amphibolite, the basal oceanic rock!; onwhich American continental prism. This event is interpreted by Quesnellia evolved. He considered that the oldest structures Nixoneral.(1993)tohavetakenplacefrom186to180Ma, the Toarcian epoch. Subsequent tectonic activity resulted in in Quesnellia formed during the second phase of regional a number of overlapping and dominating phases of defor- deformation, producing tight to isoclinal folds with a well mation accompanied by a metamorphic culmination that developed axial planar fabric. The attitudes of these folds followed tectonic crustal thickening. Folds are most evident are affected by later deformation, but generally fold axes in Quesnellia in both the thick sedimentary successions of trend to the northwest. Rees (1987) suggested that these unit 1 and the thin sedimentary units interbedded with the folds have northeasterly to easterly vergance. In Quesnellia basaltic volcanic rocks of unit 2. The volcanic rocks are and the Barkerville Terrane this second phase cf folding is extensively blockfaulted but the massive appearance of the synmetamorhphic in that metamorphic mineral growth is volcanic assemblages does not readily allow thedefinition synchronous with, o f the orslightly postdates, develoFment of folds and the resolution of fold patternswithin the axial planar foliation. volcanic units. The third phase of regional deformation recognized by McMullin, D2 in Quesnellia, generated upright to semi-reNumerous studies of structures andmetamorphism have been conducted inthe high-grade metamorphic rocks cumhant, westward-verging backfoldsthat he considered to he responsible for the major mapscale featuresin the area of the BarkervilleTerrane to the east of the Quesnel belt (see describedin this report. He states that fold axestrend discussion of previous work, Chapter 1). The structural relationships betweenQuesneland Barkerville terranes northwesterly and that axial planes generally dip steeply to have beendiscussed by Ross et al. (1985); Rees (1987) and the northeast. A second cleavage is a nonpene!mtive menuStruik(1988a).amongothers,andsummarized by lation that is indistinguishable from theolder cleavage. At McMullin (1990). Structures within Nicola rocks and the higher structural levels the rocks have either a crenulation structural development of Quesnellia have been the topics or spaced fracture cleavage. Some metamorplic mineral addressed by Carye (1985) and Bloodgood (1987c, 1990).growth is evident with this deformation but thf: events are generally postmetamorphic; metamorphic mineral isclgrads Previousworkers have identifiedfromtwo to five were foldedduring this deformation. Late defonnation with phases of folding and Elsby (1985) even suggested that normal faulting represents a sixth phase of regional defor- possibly two separate, possibly conjugate fold syste:ms, is described by McMullin. The late deformatio;l produced mation. In the eastern part of the Quesnel Terrane, Rees (1987) has described five deformational episodes which he relates to the development of the arc, its subsequent accreA. FIRST PHASE (F1) 8. SECONC.PHASE (F2) tion with cratonic North America and to later tectonism FOLDOEOMEFRY FOLD GEOMETRV o c k of the Omineca involving perictatonic and cratonic r belt as well as allocthonous Quesnellia. We have adopted Rees convention of describing the sequence of regional deformationalevents by the letter D, with Dl for the earliest to Ds for the latest event. In the specific areas of our study we use the term F, for example FI and Fz, to describe the C. GEOMETRY RESULTING FROM F2 OVERPRlNllNG F1 relative sequence of events recognized. Thus the earliest period of deformation we recognize in the Quesnel belt is designated F1, followed hyFz but this sequence can comespond to and begin with any of the regional events, most likely either D ; !or l % . The complicated and not altogether consistent scenario described by different investigatorshas beensummarizedbyMcMullin(1990)and is outlined

below.
McMullin considered that five phases of deformation can be recognized in the Quesnel Lake area, mainly in the wellstratifiedmetasedimentarysuccessions of the

Figure 6-1. Schematic illustration of the geometric relationships between FI and R folding. Recumbant first phase structures are overprinted by doubly plunging second phase fold sets. remlting in the developmentof relaying antiform-synformpairs.

Bulleiin 97

63

Brilish Columbia

open small-scale buckles and warps. In one system upright axial planes of folds with poorly developedfracture cleavage trend north or northwest. The youngestfold axes trend northeastward. The late deformation postdates peak metamorphism and some retrogressionis evident. Most investigators in the Quesnel Trough recognized two major, consecutive, and probably protracted phases of deformation (Rees, 1987; Bloodgood, 1987a; and Bailey, 1990). A schematic illustrationof the relationshipsbetween F1 and Fz is shown on Figure 6-1.A third postmetamorphic, late structural event is usually described or is implicit. The first deformation coincides with the tectonic emplacement of Quesnel Terrane onto Barkerville Terrane. Kinematic indicators from high-strain mnes and mylonites suggest northeastward or eastward sense of shear (Rees, 1987). The second deformation phase coupled Quesnellia and Barkerville terranes into large-scale, southwesterly verging subrecumbent folds that are outlined by the Z-shaped terrane boundary. Evidence for a late (third) phase of deformation is taken to be open folds or warps with no axial planar foliation. Structures related to the late events are subtle. Rees related northwest-trending warps to this event but McMullin describes late, north and northwest-trending structuresand Bailey documents northeasterly trendingfold axes. One area with good outcrop evidence for superimposed fold axes with divergent trends is available on the north bank of the Quesnel River near Likely. There ded sedimentary rocks of unit 5 exhibit interference struct u r e s resulting from the superimposition of northwesterly trending, moderately northwest-plunging, isoclinal folds on northeasterly trending open to tight folds with gently southwest-plunging minorfold axes.

FAULTING
Faulting of three types and discrete pericds is evident: thrust faulting that coincides with accretion outlines the major crustal structures and defines the terrane and major map unit boundaries; high-angle to listric normal faults that either follow the northwesterly trendo f stratigraphicunits or are transverse to them and strike easterlyto northeasterly; and late strike-slip movements along the western terrane boundary and related extensional faulting within the associated transtensional basins. The major, early low-angle thrust fault in the map area is the Eureka thrust, a boundary fault between the Crooked

detailed studies have been done.For example, during periods of low water flow in the Quesnel River near Likely, a flat-lying, sinous fault and 1-metre wide shear zone mark the contact between older hangingwall basaltic rocks of unit 2 and footwall sedimentary rocks of unit5. Also at the QR interpretationof deposit, 13kilometres northwest of Likely, drill core by Fox et al. (1986) proposes that one or more reverse fault structures such as Wally's fault are present They are cut by younger, steeply dipping normalfaults. Northeasterly and northwesterly-striking normal faults are rarely seen in outcrop but are interpreted from outcrop distribution and patterns of map units and their aeromagnetic expression. A case for early, east-side-down, normal fault structuresthat trend alongthe axis of the volcanic belt hasbeenmadebyBailey(1978).The faults outline the trends and form contacts of many of the volcanic units and appear to have controlled the distribution of eruptive centres. Reactivation ofthese high-angle extensional faults postdatesthrustingbut is no later than Cretaceous as granitic rocks of this age do not appear to be cut by them. A third set of faults is present as a number of major, strike-slip structures along the poorlyexposed terrane boundary of the western Quesnel belt with Cache Creek rocks. Namw belts of Middle Jurassic and youngerclastic fault zones. These faults are depositsare preserved along the part of the Pinchi and Fraser fault systems; a subsidiaryfault thin-bedsystem along the Quesnel River,its location only inferred, is informally named the Quesnel fault. A fault in the northcentral part of the map area,the Chiaz fault (Bailey, 1988a). forms an arcuate structure that extends to the north of the Quesnel fault. It is defined largely by aeromagnetic and induced polarization surveys. This fault has dextrally displaced Cretaceous granite by up to 4 kilometres and has a west-side-up throw of at least 5 kilometres. Extensional faulting in the Quesnel central volcanic belt during the mid-Tertiary is possibly also related to the large-scalestrikeslip faulting. The structural extension has produceda number of small, north to northwesterly trending grabens that are probably transtensional basins. They were sites of Eocene sedimentationand volcanism.

DETAILED STRUCTURAL STUDIES IN THE EUREKA PEAK AND SPANISH LAKE AREAS

Bloodgoodconductedanumberofstructurallyfocused, amphiboliteofQuesnelliaandtheunderlyingrocksofBark- detailed studies in the black phyllite succession of unit 1in erville Terrane . This and similar structures in Barkerville two regions within the map area near Eureka Peak and rockstothenortharethePundataandPleasantValleythrusts Spanish Lake (Bloodgood, 1987a. 1988.1990). She recognized overprintingrelationships of structural elements that indicate two distinct deformationalepisodesproduced folds within the rocks of the Quesnel Terrane. Her conclusions (Bloodgood, 1990, pages 15-27) are summarized below. First phase folds (F1) are tight to isoclinal, eastwardly verging structurescharacterized by apenetrativeslaty cleavage and mineral elongation lineation. In the Eureka Peak area, a structural transition is observed, characterized by

described by Struik (1983,1988b). Brown and Rees (1981) and Rees (1987) refer to the Eureka thrust as the Quesnel Lake shear mne. Struik (1988a) also suggests, on the basis of stratigraphic repetition,'that is evident from conodont studies, that one, and probably more, thrusts are internally present in the Quesnel basal sedimentary unit. In the volcanic map units low-angle faulting is difficult to document but evidencefor it is available in a number of places where

64

Geological Survey Branch

Ministv o f Employment and Inve:ifmenf

Figure 6-2. Schematic srmctural cross-sections - A . Spanish Lake and. B. Eureka Peak areas: locations indicated on Figure 2-3. Man units of Bloodgood (IsSOj in brackets.

tight to isoclinalfolding at lower shuctural levels, gradually becoming more open and uprightat higher structurallevels. No regional-scale FI structures wererecognizedinthe Eureka Peak area.This contrastswith the Spanish Lake area where vergence of F1 structuresindicates an FI nappe to the north of Spanish Lake (Figure 62). A nonpenetrativespaced cleavage is developed parallel to the axial plane of second phase(F2) folds. The F2 folds are manifest as doubly plunging, open and upright buckle folds which deform FI and fold the tectonic boundaryinto In the Spanish Lake the form of the Eureka Peak syncline. area,F2 folds commonly have a box-fold geometry and the axial planar cleavage is developedin a conjugate orientation.

PHASE I STRUCTURES

Phase one structures are a penetrative slaty cleavage (SI), the lineation defined by the intersection of bedding on the slaty cleavage (LI) and a mineral lineation. The slaty to phyllitic cleavage occurs as closely spaced planes that define a penetrative fabric. It is marked by a fine micaceous or graphitic parting in the metasediments and a chloritic parting in the volcanic rocks. The cleavage is axial planar to both mesoscopic and microscopic folds, strikes northPHASE 2 STRUCTURES westerly, and dips variably to the northeast and southwest. A planar parting defines the cleavage in the moresiliceous Phase two deformation @2 in Quesnellia, the regional or slaty sediments and a more closely spaced, anastamosing D3 of McMullin, 1990) established the regional map patmicaceous to graphitic foliation occurs in the tern. Structuresassociated with this deformation finer grained are a nonsediments. The penetrativecleavage is most strongly devel- penetrative,spaced or crenulationcleavageand bedding-cleavage or cleavage intersection line,ntions. All oped in argillaceous sediments and is poorly developed or absent in coarser grained rocks, notably the overlying meta-earlier structures, including the Eureka thrust, w'e refolded volcanic suite. but the distinction between the two phases is difficult to recognize unless unequivocaloverprintingrelationships of Intersection lineations defined by the intersection of bedding with one of the cleavage planes, and mineral elon- the essentially coaxialstructuresare evident. Thc structural gation intersections,plunge northwestor southeast at shalelements associated with F2 are nearly coplanarandcolinear with those of FI. As a result, the developmentof F2 low to moderate angles, parallel to mesoscopic fold axes. Mineral elongationlineationsare defined primarily by elon- mesoscopic folds is not always obvious. Evidence in outgate quartz grains and quartz rods. crop at lower structurallevels is the overprint tightening of FI folds with an increased ratio of amplitude to wavelength. A dark colorationalong cleavage planes outlinescleavage stripes. In thm section this striping appears to be due to As a result of similar orientation, the F1 structu~~s usually the concentration of insoluble material along the cleavage appear only slightly modifiedby Fz although ri?foldi:ngis planes,suggestive of extensive dissolution along the evident locally.

cleavage surface. The material remoblilized tly pressure solution processes may be present as the small quartz veins within hinges of folds andas quartz veinlets that are parallel and subparallelto bedding. In the Eureka Peak area, fvst phase slaty cleavage to shows a consistentvariation in orientation from the limb the hinge regions of the Eureka Peak syncline:. At ]lower structural levels and on the limb of the syncline,:?I folds are tighttoisoclinal.The axial plane cleavage i!; genrly to moderately inclined to the northwest. In contrast, at higher structural levels within the volcanic succession.. and i.n the hinge regions of the syncline, SI is more steeply inclined and folds are open and upright. The change in orientation of the cleavage, and the transition in fold style is a consequence of greater flattening strains along the limb of the syncline and the distance away from the volcanic-sediinentary lithologic contact. The deformation is most intmse in the phyllites which have accomodateda greater propofion of the strain than the more competent volcanics.All FI folds are easterly verging, outcrop-scale structures ,withmaximumobservedlimblengthsofabout10metres;noregionalscale structures are recognized. Thestructures all s h w the effects of subsequent deformation. The slaty cleavage is deformed andcut by a spacedor crenulation cleavage (S2) and mineral lineations are commonly bentarounc:theEz fold hinges. In the Spanish Lake area, fine colour lamiuations and siltstoneinterbedscle:rly outline thin grey to white siliceous bedding folds. Thereis also a widespread, well developed, penetrative slaty cleavage and bedding-cleavage intersection lineation. FI folds, both as mesoscopic and nlicroscopic scale structures, are tight to overturned with genlly to :moderatelyinclined SI planes.Vergence of FI StructuIes is believed to be eastward but the structures are :argely obscuredby F2 overprinting. The sense ofsyrnmetryon mesoscopic folds indicates the presence of a macroscopic FI antifon. As no closure is seen, the area may lie on the upper limb of large a FI nappe structure (Figure 6-2).

Photo 6-1. Second phase overprint offirst phase iswlinal fold. A penetrative slaty cleavage (Si)is well developed axial planar to the first phase structure, which is overprinted by a spaced second cleavage (Sz). Local refoldingby Fz has occurredalong the limb of FI.

Photo 6-2. Imbrication along the contact between the Crooked amphibolite and the Triassic black phyllites. An imbricate slice of the Triassic metasediments lies in the hangingwall ofthe fault. Quartz veins are prominent close to the fault zone, which is overprinted by southwesterly dipping Fz crenulations.

66

Geological Survey Branch

Minislry o f Employment and Inveslmenl

Photo 6-3. Second phase folding of the gently inclined bedding has a conjugate kink-type geometry. The quartz veinin the upper rixht is parallel to both bedding and the slaty cleavage (So and SI, respectively).

Photo 6-4. Pian view of a slaty cleavage surface(SI)deformed by Fz. Overprinting of the Fz fold geometry gives riseto the relaying antiformal culminations and synformal depressions. LIis deformed about the Fz fold axis, which is parallel to thepen. The development of this fealure is schematically illustrated in Figure 6-1.

Bulletin 97

67

~~~~~~

The Sz spaced cleavage strikes northwest and dips FRACTURES AND QUARTZ VEINS moderately to steeply to the northeast and southwest. This Fractures, many filled with quartz, are common feais a nonpenetrativecleavage within both the metasediments tures at all scalesin the EurekaPeak and Spanish Lake areas. and the metavolcanic rocks. Cleavage spacing varies with quartz veins are deformed and others are not. indicatSome lithology and positionon mesoscopic structures. The more ing that fracturing occurred throughout the deformational closely spaced individual cleavage planes vary from1 to 15 history. It is likely that veins formed as pan of a continuum millimetres apart. Cleavagein the Nicola volcanic rocks is during the evolution in structural development. The quartz weakly deveIoped and, where present, is best developed veins most commonly vary from 1 to 20 millimetresin width near the hinges of folds rather than on the limbs. Throughout and tens of centimetres in length but can be up to a metre the volcanic members, the cleavage dips steeply to the wide and several metres long. Small, early quartz veins northeast or southwest. It is defined by a chloritic parting outlinerootless isoclinalfolds, the limbs of which have been and the spacing varies from 1 to 3 millimetres in the fineremoved, probablyas a result of pressure solution along the cleavage surfaces. Extensional, quartz-filled fractures and grained tuffs to 3 to 4 centimetres in the coarser grained dilations oriented at low angles to bedding andcleavage, as rocks. IntheSpanishLakearea,secondphasedefomation@z) well as sygmoidal fractures perpendicular to fold axes, occur predominantly in the metasedimentary successions. refolds earlier structures, bedding and slaty cleavage (SI). The quartz in narrowveinlets typically occurs as elonFz folds are open and upright andare accompanied by an gate to fibrous grains, commonly perpendicular to vein are axial planar nonpenetrativespaced cleavage. The folds walls. The larger veins are characterized by more equant, generally southwesterly verging, trend northwest (280" to blockier quartz c~~stais. Textures characteristicof repeated 3 1 0 " ) . and dip moderately to steeply to the northeast or, crack-sealvein growth have been recognized the from study gently to moderately southwest. Local small-scale crenula- of vein material (Bloodgood, 1987a). Figure6-3 illustrates tions of SI are associated with Fz deformation. Well disto cleavage and the various vein geometries in relation played Fz structures locally have acharacterisiticbox-fold bedding orientationsand Photos 6-5 to 6-7show the various sets, axial geometry. There the Sz cleavage forms conjugate vein styles. Fractures initially formed parallel to the direcat low angles to bedtion of maximum compressive stress, planar to the fold structures, and this cleavage commonly ding,andahigh angle to cleavage. During progressive defines kink-band boundaries. Linearstructures associated deformation, both bedding and the early formed veins were with Fz deformation are SdSz or S162 intersection lineafolded and disrupted. tions. These stmctures are doubly plunging, inclined to the Undeformed, spaced fractures are developed in all linorthwest and southeast. thologies throughout the region. Spacing of fractures varies Second phase structuresin the Spanish Lake area estabfrom 1 to 100 centimetres and varies in rocks of different lish the geometry of the tectonic boundary and map pattern. competency. Openjoints have been recognized throughout To the north the FIEZ interferencestructuresdetermine the the study area. Theyare oriented perpendicular to the fold outcrop pattern of the Crooked amphibolite. The steeply axis and axial plane ofthe mesoscopic folds and dip steeply dipping Fz axial plane and doubly plunging fold axis imto the north and south. posed upon a gently dippingF1 axial surface results inthe development of a series of antiformal culminations and synformal depressionsalong the trend of the fold axis. The Fz deepest structural levels are thusexposedwherean antiform overprints an F1 antiform.This relationship is evident in the map area whereCrookedamphibolite is exposed alongthe coincident antiformal axis. To the north of this axial trace higher structural levels are preserved within lobate synformal depressions and the higher stratigraphic members of unit 1 are exposed (Bloodgood's unit Tra6).Various structural elementsandrelationships between Fland Fz are illustrated on Photos6-1 to 6-4. Locally, north of Spanish Lake, in hinge regions of the F 1 folds, the Sz cleavage is rotated away from its typical Figure 6-3. Common vein geometries. Earliest veins developed parallel tobedding and perpendicular to the developing cleavage. orientation, into parallelism or near parallelism with theF1 Pressure solutionfeaturesassociatedwith SI and S2 cleavage axial surface. This consistent relationship in the area sugsuggest fluid f l o w took place throughout deformation and resulted gests the presence of an F1 antiform overprinted by an Fz and undeformed veins. Gold occurs in the earlier in both deformed antiform. Elsewhere the Sz surface is inclined at a shallow veins particularly near fold hinges and is associated with small amounts of pyrite, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite. angle to the southwest, subparallel to SI.

68

Geological SUN^ Branch

Ministry o f Employment and Investment

I.

Photo 6-5. Stongly deformedquartz veins within black phyllites. These isoclinally folded veins are plunging at a shallow angle toward the top of the photo, andare overprinted by F 2 .

upright F2 fold. In some areas remobilization 01' vein4lling material by pressure solution is suggested by the lruncation of some veins against the cleavage surface.

Plate 6-7.Early formed, folded quartz veins truncated by a later, blocky vein.

"

Bulletin 97

69

British Columbia

( N T S 92P), the Eocene rocks are fairly abundant as relatively thin Tertiary units under a more widespread cover of Miocene basaltflows. Locally thick units of Eocene rocks The Tertiary sedimentary and ash-flow deposits in the are present in faulted depressions. There the rocks are reproject area (unit IO) are largely confined to a belt 3 to 6 ferred to as the Kamloops Group but the Tertiary assemkilometres wide by40 kilometres-long inthe south-central blages also include Eocene and younger, units termed the part of the area studied (Figure 3-8). The poorly exposed Skull Hill and Deadman River Formations (Campbell and Eocene rocks are preserved in anarrow,fault-bounded Tipper, 1971). depression, possibly a graben, that is now occupied over The Eocenevolcanicsequencein the Quesnelbelt, much of its length by the Horsefly River. The belt of Eocene consisting of oldest biotite-bearing trachybasalt flows, the sedimentary and ash-flow deposits is centred on Horsefly thickest part of the sedimentary succession the and younger, from where if can be followed northwesterly to Hazeltine overlying ash flows, is preserved in its entirety only in the and Edney creeks near Quesnel Lake and east-southeasterly postulated graben structure. The original structural depresinto the headwaters of the Horsefly River. The Eocene sion is nowlargelyexhumedandhasbeen infilled by ash-flows are part of a once extensive Tertiary cover that glaciogenic and fluvial deposits and is covered by thick unconformably overlies Quesnel belt volcanic rocks and alluvium. Along, or near, the structural margins of the graparts of the quartz diorite pluton south of Horsefly, the ben there are locally vuggy,quartz-calciteveins that suggest Takomkane batholith. To the north of the Quesnel River, there has been Tertiary hydrothermal activity. The veins a b u t 25 kilometres southeast of Quesnel, there are two outliers of these Tertiary rocks overlying sedimentary rocks contain elements such as arsenic, mercury, barium and silver of unit 1. South of Horsefly around the Takomkane (Appendix M) and havethe appearance of low-temperature batholith, and even further south inthe Bonaparte Lake area open-space filling, typical of epithermal mineralization.

EOCENE EXTENSIONAND GRABEN DEVELOPMENT

70

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry of Empioyment am!Investmem

"

CHAPTER 7

METAMORPHISM

conclusionshavebeen synthesized of the rocks of the central Quesnel Work', Chapter 1). Their Metamorphic grade by Greenwood e f al. (1991) and summarized by Campbell belt is, for the most part, subgreenschist facies. Read e f al., (1991) assigns the rocks of the study area to mainly the (1978) and Read, et al. (1991) on maps showing metamorprehnjtepumpellyite zone. Prehnjte has been infrequently phic isogradsin abasic Barrovian sequence (Figure 7-.l). A noted (Schink, 1974; Morton, 1986) but the volcanic rocks syntectonic to post-tectonic, early-Middle to Late Jurassic regional metamorphic event is a generalizatiori suggested are characterized by the widespread occurrence of zeolite concluJiesthat the mineral assemblages,typical of burial metamorphic condi- by most investigators. McMuIlin (1990) tions. Sedimentary rocks of unit 1, however, are metamormetamorphic history can be subdivided into h : sequential phosed to greenschist facies in the easternmost part of the even& all related to specific periods of deformatio:n. He map area. The higher grade in the eastern partof the belt is summarizes (McMullin, 1990, page 198) that: attributedto crustal thickening caused by thrusting of QuesMetamorphic mica growth was confined to the fnst nellia over the Omineca Belt and to subsequent deformation phase of deformation @I) but garnet mayhave at the BarkerviUe-Quesnellia contact. Regional metamorgrown late in Dl; phism of amphibolite facies in the rocks of Barkerville Terrane indicates the sharp transitionin metamorphic grade * The major mineral growth occurred during D2 deforacross the terrane boundary. mation (our FI). The Dz foliation wraps around the Studies o f regional metamorphism in the Quesnel Lake gametporphyroblasts butlaterkyanitear~dsLaorolite region have been conducted by many workers (see 'Previous porphyroblasts overgrowit,

Figure 7-1. Metamorphic facies and zones, central Quesnel Trough (Quesnel Terrane) and adjoining Cache Creek Terrane and Bakerville et al. (1991) and Greenwood et al. (1991). Heavy lines represent terrane boundaries. Symbols used: Subterrane, modified from Read subgreenschist:z zeolite, p - prehnite-pumpellyite; greenschist: e - chlorite, b -biotite, g - almandine gameq amphibolite: stk kyanite f staurolite, s siliimanite. Small square with number refers to conodont colour alteration index (CAI).

Bulletin 97

71

Metamorphism waned during late deformation @3), our Fz, and metamorphic recrystallization ceased except in high-grade cores ofanticlines;locally there is metamorphic retrogression.

METAMORPHISM OF THE CENTRAL QUESNEL BELT


Studies of metamorphicrocks at the eastern boundary of Quesnellia, along its tectonic contact with r o c k of Barkerville Terrane, were conducted by Bloodgood (1987a.b.c. 1990) in the Eureka Peak area. Her observations (Bloodgood, 1987b) are the basis of much of the following discussion. Metamorphic grades cut across the tectonic boundary to the regional structures related at a low angle and conform to the emplacement and deformation of the Quesnel Terrane. Metamorphic mineral assemblages are characteristic of the greenschist facies, and vary from chlorite to garnet grade. Metamorphic effects are most evident adjacent to the tectonic boundary, and particularly within the basal part of the metasedimentary succession where rocks of garnet grade are exposed. Metamorphic grade decreases rapidly away from the boundary, both stratigraphically and structurally upsection. Volcanic rocks of chlorite grade are prevalent in the core region of the Eureka Peak syncline.

porphyroblasts and as fine stringers parallel to SI.h g e r SIschistosity, magnetite porphyroblasts appear to truncate but smaller grains are commonly oriented parallel to the main foliation. MicrotexNres suggest thatmetamorphismwassynchronous with deformation resulting in the development of the primary schistosity. The poikilitic hornblende and epidote enclose a metamorphic foliation and are, therefore, syntectonicto post-tectonic. Growth of biotite during a later phase of deformation is indicated by the growth of biotite across the foliation and parallel to the axial plane of micrcscopic kinks. Chlorite is pervasive and defines the schistose foliation.

PHYLLITES

Phyllites with a characteristicpenetrativefoliation (SI), defined by the planar alignment of muscovite, paragonite and minor chlorite, also contain porphyroblasts of gamet, albite,chloritoidandilmenite. All porphyroblasts are poikilitic, containing inclusions of quartz and opaqueminerals. Pressure shadows of quartz and chlorite occur in association with all porphyroblast phases. Compositional layering is defined by quartz-rich versus chlorite-rich bands. Quartz-filled fractures (veins) occur commonly throughout the rocks, mainly oriented parallel or subparalleltobedding. The veins are variably deformed and the quartz is highly strained. The quartz-filledveinsand fractures probably formed by pressure-solution processes as fluids generated METAMORPHIC ASSEMBLAGES during dehydration reactions passedthrough the rocks. FACIES AND ZONES There is a marked increase in the intensity of hydraulic fracturing at higher structural and stratigraphiclevels, indiCROOKED AMPHIBOLITE cated by the increased development of pressure-solution cleavage and the absence of ilmenite porphyroblasts. Crooked ampbibolite occurs as fine-grained chloritePorphyroblast phases include garnet varying from feldspar-amphibolite schist and a coarsegrained actinolite schist. Metamorphicmineralassemblagescontainhornsmall corroded grains to large, euhedral crystals that range blende, actinolite, chlorite, biotite, talc, quartz and calcite. in size from 0.5 to 4 millimetres. Althoughthere is considIn the chlorite-feldspar-amphibole rock, a strongly develerable variation in composition and zoning within individoped schistose foliation (Si), defined by planar alignment ual grains, compositions approximate those of almandine. of chlorite and lesser biotite flakes. is parallel to the compoThe gamet porphyroblasts generally contain quartz or ilmenite inclusions, but sometimes are completely free of sitional layering.Chlorite oriented parallel to the schistose foliationalsooccurs as intergrowths withfine-grained them. McMullin (1990) notes that the weakly poikilitic to quartz. Growth chlorite of and biotite was synchronous with inclusion-free nature of the garnets from Quesnellia rocks first phase deformation but there is evidence for some can be used to distinguish them from the inclusion-rich continued mineralgrowth during later deformation. garnets from rocks of higher metamorphic grade. Albite grains vary in size from 0.5 to 2.5 millimetres although some Porphyroblasts of green, pleochroic hornblende are as large as 7.5 millimetres have been noted. Inclusion trains aligned parallel to the schistosity. They contain inclusion of quartz in the porphyroblasts sometimescomprise up to trains of ilmenite, quartz and plagioclase and partially to 50 per cent of the grain. Albite commonly shows an angular entirely enclose biotite flakes parallel to the SI foliation. discordance of up to20" between the external foliation and Embayed, inclusion-riddled porphyroblasts of epidote octhe porphyroblasts, but curved inclusion cur randomly throughoutthe rocks. They varyin size from the foliation within small to moderately sized grains and areoccasionally envel- trains (helicitic textures) are not recorded. Ilmenite forms small porphyroblaststhat are oriented parallel to the main oped by actinolite porphyroblasts. Ilmenite forms blebs, foliation and often contains quartz inclusions. Quartz and small blades andscaly masses parallel to the foliation and Rare helicitic chlorite strain shadows oriented at low angles to the cleavasinclusiontrainswithinporphyroblasts. age plane are associated with the ilmenite. textures in hornblende indicate that some rotation of porChloritoid porphyroblasts, as tabular grains commonly phyroblasts within the plane of foliation must have occurred 1to 3 millimetres in length, grow a variety in of orientations. during growth. Magnetiteoccnrs both as c o d e d , anhedral

72

GeologicalSurvey Branch

vesicles. Euhedralcrystals of zoisitebetween 0.C1 and 0.05 The grains occur withinpressure shadows of albite porphymillimetre in size occur in the groundmass aut1 very fine roblasts, parallel or at high angles to the main schistosity, parallel to Szcrenulationsor at randomorientation unrelated grained epidote is an alterationof plagioclase in rkssociation sericite (saussurite). to any of the prominent foliations. Chloritoid varies in shape with calcite and In the main volcanic arc assemblages of uni ts 2,:)and from idiomorphicto strongly poikilitic porphymblasts containing the SIfoliation. Inclusion trains within the porphy4 the rocks are of subgreenschist facies and, inplaces, of rotation during growth. On the roblasts show no evidence virtually unaltered in appearance. The dark green to dark noahlimboftheEurekaPeaksyncline,thechloritoidoccurs grey pyroxene basalts contain hard, glassy malic crystals the plagioclase as coarse tabular porphyroblasts, showing no preferred ori- with only slightly chloritized rims, although entation, and as intergrown, radiating masses. is universally turbid and saussuritized. Zeolite minerals are widespread. The most abundant zeolite, laumonlite, is genMetamorphic grade appears to decrease stratigmphically upsection within the phyllites, and away from the erally found in veinlets and as coatings on fractures. If.also tectonic boundary. Similarly, the size of porphyroblast occurs togetherwith calcite as amatrixconstitue:ntof phases within the phyllites also decreases progressively. sheared and brecciated rocksand volcanic breccias. Garnet, for example, forms very small grains riddled with Amygdules invesicular flows containthomsonite and rare quartz before it disappears. At higher elevations, generally analcite together with calcite and lesser quanz. Filxous above 1900 metres, porphyroblasts are altogether absent in scolecitewas noted in a few vesicles the in subaerial hisalts the rocks although they retain a strongly developed foliation ofunit4.Thepresenceofheulanditeand chabazite in outlined by muscovite and paragonite. addition to analcite was noted by Bailey (19711). Locally zones of more intense replacement of the greenschist assemNICOU GROUPMETAVOLCANICS blage are interpreted to be products of propylitic alteration related to nearby intrusive activity. Overall the appearance area equivalent Metavolcanic rocks in the Eureka Peak of the main volcanicarc rocks is consistent with conditions to the Nicola Group, part of our unit la, lie within the albite-actinolite-chlorite zone as defined by Winkler (1979). of regional burial metamorphism and very l0c:alized hydrothermal activity. The characteristic metamorphic minerals are actinolite, chlorite, biotite and epidote. Timing of growth of metamor- Prehnite is rarely observed in the rocks, pumpellyile has not been documented. Schink(1974) recognizedprehn,itein phic minerals within the volcanics is difficult to constrain association with actinolite as an alteration of pyroxen,: and due to thegenerallackofdeformationfeatures,but is in stringers cutting microperthite veinlets in moluonite and believed to be synchronous with that of the underlying syeniteattheShikoLakeintrusiun.Morton(l976)describes metasediments. The biotite isograd seems to traverse the prehnite together with an assemblage of epidote, chlorite, contact between the two units. Where the rocks are foliated, albite, magnetite and hematite as the matrix of lapilli brecit is generally a tectonic foliation defined by growth of cias in the Lemon Lake area. He also notes that prehrlite is chlorite. Actinolite needles within the groundmass show a found with carbonate and chlorite in fault zones in volcauipreferred alignment parallel to SI. In a few samples, the clastic rocks near Quesnel Lake. tectonic foliationis parallel to a weakly developed primary trachytic flow foliation. Biotite is a minor replacement of mafic minerals but is not sufficiently abundant to define a CONDITIONS OF METAMORPHISM foliation. Mineral assemblages in thebasal metasedimentary part Actinoliteoccurs as rhombic porphyroblasts and as fine of Quesnellia are characteristic of greenschist facies. The acicular needles in the groundmass and fractures within metamorphic isograd representing the first a p p m n c e of phenocrysts. It replaces pyroxeneandhornblendephethe terrane boundary, and locally lies nocrysts along cleavage planes,as overgrowths on rims of garnet closely follows of map area. grains and as fibroustails parallel to cleavage traces. Albite, within Quesnellia, in the southeastern partth~: commonly together with calcite,is present in fractures.and Rocks of higher metamorphic grade, including staurolite, to as fibrous growths with radial symmetry in vesicles. Biotite, kyanite and sillimanite-bearing rocks, occurimnlediat<:ly the east in the Barkerville Terrane. The main volcanic arc usually in association with actinoliteorchlorite, replacesthe assemblages of the central Quesnel belt are zeolite-bearing, mafic minerals. It occurs as stubby, tabular crystals and locally propylitic rocks of subgreenschist facies. shows no preferred orientation. Chlorite is usually associThe Crooked amphibolite contains metamorphic hornated with actinolite and epidote and is predominant where blende, evidence that it experienced higher t8:mpeIature biotite is absent. It occurs most commonly as fine fibres along cleavage traces with actinoliteorbiotite in hornblende conditionswithin the overall low-grade metamorphic zone and with calcite in pyroxene. chlorite The also forms as dull in which it occurs. Hornblende porphyroblastscontain o p green-pleochroic fibres in the groundmass, outlining metaticallycontinuousinclusionsofepidote,biotiteandchlorite, morphic foliation. Both kinking of chlorite and growth of indicating that the hornblende developed slightly latex. The change from actinoliteto hornblende is postulated to take some chlorite synchronous to kinking is evident. Epidote and clinozoisite occurthroughout the metavolcanic s place in the Eureka Peak area under pressure-tmperature e conditions similar to those in the adjoining phyllites, ?based quence as 0.1 to 0.5-millimetre grains in fractures and

Bulletin 97

7 3

on the appearance of almandine garnet, which occurs at about 500" C in metapelitic rocks (Winkler, 1979). The metapelitic black phyllite sequence is characterized by porphyroblasts of almandine garnet, chlorite, albite, chloritoid, muscovite and quartz. The bulk composition of the rocks significantly affects the mineral paragenesis. The presence ofchloritoid especially requires a special bulk composition characterizedby a high irodmagnesium ratio, a relatively high aluminum content, and low potassium, sodium and calcium (Zen and Thompson,1974). The presence of almandine-ricbgarnet indicates the higher temperature zone of greenschist facies metamorphism. The proximity of these assemblages to the upper boundary the of greenschist facies and limited stabilityof chloritoid together with albite in a limited temperaturerange of 510 to 5 7 5 T

primary igneous minerals. Chlorite outlines the planar foliation fabric. Saussuritization of plagioclase varies from slight to complete replacement by fine-grained epidote, calcite and sericite. Thegrowth ofmetamorphic minerals asporphyroblasts occurred during and outlasted the phase one deformation pi)that is associated withEarly Jurassic convergence and terrane accretion. The first phase foliation is defmed in Crooked amphibolite by growth of metamorphic biotite and chlorite; in the metasedimentary phyllitic rocks by muscovite and phengite or paragonite; and in the older Nicola volcanics by chlorite. Most porpbymblasts contain inclusions following the SI foliation which traversethe porphyroblasts as straight lines, and rarely show any curvature within the porphyroblast. From this widespread textural accordingtoHoschek(1%9),accountsfortherelativerarity relationship it isinferred thatthe porphyroblasts developed of the observed assemblage. A minimum temperature in the at the same time or after D l deformation. order of 345C can be inferred for chloritoid and chloriteThe prominence of fractures on all scales filled with bearingrocks based on studies of similar rocks in theBlackcrystalline quartz throughout the metamorphosed rocks is water Range of the Rocky Mountains byGhent et a!., indicative of the presence of high-pressure fluid or fluids (1989). The colour alteration index (CAI) of conodonts (Cox er al., 1987). Mobilepore fluids were probably generranges from CAI 5 in the phyllites to 2 or 3 in the overlying ated by dewatering reactions accompanying prograde metavolcanic rocks. This indicates chlorite zone metamorphic morphism. Pore-fluidpressuresduringregional facies in the phyllites and prehnite-pnmpellyite to zeolite metamorphism tendtolower the effective stresses and, metamorphic facies in the overlying Nicola volcanic assemtogether with dissolution processes of pressure solution, halges. These conditions correspond to subgreenschist increase porosity and permeability (Etheridge et al., 1983, metamorphicconditions with maximum temperatures etal., 1991). The large-scalecirculationoffluids 1984; Cox slightly inexcess of 400" C (Greenwood et al., 1991). probably dissipated heat from the underlying rocks. This Metamorphic assemblagesin Nicola volcanics within may account for the rapid decrease, without a break, in or near the top of the basal sedimentaryunit, mainly unit la, metamorphic grade observed across the tectonic terrane contain actinolite, epidote, chlorite, albite, biotite, quartz boundary and the abundance of veins and fractures in the and calcite.The metamorphic minerals commonly occur as overlying rocks of Quesnellia. overgrowths and replacements along cleavageplanes inthe

74

Geological Survey Branch

Minisrry o f Employment and Inveshnenr

CHAPTER 8

ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

The Quesnel Trough is a well-mineralized region typi- related propylitic gold deposits,are currently tht: most adcal of other Late Triassic - Early Jurassic volcano-plutonic vanced mine developments and main exploration targets in the region. The largest known deposit in the map area is island arcs in theCordillera. It hostsawidevarietyof Mount Polley, previously known as the Cariba>Bell demineral deposits. The area mapped contains 82 mineral occurrencesrecorded up to 1989 in the MINFILE property posit.Coppershowings there wereknown for decades, file system; a few additional deposits of significancehave probably from the time of the placer gold rush, but the potential fora porphyry deposit was firstrecognized in :I964 been added inthis report (Table 8-1). Fifty-six of the occurrences are bedrock-hosted base and precious metal deposits; (Hodgsou er 01.. 1976). The style of mineralbation and twenty-one are placer gold deposits. The remaining five geologicalsetting of MountPolley are similar to other alkalic porphyry deposits in Quesnellia,notatrlyMount occurrences are sites with various other commodities, inMilligan(Sketchley et ol., 1995). Similar depositsalso cluding industrial minerals, or unclassified deposit types. a e found to occur to the north inthe Hogem batholith and The major deposit types and individual occurrences of most importance are summarized and discussed below. Most of the south at Afton mine and its nearby deposits in the Iron Mask batholith and at Similco mine (Copper Mountain, the mineral deposits in the map area not described in this report are summarized in the MINFILE records. Regional Ingerbelle, and others) in the Copper Mountain intrusions. geochemical survey results are summarized and lithogecAll these alkalic porphyrycopper-gold deposits are dechemical samples (assays) from altered zones and other scribed in Canadian Institute of Mining Metallurgy and Petroleum Special Volumes, (Sutherland Brown, 1!>76); geochemical indications ofmineraloccurrences are reported in Table 8-4 and Appendix M, respectively, and and Special Volume 46 Porphyry Depositsof tht Northern results are discussed nearthe end of this chapter. Cordillera, (T.G. Schroeter, Editor, 1995). The principal recent exploration and economic develThe regional distribution of intrusion-relattd deposits opment targets inthe central Quesnel beltare alkalic intruin the Quesnel Trough follows,large in part, the central axis sion-related porphyry copper-gold deposits and of the volcanic belt. Plutons intrude along the axis c4 the gold-bearing propylitic alteration zones formed in volcanic volcanic arc;less commonly theyare emplaced in rocks of rocks peripheral to some of the intrusions. Other important the basal metasedimentary unit. From the north, near (luestargets are auriferous quartz veins in the black phyllite nel, to the southeast, near Horsefly, at intervals ,of approximetasedimentary succession. These rocks host auriferous mately 8 to 11 kilometres,themain prospects include: quartz veins of two similar-looking but possibly genetically Mouse Mountain, Cantin Creek, Gerimi Creek, Maud lake, and temporally distinct types. The veins in some black QR, Bullion Lode, Mount Polley, Shiko Lake, Kwun Lake phyllite members have potential to be mined as large tonand Lemon Lake (Figure 8-1). The best lookhg plutons nage, low-grade deposits. Tertiary rocks are mineralized formineralization.thatis, those with evidenceof hydrothexwith copper andgold in association with tourmalinemal alteration, appear, on the basis of their geological setsericite-pyrite and propylitic alteration. Antimony-arsenic tings, to be the highest level, subvolcanic plulons. These and mercury mineralization in some apparently low-temwere inevitably emplaced in the upper units of h e volcanic perature quartz-calciteveins indicates the potentialfor disarc. They are commonly recognized as differentiated diocovery of epithemal deposits. Placer mining for gold, said rite-monzonite-syenite zoned or multiple intrusions or as to locally occur together with platinum, has been of major cupolas with irregularly shaped apophyses, dikes and sills. historical and economic importance to the region. It continBrecciabodies are common, as bothintrusionandhyof a small amount of con- drothermal breccias. Elsewhere, and most conurlonly, many ues to have importance because tinuing gold production in the district and exploration for of the mapped dioritic plutons and small plugs i n the Quesburied placer channels, especiallythosewithcemented ne1 belt display only narrow zones of hornfels. Theseinttugravels that are amenable to exploitation by underground sions represent either relatively dry magmas or were mining methods. emplaced at greater depth, generally in the basd sedimentary portion of the arc assemblage. The ages of Ihe deposits (Table 4-1) and the relationships between the aikalic intruLODE DEPOSITS sions and their (in part) cogenetic volcanic h(~stroclts are discussed in Chapter 4. INTRUSION-RELATED DEPOSITS

Mount Polley (Cariboo-Bell)Deposit; PORPHYRY COPPER-GOLD DEPOSITS MINFILE 093Al008 ASSOCIATED WITH ALKALIC INTRUSIONS Mount Polley (formerly Cariboo-Bell) is located 56 Porphyty copper-gold depositsofthealkalic class (Barr et a[., 1976; Mineral Deposit Research Unit (MDRU) cur- kilometres northeast of WilliamsLakeand 8 kilometres southwest of Likely. It lies between Polley Lakeand rent studies, reports in preparation, 1996), and the closely

BuNetin 97

75

British Coiumbiu

W3A 018 W3A 116 W3A 118 W3AM W3B @2S 0938 016 W3A W3A m3A W3A W3A

MARY BM ML

SLIDE

011
076 078 079

039

LYNDA MANDY d y r y CUM0 std FNEV~PEAK) WET(GAVMLA$) FS. MEGABUCKS

"
5798325 5816765 5816986 3190666 5797361 5 6 5816269 5871364 5841175 3841989
J7W3 1 m

BEEN

093A096 W3A 117 W3A ID

m 3 A W

WOOD DOE

MCKa

DAPHNE

093BGlI

KATE

W3B 033

W3B M I

TARN STRUCTURALLY CONTROLLED B I E S O T H E R M A L ) DEPOSITS:


5 m
58651%

N W L A K E

V - W & s d @ ~ m b o r h h u r l s h a r ~ W3A 149 J A " W3A07W 0938 027 AB W3B16E W3A m3 P R O W3AllW W3A 012 zll) W3AOlW W3A 013 CPW W3AllW W3A 072 IOY W~AIZE mumw W A C 9 2 FORKS W ~ A ~ E W3A 121 M O O S W3A 132 NOV W3A11W W3A 133 PEACOCK W3*11W m31\ t s SHAW W3A12E 09% 147 T A M W3A11W W3AOlE W3A 150 f F . A E X G O W W3AllW 093A IS1 BIG W3.4 154 TRUMP W3AIIW W3B16W 0938 029 COUSINJACK

5813961 J827413 1826929

5833S18

slmm

58W9 5834159 5844165 58%261 5831981 5197510 5832131 3833841 5 W l

VOLCANIC-HOSTEDCOPPER DEPOSITS:

PLACERDEFUSITS:

7 6

Geological Survey Branch

EN (EUREKA PEMJ W E l IGAVIN M K U

F.S
MEGABUCKS
BREN

WOOD MCKEE
DOA

DWHINE
KATE NYUND LAKE TARN

. . . .. Figure 8-1. Generalized geologicalmap of project area - locations of intrusion-related deposits showing major alkalic porphyry copper-gold prospects.

Briiish Columbia

Bootjack Lake at an elevation of about 1250 metres onthe western slopes of Mount Polley.The property is accessible from Highway 97 at 150 Mile House by way of 76 kilometres of paved road and 14 a kilometres forestry access road. The deposit was discovered in1964 after examination of trenches with showings of copper oxide minerals within a large magnetic anomaly indicated by a federal-provincial airborne magneticsurvey of the Quesnelmineralbelt (Hcdgson etai., 1 9 7 6 ) .The initial pit reserves are stated to be 4 8 . 8 million tomes of material with an average grade of 0 . 3 8 % copper and 0.56 gram per tonne gold(Nikic et a i . , 1995).Revisedorereserves(1995)reportedbythecompany are:81.5milliontonneswith0.30%copperand0.414grams per tonne gold. The mining reserves are contained in the West and Central zones(Figure 8 2 ) . withinthelarger Caribou-Bell zone, a geologicalresource containingaround 230 million tonneswith an average gradeof 0.25% copper and 0.34gram per tonne gold (MINFILE). Feasibility studies completed in 1990 outline plans for open-pit mining from the coalescing Central and West zones ina 5 million tonne-per-year milling operation. Approval Principle in was granted by the provinical government in June 1991 but development of the property was suspended a short time later when the price o f copper dropped. The deposit is being prepared for production in 1996. Geology: The deposit is contained largely within the Polley stock. This intrusion is approximately 2 kilometres by 5 kilometres in size, and elongated in a northwesterly direction. The Polley stock consistsof mainly diorite, lesser plagioclase porphyry, intrusion breccia, hydrothermal

"

m.....'. ..
'*

'

monzpnite, monzonite porphyry, undifferentiated breccms tntrusion and hydrothermal breccia. minor dioriie and monzonite screens

."".....
Figure 8-2. Mount. Polley (Caribw-Bell) simplified geology and proposed pit S-19outlie after Fraser (1994)and Nikic ei a i . ( 1 9 9 5 ) .Post mineral dikes have been removed.

breccia and minor pyroxenite and gabbro. Late intrusions, mainly post-mineral dikes, include augite porphyry, feldspar porphyry,monzoniteporphyry, sanidine monzonite porphyry and biotite lamprophyre. To the southwest, the Bootjack stock is exposed at Bootjack Lake. It comprises pseudoleucite and orbicular syenite prpbyry and granophyric nepheline syenite, lithologies similar to those at Mouse Mountain,IO kilometres to the northwest. Together, all these rocks form the largest, and probably the highest level, alkalic intrusive complex in the Quesnel belt. Hostrocks for the intrusions are felsic-clast bearing pyroclastic rocks of unit 3. The petrochemistry of the alkalic complex is considered by Lang et af. (1993)to be part of an unusual silica-undersaturated subtype of the alkalic suite that includes the Galore Creek and Copper Canyon intrusionsin Stikiniaand the Rayfield River intrusions near Bonaparte Lake. The more common alkalic porphyry deposits in the Cordillera are associated with quartz-saturatedor near-saturated alkalic intrusions,referred to by Lang et a i . as the silica-undersaturated subtype. Mineralization and Alteration: Mineralization is associated mainly with hydrothermal and intrusion brecciasin the Polley stock. Intrusionbreccia is matrix supported with plagioclase porphyry containing commonly around 35% subangular to rounded clasts of diorite, plagioclase porphyry andlapilli tuff. Hydrothermal breccia is polylithc and contains clasts of intrusive breccia in addition to diorite and plagioclase porphyry. These breccias commonly occur at contacts between the various rocks types. The hydrothermal breccia is vuggy and contains abundant secondary biotite, albite,potassium-feldspar,actinolite,magnetite and diopside. The breccia has extensive stockworks containing chalcopyrite,magnetite, diopside and amphibole. Fraser (1994,1995) recognized three stages o f breccia emplacement on the basis of crosscutting relationships. The oldest is dominated by diorite andminorvolcaniclastic clasts inamatrix o f plagioclaseporphyry. It is cut by polylithic breccia that contains cavities containing chalcopyrite, pyrite,albite, biotite, magnetitie and diopside. These are hydrothermal breccias that contain the best copper and related gold grades. The latest breccia is an intrusion breccia withdistinctivepyroxeniteanddioriteclastsinamonzonitic matrix; it is post-mineralization in age. Late calcite and zeolite in vugsand dilational veins overprint the older alterationproducts. O r e minerals are chalcopyrite, lesser bornite and rare nativegold, associated withmagnetiteandminorpyrite.The minerals occur as disseminated grains and fracture and cavity fillings. Copper mineralization is associated with potassium feldspar, biotite and diopside alteration in both the intrusive rocks, breccias and, to a lesser extent, the host volcanic rocks. Peripheral mineralization with outward-decreasing chalcopyrite to pyrite ratio is associated with epidote-garnetand epidote-chloritealteration. Aweakly developed pyritic haloinpropyliticvolcanic rocks surrounds the mineralized intrusions and breccias. Supergene

78

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry o f Employment and Investment

copper minerals are present inparts of the deposit but little nation of diamond-drillcores by Morton (1976). The stock intrudes a sequenceof Upper Triassic pyroxenc: basalts of copperenrichmenthasoccurreddue to thewidespread presenceof calcite, albitic plagioclase,prehnite, zeolite unit 2 but is surrounded by breccias with felsic clasts. These minerals and the overall low sulphide content. Supergene proximal breccias appear to be locally preserved, coeval minerals include malachite. chrysocolla, native copper, rocks of unit3 that form an apron around the stock. cuprite, digenite,covellite(Nikicet nl., 1995). and probably The volcanic hostrocks surrounding the in;+usion and some brochantite. part of the stock itself, have undergone propylitic alteration of epidote, chloAlteration: Studies by Fraser (1994,1995) have iden- characterjzed by widespread development rite and calcite. Zeolite may also be a related, :nore distal tified two distinct alteration assemblages that refine the and later-forming hydrothermal alteration mineral. Locally, older descriptions. The alteration is now classified as a mainly within the intrusion, secondary biotite and potascopper-gold mineralized calc-potassic type with(central) a potassic and intermediate calc-potassic zone and a periph- sium-feldspar alterationis associated withcopp:r mineralization.Themineralizationalsooccurssparingly i n the eral propylitic type outside the economic mineralization. volcanic hostrocks as chalcopyrite, magnetite, pyrite and The calc-potassic alteration is characterized by potassiumfeldspar, biotite, diopside, albite, magnetite, lesser actinolitepyrrhotite. The best samples from surfacetrenches reported in 1984 returned assays of 0.25% copper over 21.3 metres. and minor garnet. Garnet alteration occurs mainly in two zones at the periphery of the proposed pit. The andradite Kwun Lake; MINFILE 093M077 and garnet in the West zone is associated withintensealbite and Beehive (Beekeeper); MINFILE 093A/155 potassium-feldspar alteration in a hydrothermal breccia. In the Central zone, massive garentis overprinted by magenThe Kwun Lake showing, and Beehive menmy occurtite, diopside and epidote (Fraser,1994).Theperipheral rence, about1.5 kilometres to the southeast, occur about7.5 propylitic alteration is characterized by pyrite,epidote and kilometres north of Horsefly. They are associabd wifh the albite. Pyrite is rare overall; its concentration rarely exceeds Kwun Lake stock, a small, zoned diorite to syenodiorite 1% except in a pyritic halo along the northeast and south- intrusion typical of Quesnel belt alkalic plutons. The stock west margins the of calc-potassic zone where to up 6% pyrite is in contact with breccias of unit3 on three sides. C m the has been noted. western side, the stock and the felsic breccias are separated Summary: Mount Polley is typical ofmany porphyry from older pyroxene basalts by faults. Along lhis faulted margin of the stock the rocks are locally hydlothennally deposits with a central potassically-altered core with chalcopyrite, magnetite, lesser bornite and minor pyrite miner- altered by secondary potassium-feldspar and biotite, u p sum and more widespread propylitic assemblages characalization.Thesurroundingrocks showwidespread terized by epidote, chlorite and calcite. Minera1iz:ation propylitic alteration characterized by an epidotepyrite-alconsisits of small amounts of chalcopyrite, pyrite and rare bite assemblage. A locally developed, intermediate zone bornite inbrecciated zones.The propylitically altered rocks contains garnet. It formed together with albite, younger are more sparsely mineralized, but they typically contain potassiumfeldspar and albite and isoverprinted by 3 to 6 magnetite, diopside, epidote. calcite, chlorite, pyrite, chal- abundanthydrothermalmagnetite.Asmallzone metres wide in a monzonitic hostrock. tested by diamond copyrite and zeolites. The Polley stock is part of anintrusive drilling, contains from 0.4 to 1 gram per tonne $:old. alkaliccomplex comprising various medium-grained toporphyritic intrusions and brecciasthat are emplaced into volThe Beekeeper zone near the eastern margin of the canics of common petrogenetic lineage. Fraser (1994) states Kwun Lake stock has mineralization typical of elsewhere in that the middle ofthree breccias is associated with the main the stock. comprising chalcopyrite, pyrite and pyrrhotite, zone of mineralization. The emplacement o f breccias and with anomalous gold values. The sulphide minerals 'occur the intrusions was structurally controlled. North to northas disseminations andfracture fillings associatd witb pink northwest-trending faults separate the complex into two potassium-feldspar and calcite-epidote-chlorite alteration. mineralized zones. Each zone has distinctive alteration and Asecond period of mineralization superimposed on the:first, mineralization assemblages; togetherthey consitute the ore- is characterized by cinnabar, ankerite, fluorite ,and quartz. body at the proposed pit site. The younger episode formed veins and fracbxe fillings spatially associated with syenitic hornblendeporphyry PORPHYRY COPPER-GOLD PROSPECTS dikes, part ofthe Kwun Lake intrusive suite.Up to several ASSOCIATED WITH ALKALIC STOCKS percent mercury has been reported from some samples (see also Appendix M, 1986-AX8). Lemon Lake (Pine, Fly, Lem); MINF1L.E 093M002 Copper mineralization in basaltic rocks sirnilar IOthe TheLemonLakeprospect, IOkilometreseast-northeast KwunLakeprospect,andassociatedwith other a'lkalic of Horsefly and a few kilometres south of Horsefly is Lakeintrusions, is also present 3 to 5 kilometres to the n o r h At the most southerly of the known alkalic copper-gold pros- the HOOK (MINFILE 093M112) and BM (MINFILE pects in the Quesnel belt. It is associated with a poorly 093N116) properties pyrite and chalcopyrite in propylitiexposed diorite to monzonite stock in which multiple intru- cally-altered basalts appear to be related to small intrusions sive phases have been recognized from mapping and examior a number of dikes of monzonite or syenite.

Bulletin 97

79

British Columbia

Shiko Lake (Redgold); MINFILE 093M058

A zoned, medium-graineddiorite to monzonite stock, locally with coarse-grained syenite dikes and granophyrictextured to pegmatitic zones, hosts chalcopyritepyrite bornite mineralization. The stock is about 2.3 kilometres long in a northeast direction. It intrudes the youngest basaltic rocks of unit 2 in the east but to thewest is emplaced in, or in fault contact with, breccias and sedimentary rocks of unit 3. An embayment along the southern part ofthe stock contains breccias with volcanic clasts and grades into an intrusion breccia with diorite matrix closer to the stock. This breccia appears to mark the intrusive centre of anintrusiveextrusive magmatic vent.
Bullion Lode; MlNFlLE 093M041
An equiganular to porphyritic, medium-grained pink monzonite intrudes fine-grained diorite in the area of the Bullion placer mine where a number of the dikes and the contact of the pink monzonite are exposed in the western part of the pit. The main monzonitic body is emplaced to the west and north of the Bullion pit in pyroxene basalt hostrocks of unit 2. Widespread pyrite with rare chalcopyrite is present; locally there are concentrations of magnetite. The eastern part of the Bullion stock contains the Likely Magnetite iron-gold-copper showings (MINFILE 093A1084). Rare bornite was noted in basaltic hostrock on the south bank of the Quesnel River.

Others
A number of other alkalic stocks in the Quesnel belt have been examined for their porphyry copper-gold potential (Figure 8-1). The deposits include: Maud Lake(MINFILE 93A/119), Mouse Mountain (MINFILE 93G/005) and the Cantin Creek and Gerimi Creek prospects in NTS 93B that are not coded in MINFLLE. A few, such as Cantin Creek and Mouse Mountain are associated with mafic rocks of the alkalic intrusive suite such as gabbro and pyroxenite, in addition to diorite and monzonite. Some of the mafic rocks are reportedly serpentinid, suggesting that some of the inmsion may be emplaced along large, possibly regionalscale, structural breaks. The prospects have been covered by assessment reports filed with the Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, but little or no other information has been issued.

PROPYLITE GOLD DEPOSITS


The type deposit from which a model for Propylite gold deposits has been created is the QR (Quesnel River) prospect. It has alternatively been described asan alkaline copper-gold porphyry-related replacement depositby Fox et al. (1987). Fox (1991). Melling and Watkinson (1988), Melling et al. (1990), anda skam (Fox and Cameron, 1995). Alternate termspropsed for this deposit type are skamoid, manto and epidote skarn.

QR (Quesnel River) Deposit; MINFILE 093M121 The QR deposit is near the north bankof the Quesnel River 58 kilometres southeastof Quesnel and 10 kilometres westofQuesnelForks. It was located in 1975 byFox Geological Consultants Limited by tracing gold, arsenic and other metal geochemical dispersion anomalies glacial in till. Percussion drilling 1911 in outlined the Main zone; the West zone was discovered in 1983 and the Midwest zone in 1986. Mineable reserves in three zones are 1.3 million tonnes with 4.7 grams per tonne gold (Fox and Cameron, 1995). This deposit represents a new type of bulk-mineable gold occurrence in the Canadian Cordillera - a porphyry-related propylite skam gold deposit. The mine was officially opened in September 1995. A fiveyear mine life with production ofloo0 tonnes per day is planned, starting with open-pit mining of the Main and part of the West zone followedby underground mining in the West zone. Conventional milling with gravity separation to recover much of the gold, and carbon-in-pulp cyanide leaching with electrowinning and on-site refining of dore bars, are being used to extract the gold and minor associated silver. Additional reserves are confirmed at depth to the east of the Main zone. Geology: Three main mk-types, part of unit 2a and 2aI2d. underlie the property:basalt, calcareous tuff and mudstone. Strata strike east and dip moderately to the south The lower unit is comprised of at least 850 metres of alkalic basalt, mainly monolithological breccias,pillowbasalt, massive flows and volcanic sandstone. The overlying, middle unit is made up of basaltic-source tuffs or epiclastic rock from 5 to 80 metresinthickness.These rocks have a calcite-rich matrixand contain from 5 to 20%pyrite which has framboidal, colloform and banded textures. The uppermost unit is a 200-metres thick sequence of thin bedded mudstone and silstones. It contains up to 10% finegrained disseminated pyrite and is altered to rusty weathering hornfels nearthe QR stock. Thestockmeasures 1 by 1.5 kilometres. The intrusion is similar to the other Early Jurassic, compositionally zoned, alkalic diorite stocks in the Quesnel belt. It consists of a 100 metres wide medium grained, equigranular diorite margin, that surrounds a core of monzonite and rare syenite. Hornblende porphyry dikes sills and are common, notably surrounding the QR stock. Alteration and Mineralization: The QR stock is surrounded by a zone of hornfels and propylitized rock that extends up to 300 metres into the sumunding tuff beds. The mineralization occurs in propylitized, carbonate-altered fragmental basalt along the contact with the overlying siltstones near the northern contact of the stock. The basalts are extensively altered by chlorite, epidote and carbonate minerals and contain1 to 15% pyrite. Fox and Cameron (1995) describe the basaltic tuffas being variably propylitized and skarn-altered. Other sulphide minerals, mainly chalcopyrite, can form up to 5% of the rock but the sulphide content is generally much less than 1%. Gold is present as small particles along pyrite and chalcopyrite grain boundaries. Best grades are found within 50 meVes of the altered basalt-

80

Geological

Survey Branch

Ministry o f Employment and hvesfment

e.xternd to siltstone contact in altered tuffs that Fox and Cameron term Related dikes and sills in the mineralized zones the stock may be more extensively hydr0therma:lyalb:red epidote-rich skarn and sulphide-rich mantos. A map and than the main intrusion. cross-sections showing the three ore zones is shown on Figures 8-3 and 84. Mineralizationand Alteration: Propylitic zones %with aurifeous pyrite occur withinthe propylitic alteration aureThe Propylite Model ole. The better grades are generally at the outer periphexy of Rock Types: Epidote and pyrite-rich auriferous the propylitic alteration zone, commonly at lithologic unit propylitic alteration (epidote-chlorite-tremolite-calcite and form or bedding contacts. Tabular, conformable mantos may rare garnet), with minorother sulphide minerals, occursas in permeable beds and units, commonly along tlle contact lithologically controlled, conformable replacement zones between hornfels or other less permeable rocks and the within a thermal aureole adjacent to anintrusivebody. propylitic fragmental volcanic rocks. Faults or olher, omlder Hostrocks are hornfels and epidote-rich propylite derived structural features may be mineralized and formore zones from mafic volcanics, commonly with alkalic (shoshonitic) that are transgressive to strata. compositions,mafic tuffs and volcanic sandstones and calcareous mudstone. Intrusions are generally small, zoned Pervasive propylitic alteration of the matrix and clast rims of fragmental volcanic rocks is characterinxl by disstocks with diorite to syenite compositions. Their age is similar to, or slightlty younger than, their hostrockalkalic seminated grains or intergrowths of epidote with chlorite, volcanics. Feldspathic hornblende porphyry dikes and sills calcite, tremolite, quartz, albitic plagioclase, clinozoisite are common. Thestocks exhibit little alteration but have a and rare andradite garnet. Calcite is abundant pelipheridto weaklydevelopedporphyrycopper-stylemineralization. the propylitic alteration zone and in the mudstone beds.

n shown on Figure 84. Figure 8-3. Geology of the QR gold deposit after Fox and Cameron (1995). Cross-sectionsof the three ore zones a

BuNetin 97

8 I

British Columbia

, ,

... .... ......


.......

.. . .. . .
N

C . WEST ZONE

Fracture controlled quartz-sencitepyrite zones may occur in subordinate amounts. Granular pyrite-epidote-calcite aggregates replace the matrix of the volcaniclastic rocks and clast rims. Locally pods and lenses contain up to 80% pyrite and other m e sulphidegrains. F'yrite also occnrs as fractnre coatings, seams and veinlets with calcite and epidote.Itisthe predominant sulphide mineral; the ore mineral is gold. Subordinatemiueralsarechalcopyrite,pyrrhotite,sphalerite and marcasite withminorgalena, andarsenopyrite.Magnetite may be present as a constituent in some sulphide-rich bands. Gangue minerals in addition to the abundant epidote, chlorite and calcite are tremolite, quartz, clinozoisite and rare andraditegarnet. Permeability in the volcaniclastic rocks is a fundamental ore control; secondary controls are tectonic breccias, faults and fracture zones that provide additional fluid flow paths. Chemically reactive hostrocks containing calcite, sulphide minerals or devitrified glass may cause ore deposition by chemically buffering the hydrothermal solutions. Origin: The QR deposit is related to a small, relatively "dry-looking", zoned alkalic stock. Fox (1989, 1991) has described the deposit as a "failed" porphyry system. He suggests that gold is transported by a magmatic-source low density, low-sdinity fluid rich in COz. The writers consider the deposit tobe a product of a small geothermal cell with an evolving hydrothermal fluid. A magmatically derived fluid interacted with meteoric water and the mixture evolved, probably through fluid-wallrock interaction with the chemically reactive calcareous siltstones. Mellinger al. (1990) provide isotopic data that are consistent with other porphyry copper magmatic systems but some modification in carbon by wallrock interaction is indicated. The early alteration is associated withcalcite (note the zeolite mineral wairakite should form this in environment but hasnot been recognized), then the COz-depleted fluid reacts with the basalts to form propylite mainly epidote, pyrite, chlorite and (?) tremolite with rare andradite garnet. This is not a retrogressively altered skarn because maximum temperatures of mineralization appear to be in the order of 200 to 300C. This low temperature produces prograde propylite mineralassemblageswithout any substantial amount of calc-silicate and silicateminerals typical of gold skarns such as garnet, pyroxene, wollastonite, vesuvianite, axinite, potassium-feldspar and biotite.

,
Drill hole showing
mtersection in
7Sm and god tenor in 6 . W ' gr0ms)bnne

metres

Epidote

skorn
/

Gold zone

Figure 8-4. Cross-secrions of the QR gold deposit Main, Midwest and West 0% zones after Foxand Cameron (1995); locations are shown on Fignre 8-3.

Exploration Guides: A distinctly anomalous geochemical signature of gold, arsenic, silver and copper are typically associated with ore. Pathfinder elements in the hydrothermally altered rocks include zinc, molybdenum, vanadium, antimony and possibly lead, cadmium, bismuth, cobalt, magnesium andiron (Fox et aL, 1987). Glacial till, soil and vegetation exploration geochemishy have been used effectively in this region of extensive glacial dispersion. Magetic surveys have been effectiveexploration tools. Aeromagnetic highs canbe used to detect the presence of intrusions, mainly the magnetite-rich dioritic stocks with which the propylitic alteration is associated. Some of the

82

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry o f Employment and investment

porphyrycopper mineralization contains abundanthystocks are composed of quartz-phyric granodioritt: to quartz drothermally derived magnetite. monzonitewithlarge quam grains in fine to mediumgrained, leucocratic alaskite to aplite groundmass. This Genetically affiliated mineralization may be manifest as intrusion-related auriferousvein, replacement and pyrite- younger intrusive suite commonly carries some porphyrystyle molybdenite mineralization. Other Cretaceous intrusericite stockworks, manto and skarn deposits and porphyry sions withrelatedmolybdenum or molybdenum-copper copper-gold or porphyrygolddeposits,allinpropylitic mineralization are the Gavin Lakestock and related settings. Other deposits with similaritiesto the QR deposit are the 66 zone at theMiUigan porphyry copper-gold deposit deposits, the copper-molybdenum prospects in the large Nyland Lake stock nearthe Quesnel River in the northem in British Columbia, and elswhere the mantos such as Canpart of the map area, and EN (Eureka Peak), F.S., W o o d , delaria and Puntadel Cobre, Chile. Discussion: The QR deposit and propylite gold depos- Dor, Daphne,KateandTamprospects.Otherprobably intrusion-related deposits are the Bren and Mckee prospcts its in general) appear to be related to mineralization by a and some replacements and veins such as the Jamboree (relatively) small volume of ponded hydrothermal fluid related to emplacement of a small alkalic stock. There has (Table 8-1; Figure 8-1). been considerable interaction with (buffering by) the basaltic country rock to form abundantepidote and pyrite but AURIFEROUS QUARTZ VEINS IN no substantial amount of skarn. The hydrothermal system METASEDIMENTARY BLACK PHYLLI1E exemplifiesa lithologicallyand structurally controlled min- UNITS eralizing process in which adjacent permeable and imperThe Triassic black phyllites of unit 1 host auriferous meable lithologiesform a fluid trap against a small, quartz veins of two main types(Figure 8-5). Thefirst type, mineralizingintrusion. The West zone, on the otherhand, is characterized by the Frasergold deposit, compris:s the parlargely a structural trap and forms a discrete, copper-rich tially concordant, deformed, early forming veins that are zone. localized in a distinctive stratigraphic interval. The second This type of propylitic alteration can be considered to type is represented by fracture-controlled vein niineralizabe a subtype of skam mineralization - a prograde, low-tem- tion thatis associated with quartz-carbonate altemtion, ,such perature, auriferous epidote skam. Unusual aspects that set as that in the Spanish Mountain area. The twcs styles of the pmpylite model apart from other auriferous skarns are mineralization are thought to be similar in ageand re1,ated (G.E. Ray, personal communication,1994): the association to deformation during regional metamorphism but the :fracwith alkalic rocks; the large amount of epidote with lack of ture-controlled type may be younger. pyroxene and only traces of garnet; mineralization with Frasergold Prop*; MINFILE 093M150 pyrite, lesser magnetite and rare pyrrhotite suggesting an oxidized ore fluid; the high gold to silver ratio and overall TheFrasergoldproperty is locatedonnorth-facing low coppercontent slopes in the upper reaches of the McKay River valley as This style of mineralization deservesto be identified (Figure 8-6). approximately 57 and 100 kilometres east of a deposit type that is distinct from the gold skarn model HorseflyandWilliamsLake,respectively.Gold on this largely becauseit represents a new exploration opportunity. property occurs in quartz veins and as a geochemical enrichan unspectacular appearance in out- ment in a The mineralization has specific lithological unit within the Nicola Group crop and generally has not heen highly regarded as an basal sedimentary succession, unit 1 (Figure 8-5). The veins exploration prospect. Many pyritic propylite occurrences, are localized in distinctive porphyrohlastic phyllites with especially those in porphyry copper districts. might have underlying graphitic banded phyllites in the basal100 mebeen excluded from further investigation of their gold con- tres of a 300-metre succession oflustrous porphymblastic tent. phyllite. The siderite, ankerite and chloritoid-bearing hostrocks, commonly referred to asknotted phyllitc,are part PORPHYRY MOLYBDENUM, AND COPPER of Bloodgoods (1987a)unit Tra4. The veins arc: localized ASSOCIATED DEPOSITS AND RELATED VEINS in this unit over a distance ofat least 1.5 ki1omt:tres along WITH CALCALKALINE STOCKS of the themoderatelysouthwestdippingnorthernlimb Eureka Peak syncline. Equivalent rocks be can Quartz-bearing, calcalkaline intrusionsoccurin the Wtced tco the map area as both large plutons and small stocks. They form southern limb of the syncline where they contnin garnet, two distinctive suites of rocks in terms of composition and albite and chloritoid. Bedding attitudes trend northwest with 40 to 50 dips age, as discussed in Chapter 3. Early Jurassic rocks are represented by the Takomkanebatholith,amedium to to the southwest. Bedsare defined by thin quartz.sandr;tone coarse-grained granodiorite with syenodiorite andporlayers, 0.5 to 10 centimetres thick. A penetrative phyllitic phyritic biotite-bearing phases. Molybdenum mineralizafoliation is developed axial planar to tight isoclinal folds. tion inthe stock at the past-producing Boss Mountain mine The porphyroblasts, which range in size from 1to 20 milli(MINFILE 093A 001). 43 kilometres to the southeast of metres,arecommonlyflattenedwithintheplanecffoliation. Horsefly, is related to a small, late Early Cretaceous intru- The SI schistosity strikes 130 and dips 55 to 60 to the sion,theBossmountainstock.ThisandtheotherCretaceous southwest. In many places bedding has been tranr.posecl into

Bulletin 97

83

Figure 8-5. Generalized geologicalmap of project area showing locationsof suucturally controlled, mainly (mesothermal) vein deposits.

Minisfry o f Employnew ond hwestmenf

"

and obliterated by the SI foliation. An S2 crenulation cleav- in phyllite suggest that some remobilization took place age is subparallel to SI.It trends 115 to 120 and dips during folding. The formation of the quartz veins was synt:hnous southwesterly at 70 to 85'. Auriferous quartz veins with some carbonate range with regional metamorphism and deformation. A smpIe of from 2 to 20 centrimetres in thickness and usually extend hydrothermal sericite from a quartz vein in the Main zone yielded a K-Ar date of 151 6 Ma (see Table 4-2 fol: analytifrom 1to 10metres along strike. They are generally parallel, or nearly so, to So and S i structures and form lenses,rolls cal data). Deformed and undeformed veins occir on all and saddle reefs (see Figure 6-3). A few large rods or quartz scales,alongthelimbsandwithinthehingeregionsoffolds. knots up to a metre across are also present (photo 8-1). The Some of the vein fillings are probably products of faids that were generated during dewatering reactions during the Late quartz is generally miIky white in coIour and forms massive Jurassic metamorphicevent. The fluidsmigratedalong to coarse granular intergrowths commonly containing dolomite and siderite. The veins also contain a small amount of cleavage surfaces and deposited the vein constituents in dilational zones. pyrite, less common pyrrhotite and traces of other sulphide The lithological control, possibly through fluid-rwk minerals. Gold is associated withthe sulphide minerals or interactions in the graphitic sedimentary rocks, has yrooccurs in quartz near the margins of veins, stringers and duced a zone of geochemical gold enrichment is that boudins as fine, anhedral grains. Gold smears on fold hinges defined

Figure 8-6. Frasergold property workareas, claim boundary and geochemical gold anomaly in soils; Eureka Rewurces Inc. company repon, 1592.

BuNetin 97

85

by asoil and rock geochemical anomaly IO kilometres long Gold is frequently visible as fine particles rimming cavities (Figure 8-5). Company reprts (EurekaResources Inc., or as wires where sulphide minerals are oxidized. ' b o J. Kerr, written communication, 1992) that summarize the mineralized zones identified by F'undata Gold Corporation economic potential state that drilling at 25-metre intervals are estimated to collectivelycontain 838 000 tonnes of and to a depth of 100 metres over an 800-metre zone has materialwitbanaveragegradeof1.95gramspertonnegold; established reserves in the order of 3.2 million tonnes con- more recent work has not substantiatedthis estimate. taining 1.71 gramsper tonne gold. Drilling at wider The fracture-controlledstyle of the mineralization sugintervals, over 3-kilometre a strike length, indicatesmineral gests that the veins and stockworkpostdate metamorphism reserveswith similar gold content in a largerzone are and deformation. The propertiesare located on the northeast possibly amenable to open-pit mining. Exploration potential limb of a northwest-trending anticline that is cut by numerous northwesterly trending, syndeformationalthrust faults. at depth and over an additional 7-kilometre strike of the The lithologic units and northwest-trending structures are anomalous zone remains to be tested. crosscut by aseries of prominentnortheast to east-trending Spanish Mountain Deposits CPW (Mariner) and Peso normal faults. These crosscutting structures and faults Claims; MINFILE 093A/043 control the mineralization. Quartz veins containing gold and minor base metals occur to the southwest of Spanish Lake, about 7 kilometres TERTIARY BEDROCKDEPOSITS southeast of Likely. The main lithologies in the area are Megabucks Property; MINFILE 093A/078 phyllitic to massive siltstones and interbedded tuffs. Much of the area is affected by pervasive carbonatesilica replaceThe Megabucks copper-gold prospect is underlain predominantly by Eocene volcaniclasticrocks, feldspar-phyric ments and listwanite (greenmica - quartz - carbonate) ash flows and possibly some coeval hornblende porphyry alteration associated with quartz veins or fractures. In the more intensely altered zones there are quartz stockworks dikes. Some of the property covers granodioriteof the Early and larger veins, a number of which define a consistent Jurassic Takomkane batholith. A large part of the area is of till, fluvioglacialdepositsand northeasttoeasttrend.Goldoccursinthequartzveinswhich covered by a mantleglacial range in thickness from 0.01 to 4 metres, dip steeply and small outliers of Miocene basalt; older bedrock is rarely exposed. trend to the northeast. The veinsare typically crystallinet o vuggy quartz with lesser carbonate intergrowths and assoThe Discovery zone is in silicified and propylitized Eocene hornblende feldspar porphyry flows and breccia. ciatedminorgalena,chalcopyrite, pyrite andsphalerite.

Photo 8-1. Typical auriferousquartz veins at the Frasergold property exposed by stripping of thin overburden lo facilitate mapping and sampling of quartz and the surrounding phyllitic hosmks. The veins are discontinuous along strike; commonly the larger massesof quartz occur as boudins.

86

Geological Survey Branch

Also present are purple and tan-coloured lapilli tuffs and OTHER DEPOSITS buff to grey tuffaceous sediments.The silicifed rocks conOther mineral deposits in the study aream: listed and tain epidote as blebs and stockwork fillings with magnetite shown on Figure 8-7. They include three occLIrreno5s of and chalcopyrite,Pyrite is rare to absent in this association. native copper in Nicola volcanics and related ckalcocite in Gold appears to be intimately associated with chalcopyrite. nearby calcareous andfine-grained clastic sc:dimentary Drilling during 1983 and 1984 has outlined about 750 000 units. Thereare two occurrencesin ultramaficrmks, one an tonnes containing 0.15% copper and 1.37 grams gold per asbestos showing, theother contains talc, nickel andother tonne. Some recent drilling records itercepts of 30 metres metals in shear zones. TheEagletfluorite and silverprospect with 1.2 grams per tonne 48 and metres with 0.64 gram gold consists of a series of steeply-dipping mineralized zone per tonne (Campbell, 1984). believed to be typical of the within a 1500 by 900-metre area in gneissic and pegmatitic mineralization. rocks oftheSnowshoeGroup.TheKuskproperty is a The mineralized rocks are found in faulted and sheared gold-silverprospectdescribed as astrataboundzone of zones in which beds have steeper dips than the regional quartz and carbonate-altered and quartz-veined phyllites. norm. This suggests that they occur at, or near the margin The Horsefly silica deposit consists of a large zone within of a graben or other structurally controlled depression. The the Eocene volcanic succession o f poorly indurated silimcks are the most strongly altered with pervasive bleachingceous volcanic ash. due to mainly carbonate-sericite-clay alteration. Pyite with lesser chalcopyrite is disseminated and occurs in veinlets. PLACER GOLD DEPOSITSOF In the central mineralized zone goldis associated with the chalcopyrite,To the southwest there is a pyrite halo partially HORSEFLY AND QUESNEL RIVER DISTRICT delineated by drilling that appears to surround the coppergold zone. Records of gold mining in the Quesnel River area date to coarseIn the southern part of the property, medium a back to theearliesthistoryof placer mining in British grainedgranodioritethat seemingly is part of the Early Columbia. There is mention as early as 1852 .of natives Jurassic Takomkane batholith, and the overlapping Eocene trading gold nuggets from unknown sourcesat thc Hud!ions tuffaceous rocks, are altered by an assemblageof tourmaBay Company trading post at Kamloops. The mining of line, sericite and abundant fine-grained pyrite. This altera- substantialamountsof placer goldbeganin1857ina tion commonly consists of vuggy, fine to medium-grained tributary of the Thompson River and led to art influx of masses of radiating black tourmaline needles. Similarlyin several thousand miners into the Fraser River valley and the northen part of the property and 3.5 kilometres southeast areas in the south of the province. A numberof the more of Starlike Lake, the Eocene tuffaceous rocks have sericite- adventurous prospectors worked up the Frase:Rivt?r in pyrite assemblages in zones of bleached, siliceous pyritized search of new placers and possibly the lode gold sources. rocks containing tourmaline-bearing fractures and veins. Their continued prospecting efforts took themup the QuesPeripheral to the tourmalinized rocks, mainly in the older ne1 River to what is now Quesnel Forks. Rich river-bar pnodioriteand possibly homfelsicTriassicvolcanic rocks, placer gold was found there in 1859. During thal time,five men led by two natives, proceeded up through Quesnel Lake propylitized rocks contain pyritic quartz-sericite stockworks and extensive zones with pervasive replacement of totheHorseflyRiveranditsconflucncewithLittleHonefly River. There they reponedly took out 101 ouncesofgold in mafic minerals by chlorite, epidote and disseminated grains oneweekbeforetheonsetofthewinter(Carmichleel,1931). of pyrite. The news of the rich placers in the Cariboo travl:lled quickly and the great Cariboo gold rush began. In 1860, Possible Epifbennal Targets prospectors worked from Quesnel Forks up the north fork Vuggy, chalcedonic quartz-carbonate veins with eleof the Quesnel River (now the C a r i b o o River) as far as vated values of arsenic, barium and antimony (see Figure CaribooLake.RichplacerwasfoundonKeithley,~ndAntler 8-7; Appendix M) outcrop on the Horsefly River near Hobcreeks. The next season saw further prospecting up the sonspitatthedownstreamendof TheStepsareainNicola creeks and over the divide into Williams Creek. The pbebasalts. Similar veinlets and quartz stockworks, with rare nomenal richness ofthe gravels in this creek su~passed all amethystine quartz, were also noted along Hazeltine Creek the previous diggings to date. Nearly a thousand miners in the Eocene rocks. A fault zone north of Robert Lake in flooded the area and greatly expanded the wor,dngs. For the Beaver Creek valley contains altered rocks with vuggy four years the surface gravels produced unheard of amcunts texture and open-space filling carbonate and chalcedonic of gold, approximately $2,000,000 worth (117 647 ounces quartz: representative samples returned silver values to 70 at $17.00 per fine ounce). Active placer mining continued ppm silver with anomalous lead, arsenic, mercury and bar- through to the late 1930s, evolving through mmy mining ium. The vuggy textures, banded chalcedony, crustified methods.By 1945, arecorded827 741 ouncw ofgold recoveredfromtheCariboo goldfields (Hollaud,1950). calcite, as well as the association of metals noted above, is These production figures represent only recorded produccharacteristic of epithennal mineralization.

Bulletin 97

87

Volcanic-hosted Copper Occurrences


MlNFlLE NO. 083A 088 083A O M 083A 075 MlNFllE Name

B
RED MOFFAT

CMlmodiiy -rime CWW, chatcocne

-~1ke COW% chalcoclle -native EOPPM. chalCoclle

Other Occurrences
MlNFlLE Na 083A ill3 083A 046 KUSK 083A 081 093A 138 083A 134 MlNFlLE N a m SOVEREIGN CREEK EAQLET FONTAINE CREEK HORSEFLY

-IaIc. N I A& ZR Au -fluom* A0


-Aq A S -B*wstoB . I E B

As

Sb 8e 4 - Ap Epltkmsl? lndlcstlom (sea wpendlx M N for locallw)

- -

HwsefEl R.iP8s-AXla AP87-AX6 xB Hazelline Ck AP07-AX24 AP87-AX28 xC faun zone AP87-AX17 T d AP87-AX22
xA

,WOW

Figure 8-7. Generalized geological map of project area showing locationsofvolcanic-hosted native copper occurrences and other mineral deposits.

Figure 8-8. Generalized geologicalmap of project area showing locations of placer gold deposits.

British Columbia

The Miocene deposits overlie either Eocene volcanic or sedimentary rocksor, less commonly, the Triassic-Jurassic Nicola rocks.The sedimentary rocks form a succession of thinly bedded to laminated and frequentlyvarved Eocene lacustrine sediments at least 150 metres-thick. Abundant fossils found in the sediments include fish and leaves as well as pollens, seeds and spores. Fossil fish (Amyzon aggregatum, Eohiodon rosei) have been dated at 50 to 45 Ma (Wilson, 1977). Palynology (AppendixD)corroboratesthe Middle Eocene age of the sediments. The lacustrine sediments now in large part occupy the Horsefly River valley byLevsonandGiles(1993)andEylesandKocsis(1988a,b; 1989). indicating that this has been a long-livedtopographic low. This feature is probably caused by north to northwesterly Locations of placer deposits in the study area.as noted trending Eocene structures that formed a system of grabens byHolland(1950),LevsonandGiles(1993)andtheanthors, this study, are shown on Figure 8-8. Most are described in alongorobliquetothetrendoftheTriassic-Jurassicvolcanic MINFILE. Fifteen additional sites are listed by name on the arc. Above and adjacentto thelacustrine sediments are small outliers of biotite-bearing trachybasalt flows and andesitic figure, including at least five sites on benches above the to trachyaudesitic crystal ash tuffs dated at 52.221.8 Ma upper Quesnel River collectivelyreferred to as the Quesnel (Table 4-1).Abundant detritalbiotite in the basal part of the River SouthFork d e p i t s . Sixty-one ofthe deposits in the lacustrinesequence, andthin ash layers in the unit, indicate CariWQuesnel-Horsefly area have recently been studied Contemporaneous deposition during the Middle Eocene. by Levson and Giles (1993). They describe the paleogeomorphic settings and depositional environments including: Capping theEocene sedimentary sequenceis a 100-meburied paleochannels; buried, braided streams and wander- tre section of Miocene flood basalts. The basalts have been ing, gravel-bed river deposits;and surficialdeposits. Levson dated at Gravel Creek to be 14.659.5 Ma(this study) but, in and Giles also assess the placer potential and classify indithe region, range from 16 to 9 Ma and younger (Mathews, vidual deposits in terms of: buried Tertiary placers; pa1989). They extend from Beaver to Creek the west and south leogulch placersin high-relief areas; pre-Lafe Wisconsinan, beyondthe area mapped and form a continuous plateau large paleochannel deposits; Late Wisconsinan glacial and covering with its base at approximately 850 metres elevation. Locally the basalts form smallhilltop-cappings that are glacioflnvial placers; late glacial and postglacial, high to intermediate-level terrace placers; Holocene,low-level outliers from the main body. This indicates the basalts were terrace placers; and postglacial colluvial and alluvial fan originally more extensive but their margin hasbeen eroded deposits. along the Horsefly - Qnesnel Riverdrainage system. Sandwiched locally between the Eocene sediments and GEOLBGY OF THE HORSEFLY RIVER the Miocene flood basalts are Miocene fluvial deposits. PLACER FIELDS They form the Miocene channel referred to by the early miners, that hosts the Horsefly placer gold. Two distinct The placer gold that occurs in the Horsefly and parts of channels havebeen identified by mapping in the area (Lay, the Quesnel River watershed differs from most of the other 193 1). based largely on the excavationsand workings of the placer deposits in the Quesnel River workings and the more pioneer placer miners. The fluvial channels are filled with a extensive C a r i b goldfields to the north.Manyof the distinctivewhite quartz pebble to cobbleconglomerate. The Horsefly depositsare buried Tertiary placers, probably Miocene in age, and predate the C a r i b 0 0 placers by about 14 quartz appears to be derived in large part, if not entirely, from q n m veins. In places the basal 1 to 3 metres of the million years. The Carib00 placers represent mainly a postgravels has been cemented and indurated calcite by to form glacial reworking of older placers or erosion of original lode a natural concrete. The rocks were sufficiently strong to gold deposits (Johnston and Uglow, 1926,1933; Levson and support fairly extensive underground openings in some Giles, 1993). The Horsefly placers are contained in fluvial workings. gravels under Miocene basalt flows and have an undetermined source to the east. The Quesnel River and tributary The main Miocene channel follows the Horsefly River valley down from Black Creek through Horsefly village. creek placer deposits are classified by Levson and Giles It has been found to be up to 150 metres deep and up (1993) as varieties of paleogulch placers, pre-Late Wisto 610 consinan, large paeochannel deposits or late glacial to postmetres across (Lay, 1931, p. A97). The channel sweeps to glacial deposits that occur as high to intermediate-level the west from the Horsefly River in the vicinity of Hobsons bench deposits or temce gravels. Thereare also postglacial placer workings and runs through Antoine Lake and then colluvium and alluvial fan deposits, Holocene low-level into the BeaverCreek valley (Figure 8-9). The second channel, smaller than the first, is to the south and west of terrace placers and reworked, generallysmall,creek-bottom the deposits in which the gold has been concentrated main channel. The Tertiary gravels are exposed on Moffat or reconCreek below Big Moffat Falls as typical quartz-clastfluvial centrated in the modem fluvial systems during postglacial stream erosion. channel gravels capped by Miocene flood basalts. Some

tion. It is estimated that total production between 2.5 and 3 million ounces of gold has been achieved in the Cariboo district, more than any other placer area in the province (B.C. Department of Mines Bulletin 21,1946; Levson and Giles, 1993). The main activity took place in the WellsBarkerville, LightningCreek,KeithleyCreek,Quesnel Forks - Likely and Horsefly River regions. These areas are still being worked for placer gold, though at a much reduced scale. The surficial geology of the C a r i b district and the origins of the placer deposits have been recently described

90

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry o f Employment and Investment

Figure 8-9. Placer channels in the Quesnel Lake Horsefly River district. The oldest placer deposits are the Tertiary paleachanne:ls of the Miocene Horsefly River and subsidiary Gravel-Moffat-Mussel creeks fluvial systems that havea postulated gold source-area near rocks. TheQuesnel and Carib00 River theQuesnellia-Barkervilleterraneboundary near theareaofhigh-grademetamorphic placer-bearing gravels were deposited in pre-late Wlsconsinan paleochannelsand late glacial to postglacial fluvial systems as high to intermediate-level terrace placers(Levson and Giles, 1993). Their possible lodegold sources are vein depositsin the Quesnel Lake, Carib00 River areas.A number of other placer deposits are formed by, or have been reconcentratedin, ])ostglacial Spanish Mountain and streams as Holocene, low-levelterrace placers and colluvial andalluvial fan deposits.
~

(Levson and Giles, 1993). Glacial and postglacial reconcenprospecting was done, but no gold recovery is recorded. tration of the Miocene placer gold is generally not signifiTertiaxy gravels from the same channel also crop out at cant in the Horsefly area. Exceptions are some of the Gravel Creek where it is crossed by the 150 Mile House Horsefly road. Here the gravels lie between Miocene basalt gold-bearing tributaries of Beaver Creek along Beaver is evident. and a thin layer of Eocenelacustrine sediments that rest on Creek valley where postglacial reworking Triassic basement in Gravel Creek. The sedimentary section HORSEFLY AREA PLACER DEPOSITS is not fully exposed but is no more than 30 metres thick. (MIOCENE CHANNELS) Also, some Tertiary gravels are poorly exposedto the west of China Cabin Creek. The greater extent of the gravels is The village of Horsefly (or Horse-fly) was the centre of indicated by the widespread distribution of white quartz a small placer mining community througb the height of the cobblesin gravelsand overburden throughout that area. The Cariboo gold rush into the early 1900s. It was known as thickness of the gravels in the southern channelappears to Harpers Camp from 1859 through to 1921 when. the ntame increase toward the north. This suggests that a small river was oftically changed to Horsefly. The discovery of gold on or largestreamflowed north downBeaverCreek,and the Horsefly Riverin the spring of 1859 is creditcd to Peter possibly joined the larger Miocene channel. Dunlevey. He and a gang of men were led th~: up river and Pleistocene glaciation has since cut through to the site of the shown wherethere was gold by two natives. The Mesozoicbedrockandextensivelyscoured the Tertiary initial placer mining is immediately outside town, to the section. Variable thickness of till and glaciofluvialdeposits east, and was known as the Ward's Horsefly mine. In Iecent have lefi behind a cover that ranges from a thin veneer a years, Horsefly has supported small a community basedon metre or less in thickness, to sectionsup to 100 metres thick. forestry, ranching and recreation. The Horsefly River:is an The glacial deposits have roughly the same stratigraphy as important salmon stream and placer staking is no longer that described in the Cariboo placer district to the north permitted. However the surrounding regions near Antoine

Bulletin 97

91

Brirish Columbia

Modern

Tertiary H ~ River nHorsefly efiy River

E
Valley

Miocene

.
Metre3

Bedrock-TertiarySediments

?
F l g u r e 8-10. Sketch map f r o m Lay (1932) of probable coursesofTertiary channels in the Horsefly a m and diagrammaticcross-sections through the Tertiaryand modern channels atWard's Horsefly workings.

92

Geological

SUN^ Branch

Minisffy of Employment and Invesfmenf

Lake, Beaver Valley and Black Creek remain in the placer reserve. Wards Horsefly (Harpers Camp), MINFILJ? 093Af015

Miocene channel as there is nogoldintheQuaternary gravels immediately adjacent to the mine.


Miocene Shaft; MINFILE 093Af014

Immediately adjacent to Wards hydraulic operation, Initial work at the site by J.T.Ward, as well as the R.N. Campbell staked at least twelve placer claims in 1894Horsefly Gold Mining Company and International Dredg- 97, extending southwest through Harpers Lake, and e!;tabing Company, was in Holocene reconcentrated placer at the lished the Miocene Gravel Mining Company. In 1898-99, margin ofthe Miocene channel.This ground is said to have Campbell sank a shaft, collared 300 metres southwe:rt of been very rich.Later workers have reported that it was the Wards pit. This shaft cut 84 metres of quartz gavels and quartz gravels that held the rich pay streaks. Holland (1950) then bottomed in 15 metres of shale (no doubt the Ewene reportsthat a total of 15216 ounces of gold were recovered. lacustrine sediments). From the bottom of theshaft, 21 45However, earlier authors estimated production worth $500 metre drift was driven westward into the gravels. Also a 000 to $1 250 000 during the life of the mine (Galloway, 76-metre decline was driven to thewestfromtheshaft 1919; p. K137), resulting in a calculated production of bottom, dropping38 metres along its length at -39.sirnilar 29,000 to 59,000 ounces of gold, assuming an average price tothe slope ofthebedrocksurface.Initially,Campbell for gold of $17.00 per ounce. The quantity is likely to have thoughttheMiocenechannelflowedwestwardthrough been greater as much of the gold was sold after 1901 when Harpers Lakeinto the head of Beaver Valley, but this was the price of gold had increased to $20.67. a not foundto be thecase. In 1900, he sanksecond shafl. 600 Reports by the Resident Mining Engineer (Lay 1932, metres southwest ofWardspit. This is the locally well 1939) state that the Wards Horsefly operation worked the known Miocene shaft, and is located under the presenrday east edge of the Miocene channel. At this point the channel B.C. Telephone building at the junction of Wakers Road is 150metres deep and approximately 600 metres wide. The and the main road in Horsefly village. This was a large stratigraphyconsists of a thin cover of Quaternary sediment three-compartment shaft that was sunk 167 metres, bot60mover 7 to 24 metres of white quartz pebble conglomerate ing in the Eocene shales. A 152-metre drift was driven in (Figure 8-10). The bottom 2 to 7 metres of this was the Blue the direction of the channel andraises were cu: at 1 : ! 2 to Gravel pay horizon. The blue gravels unconformably 152 metres to test the gravels. A run of slum from.the overlie shaly Eocene lacustrine sedimentsofunknown 152-metre raise flooded the workings and they were abandip of the Eocene thickness, dipping west at 30to 35. The doned.Testingofthe~ravelswasnotextensivebut;itshowed rocks suggests that they have been tilted after deposition, goldinlessthanpayingquantities(Galloway,1~~19).After another indication of Late Eocene, or younger, tectonic the flooding of the shaft, no further work hasbeem done on activity possibly related the to development of a graben. The the Miocene Gravel Mining Company ground. Eocene graben is now marked in part by the course ofthe Miocene and present day Horsefly River fluvial deposits. Hobsons Horsefly; MINFILE 093Af015 The placer goldwasinitiallyrecoveredby surface The earliest record of activity at the site of Iiobson pit placer mining methods. However, as mining progressed deeper, the workings were below the grade of the Horsefly is from 1887. By that time work hadalready been done on reworked placer in the Horsefly River and mining was River and made normal mining methods difficult. By the in the was late 1880sdrift mining was in progress at the site. Ward took progressing up the bank. Drift miningundemken cemented gravels andthe scope of operations expanded in over the operation in 1891 and attempted some hydraulic the site was was done for the next 1890 to include hydraulic mining. At that time work fora season. No significant work known as the McCallum claims or the Discovery Company five years, butin 1896Ward undertook an ambitious develground. opment. He had two hydraulic elevators installed and a major hydraulic operation began. Water was diverted from In 1892,J.B. Hobson, of the Cariboo Hydraulic Mining both Mussel andMoffatcreeks to supply the monitors and Company and Bullion pit fame, took over the ground and elevators. Alarge pit, 100 metresor more across and upto began extensive development of water supply, drift and 18 metres deep was excavated. Gold recoveries were conhydraulic mining.A large-scaleoperationflourished sidered good and the operation continued through to 1904. through to 1899. Over 2000 metres ofdrifts and cross;cuts At that time corporate problems resulted in closure of the webbed the cemented gravels at the close of 0pt:rations in mine. In 1915, a dredging venture was planned to rework 1899. The mined material was evidently processer: in a smal the hydraulic tailings. However, poor Keystone-drilling r e stamp mill. As well, several hectares of ground had been sults from work done by the British Columbia Department sluiced off to thelevel of the cemented grav3:ls. Some ofMines in 1919killedtheventure. No significant work has additional hydraulic mining was carriedout frorn 190,8-12 been done at the site since then. by E.J. West. In 1930, George Kuchan tookovertheground. He initially reworked the hydraulic tailings bul. made no Due to the overlap of the modern and ancientchannels, advancements inthe old pit itself. Later, he worked ground there has been some recent reconcentration of placer gold. However, the presence of gold is attributed strictly to the near Ratdam (Rat) Lake for several years.

Bulkfin 97

93

300 metres upstream, smaller a pit was developed and some adits were driven to test the gravels. The hydraulic operation worked through to about 1935. Holland (1950) records a total of 62 ounces of gold produced from this creek. Since the close ofthe hydraulic operaton, the Armesfamily worked the ground intermittently through 1985. No prcduction has been recordedfor that time. In 1986, the property was purchased by Lyle Shunter who worked the ground known as the lower pit. The deposit is located within a narrow steep-sided cleft inTriassicvolcanicrocks.Thegorgeisabout30metreswide at the falls and widens to about 300 metres at the lower pit and then narrows again to 30 metres at the top of the pit. The lowest sediments exposed are thinly layered muds, claysand fine sands of unknown thickness. Adrill hole 23.4 metres deep, collared in the middle ofthe pit floor, failed to reach bedrock. Unconfomably above the fine sediments are cross channeled, normally graded fluvial gravels, 12 to 20 metres thick. Individual channels are up to 2.5 metres thick and 7 metres wide. The placer gold occurs as runs in the coarse channel-lag gravels. A thin veneer of colluvium caps the section. The gravels were interpreted to be part of the Miocene channelbytheearlyplacerminersbutLay(1931)statedthat the evidence for the gravels being part of the Miocene channel was inconclusive. Levson and Giles (1993) consider the deposit to be a paleogulch placer. Certainly the abundance of white quartz pebbles and cobblesthe influvial gravels is not as great as that in the Hobson pit but, overall, quartz pebbles and cobbles are abundant. In addition, the tailings contain fragments of metamorphic rock with kyanite, and heavy mineral concentrates from the washplant show abundant garnet, black sand and kyanite grains. The bench at the Black Creekplacer mine is interpreted here to be a higher bench of an upstream Miocene channel that has been reworked by the Recent Black Creek. The character of this small bench is markedly different from the large lower benchthatsurroundsPatenaudeLakeabout100metres below theelevation of the Black Creek workings. There the gravels are mainly morainal deposits containing abundant Black Creek; MINFILJi 093N016 metamorphic detritus and quartz cobbles. Earliest reports of activity on Black Creek indicate The placer operation during 1987recovered good prospecting in the late 1890s by a M r . Campbell (possibly quantitiesof gold from the fluvial gravels. Goldsize ranged R.N.Campbell of the later Mioceneshaft). LaterPhilFraser from flour to nuggets 10 millimetres across. The gold is worked on Black Creek and joined with the Western Mines flattened, beaten and frequently coated in iron oxide,indiExploration Syndicate in 1918 to do some Keystone drilling cating extensive transport. on abenchabout 3.2 kilometresupBlackCreekfrom Horsefly River. The object was to test the bench for gold and Antoine Creek; MINFILE 093AfOI7 determine ifit was part of the Miocene channel.Little gold was recovered from the drilling and testing for the Miocene Placer work on Antoine Creek began in 1928. R.N. channel was inconclusive. It appears that no mining was Campbell worked the ground from Antoine Lake to the top done until 1930when leases held byG. MacKeracher were of the gorge, approximately 1000 metres from the mouth of optioned by Rountree Mines Ltd. and managed by James the creek at Robert Lake. Initial work consisted of test Armes for further development. A large ground sluice was pitting andshaft sinking along the north bank ofthe valley, set up with the dump at the falls, approximately3000 metres followed by a small amount of hydraulicking from 1929to upstream from the mouth of Black Creek, and extended 300 1933. The section worked rested ona false bedrock of red metres upstream. A small hydraulic operation worked the clay/soilofundetermineddepth.Abovethat were blue lower pit and washed gravels through the sluice. Another gravels of variable thickness, similar in character to those

production reported in Minister of Mines Annual Reports for the Hobson pit is 7637 ounces of gold for the years 1894 to 1898 and 1912. As the mine operated for a greater length of timethis represents possibly only half, and probably much less, of the tofal gold recovered. Grades in the drift mining werereported to be around $1.63 per tonne in the cemented gravels. Highest values were found at the base of the cemented gravels. The unconsolidated Miocene (pay) 3 gravels returned $0.33 per metre and the overlying 30 to 50 metre section of unconsolidated glaciofluvial gravels carried minor gold,on average about$0.03 per metre. The gravel deposits at the Hobson pit overlie from 15 to 23 metres of Eocene lacushine sedimentary bedrock that rests unconfonnably on Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks. In the pit the Miocene channel is about 3 metres thick at the eastern edge butincreases to over 9 metres along the The bottom western face where it is now covered by talus. 1.3 to 3 metres is cemented by calcite to formnatural concrete. The rockis strong enough to support untimbered workings. At the base of the cemented gravels there is a layer, a few centimetresthick, of partiallycemented Eocene sediments. Ripup clasts of the Eocene sediments are found in thebottom 30 centirnetres of the cemented gravels. The gravels at the Hobson pit are identicalto those of Wardspit. fluvialdeposThey are white quartz pebble and cobble-rich its. Heavy mineral concentrates contain abundant garnet, little black sand, mainly pyroxene, some kyanite and only a magnetite and hornblende. Since G. Kuchan worked on the ground in the early 1930s no further work was done in the pit until 1987.In the including summer of that year a consortium of companies Laredo Mines Inc. attempted some underground drift mining in the cemented gravels, using an adapted continuous mining machine. Adecline was started in the west-pit face and driven for approximately 30 metres before the mining machine failed.The enterprise was consideredto be development work and no attempt was made to recover gold from the mined material.

94

Geological Survey Branch

Miitisfry o f Employment am1 Inveslmenr

of the Miocene channel at Horsefly. Glacialdrift of variable QUESNEL RIVERDEPOSITS thickness caps the pay gravels. The gravels were not rich; the bottom metre of the blue gravels reportedly carried Bullion Pit, Including Dancing Bill Gulch coarse flake gold with values up to $0.65 per metre (Lay, (187?-1884) and China Pit (1884-1894); MINFILE 093Al025 1931,1933).Holland(1950) repom thatatotalof189 ounces of gold were recovered. The Bullion pit (Photo 8-2) is on the south side of the Lay (1932) shows the gravels at Antoine Creek to be Quesnel River, about 8 kilometres downstream from Likely. the downstream extension of the Miocene channel seen in It was the largest hydraulic mine in the Cariboo region and Horsefly. The projected Miocene channel swings west fromoneofthelargestintheworld.Thepitmeasures1600nietres Hobsons pit, through Ratdam Lake and then Antoine Lake long, 120 metres deep, 75 metres across the bottom and 300 to dischargein Beaver Valley and flow northwest from there metres across the top. Work began in the e d y 1870s, (Figure 8-10), continued through to the 1940s. and has since bem intelrmittent. The mine was operated by Cariboo Hydrairlic Mining Company, J.B. Hobson (1894-1905), Guggenheim family Other Placer Workings interests (1906-1919). small operators (1920 to 1930 and 1943 to present), Quatsino Copper-Gold Mining Company China Cabin Creek This small creek flows northward cf. p.89, B.C. Hydraulics Limited (1930-1931)andBlJllion out of China Cabin Lake into the head of Beaver Valley. The Placers Limited (1932-1942). Thegreatest amcunt ofprocreek has been tested and there is evidence that a small duction was through the periods 1894to 1905 2nd 1934to ground sluicing operatonwasundertakenimmediately 1941. downstream from China Cabin Lake, lake The served as one been substantial but Ibe qu:nntity Production of gold has of the sources of water for sluicing operations elsewhere is uncertain as much early production was not recorded and (Hobsons pit?),as there is a largeditch leading away from the accuracyof later production recordsis suspect. Holland it. Gravels to the west of the lake contain abundant white (1950) quotes a total of 120 187 ounces (3740 kg) reported quartz clasts, suggesting that the Miocene channel, or its from the whole of the south fork of the Quesnel River during erosion products, are presentinthe area (authors,field the period 1874 to 1945. Levson and Giles (199.3) state that mapping). 150500 ounces, were producedup to the end 01the 1930s. Production fromall the Bullion pit operationseljtimated by (West Branch): This creek, also known Choate Creek the authors, based a variety of sourcesand reported quatities by the oldtimers as TeasdaleCreek,produceda small using average prices for that time, suggest that approxiamount of gold. Here, coarse-boulder fluvioglacial outwash mately 171 000 ounces (5320 kg) of gold wen: recovered carries fine flakes and small nuggets, but no large-scale up to 1942 (Table 8-2). mining was done. A Mr. Teasdale lived off the land and Initial workatthesite which became tbeBullionpitwas augmented hissupplies through purchases made with gold done by Chinese miners who followed up rich point-bar that he had mined (Milt Lonneberg, personal communica- deposits at the base of Dancing Bill Gulch. They worked a tion, 1987). small operation on the Quesnel River at the bottom(ofthe gulch that was expanded into a small hydraulic mine by 1884. In 1894, a syndicate of Canadian Pacific Railway Big Lake Creek The creek was prospected in the early 1930s but did not yield any appreciable amount of gold. directors bought the Chinese operation and contracted J.B. as it had cometo be known. However, as reported Lay (1933), the fineness of the gold Hobson to work the China pit (980 fine) was the highest for any placergold in the province The resulting ConsolidatedCaribooHydraulicMining Company greatly expanded the water supply network, into that date. The gold was recovered about 800 metres upstream from Beaver Creek. creased the number of men working and brought in better hydraulic equipment. Huge volumes of gravel were washed inthe extensive sluice complex.In1904,due to :n low site Starlike and Ikiplet Lakes: These lakes were the bedrock grade of 1 to 2%, a sluice tunnel was cut from the o f some prospecting in the late 1920s by J. Williams and Quesnel River up to the middle of the pit. The3 by 3 metre associates. Quartz gravels were identified but could not be tunnel was 500 metres long with a grade of 4.5% and a specifically related to either the Moffat Creek drainage or 30-metre raise to the pit bottom (Sharpe, 1939; maps and the main Miocene channel (Lay, 1932). The amount of gold plans, BCMEMPR Property File). Work continned through recovered, if any,has not been recorded. 1906 when the mine was bought by the Guggent eim family. Production continued but mining, financial and legal diffiOther placer deposits of the Horsefly River systemor culties were encountered andthe mine closed at the end of Miocene channel noted by Holland (1950) include Moffat 1907. (Sucker),Mussel,lisdale or Teasdale(currentlylocally called West Choate Creek), Frasergold (Fraser) and Eureka At the close of operations a well-organimd town excreeks. Other creeks said to have produced gold are Captain isted at Bullionwhichincludedsegregatedquarters for Charlie (possiblypart of Antoine) and Parminter creeks. management, Caucasian, Chinese and Japanese min,ers; a

Bulletin 97

95

Brirish C o l d i n

Photo 8-2. Vlew of the Bullion pit, looking northwest. The photograph is taken from the wall; south the large excavation continues to the east into the area of the China pit and DancingBill Gulch (right of photograph). have workedin the pit and nogreat recoveries of gold have fully equipped smithy; telephone/telegraph to the water been made. Interest in the mine is still evident and some supply points and the telegraph along the Fraser River, as well as a complex water supply network capable of supply- limitedminingactivitystilltakesplaceinthepit ing large volumes of water (maps and plans, BCMEMPR sporadically. Property File). For the next 22 years, small operators interThe gravels at the Bullion pit have the samepreglacial at the site of mittently attempted to work the mine, mainly origin as those in the Cariboo deposits.The goldrecovered the old China pit. from the gravels was generally coarse with many small In 1930 and 1931, the Quatsino Copper-Gold Mining nuggets worth $0.50 to $4.00 (roughly 1 to 7.5 grams in weight). Most of the gold was well worn and frequently Company, through an affiliate, B.C. Hydraulics Limited, and in 1932 Hireen Placers Limited worked the China pit coated with oxidized material. This gold is far travelled and by hydraulic methods and had modest recoveriesof gold. A is believed to be derived from distant sources in the Barkdisasterous failure of the working face destroyed the hydrauerville Terrane. Some of the gold appears to be less worn and possibly originates from nearby quartz veins such as lic operation, swept away more than a hundred metres of sluice and plugged the top 40 metres of the sluice tunnel those in the basal Nicolaphyllite unit in the Spanish Mountain area. In pan concentrates this gold is accompanied by (Sharpe, 1939). abundant large, euhedral pyrite crystals and arsenopyrite In 1933, Bullion Placers Limited, under the direction of president R.F. Sharpe,tookover the mine, refurbished the grains. Some very large nuggets were evidently present as well. In 1988 snipers salvagingold flumeboards and sluicetown and pit, renovating and expanding the water supply to the Quesnel River box spillage from the tunnel spillway system over the next four years. A second pit was developed recovered a flattened 300-gram (IO ounce) nugget that had in Drop Creek (called the South Forkpit) so that 24-hour become wedged between some boards. mining could be done. This highly mechanized and well The lowest gravels in the section are fluvial and may organized operation worked continuously through to 1941 and producedthe present outline of the Bullion pit. Sharpe represent apre-Wisconsinfluvialenvironment.Above these died in 1942 and all work by Bullion Placers ceased. The are glaciofluvialand glacial gravels of the Early Wisconsin town of Bullion was abandoned, the water supply system stade. This section is 30 to 90 metres thick and contained fell into disrepair and subsequently no further hydraulic the richest gravels in the section. Unconformably above mining was done. Since the closure, only small operators these deposits is a layer of consolidated lodgement till,

96

Geological Survey Branch

Minisrry of Employment and Invesrmenf

"

TABLE 8-2 pLA~ER GOLD P~~~~~.~N SINCE 1864 FROM BULLIONMmE, FROM

reported by Johnston (1923). The workings we~e confined largely to the creek bed or, in a few cases, were .on benches up to 30 metres above. According to Johnston, gravels the were probably postglacial but some of the benches might PRODUCTION RECORDS include glacial and interglacial accumulations. USIIMA1ED GRADE Morehead (Seven Mile) Creek: MINFILE YARDS wLu\Rs m m GRADE w m m M A m EAR REPORTED o u m OUNCES m n ~ v ~ ~~ a rOUNCES d 093A/069Levson and Giles (1993) consider tht: Morehead *IWw o w 5291 5.9 Creek placersto be preglacial, large paleochannel deposits. 1893 The setting is similar to the Bullion mine in :hat deeply 1894 8 239 484 5.9 1895 210W 6 0 % 3y17 zs.7 buried channeldeposits that predate glaciation rre ovmlain 1896 IMS3M I27445 7497 12.1 1897 MIM 133559 81m 16.5 thick succession a by of fluvial, lacustrine, glaciofluvial and 1 m 105I41 6185 1 2 . 8 4 . 1 glacial deposits. Some of the gold recovered in the modern1 9 day drainage channels may be derived from erosion of the 5 . 8 older channels. Spanish Mountain Area: WorkingsalongSpanish Creek, MINFILE 093N067, including Black :3ear I h e k 1% and the active McKeown mine, are also rcgarded as 31 w 5522 preglacial,largepaleochannel deposits (Levsor*and IGiles, 7M7 1993). The gold-bearing gravels occupy the upper ptut of a I0482 6824 steep sided, elevated paleochannel eroded in bedrock. Gold 60 to - close to bedrock in the lower gravels, . a~uroxin~atelv _. I N 1941 637m 5017 80 metres below surface, can be coarse. Nuggers up to 185 Tm*us: U14omO I2148 49149 grams (6ounces) taken. been have large ncgeets The comI

Other Workings: QuesnelRiver (SouthFork) has numerous workings on benches and terraces below Likely including Lawless (Half Mile), Carberry Creek, Rose Gulch and in the vicinity of The Forks. ' l b o kilometres east of called the boulder clay by the placer miners. The unconfor- Likely there was placer production at Poquette Creek. Carimity representsthe Olympia glacial interstade of the Middle boo River ('North Fork' of the Quesnel up River) to C r t r i h Wisconsin. The lodgement till represents the base of the had workings, as did the tributaries at Kangxoo Creek, Upper Wisconsin Fraser glacial stade. The thickness of the Keithley/FourMile, Rollie (Duck) and Frank (Cloose) placlodgement till is not specifiedbut typicallyit is rarely more ers. Placers along the Quesnel River to the wesi and north30 to ! Maud and than 10 metres. Wellstratified gravels form the upper west of Quesnel Forks include the workings a Birrell (Twenty Mile) creeks. In the lower Quesnel River 50 metres of the section. The Pleistocene sectionis capped region, near Quesnel, there was placer mining: at Sardine of Holocene debris (Sharpe,1939, Fulton, 1984; by a veneer in 'he Quesnel Flats, below the mouthofDeacon Creek and Clague, 1987; Levson and Giles, 1991). The valley fill in River Big Canyon area. the Bullion pit represents an ancientriver channel older than 100000yearsBP(Clague,1987)andisprohablyaprecursor Other placer workings notedbyHolland (1950) or Levson and Giles (1993) in the northern part O f map area to the present Quesnel River. It appears that the Miocene and Pleistocene channels followed older water courses. This include those on the Cottonwood River andon Sovereign, Swift,WingdamandLightning creeks as well as 'Baker theory has been presented before by other workers in the Creek, a tributary of the Fraser River, near Quesnel. area and might be useful as a prospecting guide to find other buried channels. Clague (1987) has recently recognized and described a buried channeI this of type on the Carib00 River. PLACER GOLD COMPOSITION AND LODE SOURCES Cedar Creek- MINFILE 0934141: This is a notable placer creek as it is one of the rare new major discoveries The placer gold inthe Horsefly Riverarea contained in thatwasmadesincethe1860s.Thediscoveryin 1921 ofpay Miocene white quartz bearing channels does not appear to gravels at elevations around 300 metres above the present be locally derived from the volcanic arc basalric deposits. main valley bottoms resulted in recorded production 37 of This is in contrast to some of the deposits in !he Quesnel 784 ounces (I 175 kg) ofgold (Holland, 1950). The deposits River drainange system which appear, in part a:: least, to be locally derived. The distinctivewhite quartz cl. a r econcontained rich gravels. Over I 6 OOO ounces (500 kg) was recovered during 1921 to 1923 by using simple tained in an argillaceous sluicingand to micaceous matrix composed of rocking methods; in 1922 recoveries of 7 ounces gold per an abundance of clay-sized phyllosilicate minerals, mainly muscovite.Typica1 mineralogy ofthe heavy minxalfraction yard (166g/m3) of gravel over thicknesses of 2 metres are
"

Bullefin 97

97

samples from the Quesnel River and to the south. Gold from lode sources in the Spanish Lake area is similar in composition or is slightly less fine, commonly from 750 to 790. Compositions of placer gold in the map area reported by Holland (1950)range from 762 to 980 fme. Compositions vary, the average fineness of more than 25 OOO ounces of gold recovered from the Bullion pit is 801, according to Holland, butthe fineness of individual samples varies from 762.5 to 822.5. The 980value from Big Lake Creek represents the highest gold content of any placer gold in the province (Holland, 1950). The probe work on individual grains shows distinct rimming and fracture-fillingof placer grains by gold of very high fineness, for example, cores are around 775 fine but rims and healed fractures or veinlets are more than 990 fine. Historic reported fineness represents an average sample composition. Individual deposits will vary in fineness depending on the ratio of core to rim in the grains from various partsofthedepsit.Whethertherimswithhighgo1dcontent represent high-purity gold that has grown on the grains or is a product of leaching during transportation and maturation in the sites of deposition is a long-standing argument.The main element contained in the samples in addition to gold is silver; other metals are present in very minor amounts. Copper is generally present in amounts less than 200 ppm. in pan concentratesincludes abundant almandine and some Mercury rangesfrom a grain averageof 100 to 900 ppm in spessaainegarnet,kyanite,andonlyminorblacksand(magthe samples. Anomalous mercurycontent of up to 1.3% is netite, amphibole, pyroxene, epidote and olivine). The gold notedinsomeprobeanalysesoftheplacergrainsfromBlack itself is coarse to fine in size, well beaten, flattened and Creek. McTaggart and Knight (1993) also documented only partially coated with iron oxide. All these points indicate small concentrations of mercury, generally less than OS%, that the gold has travelled a long distance. The abundance in the Carib00 and Quesnel River areas. A few anomalous of whitequartz pebbles in the Miocene gravels, the relative placer creeks to the north of Wells and Barkerville contain sparseness of heavy minerals, black sand and notably pymercury in excess of 1%. similar to the Black Creek placer. roxene, all indicate that the local basaltic volcanic terrain and mafic alkalic intrusions are not the source of the placer gold. Instead, the association of placer grains with garnet, SILT AND LITHOGEOCHEMICAL kyanite, rare brookite grains and other metamorphic miner- STUDIES als indicates a source area in, or near, the high-grade metamorphic rocks of the BarkervilleT e r n e . Alikely source for REGIONAL GEOCHEMICALSURVEYS the gold is the Middle Jurassic quartz veins in black pbyllite units near the Quesnellia-Barkerville terrane boundary. Stream sediment and water geochemical surveys in the Quartz veins are abundant there in the strongly deformed central Quesnel belt were conducted by the provincial Minbasal phyllites anda number of veins such as those at the ishy of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources in cooperation with the federal government as part of the Frasergold deposit, are known cany to gold. A source in the province-wide Regional Geochemical Survey (RGS) studTriassic black phyllites is further supported by historical evidence thatsome of the recovered goldwas still attached ies. These surveys in NTS map areas 93A, 93B, 93G and to rock grains ma& up of quartz and black slate. Discus- 93H cover the Quesnel-Horsefly project and surrounding results for 522 sample sites in the map area sions of lode gold deposits and their sources for placers that areas. Analytical and immediately adjoining regions, were extracted from the are associated with ultramafic (ophiolitic) rocks emplaced following RGS surveys: RGS 5, 1981, NTS 93A, RGS 6, along tectonic boundaries arepresented byAsh et al., 1981, NTS 93B; RGS 13, 1986, NTS 93G and RGS 14, (1996).Thecompositionsofsomeplacerandlodegoldfrom 1986, NTS 93H. These correspond to Geological Survey of the region are discussed below. Canada publications OpenFile 776, Open File 777, Open Microprobe analyses of gold grains from a number of File 1214 and Open File 1215. placer and lode deposits are shown in Table 8-3. Compositions of gold grains from 4 4 placer and 16 lode sites in the The 522 sample sites in the project area, and some from the immediately adjacent region, Carib00 and Qnesnel River region are reprted by McTagare represented on Figures 8-11 to 8-14. Stream sediment and water analytical data are They document a dominant range gart and Knight (1993). thousand gold, from 750 to 810 for summarized in Table 8-4. Symbols plotted on the figures of fineness,or parts per

TABLE 8-3 COMPOSITIONS OF GOLD GRAINS RECOVERED FROM PLACER CREEKS AND LODE GOLD SOURCES

98

Geobgical Survey Branch

Pb Cu Zn Ag

10 km

Figure 8-1 1. RGS stream sediments survey for Pb, Cu,Zn and Ag. Sample sites and symbolsfor >95 percentile values.

I2L.W

Figure 8-12. RGS stream sediment surveyfor As, Sb and Hg

Figure 8-13. RGS stream sediment survey for U and Mo.

Co

N i

I
lW00'

Figure 8-14. RGS stream sediment survey for Co and Ni.

Minisfry o f Employment and Investment

represent analytical results that are equal to or greater than the 95 percentile values of the dataset. In this approachthe 95 percentilevalues are plotted andlarger values are shown as symbols of increasing size. This method clearly identifies the largestvalues and emphasizes the highest 5% analytical values as 'anomalous', in this case about 30 sample sites. Copper and zinc concentrations are, perhaps surprisingly, subdued with amounts rarely higher than thoseof the 95 percentile value. Individual elements appear to have the following attributes and distributions of anomalously high values:

of the volcanic belt and at least partially defines intrusive centres. Copper in association with other elements definesmulti-element anomalie; in the metasedimentary rocks of unit 1. Zinc is present in black phyllites of unit 1 and seemingly is most abundant near the basal contact.

Silver is stronglyanomalousthroughout the map area. It might be the most effective element in identifying mineralized regions as the anomal:y threshold represents the analytical detection limit (0.2 ppm). Every sample in which silver can be detected can be Lead is strongly anomalous in a number of sites from considered to be anomalous. Silver is most abundant Spanish Lake northwest towards the Cariboo River in the metasedimentary rocksof unit 1 and.,to alesser and further into the high-grade metamorphic rocks. extent. the Cache Creek rocks. Silver is also concenAnomalous copper without other associated anomatratedinthenorthempartofthevolcanicarc.Perhaps lous elements occurs in sites along the central axis significantly, it is strongly anomalous in one sample

TABLE 8-4 SUMMARYOF STREAM SEDIMENT DATA FOR TOTAL SAMPLE SET, IN PROJECT AREA AND PROXIMITY: N=522
!ib

"

LJF ION GCE AAS


517 517 340 215 517 517 517 484 5 5 0.19 0.1 517 5

A A S AAS AAS AAS

AAS

AAS AAS-H AAS AAS 517 517 3 517 517 517 494 83 517 3 3 3 3

AAS-F NADNC 517 516 3 517 510

lu\s COWR

517 517 517 517 517 517 3 3 3 4.1 2 I 514 21 513 3 3 35.7 28 11.4 3

512 350 8 1171 0.4 0.2 7.7 0.89 1245

517

40 3
1.4 1 1

63.9 7.68 68.5 34.4 54 7.8 56 29 0.02 50 8.1 56 22 5.88 1090 3.5 2.1 107 456 23481172 0.38 67.43 0.61 4 6 . 2 2 2259 2 . W 1.056 0.079 0.675 0.6%

1.7 8.1910.5 0.14 5 0.1 555 28 0.1 290 3 20410 195 7.05 2 8 . 5 4 6.54 0.16 1669.13 14.04 6.68 0.76 154.71 2.55 1.71 0.799 0573 1.181 1.833 1.73 3.87

IO IO

223 2.8 73.4 2.2 59 2.2 50 149 5.7 45.3 3390


1 1

2.5 2

44
2.35 1.699
0.05 1.1 0.191 3.889

0.339

2106 1.759 57.5 0.247 0.141

0.912

Log Mean
&OMLogSslandardDcv. IagCaficicaVar.

-0.959 1.717 0.884 1.771 1.464 0.39 1.461

l.Ol2 4.939
4.199

0.1 7.65 52.1 59 0.12 10.3 28.9 2.5 29.1 0.477 0.267 0.036 0.227 0.251 0.394 0.278 0.197 0.186 4.477 0.155 0.04 0.128 0.171 1.01 0.19 0.195

2.783 607.2 0.326 0.117

0.707 0.08 0.322 5.1 2.1 1.2 0.363 0.23 0.157 0.515 2.73 0.486

0.374 4.336 2.37 0 . 4 6 0.238 0391 0.635 -1.167

Percentiles Minimum 10th Zhh Mth

4.02 4.02

4 0

5.4

24 6.8 4 . 0 2 18 34 38 7.2
0.05 0.1 0.1 0.14 7.4 7.6 54 7.8 62 7.9 70 8.1 0.26 80 8.2 92 8.2 0.38 110 112 8.3 8.5 IM) 220 8.7 1.5 170 260 8.8 5.9 1100 4M) 8.9

4 34

6
14 22

cl
I5 18 21

c I
6 7 8

4.1
4.1

90
280

401h

40 48

46
52
56

c l <I c l

1 2

1 1
1

m m
0.18 7Glh 0.3 85th

25 29
32

62

m
901b

72 86
100

40

46

125 0.52 95th 0.72 98th

99th
Maximum

52 0.2 59 142 74 24 96 128 126 178

2 24 2 28 4 31 4 37 6 44 6 53 18 8 65 I2 2400 86 0.2 22 M 28 158 2.2 82 108 235

IO
IO
II 13 15
16

4.1 4.1 4.1


4.1 4.1

340
405 490 555 650 760 980 I200 ISM

3 3 4 5 5
6 8

1
1

I 1
1

4.1
4.1

0.1

20
0.6
1

1 100 2 15 2 25 5 4100 50 7 6500 5.2 63 9.5 290 9 20500 7.8 45.5 3400 196 5.9 150

IO

0.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 1.95 2.2 235 255 2.8 2.95 3.2 3.6 4 4.25

IO
30

40 40
50 59

60
70

90
110 1401.8 1904.2

c.2 1.3 1.5 2 2 2.5 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.4 5.5 6.7

<I
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

1
1

1 1 1
1

1 1 1
1 1

3 7

IO
45

Daro source: Regional Geochcmicol Survcys (RGSJ5,613.14. Open File Repom 776, m,1214.1215 U y , F = wmivm in water; denotes less than detection lim't shown (not detected)

7 -

Bulletin 97

103

in phyllitic rocks with known mesothermalgoldveins. Notable geochemical hotspots identified are: the QR deposit - an arsenic, antimony, mercury,cobalt anomaly; the trend of auriferous veins from Spanish Lake to Likely, marked by arsenic, silver and other element anomalies; the Other elements with expected geochemical associabase metal veins to the north-northtions are arsenic-antimony-mercury, molybdenum-uranium trend of silver-bearing west of Spanish Lake, defined by bigb lead values; andthe and cobalt-nickel. Eureka Peak area in which the presence of auriferous veins Arsenicoccursin a numberofanomalous sites, Anomalies that is indicated by multi-element anomalies. mainly in unit 1, and clearly in association with require additional investigation in order to relate them to auriferous quartz vein systems. It is also strongly sources are the sites with high silver values, some with anomalous inthe vicinity of the QRdeposit mercury, in the northwest part of the map area. Also the Antimony is commonly associated with arsenic in rocks of unit 1. It also occurs by itself or with silver sampling inCache Creek rocks suggests a higher potential for mineralization than might have been expected, particuand copper in unit 1 metasedimentary rocks but is larly along the terrane-boundary fault zone with rocks of the vicinity also present in Cache Creek rocks and in Quesnellia. More detailed examination ofthe data may of the QR deposit. undoubtedly reveal other significant geochemical andsta* Mercury, with a few notable exceptions, is found tistical relationships and possibly outline areas of exploramainly to the north of the Quesnel River. It occurs in tion interest. a variety of rock types and is probably associated Conclusions are that multi-element anomaliescan be with faults. Mercury is present in the QR deposit area in most cases. Some and appears to be associated with silver-rich samples related to known mineralized showings elements have a clear lithologic association, for example farther tothe north. nickel with Crooked amphibolite. Some element distribu* Molybdenum is concentrated in drainages emanattions are a result of structural effects that juxtapose certain ing from the metasedimentary rocks of unit 1and the lithologies and mineralizatiodalteration assemblages, for Cache Creek assemblage. Locally it Occurs together example, molybdenum with granites; uranium with metawith arsenic and antimony, such as in the QR deposit morphic rocks, and so forth. Part ofthe reason that there is area. a better apparent geochemical endowmentin the sedimenUranium is largely confined to the high-grade metathe volcanic rocksis simply tary rocks of unit 1compared to morphic rocks of the Barkerville Terrane and, to a that there is better dispersion in that region, both mecbanical lesser degree, faults or lithologic contacts in unit 1. and chemical. This is due to greater erosion and more Cobalt, at fmt glance., appears to be concentrated efficient elemental transport in the better established drainthroughout the rocks of unit 1, but closer examiuaage systems in the region of topograpbically greater relief. tion shows that it is associated with zones containing apriorireasoning that suggests the This goes counter to any anomalous arsenic, silver or other elements, comareas underlain by volcanic and plutonic rocks are the more monly in areas with mineralized quartz veins. intensely mineralized and should have the larger and more Nickel is concentrated along both the east and westevident geochemical anomalies. It is also perhaps signifiem map boundaries,coincident with the major tercant that because of generally high values of pH in the rane-boundary fault zones and their contained volcanic belt, generally higher alkalinity than the in region serpentinized uluamafic rocks. underlain by metasedimentary rocks, some elements will be less mobile in the drainage systems and will be peferentially 8-4 (FigThe associations of elements shown on Table concentrated in oxidized rocks and overlying soils. Thus ures 8-11 to 8-14), as indicated by statistical correlation evenlow-levelcopperanomaliesinsediments are very analysis, show strong comlations between many pairs and significantin the volcanic belt. For example, the 70percenof As-Sb and Asp u p s of elements, notably high values tile value for copper (40 ppm) clearly marks the regions of Mo-Ag-Co. Perhaps more significantly, a numberoflithe volcanic belt in which most of the known copper occurthe thologic associations and map patterns are evident when reuces are located. distribution of anomalous values is displayed on maps.The metasedimentaryrocks of unit 1 generatethe largest number LJTHOGEOCHEMICAL SAMPLJNG and greatest concentrations of anomalous samples. Lithology clearly controlsthe distribution ofuranium; structural Samples of mineralized, stronglyaltered or otherwise control of mercury is evident. Possiblyboth lithology and economically interesting rocks were submitted as grab or structure influence the distribution of nickel. Most other chip samples for analysis. The samples were analyzedfor anomalous concentrations canbe related to discovered or gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, implicit mineralized environments. Copper anomalies in mercury, arsenic, antimony and barium. Results for the 125 streams emanating fromareas underlain by volcanic rocks samples analyzed, sample locations, descriptions and other are a relatively subtle indication of porphyry copper minersampling dataare presented in Appendices M and N. Most alization. Multielement anomalies effectively outline areas
5 kilometres to the northwest of Horsefly villagenear the postulated site of the western structural wall of the Eocene graben.

104

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry o f Employment and Inve.rtment

anomalous values can be attributed to obvious mineralization - usually veins or sulphide minerals contained in the rock. M ~ arsenic ~ and antimony ~ ~ are effective , pa& finder* that be to identifv hvdrothemallv , , altered rocks. Antimony, even at low levels, is perhaps the most sensitive indicator of mineralization.
~~

~I

In addition, 49 samples representative of the various rock types in the map area were analyzedfor platinum and palladium (and gold) as an orientation study to determine regional lithologic background values for tho!:e elements (see Appendix 0). The samplecontaining 65 ppb platinum is from an unusual appenite pyroxenite exposed in a cirque on Eureka Peak.

Bulletin 97

105

British Columbia

106
-

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry of Employment ana' Inveslment

REFERENCES
nellia, British Columbia, Canada, Journal o Armstrong, R.L. (1988): Mesozoic and Early Cenozoic Magmatic f Geochemical Evolution ofthe Canadian Cordillera;in Processes in ContiExploration,Volume48, pages 225-258. nentalLithosphericDefonnation.Clarke,Jr.,S.P.,Burchfield, Beddoe-Stephens, B. and Lambert, R. St. J. (1981): G*:ochernical, f America, B.C. and Suppe,J., Editors, Geological Society o Mineralogical, and Isotopic Dam Relating 10 the Origin and Special Paper 218, pages 55-91. Tectonic Setting of the Rossland Volcanic Rocks, Southern British Columbia; Canadian Journal o f Earrh Sciences, VolAsh,C.H., Macdonald, R.W.J. andReynolds, P.R. (1996): ume 18, pages 858-868. Ophiolite-relatedMesothermalL.deGoldDeposits in British f Energy, Mines Columbia: A h p o s i t Model; B.C. Ministry o of theTriassicBlackPkayllite Bloodgood, M.A. (1987a): Geology and Pefmleum Resources, in press. in the Eureka Peak Area, Central British Columbia;in GeoBailey,D.G.(1976):GeologyoftheMoreheadLakeArea,Cenual logical Fieldwork 1986, B.C. Ministry of Eneqy. Mines and British C o l u m b i a ;B.C. Minisfry ofEnergy, MinesandPetmPetroleum Resources, Paper 1987-1, pages 135-:.42. leum Resoumes, Preliminary Map20 with notes, 1:31680. Bloodgood, M.A. (1987b): Geology of the Eureka Petk Mackay Bailey, D.G. (1978): The Geology of the Morehead Lake Area: River Area, Central British Columbia (NTS 93Ai7): B.C. unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Queen's University, 198 pages. Ministry o f Enera, Mines and Petmleum Resotrrces, Open File 1987-9, 1:20 OOO map. Bailey, D.G. (1988a): Geology of the Central Quesnel Belt, Hydraulic, South-central British Columbia (93Al12); in GeoBloodgood, M.A. (19874: Deformational History, Stratigraphic logical Fieldwork 1987, B.C. Ministry of Energy, Minesand Correlations and Geochemistry of Eastern Quewel Terrane Petmleum Resources, Paper 1988-1, pages 147-153. Rocks in the Crooked Lake Area, Central British Columbia, f British Canada; unpublishedMSc. thesis, The University o Bailey. D.G. (1988b): Geology of the Hydraulic Map Area, NTS Columbia, 165 pages. 93Al12; B.C. Ministry o f Energy, Mines and Petmleum Resources, Preliminary Map67,150 OOO. Bloodgood, M.A. (1988): Geology of the Quesnel Terranein the k Geological Spanish Lake Area, Central British Columbia; Bailey, D.G. (1989a): Geology of the Central Quesnel Belt, Swift f Energy, Mina and PefmFieldwork 1987,B.C. Ministry o River,South-centralBritishColumbia(93B/16. 93N12, leum Resources, Paper 1988-1, pages 139-145. 93G/1); in Geological Fieldwork 1988, B.C. Ministry ofEnergy, Mines and Petroleum Resources Paper 1989-1, pages Bloodgood,M.A.(1990):GeologyoftheEurekaPeakandSpanish 167-172. Lake Map Area, British Columbia;B.C. Minisfry ofEnergy, Mines and Petroleum Resources,Paper 1990-3, '36pages. Bailey, D.G. (1989b): Geology of the Swift River Map Area, NTS 93N12,13; 93B116; 93Gl1: B.C. Ministry o f Energy, Mines Bowman, A. (1889): Geology of Mining Division of Caiiboo; andPetrakumResources, Open File 1989-20,1:50OOOmap. Geological Survey o f Canada, Annual Report 1887-1888,
~

Bailey, D.G. (1990): Geology of the Central Quesnel Belt, British Volume 1 1 1 . Part C, pages 5-49. f Energy, Mines and Petroleum Columbia; B.C. Ministry o f Energy, Bowron, J. (1904): Cariboo District; B.C. Ministr) o Resources, Open File 1990-31, 1:loO OOO map with accomMines and Petmleum Resources, Minister of Mines Annual panying notes. Report 1903, pages H66-H69 Bailey, DG. and Archibald, D.A. (1990): Age of the Bootjack Bowron, 1. (1905): Carib00 District; B.C. Minisrr) ofEnergy, Stock, Quesnel Terrane,South-centralBritishColumbia Mines and Petmleum Resources, Minister of Mines Annual (93A); in Geological Fieldwork 1989.B.C. Minimy o f EnRepon 1904, pagesG37442, G51 ergy, Mines and Petmieum Resources, Paper 1990-1, pages 79-82. Brown, R.L. andRees, C.J. (1981):TectonicHistoryofthe Shuswap Terrane of the Southern Canadian Cordillera (abBailey, D.G. and Hodgson, CJ. (1978): Transported Altered Wall stract); Geological Association of Canada, Pragram with Rock in Laharic Breccias at the Carih-Bell Cu-Au PorAbstracts, Volume 6, pageA7. phyry Deposit, British Columbia; Economic Geology, Volume 74, pages 125-128. Brown, D.A., Gunning, M.H. and Greig, C.J. (1995): The Stikine Project: Geology ofWesternTelegraphCreekMapArea, Bailey, J.C., Frolova, T.I. and Burikova (1989): Mineralogy, GeoNorthwestern British Columbia, B.C. Ministr) o f Energy, chemistry and Pettogenesisof Kurilelsland-arc Basalts; ConMines and Petroleum Resources, Bulletin, in press. tributions Mineralogy Petrology, Volume102, pages 265-280. Campbell, K.V. (1971): Metamorphic Petrology an-i Structural Geology of the Crooked Lake Area, C a r i b Mountains, Barr,D.A., Fox,P.E.,Northwte, K.E. andPreto, V.A. (1976): The British Columbia; unpublished Ph.D. thesis, L'niversity o f Alkaline Suite Porphyry Deposits:A Summary; in Porphyry Mbshingron, Seattle, 192 pages. Deposits of the Canadian Cordillera, Slrtherland Brown, A,, Editor, C a d i a n Institute o f Mining andMetallurgy, Special Campbell, K.V. and Campbell, R.B. (1970): Quesnel Lake MapVolume 15, pages 359-367. area, British Columbia (93A);in Report of Activities, April Barrie, C.T. (1993): Petrochemistry of Shoshonitic Rocks Associto October 1969,Geological Survey o f Canada, Paper 70-1, ated With Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposits of Central QuesPart A, pages 32-35.

Bullerin 97

107

~~

~~

~~~

Campbell, R.B. (1961): Geology of Quesnel Lake, Sheet 93A (WestHalf), British Columbia; CeoIogicaISurveyof Canada, Map 3-1961.

CampbellR.B.(1963):GeologyofQuesnelLake,Sheet93A(East
Half), British Columbia; Geological Survey of Canada, Map 1-1963. Campbell.R.B.(1973):StnrcmralCross-sectionandTectonic Model of the Southeastern Canadian Cordillera: C d a n Journal of Em?h Sciences, Volume 10, pages 1607-1620. Campbell, R.B. (1978): Quesnel Lake (93A) Maparea; Geological Survey of c&, Open File Map 574. Campbell, R.B. and Tipper, H.W. (1970): Geology and Mineral Potential of the Quesnel Trough, British Columbia; Canadian Insfifufeof Mining and Metallurgy, Bulletin, Volume63, pages 785-790. Campbell, R.B. and Tipper, H.W. (1971): Bonaparte Lake M a p area, British Columbia; Geological Survey o f C a d , Memoir 363,100 pages with map 1278A (1: 250 O O O ) . Campbell, S. (1984): ADiamond Drilling Report on the Horsefly Propew, B.C. Ministry o f Enegy, Mines and Petroleum Resoumes, AssessmentReport12301.15 pages. Carlyle, W.A. (1898): Reports, B.C. MinisfryofEnegy,Minesand

de Rosen-Spence, A. (1985): Shoshonitesand Associated Rocks of Central British Columbia;in Geological Fieldwork 1984, B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petmleum Resources, Paper 1985-1, pages 426-437. de Rosen-Spence, A. (1992): Lithchem Interpretive Method for CommonVo1canicSuites;inNewDevelopmentsinLithogeochemisy, The University of British Columbia, Mineral Deposits Research Unit, Short Course #8,45 pages. Ellam,R.M, Hawkeswonh, M.A., Menzies, M.A. and Rogers, N.W. (1989): The Volcanism of Southern Italy: Role of Subduction and the Relationship Between Potassic and Sodic Magmatism; Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 94, Number B4, pages 4589-4601. Elsby, D.C. (1985): Smcture and Deformation across the Quesnellia - Omineca Terrane Boundary, Mt. Perseus Area, EastcentralBritishColumbia;unpublished MSc. thesis, The University bf British Columbia, Vancouver, 178 pages. Engi, J.E. (1984): Staucture and Metamorphism North of Quesnel Lake andEast of Niagara Creek, Cariboo Mountains, British Columbia; unpublished M.Sc. thesis,The University of British Columbia, 137 pages. Epstein, A.G., Epstein, J.B. and Hanis, L.D. (1977): Conodont AnIndex to OrganicMetamorphism; ColorAlteration UnitedSfafesGeologicalSurvey, PmfessionalPaper995,27 pages.

PetmleumResources,MinisterofMinesAnnualReport1897,
pages 476.481,484. Carmichael, H. (1931): Carib00 and Quesnel Mining Divisions, Historical Summary; B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and PefmleumResources, Bulletin l,pages52-54 (reprinted from Bulletin 2, 1930).

Carye,J.A.(1985):StructuralGeologyofpartoftheCrookedLake & QuesnelHighlands,BritishColumbia:unpublished

Erdman, L.R. (1985): Chemistry of Neogene Basalu of British Columbia and the Adjacent Pacific Ocean Floor: A Test of Tectonic Discrimination Diagrams; unpub1ishedM.S~. thesis, The University of Brifish Columbia, 294 pages.

Etheridge, M.A., Wall, V.J., Cox, S.F. and Vernon, R.H. (1984): MSc. thesis, The University of BrifishColumbia, 185 pages. High Fluid Pressure During Regional Metamorphism and Deformation: Implications for Mass Transport and DeformaClague, JJ. (1987): A PlacerGoldExplorationTargetinthe Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume tion Mechanisms; Cariboo District, British Columbia; Gealogical Survey o f 89,pages 434-4358. CaMdn, Paper 87-1A, pages 177-180. Etheridge, M.A., Wall, V.J. and Vernon, R.H. (1983): The Role of Coates J.A. (1960): Analcite Bearing Volcanic Rocks the Quesof Fluid Phase During Regional Deformation and Metamorne1 River Group,Carib00District, British Columbia; unpubphism; Journal of Metamorphic GeoIogy, Volume 1, pages lished B.Sc thesis, The University o f Brifish Columbia, 56 205-226. pages. Eyles, N., Clark, B. and Clague, J.J. (1987): Coarse-grained SediCocK1el& WE. andWalker,J.F.(1932):Geologyand Placer ment Flow Facies in a Large Supraglacial Lake;SedjmentolDeposits ofthe Quesnel Forb Area, Carib00 District, British ogy, Volume 34, pages 193-216. Columhia: in Summary Report 1932, Part A I, Geological Survey o f C&, pages 76-143. F !(1988a): Placer Gold Mining inPleistoEyles, N. and Kocsis,S cene Sediments of the Cariboo District, British Columbia, J . , Jones, D.L. and Monger, JW.H. (1980): Cordilleran Coney, P Canada 1858-1988; Geoscience Canada, Volume 15, pages Suspect Terranes; N a m e , Volume 288,pages 329-333. 293-301. Cox. K.G., Bell, J.D. and Pankhurst (1979):The Interpretation of Igneous Rocks; G e o g e Allen and Unwin Limifed, London, Eyles, N. and Kocsis, S.P. (3988b): Gold Placers in Pleistocene 450 pages. Glacial Deposits, Barkerville, British Columbia; Canadian Insfifufeo f Mining and Metallurgy, Bulletin, Volume 81, Dawson,G.M.(1877):RepononExplorationinBritishColumbia; pages 71-79. i n Report ofProgress 1875-6, Geological Survey of Canaab, pages 233-265. Eyles, N. and Kocsis, S.P. (1989): Sedimentological Controlson Gold Distribution in Pleistocene Placer Deposits of the CariDawson, G.M. (1879): Preliminary Report on the Physical and in Geological FieldGeological Features of the Southern Portion of theofInterior boo Mining District, British Columbia; work 1988, B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Pefmleum British Columbia; in Report of Progress 1877-8,PartB, Resources, Paper 1989-1, pages 377-385. Geological Survey of C&, 187 pages. Ferri, F., Dudka, S. and Rees, C. (1992): Geology of the Uslika Lake Area, Northern Quesnel Trough, B.C. (93C/3,4, 6): Grant, B. and Newell,J.M., Editors, in Geological Fieldwork

Dawson, G.M. (1895): Summary Report of the Operations of the Geological Survey of Canada for the year 1894; Geological Survey o f C a d , Summary Report 1984, pages A22-28.

108

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry of Employment an! Investment

1991,B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Repages 127-145. sources, Paper 1992-1,
Fillipone, J.A. (1985): Structure and Metamorphismat the Inter-

monrane-OminecaBoundary,nearBossMonntain,East-central British Columbia;unpublished M.Sc. thesis, The University o f British Columbia, 156 pages. Fillipone, J.A. and Ross, J.V. (1990):Deformation of the Western

MarginoftheOminecaBeltNearCrookedLake,East-cenual
British Columbia; Canadian Journal ume 27,pages 414-425.
Earth of Sciences, Vol-

Fitton, J.G. and Upton, B.G.J., Editors (1987): Alkaline Igneous Rocks; Geological Society Special Publication Number30, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 568 pages.

Fletcher, C.J.N. (1972):Structure and Metamorphism of the Penfold Creek Area,near Quesnel Lake, Central British Colum- Galloway,J.D. (1919): North-eastern District (No. 2). Quesnel bia;unpublished Ph.D. thesis, The University o f British Mineral District, Horsefly Section;B.C. Ministry ofEnergy, Columbia. Vancouver, B.C. Mines and Petroleum Resources, Minister of Mines Annual Report 1918,pages K136-Kl43. Floyd, P.A. and Winchester, J.A. (1975):Magmavpe andTectonic Discrimination Using Immobile Elements; Earth and PlaneGalloway,J.D. (1921): North-eastern District (No. 2), Quesnel tary Science Letters, Volume 27,pages 211-218. B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mineral District, Horsefly Section; Mines and Petmleum Resources, Minister of Mines Annual Fulton, RJ. (1984): Quaternary Glaciation, Canadian Cordillera; Report 1920,pagesN100-N105. in Quaternary Stratigraphy, Fulton, R.J., Editor, Geologicul Survey of Cam&, Paper 84-10, pages 3948. Galloway,J.D. (1922): Northeastern District (No. 2). Quesnel Mineral District;B.C. Ministry o f Energy, Mine:: and PetmFox, P.E. (1975): Alkaline Rocks and Related Mineral Deposits of theQuesnelTrough,BritishColumbia,(Ahstract)Cordilleran leum Resources, Minister of Mines Annual Report 1921, Section; Geological Associarion of C d , Symposium on pages G114, G116. Inhusive Rocks and Related Mineralization of the Canadian Gamett, J.A. (1978): Geology and Mineral Occurrmces of the Cordillera, Program and Abstracts, page 12. Southern Hogem Batholith;B.C. Ministry of Enevy, Mines Fox, P.E. (1989): Alkaline Copper-GoldPorphyries:Schizoand Petroleum Resources, Bulletin 70,75 pages. phrenic Cousins of Real Porphyty Coppers; in Copper-Gold Garwin, S . L .(1987):Structure and Metamorphism the in Niagara Geological Porphyry Workshop, Mineral Deposits Division, Peak Area, Western Carib00 Mountains, British Columbia, Association of C d ,Workshop Notes, Vancouver, 2 pages. unpublished MSc. thesis, The University of British ColumFox, P.E. (1991): A Model for Alkaline Copper-Gold Porphyry bia, 177 pages. Deposits; Abstract,Geological Association o f C d , 1991 Getsinger, J.S. (1985): Geologyofthe Three Lalies MounAnnual Meeting,Program with Abstracts, page A39. tainiMount Stevenson Area, Quesnel Highland, BritishCoFox, RE., Cameron, US. and Hoffman,SJ. (1986): Geology and lumbia: unpublished Ph.D. thesis, The Universiy of 6ritish SoilGeochemistryoftheQuesnelRiverGoldDeposiSBritish Columbia, 239 pages. Columbia; in GEOEXPO 86,Association of Exploration . (1989): Chloritoid-ParagoVancouver. pages61-71. Ghent, E.D., Stout, M.Z and Ferri,F Geochemsts,Meeting proceedings. nite-Pyrophyllite and StilpnornelaneBearing I < o c k s Near Fox, P.E. and Cameron, R.S. (1995): Geology of the QR Gold Blackwater Mountain, Western Rocky Mountsins, British Deposit, Quesnel River Area, British Columbia;in Porphyry Columbia; The Canadian Mineralogist, Volume 27, :pages Deposits ofthe Northwestern Cordilleraof North America, 155-188. T.G. Schroeter, Editor, Canadian Institute of Mining and Ghosh, D.K. (1993): Uranium-Lead Geochronology;in Porphyry Metallurgy, Special Volume pages 829-837. of British Columbia, The Univer&y of Copper-Gold Systems Fraser, T.M. (1994): Hydrothermal Breccias and Associated AlBritish Columbia, Mineral Deposit Research Unit, A M U ~ teration of the Mount Polley Copper-Gold Deposit;in GeoTechnicalReport-Year2,pagesll.l-11.26. logical fieldwork 1993,Grant, B. and Newell J.M., Editors, Gill, J.B. (1981): Orogenic Andesites and Plate Tectcnics; :prinB.C. Ministry o f Energy, Mines and Petmkum Resources, ger-Verlag,New York, 390 pages. Paper 1994-1, pages 259-267.

CmradianInstituteofMiningandMetallurgy,SpecialVt~lume 46,in press. Gabrielse, H. (1991):Structural Styles; Chapter 17 in Geology of the Cordilleran Orogen in Canada, Gabrielse, H.,,and Yorath, C.J., Editors, GeologicalSurveyof Canada, Geology ofcanada, Number 4,pages 571-675. Gabrielse,H. and Yorath, CJ. (1991):Tectonic Synthesis; Chapter 18 in Geology o f the Cordilleran Orogen in Canada, Gabrielse, H. and Yorath, C.J., Editors, Geologicul Survey of Can&, Geology of Canada, Number4,pages 677-705. Galloway, J.D. (1919): North-eastern District (No. :!), Ho.rsefly Section; B.C. Ministry of Energy, M i n e s and Petroleum Resources,MinisterofMinesAnnualReport1918,llagesI:136K142.

46.

Fmer, T.M. (1995): Geology, Alteration and the origin of Hydrothermal Breccias at the Mount Polley Alkalic Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposit, Southcentral British Columbia: unpublished M.Sc. thesis, The University o f British Columbia, 259 pages. Fraser, T.M., Stanley, C.R., Nikic, Z.T., Pesalj, R., and Gorc, D. (1595): The Mount Polley CopperGold Alkalic Porphyry Deposit, South-Central British Columbia; Schroeter, T.G., Editor, in Porphyry Deposits of theNorthernCordillera,

Gill, 1. and Whelan, P . (1989):Early Rifting of an Ccean Island Arc lJ3ji) ProducedShoshonitictoTholeiiticBasdts; Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 94, Numbel. B4, :pages

45614578.
Greenwood, H.J., Woodsworth, HJ., Read, P.B., Ghent, E.D. and Evenchick, C.A. (1991):Metamorphism; Chapttr 16 in Geology of the Cordilleran Omgen in Canada, Gabr.else,I. and Yorath, C.J.,Editors, GeologiculSuweyof Canada, Gedogy of Canada, Number4,pages 535-570.
.

Bulletin 97

IO9

British Columbia
~ ~~ ~ ~~

Hawkeswonh,C.J. and Norry, MJ., Editors, (1983): Continental Basalts and Mantle Xenoliths; S h i v a P ~ l i s h i n g ~ m i f e272 d, pages. Harland, W.B., Armstrong, R.L., Cox, A.V., Cmig, L.E., Smith, A.G. and Smith, D.G. (1990): A Geological Time Scale 1989; Cambridge University Press, 279 pages.

Keppie,J.D.(1988):TectonothermalEvolutionoftheWestAfrican Orogens and Circum-Atlantic Terrane Linkages; Geoscience Canada, Volume 15, No. 3, pages 212-214.
Koo, J. (1968): Geology and Mineralization in the Lorraine Prop erty Area,Omineca Mining Division, B.C.; unpublished M A . thesis, The University of British Columbia, 107 pages.

Hodgson,CJ.,Bailes,RJ.andVemza,R.S.(1976):Cariboo-Bell; Lang, J.R., Stanley, C.R. andThompson, J.F.G.H. (1993): ASubin Porphyry Deposits ofthe Canadian cordillera, Sutherland division of Alkalic Porphyry Cu-Au Deposits into SilicaBrown, A., Editor, Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Special Volume 15, pages 388-396. Satorated and Silica-Undersatuarated Subtypes; in Porphyry Copper-Gold Systems ofBritish Columbia, The Universityof British Columbia, Mineral Deposit Research Unit, Annual Technical Report - Year 2, pages 3.1-3-14.

Holland, S.S. (1964): Landforms of British Columbia, A Physiographic Outline; B.C. MinistryofEnergy, MinesandPetroleum Lay, D. (1928): North-eastem Mineral Survey District (No. 2). Resources, Bulletin 48,138 pages. Horsefly Section; B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and PetroHolland, S.S. (1950): Placer Gold Production of British Columbia; leum Resources, Minister of Mines Annual Report 1927, B.C. Ministry of Energy. Mines and Petroleum Resources, pagesC181-Cl82. Bulletin 28 (reprinted in 1980). 89 pages. Lay, D. (1931): North-eastem Mineral Survey District (No. 2). Hoschek,G.(1969):TheStabilityofStauroliteandChloritoidand Horsefly Section; B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines undPetmTheir Significance in Metamorphism of Pelitic Rocks, Conleum Resources, Minister of Mines Annual Report 1930, tributions to Mineraloa and Petrology, Volume 22, pages pagesA176-AI78. 208-232. Lay, D. (1932): North-eastem Mineral Survey District (No. 2), Hoy, T. and Andrew, K. (1988): Preliminary Geology and GeoHorsefly Section; B. C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petrochemistry ofthe Elise Formation, Rossland Group, between leum Resources, Minister of Mines Annual Report 1931, NelsonandYmir,South~ternBritishColumbia;inGeologipagesA96-AI01. cal Fieldwork 1987, E.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Paper 1988-1,pages 19-30., Lay, D. (1933): North-eastem Mineral Survey District (No. 2), Horsefly Section:B.C. Minimy of Energy, Mines and PetroIddings,J.P.(1895):Absaroldte-Shoshonite-Ban~teSeries;Jourleum Resources, Minister of Mines Annual Report 1932, nal of Geology, Volume 3, pages 935-959. pagesA117-AI18. Itvine, T.N. and Baragar,W.R. (1971): A Guideto the Chemical Lay, D. (1934): North-eastern Mineral Survey District (No. 2), Classification of the CommonVolcanicRocks: Canadian Horsefly Section; B.C. Minisfry of Energy, MinesandPetroJouml o f Eurth Sciences, Volume 8, pages 523-5448, leum Resources,Minister of Mines Annual Report 1933, page Jakes, P. and White, AJ.R. (1972): Major and Trace Element Rocks of Orogenic Areas; GeologiAbundances in Volcanic cal Society o f America Bulletin. Volume 83, pages 29-40. A145. Lay, D. (1939): North-eastern District, Summary and Placer-gold Deposits, Horsefly Area; B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and

Johnston, W.A. (1923): Placer Mining inCedar Creek Area, B.C.; in Summary Report, 1922, Part A, Geological Survey o f Canuai?, pages 68-81. Johnston, W.A. and Uglow, W.L. (1926): Placer and Vein Gold Deposits of Barkerville, Cariboo District, British Columbia; GeologicalSurvey of C d , Memoir 149,246 pages.

PetroleumResources,MinisterofMinesAnnualReport1938, Part C, pages CI-C46.


Le Bas, M.J., Le Maiue, R.W., Streckeisen, A. and Zanenin, B. (1986): A Chemical Classification of Volcanic Rocks Based on the Total Alkali-Silica Diagram; Journal of Petrology, Volume 27, Part 3, pages 745-750.

Johnston, W.A. and Uglow,W.L. (1933): Placer Gold Deposits of Lefebure, D.V. (1976): Geology of the Nicola Group in theFairweather Hills, British Columbia; unpublished MSc. thesis, a r i b 0 0District, British Columbia; in Summary Barkerville, C Queens Universip, 179 pages. Report 1932, Part Al, Geological Survey o f Canada, pages 1-75. Levson. V.M. and Giles, T.R. (1991): Stratigraphy and Geologic Setting of Gold Placers in the Carib00 Mining District; in Jones,D.L.,Howell,D.G.,Coney,PJ.andMonger,J.W.H. (1983): Geological Fieldwork 1990, B.C. Ministry o f Energy,Mines Recognition, Chawter,and Analysis ofTectonosaatigraphic andPetroleum Resources, Paper 1991-1, pages331-344. Terranes in WesternNorth America; in Accretion Tectonics in the Circum-PacifG Regions: Proceedings of the OjiInterLevson, V.M. and Giles, T.R. (1993): Geology of Tertiary and national Seminaron Accretion Tectonics, Hashimoto M., and Quaternary Gold-Bearing Placers in the Carib00 Region, Uyeda, S., Editors, Terra Scientific Publishing Company, British Columbia (93A. B, G,H); Grant, B. and Newell, J.M., Tokyo, pages 21-35. Editors, B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Bulletin 89,202 pages. J0plin.G.A. (1968): TheShosbonite Association: AReview; Journal of the Geological Society of Australia, Volume15, Levson, V.M., Giles,T.R.,Bobrowsky, P.T. and Matysek, P.F. Number 2, pages 275-294. (1990): Geology of Placer Deposits in the Cariboo Mining District, British Columbia; Implicationsfor Exploration; in Karlsson, H.R. and Clayton, R.N. (1991): Analcime Phenocrysts Geological Fieldwork 1989, Primary or Secondary ?;American MinerB.C. Minisfry ofEnergy, Mines in Igneous Rocks: andPerroleum Resources, Paper 1990-1, pages 519-529. alogisr, Volume 76, pages 189-199.

110

Geological Survey Branch

~~

Ministry o f Employment and Investmenl

Lewis. ED.( 1 9 8 7 ) : PolyphaseDefomationand Metamorphism in the Western Cariboo Mountains near Ogden Peak, British Columbia; unpublished MSc. thesis, The University o f British Columbin, 1 4 6 pages. Logan, 1.M and Koyanagi, pages. V.M. ( 1 9 9 4 ) : Geology and Mineral DepositsoftheGaloreCreekArea(104Gn,4);B,C,Ministry of Enem, Mines and Permleum Resources, Bulletin 92,96

Lu,Jun (1989):Geology of the Cantin Creek Area, Quesnel River


(93B116); in Geological Fieldwork 1988,B.C. Ministry of Eneqy, MinesandPetmleumResources,Paper1989-1,pages 173-181.
LUM, E.C.

( 1 9 1 1 ) : Quesnel Mining Division; B.C. Ministry o f Energy. Mines and Petmleum Resources, Minister of Mines Annual Report1912,page K53.

Mathews, W.H. (Compiler) (1986):Physiography of the Canadian Cordillera; Geofogical Survey of Camfa, Map 1701A,scale
1:5oooooo.

Mathews, W.H. ( 1 9 8 9 ) : Neogene ChilcotinBasalu in South-central British Columbia: Geology,Ages, and Geomorphic History; CanadianJournal o f Earth Sciences, Volume 26,pages

969-982.
McInnes, B.I.A. and Cameron, E.M. ( 1 9 9 4 ) : Carbonated, Alkaline Hybridizing Melts from aSub-arcEnvironment:Mantle Wedge Samples from the Tabar-Lihir-Tanga-Feni Arc, Papua New Guinea; Earth and Planetary Science Leffers,Volume 122,pages 125-141. McMullii, D.W.A. ( 1 9 9 0 ) : Thennobarometry of Pelitic Rwks UsingEquilibria between Quartz-Gamet-AluminosilicateMuscovite-Biotite, with Applicationt o Rocks of the Quesnel Lake Area, British Columbia: unpublished Ph.D. thesis, The University ofBritish Columbia, 2 9 1 pages.

1 9 9 0 ) : PebMcMullin, D.W.A., Greenwood, H.J. andRoss, J.V. ( bles from Barkerville and SlideMountain Terranes in a Quesne1 TerraneConglomerate:Evidencefor Pre-Jurassic Deformation of the Barkerville and SlideMountain Terranes; Geology, Volume 18, pages 962-965.
McTaggarf K.C. and Knight, 1. ( 1 9 9 3 ) : Geochemisuyof Lode and Plaaer Gold of the Caciboo District, B.C.; B.C. Ministry of E n e w , MinesandPefrnleumResources, o p e n File 1993-30. 24 pages.

Mineral &posits Research Unit (MDRU), 1996: Copper-Gold 108. Porphyry System ofBritish Columbia; Final Technical Report Y e a r 3, The University of British Columbia, Mineral Mortensen, J.K. (1994):Isotope Geochemisay; in Porphyry Ct>p Deposits Research Unit (MDRU), in preparation. per-Gold Systems of British Columbia, The University of British Columbia. Mineral Deposit Research Uni:, Annual Meade,H.D.(1977):Pe(rologyandMetalOccurrencesoftheTakla Technical Report - Year 3 . Group and Hogem and Germansen Batholiths, Noah Central British Columbia, unpublished Ph.D.thesis, University o f Mortensen, J.K.. Montgomery, J.R. and Fillipone, J. (1987):U-Pb Westem Ontario, 354 pages. Zircon, Monazite and Sphene Ages for Granitic Ortllognesiss of the Barkerville Terrane, East-central British Columtia; Melling,D.R.andWatkinson,D.H.(1988):AlterationofFragmenCanndianJoumalofEarthSciences,Volume~,pa;:es12liltal Basaltic Rocks: The Quesnel River Gold Deposit, Central 1266. British Columbia; in Geological Fieldwork1987,B.C. Minisrry of Energy, Mines and Petmlewn Resources, Paper Mortimer, N. (1986):Late Triassic, Arc-related, Potassic Igneous 1988-1, pages 335-347. Rocks in the North American Cordillera; Geology, Volume 1 4 ,pages 1035-1078. Melling, D.R.,Watkinson,D.H.,Fox,P.E. and Cameron R.S. (1990): Carbonahtion and Propylitic Alteration of FragMortimer, N. (1987):The Nicola Group: Late Triassic md Early mental Basaltic Rocks. Quesnel River Gold Deposit. Central Jurassic Subduction-relatedVolcanism in British Columbia;

British Columbia; Mineralium Deposita, Volume :!SA, pages S115-124. Miyashiro, A. (1975):Volcanic RockSeries and Tectonic Setting; Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume 3 , pages 251-269. Monger, J.W.H. ( 1 9 7 7 ) : Upper Paleozoic Rocks of the Westem Canadian Cordilleraand Their Bearing on Cordilleran Evolution; CanadianJournal o f Eorth Sciences, kolume 14, pages 1832-1859. Monger, I.W.H. ( 1 9 9 3 ) : Canadian Cordilleran Tectonics: From Geosynclinesto Crustal Collage; Canadian Journal o f Earth Sciences, Volume 30,pages 209-231. Monger, J.W.H., Price, R.A. and Tempelman-Kluit, D.J. (1982): Tectonic Accretion and the Origin of Two Major Metamorphic and Plutonic Welts in the Canadian Cordillera; Geology, Volume 10,pages 70-75. Monger,J.W.H.,Souther,J.G.andGabrielse,ft (1972):Evolution oftheCanadianCordil1era;APlateTectonicModelAmer;kan Journal o f Science, Volume 272,pages 577-602. Monger, J.W.H.,Wheeler, J.O., Tipper, H.W., Gabrielse, H., Hanns,T., Struik,L.C.,Campbell,R.B.,Dcdds,CJ.,Gehrels, G.E. and O'Brien, J. (1991): Part B. Cordilleran X>rrane:;;in Upper Devonianto Middle Jurassic Assemblages, Chapter8 of Geology of the Cordilleran Orogen in Canada, Gabridse, H. and Yorath, C.I., Editors, Geological Survey of C a m & , Geology of Canada, Number 4 ,pages 281-327. Montgomery, I.R. (1985): Structural Relations of the Southern Quesnel Lake Gneiss, Isoceles Mountain Area, Central Elritish Columbia; unpublished MSc. thesis, The Un,iversi<v o f British Columbio, 1 1 4pages. Montgomery, J.R. and Ross, J.V. (1989):A Noteon t h : Quesnel Lake Gneiss, Caribou Mountains, British Columbia; CanadianJoumalofEarthSciences,Volume26,pages1!i03-1508. Montgomery, S . L .(1978):Structural and Metamorphic :%stor] of the Dunford Lake Map Area, Caribw Mountairs, British Columbia:unpublished MSc. thesis, Cornell L'niversity, Ithica, New York. Moore, C.W. (1931): Cariboo, Quesneland Omineca Mining B.C. Ministry o f EnDivisions, Summary and Conclusions; ergy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Bulletin No. 1, pages 60-63(reprinted from BulletinNo. 2 , 1 9 3 0 ) . Momson,G.W.(1980):CharacteristicsandTectonicSetringofthe Shoshonite Rock Association; Lithos, Volume 13, ?ages '3%

"

Bulletin 97

1'11

British Columbia Canadian Joumalofhrth Sciences, Volume 24, pages 2521- Panteleyev, A. (1987): Quesnel Gold Belt - Alkalic Volcanic Terrane between Horsefly and Quesnel Lakes (93N6); in Geo2536. logical Fieldwork 1986, B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Morton, R.L. (1976): Alkalic Volcanism and Copper Deposits of Petroleum Resources, Paper 1987-1, pages 125-133. the Horsefly Area, Central British Columbia; unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Carleton Univerxity, 196 pages. Panteleyev,A.(1988):QuesnelMineralBelt-TheCentralVolcanic Axis between Horsefly and Quesnel Lakes (93N5E, 6W); in MuUenEIX(1983): ~OnT02/P205:AMinorElementDiscn~Geological Fieldwork 1987, B.C. Ministry o f Enegy, Mines nant for Basaltic Rocks of Oceanic Environments and Its and Petroleum Resources, Paper 1988-1, pages 131-137. Implications for Petrogenesis; &Rh and Planeta?y Sciences Panteleyev, A. and Hancock K. D.(1 989a): Quesnel Mineral Belt: Lefters, Volume 6, pages 53-62. Summary of the Geology of the Beaver Creek - Horsefly Muller, D. and Groves, D.I. (1993): Direct and Indirect AssociaRiverMapArea;inGeologicalFieldwork1988,B.C.Ministry tions Between Potassic Igneous Rocks,Shosohoniteand of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Paper 1989-1, Gold-Copper Deposits; Ore Geology Rewiews; Volume 8, pages 159-166. pages 383-406. Panteleyev, A. and Hancock, K.D. (1989b):Geology ofthe Beaver Mutschler, EE, Larson, EE and Bruce, R. M. (1987): Laramide Creek - Horsefly River MapArea,NTS 93N5, 6; B.C. and Younger Magmatism in Colorado New Petrologic and Ministry of Energy. Mines and Petroleum Resources, Open Tectonic Variations on Old Themes; Colorado School of File 1989-14, 1 5 0 OOO map. Mines, Quarterly, Volume82, Number 4, pages 147. Paterson, LA. (1977): The Geology and Evolution of the Pinchi Mutschler,F.E. andMooney,T.C. (1993): Precious Metal Deposits Fault Zoneat Pinchi Lake, Central British Columbia; CowRelated to Alkaline Igneous Rocks - hovisional ClassificadianJoumalofhnhSciences,Volume 14,pages 1324-1342. tion, GradeTomage Data, and Exploration Frontiers; KirkPearce, J.A. (1982): Trace Element Charactenstics of Lavas from ham, R.V., Sinclair, W.D., Thorpe, R.1. andDuke,I.M., DesmctivePlateBoundaries;inAndesite;OrogenicAndesite Editors, in Mineral Deposit Madeling, Geological Associaand Related Rocks, Thorpe, R.S.,Editor, John Wley and tion of C d , Special Paper 40,pages 479-520. Sons,pages 525-548. Nelson, J.L., Bellefontaine, K.A., Green, K. and M a c h , M. near the Mount Milli- Pearce, J.A. (1983): Role of the Subcontinental Lithosphere in (199 I): Regional Geological Mapping Magma Genesis at Active Continental Margins; in Continengan Copper-Gold Deposit (93W16, 93N/I); in Geological t a l Basalts and Mantle Xenoliths,Hawkeworth, CJ. and Fieldwork 1990, B.C. Ministry o f Energy, Mines and PetroNorry, M.J., Editors, Shiva Publishing Limited, pages 230leum Resources, Paper 1991-1, pages 89-110. 249. Nelson, J.L., Bellefontaine, K.A.,Rees,C. andMacLean, M. Pearce, J.A. and Cann, (1973): Tectonic Setting of Basic Volcanic (1992): Regional Geological Mapping in the Nation Lakes RocksDeterminedUsingTraceEiementAnalyses;Eanhand Area (93N/ZE, 7E);Grant, B. and Newell, J.M., Editors, in Planetory Science Letters, Volume 19, pages 290-300. Geological Fieldwork 1991, B.C. Ministry ofEneqy, Mines Peccerillo, A. and Taylor, S.R. (1976): Geochemistry ofEocene andPetroleum Resources, Paper 1992-1,pages 103-118. Calk-alkalineVolcanicRocksfrom the Kastamonu Area, Nelson, J.L., BeUefontaine, K.A., M a c h , M.E. and Mountjoy, Northern Turkey;Contributions Mineralogy Petrology, VolKJ.(1993):GeologyoftheKlawliLake,KwanikaCreekand ume 58, pages 63-81. Discovery~eekMapAreas,NorthernQuesnelTerrane,BritPilcher, S.H and McDougall,JJ. (1976): Characteristics of Some ish Columbia; Grant,B. and Newell,J.M., Editors, in GeoCanadian Cordilleran Porphyry Prospects; in Porphyry CopB.C. Ministry of E n e w , Mines and logical Fieldwork 1992, per Deposits of the Canadian Cordillera, Sutherland Brown, PetroleumResources, Paper 1993-1, pages 87-107. A., Editor, Canadian Institute ofMining ond Metallurgy, Nelson, J.L. and Bellefontaine, K.A. (1995): The Geology and Special Volume 15, pages 79-82, with Table 1. Mineral Deposits of North-Central Quesnellia; Teueron Lake to Discovery Creek, Cenrral British Columbia; Grant, Poulton, T.P. and Tipper, H.W. (1991): Aalenian Ammonites and Strata of Western Canada; Geological Survey of C a d , .Ministry of Energy, Mines B. and Newell,J.M., Editors, B. C Bulletin 411,71 pages. andPetmleum Resources, Bulletin, inpres. Preto, V.A. (1972): Geology ofCopper Mountain; B.C. Ministry Nelson, J.L. and Mihalynuk, M.(1993): Cache Creek Ocean: of Eneqy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Bulletin 59.87 ClosureorEnciosure?;Geology,Volume21,Number2,pages pages. 173-176. Preto, V.A. (1977): The Nicola Group: Mesozoic Volcanism ReNi~on,G.T.,Archibald.DA.andHeaman.L.M.(1993):~Ar-~~Ar lated to the Rifting in Southern British Columbia;in Volcanic and U-Pb Geochronometry o f the Polaris Alaskan-type ComRegimes in Canada, Baragar, W.R.A., Coleman, L.C. and plex, British Columbia; Precise Timingof Quesnellia North Hall, J.M., Editors, Geological Association of Cam&, SpeAmerica Interaction; Geological Associatio~inerological cia1 Paper 16, pages 39-57. f Cu&, Program and Abstracts, Edmonton Association o Preto, V.A. (1979): Geology ofthe Nicola Group between Memtt 1993, page A-76. and Princeton; B.C. Ministry of Energy,Mines andPerroleurn Oldow, J.S., Bally, A.W., Lallemant, H.G.A. and Leeman, W.P. Resources, Bulletin 69.90 pages. (1989): Phanerozoic Evolutionof the North American CorPreto, V.A., Osatenko, M.J., McMillan, WJ. and Anstrong, R.L. dillera; UnitedStates and Canada; in The Geology ofNorth (1979): Isotopic Dates andStrontiumIsotopic Ratios for America An Overview,The Geological Society of America, Plutonic andVolcanic Rocks in the Quesnel Trough and The Geology of North America, Volume A, pages 139-232.

112

Geological Survey Branch

Minisfry of Employmenfand In==

Nicola Belt, Southcentral British Columbia; CanadianJourMI o f Eanh Sciences, Volume 16, pages 1658-1672. Price,R.A., Monger, J.W. H. andMuller, J.E. (1981): Cordilleran Cross-section Calgary t o Victoria; Geological Association of Canada, Field Guide to Geology and Mineral Deposits, Annual Meeting,Calgary. Radloff, J.K.(1989): OriginandObduction of the Ophiolitic Redfern Complex on the Omineca Intermontane Belt Boundary, Western Carib00 Mountains, British Columbia; unpublished M.Sc. thesis, The University of British Columbia, 179 pages. Read, P.B. and Okulitch,A.V. (1977): The Triassic Unconformity of Southcentral BritishColumbia; Canadian Journal o f Earth Sciences, Volume 14, pages 606-638. Read, P.B., Woodsworth. G.J., Greenwood, H.J., Ghent, E.D. and Evenchick, C.A. (1991): Metamorphic Map of the Canadian Cordillera, Geological Survey o f Canada, Map 1714A. 1:2 OOO O O O .
~

Columbia; in Structure of the Southern Canadian Cordillera, Wheeler. 1.0.. Editor, Geological Association OJ' Camah, Special Paper6, pages 123-135. Schink, A.E.(1974):Geologyof the Shko Lake Slock, near Quesnel Lake, British Columbia, unpublishedB.:Sc. thesis, The University of Brifish Columbia, 64 pages.
. andPreto, V.A. (1987):Geologyofthe Adms Schiarriza, P Plateau -Clearwater- Vavenby Area;B.C. Minisfry ofEnergy. Mines and Perroleurn Resources, Paper 1987-2.88 pager:.

Sharpe, R.F. (1939): The Bullion Hydraulic Mine; The Miizer, Volume 12, pages 37-40. Shervais, J.W. (1982): Ti-V Plots and the Petrogenesis of Modern and Ophiolitic Lavas; Earfh and Planetary Science Letters, Volume59, pages 101-118. Sillitoe, R.H. (1989): Gold Deposits in the Western Pacific Island Arcs The Magmatic Connection;in The Geology of Ciold Deposits: The Perspective in 1988, Economic Geology, Monograph 6, pages 274-292.

Rees,C.J.(1981):WesternMarginoftheOminecaBeltatQuesnel

Lake, British Columbia; in Current Research, Part A, GeoSketchley, D.A., Rebagliati, C.M. and Debug, C. (19%): Gsollogical Survey of Canada, Paper Sl-lA, pages 223-226. ogy. Alteration and Zoning Patterns of the Mt Milligan Copper-Gold Deposits: Schrwter, T.G., Editor, in Porphyry Rees, CJ. (1987): The Intermontane - Omineca Belt Boundary in Deposits of the Northern Cordillera, Canadian Iwrirub? of the Quesnel Lake Area, Eastcentral British Columbia: TecMining andMetallurgy, Special Volume 46, pages 650-665. tonic Implications Based on Geology, Structure and Paleomagnetism; unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Cariefon University, Sloman, L.E. (1989): Triassic Shoshonites from the I)olomi.Ses, 421 pages. Northern Italy: Alkaline An: Rocks in a Strike-slip Setting; Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 94, Nomber B4, Rickwood, P.C. (1989): Boundary Lines Wlthin Petrologic Diapages 46554666. grams Which Use Oxides of Major and Minor Elements; Lirhos, Volume 22, pages 247-263. Solomon, M. (1990): Subduction, Arc Reversal, and the. Origin of Robert, E and Taylor, B.E. (1989): Structure and Mineralization at Geology, Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposits in Island Arcs; the Mosquito Creek Gold Mine Carib00 District, B.C.; in Volume 18, pages 630-633. Structural Environment and Gold in the Canadian Cordillera, Souther, J.G. (1977): VolcanismandTectonicEnvimnmentsin the CordilleranSection.GealogicalAssociarionafCanada,Short Canadian Cordillera a Second h k ; in Volcanic: Regimes Course Number 14, Vancouver, pages 25-57. in Canada, Baragar, W.R.A., Coleman L.C. and I3all. J.M., Robertsou, W.F. (1903): Carib00 District; B.C. Minisfryof Enegy, Editors, GeoiogicalAssociarion of Canada, Specia.Papa 16, Mims and Pefraleum Resaurcps, Minister of Mines Annual pages 3-24. Report 1902. pages 69-81. Spence A. (1985): Shoshonites and Associated Rocks3f Central Rock, N.M. (1987): The Need for Standardization of Normalized British Columbia; in Geological Fieldwork 1984, B.C. blinMulti-elementDiagramsinGeochemistry;AComment;Geoi s f V o f E n q y ,MinesandPermleumResources, Paper 15'8.5chemical Joumal. Volume 21,pages 75-84. 1, pages 426-442. Roddick, J.A.,Wheeler, 1.0.. Gabrielse, H. and Souther, J.G. E. (1977): Subcommision on GfochronolSteiger,R.H. and lager, (1%7): Age and Nature of the Canadian Part of the Circumogy: Conventionon the Use of Decay Constants in Geo- and Pacific Orogenic Belt; Zcfonaphysicss,Volume4, pages 319Cosmochronology; Earth and Planerary Sclenre Lerters, 337. Volume 36, pages 359-362. Ross J.V., Fillipone, J.A.,Montgomery,J.R.,Elsby,D.C. and Stephenson, W . (1897): Keithley Division; B.C. Ministry of EnBloodgood. MA. (1985): Geometry of a ConvergentZone, ergy, Mines and Perroleurn Resources, Minister of Mines Central British Columbia, Canada;Zcfonophysics,Volume Annual Report 1896, page 515. 119, pages 285-297. Stem, R.J., Bloomer, S.H., Lin Ping-Nan, Ito. E. and Mom:;, 1. Ross, J.V., Ganvin, S.L. and Lewis, ED. (1989): Geologyof the (1988): Shosohonitic Magmas in Nascent Arcs: NewEviQuesnel Lake Region, Central British Columbia: Geometry dence from Submarine Volcanoes in the Northern Marialaas; and Implications; in Proceedings, 7th International ConferGeology, Volume 16,Number 5, pages 426-430. ence on Basement Tectonics, D. Reidel, Dordecht, Netherlands, pages 1-23. Struik,L.C. (1981): SnowshoeFormation, Centra1Briti:rhColwmB, Geological Suwwy of C!anbia; in Current Research, Part Saleken, L.W. and Simpson,R.G. (1984): Carib-Quesnel Gold ada, Paper 81-A, pages 213-216. Belt; A Geological Overview; Western Miner, April 1984, pages 15-20. Struik. L.C. (1983): Bedrock Geology of Spanish Lake (93Nll) Schau, M.F. (1970): Stratigraphy and Structure of the Type Area and parts of Adjoining Map Areas, Central British Columbia; of the Upper Triassic Nicola Group in South-central British Geological Survey of Canada, Open File Map 920.

"

Bulletin 97

113

British Columbia

Shuik,L.C.(1984a):GeologyofQuesnelLakeandpartofMitchell Lake,British Columbia; Geological Survey of C&, Open File Map 962. Struik,L.C.(1984b):SaatigraphyofQuesnelTemeNwsDragon Lake, QuesnelMaparea, Central British Columbia; in Current Research, Part A, Geological Survey of Canada. Paper W l A , pages 113-116. Stluik, L.C. (1985a): %st and Strike-slip Faults Bounding Tectono-stratigraphicTerranes,CentralBritishColumbia, in FieldGuidestoGeologyandMineralDepositsintheSouthern Canadian Cordillera, Tempelman-Kluit, DJ., Editor, Cordilleran Section, GeologicalAssociatwn ofAmerica,Colorado, pages 141-148. Srmik,L.C.(1985b):Pre-CretaceousTerranesandtheirThhmstand Strike-slip Coutacts, Prince George (East Half) and McBride (West Half) Map Areas, British Columbia; in Current R e search,PartA,GeologicalSurveyofCaM&,Paper1985-1A, pages 267-272. Struik, L.C. (1986): Imbricated Terranes the of Carib00Gold Belt withCorrelationsandImplicatiousforTectonicsinSoutheastem British Columbia; C a d i a n Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 23, pages 1047-1051. Struik,L.C.(1987):TheAncientWestemNorthAmericanMargin: An Alpine Rift Model for the Eastsenual Canadian Cordillera; Geological Survey of Canadn, Paper 87-15, 19 pages. Shuik, L.C. (1988a): R e g m d Imbrication within Quesnel Terrane, Central British Columbia, as Suggested by Conodont Ages;CaMdi~JoumalofEanhSciences,Volume25.pages 1608-1617. Srmik, LC. (1988b): Srmchlral Geology of the Carib00 Gold Mining District, East-central British Columbia; Geological Survey of CaMdn, Memoir 421, 100 pages. Includes maps 1635A (93W14).1636A(93W3).1637A (93N13) and 1638A (8N14). Sutherland Brown, A. (1963): Geology of the Carib00River Area, British Columbia; B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petrolewn Resources, Bulletin 47,60 pages. Sutherland Brown,A. (1976): Morphologyand Classification; in Porphyry Deposits of the Canadian Cordillera. Sutherland Brown, A., Editor, Canadinn Institute of Mining and Merallurgy, Special Volume 15, pages 44-51. Thomton,CP.and~~,O.F.(1960):ChemistryofIgneousRocks. I. Differentiation Index; American Journal of Science, Volume 258, pages 664-684.

lipper, H.W. (1959): Quesnel, British Columbia; Geological Survey of Canada. Map 12-1959. Tipper, H.W. (1978): Northeastern Part of Quesnel (93B) M a p area, British Columbia, in Current Research, Part A, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 78-1, pages 67-68.

Tipper,H.W.,Woodsworth,G.J.andGabrielse,H.(1981):Tectonic Assemblage Map of the Canadian Cordillera and Adjacent Parts of the United States of America; Geological Survey o f Canada, Map 1505A, 1:2 000 000. Wheeler, J . O . , Brookfield, A.J., Gabrielse, H., Monger, J.W.H., Tipper, H.W. and Woodsworth, G.J. (1991): Terrane Map of the Canadian Cordillera; Geological Survey of Canada, Map 1713A, 1:2ooOooO. Wheeler, J . O .and Gabrielse, H. (1972): The Cordilleran Swctural Province; Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 11, pages 1-81. Wheeler, LO.and McFeeIy,P. (1991): Tectonic Assemblage Map of the Canadian Cordillera and Adjacent P a r t s of the United States of America; Geological Survey of Canada, Map 1712A, 1:2000000. Winkler, HJ.E (1979): Petrogenesis ofMetamorphic Rocks; Fifth Edition, Springer Veriag,New York, N.Y., 348 pages. Wilson, W.M.H. (1977a): Middle Eocene Freshwater Fishes from BritishColumbia; Royal Ontario Museum, LifeSciences Contributions,Number 113, pages 1-61. Wilson, W.M.H. (1977b): Paleoecology of Lacustrine Vmes a t Horsefly, British Columbia; Canadian Journal of Earfh Sciences, Volume 14, pages 953-962. Wilson, W.M.H. (1984): Year Classes and Sexual Dimorphism in the Eocene Catostomid FishAmywn Aggregatum; Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Volume 3 (3), pages 137-142. Woodsworth, G.J., Anderson, R.G. and Armstrong, R.L. (1991): in Geology ofthe Cordilleran Plutonic Regimes; Chapter 15, Orogen in Canada, Gabrielse, H. and Yorath, C.J., Editors, Geological Association of Canah, Geology of Canada, Volume 4, pages 491-531. An Yoder, H.S.and Tilley, C.E.'(1962): Origin of Basalt Magmas; Experimental Study of Natural and Synthetic Rock Systems; Journal of Petrology, Volume 3, pages 342-532. Zanettin, B. (1984): Proposed New Chemical Classification of Volcanic Rocks; Episodes, Volume 7, pages 19-20. Zen, E-An and Thompson, A.B. (1974): Low-grade Metamorphic Mineral Equilibrium Relations; Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Annual Reviews, Volume2, pages 179-212.

114

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry o f Employment am! Invesrmenr

APPENDICES

Bulletin 97

115

116

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry o f Employment and Invesment

APPENDIX A COMPOSITION OF PYROXENE FROM UNIT 2


Analysis of zoning in individual pyroxene grains (this study, M. Mihalynuk, analyst) and map-unit average values from Bailev. (1978). AII values in weight perclii.
'

~-

0.41

87AP 31/6-96; mapunit 2b -alkali basalt: Determinations = 8 SiOz TiOz pyroxene graincore 50.0 0.51 50.5 0.56 centre 50.4 0.61 rim 50.6 0.56 average 86AP 4/6-18, analcite pyroxene basalt- mapunit 2e: Determinations = 5. 51.2 graincore pyroxene centre 40.0 0.58 rim average 87AP 5/8-14, mapunit 4 analcite olivine basalt: Determinations = 9 pyroxene graincore 49.8 0 . 6 6 centre 0.68 50.0 rim average

Nt4

3.61 4.03 4.34 3.99

FeO 7.91 8.09 8.16 8.05

MnO 0.27 0.29 0.26 0.27

MgO 14.40 14.30 14.10 14.30

CaO NazO KzO' 22.2 0.33 0.M' 22.0 0.38 0.N' 22.2 0.35 0 . 0 G 22.1 0.35 0.M'

crZ03

0.02 0.03
0.04

0.03

3.61 4.20 5.24 4.35

6.94 7.27 8.38 7.43

0.20 0.19 0.26 0.22

15.00 14.50 13.50 14.30

22.8 22.7 22.3 22.6

0.30 0.30 0.36 0.32

0.K'

0.W 0.fX
0.M'

0.12 0.15 0.02


0.06

5.34 5.45 5.02 5.27 4.39 4.49 5.44

7.39 7.52 7.51 7.47 7.73 6.86 6.77

0.19 0.20 0.22 0.20 0.11 0.15 0.24

14.40 14.30 14.48 14.40 13.90 13.50 13.00

22.1 22.2 22.2 22.1 21.9 22.9 22.5

0.46 0.49 0.41 0.45 0.53 0.13 0.35

0.K: 0.W 0.K 0.N

0.08 0.07
0.03 0.06

Mapunit average values(Bailey, 1WS) Alkali Olivine bslt, unit 2a, N=19 0.71 50.3 Alkali bslt unit 2b, N=2 51.6 Analcite alkali bslt unit 2e, N=2 0.68 52.7

0.44

0.02 0.08

0.07

0.14 0.28 0.33

"

Bulletin 97

117

Bri2isk Columbia

118

Geologicul Survey Brunch

Ministry of Employment ana Inveslment

"

APPENDIX B MICROFOSSIL (CONODONT) DATAFOR THE QUESNELMAPAREA


Field No. GSC No. 86AP-25/3-7bCl C-117601 86AP-26/680-Q C-117602 Map Latitude Map Unit Longitude 1

__"

NTS
Loeation Identifieation
worm tubes

A s Phanerozoic (indctcrminate) late PaleozoicMcsozoic

CAI*

52'-29'-22" 93N6 121"-25"34"

west~rn tip of Honefly Pcnninsula


2.5 km S of castern tip of Horscfly Penninsula, on S shore of Quesnel L.

52"-27"54" 93N6
121"-22'-25"

ichthyoliths shell material barren

52--28"33" 93N6 121*-2049"

86AP-2515-88-01

52"-28'4?"
121"-20'41"

93N6

on S shore Qucsnel L, 2.5km SE of eastern


tip Honcfly Penninsula E endof Caribou Island N. shore Qucsnel L,at Mitchell Bay barren barren bamn foraminiferid (Ammonodisas?) ichthyoliths Silurian to recent probably Upper Triassic Phanerozoic pmbably Upper Triassic UpperTriassic, probably lower Noria" 2.5-3.5

2f

52429'4" 121"-21'-9"

93N6 93N6

2a 52*-29'-56"

1219'27'45" 86AP-29/1-102-C7 L87C4-8 C-117642 DB87-W4 C-117643 87AP-12/3-31 C-117644 52-30"31" 2a 121-30'-43"

93N12 W shorn Querncl L, 2 km N Hazcllinc PI 93B/16 Cantin Creek area

2f 52'-53"39"
1220-9'-28"

52'410'66" 93B/9 1229-oo"30"

S. shore Quesnel R

52'-24"47" 121=34'49"

93N5

Antoinc Ck., 1.6 km downsmm from Anmint L.

ichthyoliths conodont m a : Epigoandolella cf.. E. abneptir Huckriede nmiform elements, Ncogondolclla sp. Concdontr, ichthyolilhs: Conodont taxa: Ncopndolella ? sp.
cO"~0"ls:

88AP-08/05-C1 c-154102

52-25'-18" 121"413"50"

93M5

Beaver Valley: 8 km NE of G c o ~ Lk c (cliff at Gillespie Ranch) Ollism me in cliffcarbonate 5.5 km NE Lemon L approx. 1 km N of

Mid.-U. Triassic Anisian-Camian

4.5

88AP-1013-CZ c-154105 88AP-11/4-C3 C-IS4106 88AP-1114-C4 C-154107 88AP-l1/4ES c-154108 88AP-WbC6 c-154109 SAP-126

52'-22"40" 93M6 121"-12'49"

smroad

Mctapolyg~thus sp. ex gr. nodusus (Hayashi) [Halobia site] iehlhyolilhr ichthyolilhs barren Cancdontr, ichlhyoliths Conodont m a : Metaplygnathus

U.Triassic Late Camian


probably Triassic Phanerozoic

3.5.4

52O-Ze-36" 1 93N5 12141'746" 1


1

1 km SSE Dorrey L on watcdine mad

52'-26"36"
121'417'46"

93N5

1km SSE D o m y L
on waterline mad

52'-26"36" 93A/5 121"47'416" 93MS

1 km SSE Domy L on watcrline road 1 km SSE DoncyL on waterlinc mad

1 52*-2@43" 121"48"4'
2a 52"-28"29"

U.Triassic;
Lato Camian

4.5

121"-25"00"
85AP-126a

93Mffi Horsefly river mad, 0 . 9 h SE of Mitchell Bay

barren

2a 52"-28"29" 93Mffi Harrefly river mad, 121"-25"00" 0.9km SE of Mitchell Bay

SAP-126b

2a 52*-28"29" 121"-25"00"

9 3 "

Horscfly river mad. 0.9km SE of Mitchcll

barren

Bulletin 97

119

I20

Geological Survey Branch

APPENDIX C EUREKA PEAK- QUESNEL LAKE MICROFOSSIL (CONODONT) DATA


Field N o . GSC No. 86MB-154?2 C-117629 86MB-36-08 0117630 86MB-17-01 C117631 86MB-17M 0117632 86MB-2609 0117633 86MB-27-01 0117634 86MB-28-02 C-117635 86MB-33-13 C-117636 87MB-0102 0117645 Latitude Map NTS Unit longitude Identifieation Map Loeslion

__
CAI'

AW
bamn

"

529-27'41"

93An

120~45'46"
1

52"-26'-33"
120~48"s

93An

bamn

52"2i"14" 120"50"22'
52"21"19' 120'-50"11"

93An

barren

93An

barrcn

52"16"2'

93An

barren

120'-39"53' 1
52*-20"55"

93An

banen

120'-39'4* 1

52"2049"
120'"42'

93An

barrcn

52'-19"56' 120%42"1' 52*-33"17" 121"16"12'

93An

banen

93Nlf

Conodonts: Nsogondolslla ex gr. mnsvicm (Morhcr& Clark) Nsogondolellarp. el. N. alpina (Kozuur & Mostlw 1982) ramifom elements
SpnishLkares

M.Triasric
Late Anisian

:j

early Ladinian

87MBM-W

1 52'-33"54" 93.4'11 121-?0-51'


1 52"40'-9"

bamn

87MB-W-05 C-117647 87MB-07-06 0117648 87MB-1602 C-117649

93N9

HobSon L k m

barren

120"3'-30' 1
52'46"

9 3S Np ll ishLkm

barren

121*-20"35"
1

52'-32"50121~-21"1"

93Nll

Spanish MI".. E .

ConodonCt:

Chiowlla timomris
(Nagami 1968) ramifom C~SIIKIIS

Middle M a s i f Early Anisian

5-5.5

87MB-19M C-117650 87MB-19-06


c 1 5 4 1 0 1

52435'-32' 93.4'11 121"26-12"


52--34r43"

SpnishLkma

bamn

93Nll

SpanirhLk-

barren

121~-21"15" 1
5Z044'-42'

87MB-2741 mnwminatd 87MB-FX

93.4'11

SpnirhLkm

banen

121'-19-57" 1 52"-16'"32" 93An

EurelwPeakm

bnmn

Bulletin 97

I21

British Columbia

122

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry o f Employment and Iz:=enf

APPENDIX D MICROFOSSILS (PALYNOMORPHS)FROM THE QUESNELMAP AREA

"

mnglornemle
"

Identifications:

Bulletin 97

123

British Columbia

124

Geological Survey Branch

APPENDIX E MICROFOSSIL DATAFROM THE QUESNELMAPAREA


QUESNEL PROJECT COLLECTIONS FkMNumbrr GSChHon N"ElbW
SAP-82

Msp Unit

hlltudr

NTS

h l l o n

IdenlUksIIm

&e

LoDgUude Map

.",-"

3
3

C-118687 85AF-96B c-118685

52-27-43 93N6 121-27-26 52-28-37 93N6 121-29-19

85AP-96c C-118686
86AP-20l3-6l GI17626

52-28-25

93N6

121-29-19
2cZfl
52-26-20 93N6E 121-28-40

0.4 k m SE of Shiko L

86AP-3015-114 C-117627

2f

52-25-46 93N6E 121-27-23

2.5 km SE ShikoL

DE8743 C-117609 DL38744 GI17610 DB87-45 C-117621 DB87-46 GI17637

2f

52-38-41

93M12

12147-52 21
52-38-41

5kmNNEMorrheadL on Morehead Ck 28 m above base ofsection


5 km NNE Momhead L on Morehead Ck I m above DB 87-43 5 km NN Morehead L

93N12

N o r i q probably upperNorian

121-47-52
2f
52-38-41

93N12

No-

probably upperNorim

121-47-52
2f
52-38-41

onMonheadCk m e as DB 87-44

93N12

121-47-52

5 km NNX Morehead L mMoreheadCk 12 m above base, 16 m below DE 87-43


5 kmNNE Morehead L onMoreheadCk 2 m above DB87-46

Age not determined

DE8748 GI17638

2f

52-38-41

93Ml2

121-4742
21' SL.,!,-,2
YMIO

Upper inassic

121-27-24

(APPENDIX E Continued)
87AP-17/5-39 C-117639 87AP-2512-76 C-117641 88AP-llI4-35-FI c-154111 88AP-12/1O-F2 GI54110 88AP-I8/3OF3 GI54112 88AP-22/7-71-4 C-154113 OB88601 C-154I14 DB88602 CI54lI5 88AP-1114C3 c-154106 2f
1

52-2547 121-27-24 52-23-31 121-3342

93N6 93N5

2.3 k m SE Shiko L 2.3 km E Roben L

benthonic bivalve apsrrnblagc, same unit (7)


flattened ammonite 7

ay GI17627

Upper Triassic

IA
IA

52-26-37 93N5 1214746 52-27-24 12148-33 52-20-30 121-12-26 52-19-28

Hobbio sp., p s i b l y a flattened ammonite, a bivalve and 8 brachiopod. wnfains HOlObiia sp.

Probably I O W R N O ~ ~ Camian o r~upper

93N5
93N6 93N6 931\/12
1.2 km NE Patenaude L

PmbablylowR.NorianM.uppcrCamian
Pmbably lower Norian or upper Camian Pmbably lower Norian orupper Camian UpperlHassic Upper Triarsic Triassic, Camian

2A L A 2AnD 2AnD
IA

wnlaim Hoiobio sp.


a bivalve (Hulabin?)

121.09-56
524042

4.5kmENESlidcMm 4.5 kmENE SlideMm

bivalves and brachiopods bivalves and brachiopods Halobia sp.

1214844 52-4042 93Nl2 1214844 52-26-36 93W05 1214746

Data S o u r c e s :Geological SUNVofCanada fossil idmtificafion

C-118685.118686,118687-Jl5-1986-HWT,J3-l992-HWT,JI-1993-HWT,H.W.Tlppr,C-l1867-J9-1986-TPP,T.P.Poulta~;C-117626,117627-Jll-1987-En',E.T.Tolcr C-117609,117610,117621-1R4-1987-ETT,E.T.Tmcr;C-l1637,11638-~4-1987-E7T,E.T.Tmrr;C-I54110,154111,154112,154113,154114,154115,H.W.Tipp~
~wrinen eommunicatiom, H.W. Tipper, l986,l987,1988,1992, I993 Field Number wlleelor sample code: DE. D.O. Bailey: AP .A. Panteleyev sample

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY of CANADA REPORTS on FOSSILS COLLECTED I n the QUFSNEL LAKE AREA by VARIOUS GEOLOGISTS
Map

GSC

hSliLW

Idrntiflestions

Age

CoUectorIReport

Number Unit Camian Upper 2 91862 93215(a) grrybasalt0SkmNofthe E end ofGavin L MorehcadCk3.2kmNof MoreheadL Morehead Ck2.4 km f r o m Quesnel L Prorocarda (?) SP., Castatorin sp. a f t C. sunonemis(Clapp Shimer) LioIrigonia (?) SP., aft L OYI?O Goldfuss, Costatoria (?) or Myophorigonio (?) sp Seplocardia (?) sp.. undetermined brachiopods
U. Triassic, prob. Norim

RBC: (1978) DGB


CIH (1974) Tr48-1974-ETT

DGB J4-1976-TPP

91858 (?) 91859 (?)

NOriall Triassio Upper

CJH(1974),HWTTr18-1974-En'

(APPENDIX E
40027 93215@) 2 42432 3 93960 93961 93214 3

Continued)
T ' r ll-6ol61-ETT
RBYl%I);ffiB;

f f i B 14,113-1976-TPP 13-1992XWT

DGB 14-1976-TPP J2-1976HF 13-199292HWT


DOE; 14-1976-TPP
93217 19578, 19580, 40019 19579. 40018 MorehadCkplaoerminepit 1.6 km u p e m fmm Qucrncl R Lowerlurauic RBC (1959); WEC; D o % J3-1992HWT J1-1993XWT RBc(1959); DGB J3-1992-W HWT(1986) Jl-19931iwT

93216

3
3

3 or2f

Mmheadck phaminepit 3.6 km upmram from Qursncl R not in PlaeC

GI17287 NshoreMmhcdL
C-118685

SofHa2eltinePoint,QuesnelL
lat5292S'3~,iong121910'42"

GI17286
6117285

GI18685

SOrH~HimePoim,QunndL lat522S'24",lmg 12170'47" LowerPiimbachien; Freboldi Zone Upper Pliensbaehim,


Kunae Zone
Aaltnim

H W T ( 1 9 8 6 ) ;J3-1992-HWT
Jl-1993HwT
RBC; DG%J18-1976-H 14-19694iF; HWT(1986) J3-1992-HWT; Jl-1993-HWT

42434 mad cut, N bank Querncl R 93752 4.35 kmdownrmam fromLikely 90769 Likely. 40030
Tyee WcLeese L) mad junetion,90mtothenotih
I20 m NW of outlet ofBeaveridgsL

RBC, J1-1974-HF
13-1992HWT andTipper (1991); JI-1974-HF J3-1992-HWT
RBC, Poulton

91755 Opheim C-149638

L. mad

out at SE end

Aalcnim

PoultonandTipper(l99I)

I28

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry o f Employment omfInvestment

APPENDIX F PETROCHEMISTRY SAMPLE DATA FOR THE QUESNEL MAP AREA


LAB
NUMBER NUMBER
38434

"

Ell3I.D
Ap88-24/02-71 Cll-9 CI1-ll APS21M46 AP862m.4-92 AP86-28/07-98
AP85.09/01-72 AP85-m-115

LA"IVDE WNGn'l.DE
0

, ,,
~

V I

NTS MAP

UNIT LOCATIONIAREA NUMBER DESCRIPTION ROCK

35339 35340
32641 . ".

32642 32643 31607 31@9 37026 38435 35553


35560

35569 35573 35574 35575 35580 35582 35586 35325 35326 35330 32052 32053 32054 31597 31611

AP88d"19 AP88-2W3-70 DB8741 DB87-20 DB87-21 DB87-25 0887-26 DB87-27 DB87.33 DB87-35 DB87-40
01-10

C4-12B c7-3
AeBMw10-29

ssn

35578 DBI DB2 DB3 DM DB5 DB6 355095 35563 DB7 DB8
RMll

31608 35570 DB9 DBIO 35097 32050 37024 RM2 316W 31603 31604 35093
3 m

36265 35092 DBll DB12 OB13 DB14 DBl5 DB16 DBI7 DB18 DB19 DB20 35556 DB2l DB22 31599 31618 31602 31605

Ae8610iU8.44 AP8blM3-51 APgS-lll-35A AP85-223.123 DB87-29 DB87-30 DB7515-I2 DB757-1 DB757-2 DB751-2 DB757-3 DB7532-2 AP87-rn749 DB87-15 DB75IS-9 DB7515-2 ~~73.34 AP85-12/44 DB87-22 DB7515-5 DB7512-1 AP87-261os-sO AP8604/M18 AP8630n-113A RM73-29 AP85-59-57 m48m6a7 AP85.0810668 ~~87-09105.n AP87-18ms41 AP8707/04-20 AP87-oM)3-16 DB753-1 DB7M DB757-12 DB757-14 118756-9 DB75bIO DB7512-2 DB756-12 DB7522-5 DB7522-3 DB87-05 DB7533-1 DB7518-2 AP85.51&56A m-7R-63
Ap85-8/1"

52-25-38 52-57-56 52.58- 2 52-22-38 52-29.46 52-29-57 52-2S.u 52-29.23 52-2b 3 52-19-W 52-28.55 52-29-59 52-29.22 52-32-15 52-3749 52-3749 5243.4 52-40-31 524141 52-53-17 5 2 . 5 ? 1 2 52-53-33 52-25.54 52-25-37 52.25.25 52-2647 52-28-39 52-29-50
52-29-54

121-7-27 122-16-21 122-1619 121-18-26 121-2b50 121-2743 121-24-21 121-23-30 12142.15 121-1os76 121-3963 121-27-58 121-41-29 1214541 121-37-37 121-37-37 121-5b14 1214641 121-53-37 122- 8-37 122- 8-31
122-10-5

p,Pssow2e

525142 52-32-19 52-32-13 5234.6 52-32-10 52-31- 6 52-22-40 52-31.17 52-31-4 52-31.16 52-25-14 52-2743 52.30-54 52-31-24 52-37-51 52-23-52 52-26 3 52-55- 9 52-23-46 52-27-21 52.27-30 52-n.30 52-24-10 52-1941 52-1940 52-2040 52-35-27 52-34-32 52-33-24 52-33-29 52.34.58 52-35 2 52-38- 4 52-35-32 52-34-24 52-33-26 52-37- 4 52-37-28 52-3840 52-27-16 52-27-26 52-27-32 52-27-53

121.2144 121-22-59 121-20-14 121-2840 121-22-31 121-3548 121-38-55 121-4340 121-42-28 1214238 12147-3 121-42-21 121-30-30 121-31-51 12143-9 12143-26 12142.54 121-31-6 121-2744 121-40-13 12141-22 121-5143 121-33-17 121-23-40 121-2615 121.33-13 121-28-4 121-28-5 121-2801 121-3159 121-29-19 121-30-20 121-2740 12146-38 12145-12 12143-28 12143-35 12145-11 121-45-6 121-5133 121-4630 121-40-53 121-40-11 12141.15 12143-34 121-47-39 121-27-57 121-28-18 121-2851 121-28.21

93AI 6 93W16 938116 93AI 6 93AI 6 93AI 6 93AI 6 93AI 6 93AI 5 93AI6 93AI 5 93AI 6 93AI 5 93AI12 93AI12 93AI12 93AI12 93AI12 93AI12 93B116 938116 93Bl16 93AI 6 93AI6 93AI6 93AI 6 93AI 6 93AI 5 93AI 5 93AI12 93AI12 93AI12 93AIl2 93AI12 93AI12 93AI 5 93AI12 93AIl2 93AII2 93AI 5 93AI6 93AI12 93AI12 93AI12 93AI.5 93AI6
93AI 6

2 A 2 . 4 2 . 4 2A

28 2B
28

Cantin Ck. Gcrimi

&

Cantin Ck.Gcrimi 0;
CantinckGcrimia(1kmn

2B
2B

28
2B 2B

28
2B

28 2B 28 28 2B 28 2c 2c

2 c

2 c

2 c
2D 2D
W
W

2E

2E
2E

93AI 5 93AI 6 93AI 6 93AI 6 93AI5 93AI6 93AI5 93AI 6 93AI12 93AI12 93AIl2 93AI12 93AI12 93AI12 93AII2 93AI12 93AI12 93AI12 93AI12 93AI12 93AI12 93AI 6 93AI 6 93AI 6 93AI 6

2E
20 2G

20 3 3 3 3A 3A 3A 3A

3 . 4 3A 3A 3A 3A 3B 3B 4
4

4 7 7 7 7

HmkccrL(3kmNE) HmkecrL(1kmN) UWL(IkmW) shiko L mmny peni~lla EdncyL(4kmN) EdncyL(45kmNwJ Jombis L (3 km SE) JmbicL(2kmEl J&ic L (2 km E) Morrhsad L (25 km SW) Jvobh L (2.25 km E) Qusrnsl L * w (4 km SE PDIlcy L) BuvaCk(2kmM TioL(2hW) IdiL(1.75kmSE) I d i s L (2 km SE) Antoins L (N rid4 ShihL W of Bmtjack s t & Trio L (0.25 km W lrkPineL(1kmN) htoinc L (SW) HmkcrL(2kmM H-ny R Anloinc L (2 km S) ShikoL ShikoL ShikoL Anloinc L (S) HdY(2kmW) HomeIly Rd HOrxny (2 km W Polley L (1.75 km NNE) Marehead L(I km SE) MorcheadL(2kmS) MorehudL(2kmS) Morehad L(025 km SW) " M L (0.20km SW) lrkPireL(1.5kmN) Mor&adL(NWsnd) Mashad L (2.4km ESEl h 1 j ; r k L (0.75 km W LiulcL(2kmE) LitlkL(0.75kmN) l a ~ Pine k L (3.75 km W E ) Shiko L Shiko L ShikoL Shih L

Bulktin 97

129

(APPENDIX F continued)

93AI12 7 52-37-38 121-387 7 93AI12 121-47-58 52-39-30


52-21-26

Bullion pit

QR 93AI6 %AI6 93AI6 93AI 6 121-22-59 12143-53 OtOrgeL 8? 93AI5 8? 93AI5 121-46-30 121-28-30 93AI6 93AI6 121-276 93AI 5 93AI5 121-"33
121-6.21 7 7 7
7

52-21-30 121-1638 52-25.49 121-!M4 52-2613 52-25-13


52-26-48 52-23.52 52-20-20

Ho~llyMrn LcmwL(3kmND V5wlandPk Hmker L (0.5 ! a n SW)


BeavuL-ChoateL

10
10

AnIoineL(S) Horsefly
Bmver L-waterline road

52-26-41 12147-51 52-19-6

10
11

Horsenymad

- bnccio D ,X

-pymrmr. Coliectoreoda: A. Ponrelcyev. AP: D.G.Boiley. DE: J. l a .C: R.L Monon

130

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry o f Employment and Investment

APPENDIX G MAJOR OXIDE CHEMISTRY OF MAP UNITS


NO NO 38434 35339 35340 32641 32642 32643 31607 31609 37026 38435 35553 35568 35569 35573 35574 35575 35580 35582 35586 35325 35326 35330 32052 32053 32054 31597 31611 35577 35578 DB1 DB2 DB3 DB4 DB5 DB6 35095 35563 DB7 DB8 RMI 31608 35570 DB9 DBlO 35097 32050 37024 RMZ 31My) 31603 31601 35093 35094 36265 35092 DBl1 DBl2 DB13 DB14 DB15 DB16 DB17 DB18 DB19 DBZO 35556 DB21 DB22 31599 31618 316M 31605 31606 31610 37025 37030 38436 RM3
~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~

"

LAB

FIELD
m-24102.71 Cll-9 CI1-ll Ap8621/04-66 AP8628104-92 ~p8628m7-98 AP8569iOI-72 m5-m-115 Ae88oM15-19 m8-22833-70 DBglOl DB87-20 DB87-21 DB87-25 DB87-26 DB87-27 DB87-33 DB87-35 DB87-40
c4-10

T i %a Si02

MAP UNIT
1A 2A
2A

Fa-T

2A 2A
ZA

2A
2A 2A 2A 2A

C412B c7.3 AP86WlO-29 AP86-10/084 AP86-13/03-51 AP85-ltl-35A AP85-22B-123 DB87-29 DB87-30 DB7515-12 DB757-1 DB757-2 DB751-2 DB757-3 DB7532-2 m7-20107-49 DB87-15 DB7515-9 DB7515-2 RM73-34 AP85-1214-84 DB87-22 DBl515-5
""

2A ZA 2A ZAnD ZAnD 2Ai2D 2ARD 2ARD 28 28 28 2B 2B 28 2B 28 2B 28 28 2B


2B

28 Z B 2B 2c 2c 2c 2c 2D 20 20 2D
2E 2E
~~

..."

.~

Ae86-30/3-113A

2E 2E 2G 20 3
3

DB757-14 DB7569 DB75610 DB7512-2 DB756-12 DB7522-5 DB7522-3 DB87-05 DB7533-1


~~ ~~ ~~

3 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 38 38

7 7 7

16.64 1336 11.59 14.62 16.93 10.33 9.23 11.41 14.26 15.17 &.& 13.40 47.81 9.88 47.15 1322 17.80 46.09 50.70 14.79 15.02 51.69 17.06 50.81 16.50 48.44 1657 50.01 46.64 11.59 47.14 13.72 47i3.i 13.45 15.07 49.23 47.13 0.68 .~~~ 13.64 46ij9 0.69 12.86 49.19 0.57 11.15 48.51 0.69 16.63 45% 0.71 12.42 47.99 0.62 9.65 47.w 085 15.75 13.10 0.69 12.90 48.70 0.69 45.70 0.77 11.70 47.40 0.72 11.90 46.20 0.82 13.10 50.77 1.00 18.50 0.72 17.12 4636 2c 4820 0.62 13.75 48.40 0.81 17.80 51.43 0.75 15.76 50.32 10.64 0.51 47.60 0.68 10.31 12.W 0.81 47.80 0.93 17.10 48.61 0.84 17.70 48.13 13.74 0.64 45.20 0.74 13.72 51.48 0.74 17.69 55.18 0.64 17.31 2G 54.40 0.55 16.75 4 8 . 0 7 0.76 16.23 0.80 16.36 57.94 0.46 17.19 54-87 0.70 . 18.61 56.17 0.7 1758 47.70 0.76 17.40 as+ 15.60 51.90 19.40 0.75 53.M 19.90 0.74 49.80 18.00 1.07 48.60 0.84 1750 5 0 . 0 0 0.83 17.80 53.70 0.64 13.10 47.10 0.82 18.40 1850 5050 0.88 16.67 4850 0.80 47.90 0.95 16.90 50.40 0.73 14.20 48.13 0.61 9.94 52.20 1.04 14.98 54.35 059 17.71 9 3 5 0.68 15.61 48.20 0.99 17.80 5355 0.77 17.93 18.34 54.89 0.61 17.37 4751 0.76 52.26 0.72 16.75 14.10 46.92 46.52 46.49 49.09 49.75 46.33 46.80 49.28 49.33 47.04

0.75 0.64 0.76 0.67 056 0.60 0.55 0.97 . . . 0.72 0.55 0.65 0.58 0.69 0.63 0.81 0.73 059 0.69 0.83 0.68 0.78 0.62 0.60

8.39 10.72 12.59 10.27 8.90 11.18


10.11

4 8 %

" "

8.22 11.41 9.38 11.38 10.86 11.68 9.41 10.25 9.44 8.73 11.17 9.82 10.64 11.36 10.56 9.20 11.87 11.70 10.18 8.64 11.48 10.93 12.60
11.99

11.07 13.40 11.61 13.04 8.62


10.22 11.06

4 6 . 5 0

4 8 . 9 6

46.00

11.30 9.41 9.39 12.11 13.35 12.45 8.56 11.56 11.81 7.79 9.03 6.79 9.28 9.19 6.48 5.92 7.79 9.35 13.05 8.83 8.82 9.77 10.32 10.21 7.73 11.79 9.38 10.48 11.96 12.48 11.19
10.22

7.75
10.90

~~

10.38 8.36 6.95 11.07 7.61 11.20

MnO Me0 0.18 5.68 0.17 7.24 0.21 8.35 0.16 6.25 0.20 3.97 0.19 11.47 0.18 10.96 0.15 7.59 0.21 4.71 0.16 7.40 0.22 8.00 0.20 10.52 0.21 9.16 0.19 4.52 0.19 6.96 0.25 5.43 0.13 4.71 0.13 5.49 0.16 5.51 0.18 8.59 0.20 6.23 0.21 5.71 0.16 7.01 0.26 6.26 0.18 8.29 0.16 9.21 0.21 4.07 0.24 6.56 0.19 10.35 0.24 5.85 0.23 7.10 0.19 9.50 0.18 7.90 0.18 10.20 0.19 6.70 0.23 3.19 0.20 5.35 0.23 7.85 0.24 4.85 0.17 3.86 0.19 12.54 0.20 9.59 0.24 935 0.23 5.10 0.20 2.91 0.21 6.20 0.24 5.84 0.20 4.12 0.24 4.05 0.14 4.42 0.19 ~~~. 556 0.24 3.71 0.15 1.59 0.18 1.49 0.17 2.96 0.22 4.40 0.26 6.20 0.22 2.63 0.21 3.03 0.22 3.00 0.21 3.65 0.24 4.45 0.21 3.95 0.25 5.05 0.12 3.52 0.22 4.40 0.21 4.15 0.17 5.80 0.20 10.63 0.22 6.16 0.15 3.31 0.21 4.95 0.11 4.13 0.19 3.01 0.19 3.19 0.22 4.98 0.13 5.01 0.15 7.04

CaO

13.06 10.73 10.69 8.50 5.94 13.64 15.18 13.13 10.33 13.15 9.87 13.38 11.42 10.07 9.32 7.16 8.08 8.50 7.20 9.16 9.25 10.05 7.14 9.94 11.03 12.96 6.80 13.67 11.92 8.98 8.32 10.25 12.65 11.35 11.20 6.81 8.25 12.65 8.65 6.65 9.51 14.14 11.00 9.70 7.00 5.56 9.31 10.31 8.61 4.14 5.21 5.88
11.18

1.76 0.99 1.51 4.46 3.20 1.03 1.57 4.29 4.98 2.25 256 1.67 1.76 2.79 2.18 2.77 3.63 3.80 4.25 207 4.65 2.41 2.92 3.27 1.75 3.51 4.68 1.68 3.36 2.14 2.04 1.78 4.15

1.32 4.28 3.59 1.74 5.13 2.58 0.93 0.04 0.07 0.38 2.19 1.55 1.89 2.77 1.70 2.42 2.58 1.48 2.16 3.83 1.29 3.96 3.37 2.72 2.50 0.65 2.96

-_ - pa05

Fez03 LO1 C@: TOTAL*

"

0.22 0.44 0.26 0.40 0.62 0.39 0.27 0.22 0.30 0.14 0.27 0.47 0.33 0.37 0.25 0.31 0.31 0.38 0.31 0.76 0.70 0.53 0.53

0.41

8.20 3.51 5.56 5.78 7.82 9.93 6.87 6.85 8.18 8.32 5.10 4.60 8.72 6.62 7.88 7.95 8.40 13.33 9.25 6.69 9.31 9.65 7.41 7.84 9.03 10.05
10.01

6.88 2.55 2.12 2.52 1.63 3.95 0.95 4.30 1.79 5.40 1.82 3.83 2.38 2.00 3.12 5.00 0.64 3.87 4.80 1.50 1.88 2.09 1.51 3.90 0.82 0.35 3.20 3.62 8.77 0.51 3.45 5.33 5.60 0.45 2.78 3.21 8.48 3.28 1.87 4.55 551 5.11 1.30 3.13 4.38 0.25 4.27 1.13 2.91 2.88 4.44 0.39 6.20 6.98 2.08 0.39 4.07 3.35 0.23 3.81 5.42 4.97 0.25 1.76 4.72 4.30 3.60 3.05 3.63 5.30 2.62 5.70 0.41 2.70 5.00 6.22 0.42 1.68 4.90 0.40 2.90 3.95 5.30 3.32 5.30 4.52 1.98 3.93 4.30 3.28 4.17 2.38 4.18 3.22 4.90 0.91 1.56 2.18 2.97 1.82 3.90 3.65 2.48 3.65 3.02 250 2.55 3.48 2.52 3.13 2.72 2.22 2.28 3.61 2.08

0.G

0.17 0.41 0.50 0.72 0.52 0.58 0.71 0.72 0.67 0.74 0.52 0.50 0.44 056 0.47 0.38 6.22 0.23 6.64 0.42 8.94

5.52 7.72 9.29 7.29 6.15 8.17 7.25 5.17 8.27 6.60 8.31 7.90 8.54 6.55 7.14 6.49 5.97 8.08 6.74 7.61 8.17 7.59 6.39 8.72 8.56 7.30 5.80 8.34 7.93 8.99 8.60 7.77 9.79 8.23 9.41 5.51 7.20 7.83 7.86
~~

0.68 0.48 d~77 ... . 0.23 6.20


0.57

6.32

0 . 6 4 6.15

0.56 9.25 0.33 5.70


.
~~

0.38 0.28 0.29 0.31 0.52 0.53 0.38 0.30 0.30 0.45 5.10 0.45 7.85 0.37 7.10 0.40 5.48 0.30 4.36 n49 . ..- 7.93 0.25 4.85 0.40 7.47

6.95 6.86 4.82 8.29 6.06 7.36 8.31 9.00 8.17 691

2.25 2.14 2.26 2.17 2.06 2.10 2.05 2.47 2.22 2.05 2.15 2.08 2.19 2.13 2.31 2.23 2.09 2.19 2.33 2.18 2.28 2.12 2.10 2.18 2.19 2.07 2.19 2.21 2.12 2.35 2.19 2.19 2.27 2.22 2.32 2.50 2.22 2.12 2.31 2.25 2.01 2.18 2.31 2.43 2.34 2.14 2.24 2.24 2.14 2.05 2.26 2.30 1.96 2.20 2.27 2.26 2.49 2.25 2.24 2.57 2.34 2.33 2.14 2.32 2.38 2.30 2.45 2.23 2.11 2.54 2.08 2.18 2.49 2.27 2.11 2.26 2.22 2.61

5.28 3.37 3.36 4.26 3.21 2.24 2.48 5.10 3.26 4.42 2.76 2.81 2.28 5.02 257 3.85 2.92 2.83 2.82 4.92 3.34 3.73 3.03 3.10 2.62 2.37 4.66 2.38 3.08 264 2.86 2.49 3.14 2.81 4.70 2.79 4.58 2.22 3.04 2.12 2.82 0.86 3.87 3.79 5.79 2.83 5.64

1.81 0.1'. 0 . 0 ; 0.5t; 0.8' 0.4:: 0.31 3.27 0.6::

I.oi
0.21 0.34 0.E
0.28~ 0.c

0.26 0.26 0.56 0.41 0.41 0.21


0.64

0.14 0.88 0.95 0.7C 0.73 0.07 0.14 0.W 0 . 0 0 0.00


0 . 0 0 0.W 0.W

1c0.20 518.46 59.40 1C0.42 5'8.41 59.94 98.26 1C0.40 5958 1CO.04 59.78 59.73 99.79 59.66 99.72 99.07 9955 99.41 99.64 99.06 98.66 98.59 98.26

0.61 0.48
0 . 0 0

0 . 0 0
0 . 0 0 0.01

0.07 0.00 0.00 0.34 0.27 0.35


0.01
0.11 0.01

4~39 .. . 0.00

2.48 2.21 2.67 4.18 2.96 2.82 1.93 4.99 2.10 2.87 2.04 3.26 4.26 3.86 2.03 2.87 3.86 3.65 3.92 2.96 2.11 1.32
1.10

0.62 1.51

0.84
0.62
0 . 0 0 0.00 0.00

9858 100.36 98.35 99.18 99.43 101.32 101.13 101.18 10026 101.81 10256 99.63 99.45 102.26 101.20 93.20 93.53 9351 101.78 101.57 93.46 93.06 93.33 101.09 IlW.78 9.3.90 9.3.55 9>35 w.73 59.61 93.88
101.14

9 9 . 2 8

0 . 0 0
0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0
0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0.00 0.00

101.37 101.72 103.20 IM).30 1W.95 10:1.49 10;1.20 10127 $1.67 101..87 101.33 1Ml.IS 1MI.48 551.65 99.06 59.61 9935 1MI.17 99.70 IMI.09 lMI.02

96.06

0.49
0.00

0.00
0.11 0.01

0.47 2.46 1.47 1.86 2.42 2.81 1.79

0.06 0 . 3 4 0.34
0.01

0.15 0.15 1.14 0.00

British Columbia

(APPENDIX G continued)

37027 370% 35091

350% 37029 35098

AP88-08105.28 8 ~~8&1lm3-~ 8 AP8743fl102 1Oa lob AP87-24/9-68 AP88-11/05-36 1of AP87-lWO8-U 11


~~ ~~

54.29 13.92 0.63 S9.73 51.23 58.59 45.54


~ ~~

1.04

16.75 11.87 1741 11.43 13.06

0.14 3.84 5.90 4.76 0.38 5.88 4.83 0.12 99.57 1.14 2.94 2.13 3.37 5.05 0.22 2.20 4.05 9.67 5.83 5.31 9.11 12.71 0.11 0.19 0.16 0.17 5.43 1.15 8.86 8.43 6.97 5.66 8.77 8.92 2.85 4.31 4.W 2.63 2.91 2.30
0 . 9 6

0.13 6.42 0.78 0.18 0.89 0.33 299 3.06 5.85


8.25

2.54 3.02 0.17 2.51 8.74 7.53 1.91 4.24 2.61 8.94 3.54 1.88
~~ ~

99.92 1.77
5.60

1.01 0.41 1.11


2.04

48.55

0.77

1.71

99.13 99.57 98.40 99.77


~~ ~

VorOls calculorrd wing FeO-Tar Fe9 0, tor01 ImniPmcalc&edaFe203 =iiOio,+I.S(IrvinekBorogas1971) ondFcO-T(oJFeO*)=FeO+Fe20, *0.8998:Fe,O,*=Fe,O,+Fc0*1.1113S h l y t i c a i mnhod. detection limit in bronlou inppm: values quored by mvllyieoi bbbomtory 1989. XRF- Bn(lO1, SN5). RMIO), CNIO). 7420). Y(lO), Nb(S), V(5J ii(10). INA .Ce(O.S), Csf0.5), Eu(O.2). H f l l ) , LOO).Lu(0.05),Sm(0.l). rs(O.2). TA(0.S).7b(O.S), Th(O.Z), U(O.2). WZ), NDf51 A A .COc3).Ni(5) XRFondAA -lyse$: Geob~lcdSurvey Branch AdyticdSclence Iabomroq INAA -lyses: Bondor-Ckgg & Company DL, Wurcouver, 1988. d o r X - R y A m s y Lobomtorior U d , Don Milk, Onrorio, 1986 DnrO Sources: AP. Pantelrynr; DE D. B o i b ; C 3. Lu this rtudy: lab no. with DBfrom Bailey (2978). Rmfmm Momn (1976). h l y s c s by B.C. Gcologicnl Survey Branch Annlyticd Sciences labermmy

132

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry ofEmployment a d Investment

APPENDIX H REPLICATE AND DUPLICATE ANALYSES (PRECISION AND VARIABILITY)


LabNo.

"

SiO,

T I O ,

A1203 FeO-T MnO MgO CaO

N%O

6 0 P,O,

LO1

54.34 31602 Duplicate 0.45 3.81 3.79 6.65 3.25 0.17 7.98 17.8 0.63 53.2 Repeat 52.36 17.34 0.62 0.45 3.74 3.79 6.62 3.28 0.16 7.85 37027 Duplicate 49.49 49.17

0.55 7.65 18.07

1.09 3.56 0.15 4 6.76 3.33 1.1

---0.72 0.73 14.25 14.27 11.37 11.45 0.21 4.68 0.22 4.74 10.25 5.05 10.41 4.91 0.06 0.3 0.08 0.3 3.27 3.3

Analytical precisionfr x-rayfluorescencemethod quoted by Geobgical SurveyBranch, Analytical Sciences Laboralov, I992 -percent at midrange value: I%

- S i 0 2 , AI

0 3 , MgO,CaO, Na 0,MnO,

P20,:5%-Fe,O3;2%-K2O,li0,:5%-LOI.
LOI by combustion method (I050'C) &O.OI%

"

Bulletin 97

133

British Columbia

134

Geological S u n t q Branch

APPENDIX I MINOR ELEMENT CHEMISTRY OFMAPUNITS


FIELD LAB MAP Ba
NO
NO
INIT

Ce
IA 2A 2A 2A 2A 2A 373 2343 71665 950

Cs

Cr

V CO Eu Hf LuLa

NI Rb
35

Sm
2 4
74 76 57

Sc T a Tb Th

U Yb

Sr

T I
4496 4182 4182 4016 3357 3596 3600 5100 4316 3297 3893 3474 4133 3774 4852 4373 3534 4133 4972 4316 4844 4057 3596 4076 4136 3300 4300 4253 3714 5091 4133 4133 4612 4312 491 I 5990 4313 3713 485 I 4492

Nd

Nb
5.0

Z r
57 56 38

38434 AP88-24/02-7l 35339 C l l - 9 35340 CI1-ll 32641 AP86-21/04-66 32642 AP86-28/04-92 32643 AP86-28/07-98 31607 AP85-09/01-72 31609 AP85-20/2-1 I5 37026 AP88-06/05-19 38435 AP88-22/03-70 35553 0887-01 35568 DB87-20 35569 DB87-21 35573 DB87-25 35574 DB87-26 35575 DB87-27 35580 DB87-33 35582 DB87-35 35586 DB87-40 35325 C4-IO 35326 C4-128 35330 C7-3 32052 AP86-06110-29 32053 AP86-10/08-44 32054 AP86-13/03-51 31597 AP85-lll-35A 31611 AP85-2213-123 35577 DB87-29 35578 DB87-30 DB7515-12 DBI DB2 DB757-1 DB3 DB757-2 DB4 DB751-2 DB5 DB757-3 DB6 DB7532-2 35095 AP87-20107-49 35563 DB87-I5 DB7515-9 DB7 DB7515-2 DB8 RMI RM73-34 ...^* _I,"".,,%'0-"1LI"O35570 DB9 DBIO DB87-22 DB7515-5 DB7512-I

-22

-_

- ---. ----_
---

94 270 207 276 353 276 5 321 470 273 1020 22 156 170 470 400 5 150

64
79 24

- - 0.2 0.4

-_ -

69 38 377

26 13 5 6

1.0 0.5

-_-

593 23.0 483 16.0 336 13.0 7.0 530


" "

11.0 9.0

_- 3.0
"

0.1
16.0 71

2A
2A 2A 2A 2A 2A 2A 2A 2N2D 2N2D 2M2D 2N2D 2N2D 2B 2B 2B 2B 28 28 2B 28 28 2B 2B 28 28 28 28 28 2c 2c 2c 2c 2c
" L "

740 29 770 14 30 19 48 126 1000 1300 1100 460 1200 1900 720 460 760 939 47 698 27 1095 22 860 36 820 22 I700 18 200 21 1150 70 1000 760
" "

--

--"

268 253 242 302 245 247 263 289 250 257 100 273 63 210 92 263 271 5 288 288 73 297 105 247 270 287 59 354 270 330 620 15 286 249 85 350 266

1.0 0.5

0.1 1.3 0.1 2.3


"

IO
60 23 56 98

II
41 32 51 35 32 45 51 29

11
46 26 22 29 22 43 21 27

-"

"

"_

1
63

- _ - 0.6 0.2 1.0 0.2 1.3 0.2 1.1 0.5 0.9 0.5 0.1 0.5 1.1 1.5 3.2 2.4
"

"

82
32 63
"

-"

8
24 71

_- -_
" "

.-

-_ _.

"

-_ -_
5
219 5

."

"

"_._ _ -._
" " "

31 74 66 32 54 1 82 74 27

60

_._ _._ _._


.._
I70 2 I5

660 740
" "

_"

-- __"_ "_ "_ ""_ - -_


" " " "
I

825 2.0 533 5.0 323 15.0 328 17.0 16.0 448 580 9.0 500 23.0 I200 24.0 420 23.0 575 19.0 635 7.0 570 9.0 645 15.0 Io00 12.0 994 15.0 1147 15.0 1482 14.0 I200 2.0 890 20.0 IWO 2.0 620 12.0 703 18.0 730 22.0 565 8.0

- " _-20.0 57

12.0 6.0

63

I W

"

"_ "_

"

_._

--

"

...,,*.

1196 500

: > ; ; ;
" "

2D 2D 2D

_- -_

-_ -_

.__ .._ ___ "_ ""__ -_


I_

1 52

"

99
3 "

"

49

44

-_0.5 ___ -_ __ "_ .. u.6 -_ 1.5


I

___

"_ _- "_
"

I133 30.0 660 11.0


" "

"

""__

"

I.Y

1231 22.0 3 i4.6 775 9.0


"

jiU6
4073 485 I 5570

"

-. -._

"

_- .__

."

(APPENDIX I Continued)

FIELD LAB NO NO
35097 AP87-26/05-80 32050 AP86.04106-18 37024 AP86-3013-113A RM73-29 RM2 ... ~. 31600 AP85-5/9-57 31603 AP85-08/06-67 31604 AP85-08/06-68 35093 AP87-09/05-27 35094 ~. APR7-1810S-41 .. 36265 AP87-07/04-20 35092 AP87-06/03-16 DBll DB753-I DB12 DB756-6 DB13 DB757-I2 DB14 DB757-14 DB15 DB756-9 DB16 DB756-IO DB17 DB7512-2 DB18 DB756-12 DB19 DB7522-5 DB2O DB7522-3 35556 DB87-05
~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~

MAP UNIT
2E 2E

Ba Ce
IWO 50
1100
1653 1534 700 1500 790

Cs
1.7

Cr
5
. .

V Co Eu Iff La
189 30 0.2 2.0

Lu

Ni Rb Srn
2 29

Sc Th Tb Ta
1.1 0.1 2.2 0.1 0.1 1.3

U Yb
2.1 0.7

Sr

Ti Nh Nd
5032 3836 4436 4432 3900 3500

Z r
6.0 18.0 6.0 4.0 4.0 7.0 109

18 0.05

2E 2E
2G
2G 2G 3 3 3 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3B 3B 4 4 4

_-19 35 34

17

0.1
0.1 0.1 9.3

-.. ."

._.

90 357 73 0.2 2.0 10 0.05

......

......
1096 1500 34

-.-

......

". _.. ." 1.o ."

30 220 413 334 5 11 148 13

-.- 21

.--

..................

8 0.31 19 1.1 2.0 15 0.39 27 1.1 2.0 0.38 19

_.. 0.1

4.4 9.1 32 3.2 30.0 I ] 49 ." 84 ." ." ." .~ ." 40 2.7 29.2 1 W 26.2 3.7 127 50 4.8 28.0

88

...............
0.1 1.1 0.1 -.- 2.3 0.1 0.7 2.6

--.
---

. . .

."

.._". ......

0.5 0.5

1.1 2.4 1.1 2.5


4.4 2.6 11.0 1.0 21.0 6.0

.................. ...............
143

."." ." ." ." ." ...... ". ...... ...... ......

......

. . . .....................
_.. . . . ." . . .
. . . . . . ". ."
.....................

30 0.2 0.2

8 0.05

27

.....................
.....................
..................... .....................
.....................

.....................

.....................

54 3.8

9.5 0.1 0.1 1.7

0.0 0.0 1.0 0.5

_"

..................... .....................
.....................

1100

31599 AP85-518-56A 31618 APRS-7/2-63 ............... 31602 AP85-8/1-64 31605 AP85-08/02-69 31606 AP85-08/09-71 31610 AP85-21/2-120 37025 AP88-04/08-12 37030 AP88-16/08-55 38436 AP88-25/01-76 RM3 RM73-7 35091 . . ~ . APR7-03/01-04 35096 AP87-24/9-68 37029 AP88-11/05-36 35098 AP87-18/08-44
~ ~ ~

8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 10a

."". ." ". ." ." 82 --. ." . . . 1579 -..


14 26 27 28 23 30 1.9 2.3 1.6

43

0.1

900 1100 1500 I200 1100 1500 982 874 774 567 2800 5097 190

0. I
0.1 3.0

---

-..

."

lob IOC
11

-.-.." ".

-.-----

." ." ." ". ". ."

. . .

..................... ..................... ...... ............... 6 4 ............... ...... m 128 ............... 44 38 ............... ...... . . 40 2.2 64.3 0.1 --- 0.9 0.5 1.5 600 .-- 65 0.6 0.1 7 0.22 . 170 . . . 49 2.0 . . . 1.s ..... . . . .I I 0.49 .......... ... 1.2 3.3 10 -.0.9 40 2.0 14 0.31 -.-3.1 90 21.7 0.1 --- 2.6 1.4 2.2 40 -.- 52 0.9 0.1 13 0.23 --- I W 3.4 38.3 0.1 -.- 1.2 0.9 1.9 7 0.9 316 36 1.0 12 0.34 3 30.4 3.5 90 0.1 -.- 1.2 1.0 2.0 IO --- 35 1.4 2.0 17 0.38 --- 80 4.1 23.9 1.0 -.- 3.6 2.2 2.5 21 211 ............... 2 46 _.. ...... 340 31 ............... 7 .................. ...... ...... 68 282 ............... 29 22 .._ 86 .................. . . . 54 ............... ." 327 138 ............... 87 102 ...... 2.0 ...... 14.0 4.0
199 24
~~

.....................

5 305

46 0.2 2.0 17 0.05

..................... ..................... ..................... 4 4 4 3.8 19.0 0.1 2.4 0.1 .....................

..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... .....................

."." " . " . -.-." ...... ...... ." __. . ". " ." ." ."". ...... ." ." ...... ". ". ". ." ...... ...... ...... ...... ". ."

1099 25.0 l I 0 0 2.0 783 20.0 999 480 22.0 510 24.0 868 18.0 797 25.0 515 25.0 1150 25.0 542 30.0

--9.0 13.0 17.0

---

___ ___

. . . . . .
."

50 62 91

_---80

4400
4796 2758 4197 4612 4552 5930 4492 4432 6409 5031 4971 3833 491 1 5271 4792 5690 4372 6235 3777 3600

".

. . . --..-

1.0 67 12.0 70 16.0 188 10.0 132

.........
......... ......... .........
.........

"._"

.........

1.5 0.5

......

955

." ." ......


28.0 18.0 12.0 26.0 19.0 16.0 16.0

16.0

......... ......... --- 15.0 67 .........

.........

___

___

___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

_"

I?

"

..................

520 221 297 191

............... ...............

36 160 147

44
20
7

...... 0.1 ......

............... ...... ...... 0.1 ...... 10.0 0.5

19.0 6.0

242 612 410 390 770 780 675 560 1109 1137 6W 1075 I220 586 1044 23.0 481

7100
3650 4100

6400
4600 3657 4556 4316 6648 6050

24.0
22.0

-.-

___ ___

19.0

21.0
23.0 22.0 22.0

2458
6655 I2219

--- 17.0 116 8.0 4.0 11.0 6.0 --14.0 5.0 --11.0 4.0 13.0 11.0 71 -.21.0 6.0 -.- 2.0 96 40 2.0 52 70 235 9.0 9.0 87 9.0 164 --- 15.0 124

......... ." . 8.0 124

_..

_--

_-. ...... .-.---.

Analytical method, detection limit in brackets inppnl; values quoted by analytical laboratory 1989. XRF. Ba(lOJ,S @ ) , Rb(lO), CfilO),ZfiZO), Y(l0). Nbf5J.V(S), Ti(10). ) ~ Ld.2). fir(0.05). Sm(O.l),Sc(O.2). TAW), Tb(O.SJ, Th(0.2). lJ(0.2).YB(2),ND(5; INA. Ce(O.S), Cs(0.5).E ~ ( 0 . 2HJTIJ, AA - Co(3).N U ) XRF andAA analyses: Geological Suwey Branch, Analytical Science kbomtory 1988, and/orX-Ray Assay Iaborntories Ltd., D& Mills, Ontario,1986 INAA analyses: Bondor-Clegg& Company Ltd., Vancouver,

Minislv of Empbymnt andhvesment

"

APPENDIX J MAJOR OXIDEAND MINOR ELEMENT CHEMISTRY


SAMPLE
Nn

~FeO
FQO,
11.37 10.38 9-36 11.51
13.98

S i

Ti02

A 1 2 0 ,

FeO-T MnO

MgO

CeO

NazO

KzO

PzOs

274 218 252


05 02

219
407

13.88 0.71 51.45 50.75 14.48 0.55 49.87 0.61 52.67 15.59 1.12 44.13 10.84 OS5 51.45 14.020.9550.46 50.03 52.82 48.15 52.44 45.92 46.88 49.57 50.95

0.65

~~

53.08 53.76

3S8A WS70
Mo

374 3588

409
51.73 395 269 35K
48

48.85 51.88 50.39 53.74

43.53

275 260 293 16 15 185 172 ws86 01 332 25 Wyll AVERAG6 49.88

48.70 54.36
51.85

45.96 46.16 44.90

0.54 os5 0.47 0.55 0.85 0.65 0.81 0.49 0.75 0.78 0.40 0.52 os1 0.79 0.86 0.46 0.72 0.79 0.74 0.88 0.79 0.81 0.68

9.29 8.00 0.16 1238 0.341.712.31 10.80 10.M 0.17 0.29 2.75 1.32 ---9.42 11.61 0.17 0.30 1.42 3.40 10.42 8.64 0.18 10.25 --10.51 10.51 0.21 -. 3.00 0.40 2.01 2.56 -. 9.75 9.28 0.18 8.37 0.15 0.17 14.58 15.03 0.16 0.17 13.21 -.11.89 -.0.19 14.64 0.22 12.76 -0.18 14.01 0.19 0.38 10.97 14.68 0.22 0.18 14.97 9.82 0.18 15.57 0.19 13.79 0.19 13.08 0.17 0.16 15.54 11.28 -0.19 0.17 13.79 14.55 0.20 13.30 -. 0.24 0.13 16.08 0.21 13.95 -. 0.14 16.45 .-.
~~

---

239 0.402.54

0 . 6 0

0.34
0.30

------

4.75 5.20 13.53 9.18 7.74 8.34 8.10 17.09 7.87 11.54 17.01 9.14 9.23 8.20 6.45 13.69 6.34 5.46 16.30 5.48 17.59 5.66

13.63

--.

9.68 0.19

2.69 10.930.43 1.35 4.89 4.94 8.M 1.59 8.59 0.90 0.24 2.56 0.34 1.05 2.13 11.32 0.391.702.98 10.91 0.35 1.81 1.52 10.34 1.56 3.58 9.280.26 0.03 1.10 7.99 9.w 0.38 3.98 0.80 9.16 0.461.420.67 0.17 1.65 0.35 10.68 0.313.541.21 7.26 1.38 8.92 2.37 3.16 2.21 10.83 2.72 7.84 3.42 11.71 0.21 231 9.18 3.61 0.41 2.03 10.400.37 0.58 4.78 0.61 0 . 6 0 12.55 1.69 18.25 0.30 0.230.330.00 8.89 0.500.301.M 19.34 10.43
~ ~~ ~~ ~~

10.80 1.27

0.44

----------

10.84
10.98
~~ ~ ~

9.28
10.25 10.30

-.

--

0.31

0.32 0.37 0.40


0.28

--.
--

0.23 OS6

--

--

10.73 12.42 11.61 10.47 15.72 15.40 11.25 10.89 11.31 11.42 10.79 8.57 11.16 9.37 10.91 11.89 10.68 11.85 10.85

n4 218

252
5 2 219 407 358A WS70 300 374 3588

4w
395 269 358C 48 n5
2M

293
16

15 185 172 ws86


1

332 25 Wyll

607.00 829.00 687.00 250.00 624.00 527.00 469.00 571.00 1241.00 468.00 70200 660.00 769.00 430.00 1365.00 598.00 1190.00 1706.00 912.00 1234.00 1464.00 1172.00 819.00 172.00 266.00 72.00

33.00

6 6 . W
24.00

am
44.00 20.00 25.00 29.00 7200 15.00 27.00 3200 24.00 26.00 78.00 23.00

1089.00 424.00 355.00 1064.00 44200 1947.00 1821.00 1923.00 228.00 838.W 943.00 640.00

C D m

am
C D m
22222222* 8.00

C D m <Dm am
2222. 2222'

am
5.00

m O .O

77.00 593.00 2150.00 2 0 . W 131.00 88.W 375.00 M.00 1324.00 3200 731.00 41.00 1348.00 37.00 97.00 28.00 887.00 6.W 772.00 9.00 403.00 a m 1969.W 135.00 a m 365.00 91.00 a m 1990.00

am < D m
5.00

am am
am
6.00 8.00 2222* 5.00 10.00

am
5.00 2222' 2222'

19.00 21.00 15.00 17.00 17.00 14.00 16.00 17.00 17.00 15.00 20.W 18.W 13.00 14.00 2200 23.00 12.00 17.00 18.00 17.00 18.00 12.00 20.00 20.00 19.00 22.00 19.00 21.00

29.00 430.00 143.00 53.00 C D m 320.00 40.00 227.00 65.00 35.00 137.00 77.00 62.00 370.00 113.00 23.00 111.00 56.00 26.00 23.00 21.00 24.00 13.00 21.00 54.00 838.00 405.00 47.w 344.w 102.00 48.00 37.00 41.00 55.00 270.00 80.00 47.00 10.00 30.00 36.00 2EO7.W 476.00 33.00 18.00 34.00 25.W 11.00 33.00 30.00 1484.00 532.00 51.00 401.00 167.00 40.W 409.00 148.00 45.00 165.00 84.00 55.00 43.00 56.00 33.00 831.00 214.00 52.00 36.00 85.00 67.00 41.00 51.00 61.00 944.00 402.00 28.00 65.00 38.00 64.00 965.00 403.00 25.00 73.00 41.00 396.00 146.00

-. . . -.-.-

------

276.00 248.W 224.00 384.00 238.00 321.00 232.00 239.00

m . 0 0
229.00 332.00 273.00 282.00 226.00 365.00 335.00 204.00 288.00 253.00 243.00 285.00 230.00 238.00 243.00
251.00

-----

--

-.-

-. -. -.

--

317.00 269.00 345.00 272.00

Bulletin 97

137

~~

British Columbia

138

Geological Survey Branch

APPENDIX K QUESNEL CIPW NO-WS FOR ALL ANALEED SAMPLES, n = 84


274 SAMPLE 358C269 39.3 252 409 3S8B 218 374 3W WS70 358A 407 5 219 2 MAPUNIT IA 1A IA IA 1A IA 1A OXIDESAS DETERMINED; (nd =nOt delemlncd) SI02 44.13 52.67 49.87 50.75 51.45 Ti01 0.71 1.12 0.66 0.61 0.55 A1203 14.48 12.38 13.88 10.25 15.59 11.51 9.56 10.38 11.37 F Q O ~13.98 MnO 0.21 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.16 8.64 11.61 10.50 8.00 MsO 10.51 c a o 10.51 10.42 9.42 10.80 9.29 3.00 NaaO 3.40 1.32 2.31 2.39 1.42 2.75 1.71 2.54 0.60 K20 0.34 0.40 0.300.290.34 P A nd nd nd co2 LO1 nd nd nd TOTAL 100.19 100.00 100.02 99.40 51.45 0.55 10.84 10.84 0.18 9.28 9.75 2.56 2.01 0.40
nd

IA IA IA IA 50.46 0.95 14.02 10.98 0.15 8.37 53.08 0.54 14.58 928 0.17 4.75 10.80 10.93 4.89 2.69 1.35 127 0.43 0.30 nd nd nd nd 100.00 53.76 0.55 15.03 10.25 0.16 5.20 8.04 4.94 1.59 0.44 nd
nd

1A IA 50.03 0.47 13.21 10.30 0.17 13.53 8.59

IA 52.82 48.15 52.44 0.85 0.55 0.65 11.89 14.64 12.76 10.73 12.42 11.61 022 0.18 0.19 7.74 9.18 8.34 10.34 10.91 11.32 1.52 2.13 2.98 1.70 1.81 1.05 0.39 0.35 0.34 nd nd nd nd nd nd 100.20 100.00 IW.00

IA 51.73 0.81 14.01 10.47 0.19 8.10 9.28 3.58 1.56 0.26 nd

1A 46.88 45.92 0.75 0.49 14.68 10.97 I5.40 15.72 0.22 0.38 7.87 17.09 7.99 9.04 0.80 0.03 3.98 1.10 0.38 0.31 nd nd nd nd 100.00 100.00

175 48 IA 49.57 0.78 14.97 11.25 0.18 11.54 9.16 0.67 1.42 0.46
nd

264l
IA

IA 50.95 0.52 15.57 11.31 0.19 9.14 7.26 1.21 3.54 0.31 nd nd
100.00

293 IA IA 51.88 0.51 13.79 11.42 0.19 9.23 8.92 1.38 2.37 0.32 nd
nd 100.01

16 IA 50.39 0.79 13.08 10.79 0.17 8.20 10.83 3.16 2.21 0.37 nd nd

15 172 185 IA 53.74 0.86 1554 8.57 0.16 6.45 7.84 2.72 3.42 0.40 nd nd 99.70 48.70 0.46 1128 11.16
0.19

1A

48.85 0.40 9.82 10.89 0.18 17.01


10.68

nd d

nd nd

99.99

nd 97.86

99.99

0.90 2.56 0.24 nd nd


100.00

9 9 . %

99.99

nd

nd IOO.00

0.35 1.65 0.17 nd nd


100.00

9 9 . 9 9
50.40 0.79 13.08 10.79 0.17 8.20 10.83 3.16 2.21 0.37 100.00
0.00 13.06 19.50 14.99 3.92

13.69 11.71 021 2.31 028 nd nd 99.99

54.36 072 13.79 9.37 0.17 6.34 9.18 3.61 2.03 0.41 nd nd 99.98

2.39

OXIDES RECALCULATED VOLATlLE FREE siq 52.99 49.86 50.75 51.35 44.13 Ti02 0.71 0.66 0.55 0.61 1.12 13.85 12.38 14.48 10.31 15.59 AI203 FhO3 11.35 10.38 9.56 11.58 13.98 MnO 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.21 0.18 7.98 10.50 11.61 8.69 10.51 MgO cso 9.27 10.80 9.42 10.48 10.51 Na2O 2.31 1.32 3.00 3.42 2.54 1.71 0.60 2.75 1.43 KIO P A 0.40 0.34 029 0.34 0.30 TOTAL 100.00 100.00 100.00 I O O . O O IOO.00 CIPW NORM VOLATlLE FREE
0.000.00 14.98 20.18 B" 19.62 ne 0.00 di 33.76 15.53 26.59 19.37 3.81 hy 12.32 6.62 10.49 01 9.00 Ill1 3.082.973.133.20 il 1.35 0.93 UP AN= 49.29

52.58 0.56 11.08 11.08 0.18 9.48 9.96 2.62 2.05 0.41
100.00

50.47 0.95 14.02 10.98 0.15 8.37 10.80 2.69 1.27 0.30
100.00

53.08 0.54 14.58 9.28 0.17 4.75 10.93 4.89 1.35 0.43 100.00
0.00 7.98 31.76 13.86 5.20 30.87 0.00 4.65 2.96 1.03
1.00

53.78 0.55 15.04 10.25 0.16 5.20 8.04 4.94 1.59 0.44
100.00

50.03 0.47 13.21 10.30 0.17 13.53 8.59


0.90

2.56 0.24
100.00

48.15 52.44 51.74 45.92 065 0.65 0.81 0.49 14.64 12.76 14.01 10.97 12.42 11.61 10.47 15.72 0.18 0.19 0.38 022 7.74 8.34 8.10 17.09 10.91 10.34 11.30 9.28 7.99 2.98 1.52 3.58 2.13 0.03 1.81 1.56 1.05 1.70 1.10 0.39 0.34 0.35 0.26 0.3 I 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 52.71 0.55 11.87 10.71 0.19 9.16 1.32 6.19 17.98 19.75
0.00

46.88 0.75 14.68 15.40 0.22 7.87 9.04 0.80 3.98 0.38 100.00
0.00 23.52 6.77 24.72 0.00 14.59 1.60 21.94 3.26 1.42 0.89 78.51

48.85 0.40 9.82 10.89 0.18 17.01 10.68 0.35 1.65 0.17 100.00 100.00 1.17 8.39 5.67 33.65 0.00 7.08 37.31 0.00 3.31 1.48 1.07 85.59 0.00 9.75 2.96 20.36 0.00 25.21 20.86 16.08 2.75 0.76 0.40 8730

49.57 0.78 14.97 11.25 0.18 11.54 9.16 0.67 I .42 0.46

50.95 0.52 15.57 11.31 0.19 9.14 7.26 1.21 3.54


0.31 100.00

51.87 0.51 13.79 11.42 0.19 9.23 8.92 1.38 2.37 0.32 100.00

53.90 0.86 15.59 8.60 0.16 6.47 7.86 2.73 3.43 0.40
100.00

48.70 54.37 0.46 0.72 1128 13.79 11.16 9.37 0.19 0.17 13.69 6.34 11.71 9.18 021 3.61 2.31 2.03 028 0.41 100.00 100.00
0.00 12.00 30.54 15.44 0 . 0 0 22.30 3'

or nb

10.10

19.54 18.37 0.00

0.00 1625 11.16 25.47 0.00

0 . 0 0 8.44 28.93 8.57


0.00

0.00 3.55 12.30 27.32 7.09 18.38


0.00

1281 10.61 13.85 125 0.79 48.46 1.04 0.68 69.52 1.17 0.70 22.86

23.54 3.80 2.13 0.79 68.95

0.00 12.14 22.13 12.43 0.00 27.84 11.36 8.17 3.04 1.07 0.95 35.96

0.00 7.51 22.76 22.44 0.00 23.65 7.80 8.97 3.55 180 0.70 49.65

30.38

0.00 9.40 39.66 14.16 1.16 18.83 0.W 10.95 2.97 I .05 1.03 26.31

0.00 15.13 7.61 24.45 0.00 13.31 22.58 11.79 2.86 0.89 0.56 76.26

27.64 21.48 0.00 2.97 1.04 0.79 52.34

0.00 10.05 17.38 21.56 4.24 24.56 0.00 15.30 3.41 1.61 0.91 55.37

2.82 10.70 12.86 22.66 0.00 21.48 23.40 0.00 3.12 1.23 0.82 63.80

0.00 9.22 30.29 17.56 0.00 21.71 0.94 14.00 3.35 1.54 0.61 36.71

0.00 6.50 0.25 26.55 0.00 8.95 32.65 19.20 2.89 0.93 0.72 99.05

0.57 14.00 11.67 24.44 0.00 0.00 6.00 29.48 14.41 24.51 29.37 6.18 0.0 2.93 2.91 0.99 0.97 0.72 0.75 72.22 67.68

0 . 0 0 20.92 10.24 26.61

0.00 0.00 13.65 2027 1.78 23.08 20.16 23.02 0.00 0.00 13.10 26.74 16.99 16.25 0.00 11.98 12.54 1.50 12.56 0.54 3.222.843.43 3.32 1.50 1.64 1.37 0.87 0.86 0.650.94 43.46 33.58 92.84 46.63

5 a
t q

O.%

'I iI

ii 2

IS =

(APPENDIX K Continued)

QuesnelClPWNormr

SAMPLE WS86 MAPUMT

1A

1 1A

332
1A

15 WS41
IA
1A

AVE
1A

$8424 35339 35340 31641 32642 32643 31607 31609 37026 38435 35553 35568 35569 35573 35574 35575 35580 35582 1.4 2A 2A 2A ZA
46.49 0.76 11.59 2.26 9.29 0.21 8.35 10.69 1.51 3.59 0.26
0.07

1A 2.4 1A 1A 2A 2A 1.4 1A 1A
49.33 0.72 14.26 2.22 8.27 0.21 4.71 10.33 4.98 0.07 0.30 0.62 3.26 98.66 47.04 0.55 15.17 2.05 6.60 0.16 7.40 13.15 2.25 0.38 0.14 1.07 4.42 99.31 48.48 0.65 13.40 2.15 8.31 0.22 8.00 9.87 2.56 2.19 027 0.21 2.76 98.86 47.81 0.58 9.88 2.08 7.90 020 10.52 13.38 1.67 1.55 0.47 0.34 2.81 98.85 47.15 0.69 13.22 2.19 8.54 0.21 9.16 11.42 1.76 1.89 0.33 0.07 2.28 98.84 46.09 0.63 17.80 2.13 6.55 0.19 4.52 10.07 2.79 2.17 0.37 0.28 5.02 98.93

1ARD 2ARD 2ARD 2ARD


50.70 0.81 14.79 2.31 7.14 0.19 6.96 9.32 2.18 1.70 0.25 0.07 2.57 98.92 51.69 0.73 15.02 223 6.49 025 5.43 7.16 2.77 2.42 0.31 0.28 385 98.35 50.81 0.59 17.06 2.09 5.97 0.13 4.71 8.08 3.63 2.58 0.31 028 2.92 98.88 52.95 0.61 17.78 2.18 622 0.14 4.91 8.42 3.78 2.69 0.32 l00.00 48.44 0.69 16.50 2.19 8.08 0.13 5.49 8.50 3.80 1.48 0.38 0.56 2.83 98.51 50.63 0.72 17.24 2.29 8.44 0.14 5.74 8.88 3.97 1.55 0.40 100.00 0.00 9.14 30.M 24.67 13.85 0.00 14.79 3.32 1.37 0.93 45.09

OXJDESASDETERMINED SIO2 46.16 45.96 43.53 51.85 0.79 Ti02 0.88 0.74 0.79 13.95 16.08 13.30 14.55 Ab03 F 4 011.85 3 10.68 11.89 10.91 nd nd nd nd FeO MnO 0.21 0.13 0.24 0.20 17.59 5.48 16.30 5.46 MgO cao 10.40 12.55 18.25 8.89 4.78 0.61 1.69 0.00 Na10 0.60 0.30 Kz0 0.58 0.33 0.37 023 0.23 0.56 PlOS nd nd nd co2 nd nd nd LO1 100.01 99.99 99.89 100.00 TOTAL

11.2431 44.90 0.81 16.45 10.85


nd

0.14 5.66 19.34

I a4
0.30 0.50
nd nd

0.35 nd
nd

99.99

99.90

0.22 1.81 5.28 99.58

0.44 0.14 3.37 97.60 49.37 0.68 14.18 2.27 8.19 0.18 7.68 11.39 1.05 4.54 0.47 100.00

3.36 98.36 48.94 0.80 12.20 2.38 9.78 0.22 8.79 11.25 1.59 3.78 0.27
100.00

49.09 0.67 14.62 2.17 7.29 0.16 6.25 8.50 4.46 1.74 0.40 0.56 4.26 99.61

0.62 0.84 3.21 97.72

039 0.42 224 99.03

0.27 0.38 2.48 97.45

0.22 3.27 5.10 59.82

0.37

OXIDES RECALCULATED VOLATLLE FREE Si02 46.16 45.96 43.53 51.91 44.90 49.93 49.76 Ti02 0.79 0.74 0.88 0.79 0.8 I 0.68 0.80 16.45 14.57 13.30 16.08 13.95 13.64 17.65 Ah03 FqO, 10.92 11.89 10.68 11.85 10.85 11.24 2.39 nd nd nd nd nd FeO nd 5.85 0.14 0.21 MnO 0.13 0.24 0.20 0.19 0.19 5.66 9.69 6.02 17.59 MgO 5.48 16.30 5.47 cao 8.89 18.25 12.55 10.41 19.34 10.44 13.85 Ns10 4.79 0.61 1.69 0.00 1.04 2.10 1.87 0.58 0.60 0.30 0.33 0.30 1.73 1.40 Kz0 P2Os 0.23 0.50 0.56 0.23 0.35 0.23 TOTAL 100.00 100.00 100.00 I00.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 ClPW NORM VOLATILE FREE

52.64 47.87 4928 52.03 51.48 0.59 0.62 0.58 0.70 1.02 10.67 9.72 12.05 15.33 17.91 2.28 2.18 2.17 2.16 2.61 7.65 6.51 8.44 7.63 5.46 0.17 0.21 020 0.19 0.16 6.55 4.20 11.85 11.54 8.01 8.91 6.29 14.05 15.98 13.86 4.68 3.39 1.06 1.65 4.53 1.82 5.43 2.67 0.98 0.04 0.42 0.66 0.40 0.28 0.23 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 1 0 0 . 0 0 0.00 10.78 28.12 15.47 6.20 21.27 0.00 12.58 3.30 1.33 0.98 35.48

51.71 49.57 50.45 49.78 48.83 49.08 0.60 0.71 0.75 0.58 0.68 0.67 13.94 1029 13.69 18.95 14.95 15.99 2.17 2.27 2.33 2.16 224 2.27 8.67 6.96 8.65 8.84 6.97 823 0.22 021 0.22 0.17 0.23 0.20 4.94 7.80 8.32 10.95 9.49 4.81 10.83 13.86 10.27 1393 11.83 10.72 5.22 2.37 2.66 1.74 1.82 2.97 0.07 0.40 2.95 2.28 1.61 1.96 0.31 0.15 0.28 0.34 019 0.39 100.00 100.00 lOOaO I00.00 100.00 100.00
0.01) 9.54 13.47 15.51 0.67 40.74 0.00 14.68 3.14 1.15 1.14 53.52 0.00 0.00 11.57 17.43 14.95 14.27 23.40 29.69 0.25 5.89 26.86 17.23 0.00 0 . 0 0 17.55 10.05 3.29 3.483.29 1.36 1.27 0.80 0.92 61.02 67.54

52.62 54.70 0.84 0.77 15.35 15.89 2.40 236 7.41 6.87 0.20 036 7.22 5.75 9.67 7.58 2.26 2.93 1.76 256 0.26 0.33 100.00 100.00 1.41 10.43 19.14 26.53 0.00 16.08 20.77 0.00 1.60 0.60 58.09

9.

: ; 8 F
hy

Q 0.00 or 3.553.43 ab 3.88 34.95 8" 31.79 16.56 0.70 2.99 23.21 26.87
0.00
01

0.00

0.00

u 1.41

mt

30.75 8.66 3.253.32 1.50 0.540.86 89.13 32.15

0.00 1.77 6.77 35.41 4.08 42.22 0.00 2.53 3.45 1.67 1.31 83.95

0.00 1.95

0.00 1.77
1.64

0.00
37.10 0.00 4.40 39.05 11.22 3.32 1.50 0.54
100.00

39.34 3.90 43.79

0.00
2.71 3.35 1.54 1.17 96.10

0.00 10.23 17.78 22.69 0.00 21.73 9.35 12.07 3.16 1.29 0.82 56.06

0.00 8.27 15.79 35.65


0.00

25.56 6.13 3.11 3.46 1.51 0.54 69.31

0 . 0 0 26.84 4.13 20.56 2.58 26.82 0.00 13.43 319 1.29 1.09 83.27

0.00 22.33 5.03 15.00 4.56 31.91 0.M) 15.59 3.45 1.52

0.00
32.08 20.51 17.66 4.41 7.61 0.00 11.95 3.16 1.13 1.53 46.27

0.64 74.89

0.00 15.75 0.68 16.48 4.51 40.83 0.00 16.52 3.15 1.18 0.94 96.02

0.00 5.79 9.30 16.21 2.54 4929 0.00 12.00 3.13


1.10

0.M)

0.66 63.55

0.25 27.35 12.43 5.94 43.91 0.00 3.89 3.78 1.94 0.54 31.24

2.27 0.00 15.13 15.89 24.79 31.15 22.66 23.60 0.00 1.93 0.46 10.45 13.15 19.07 0.00 0 . 0 0 10.70 3.42 3.16 117 1.17 0.76 0.75 47.75 43.11

(APPENDIX K Continued)
Queanel ClPW Norm

35325 35326 35330 32052 32053 32054 31597 31611 35577 35578 UBI SAMPLE 35586 MAPUMT ZARD 2D 28 28 28 2 8 20 OXIDES AS DETERMINED SIO* 47.36 47.14 46.64 50.01 49.23 47.13 0.62 TI02 0.78 0.68 0.83 0.60 0.68 16.57 1159 13.72 15.07 13.64 13.45 A1103 2.33 2.18 228 2.12 2.10 2.18 Fez03 FeO 6.74 7.61 8.17 7.59 6.39 8.72 MnO 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.21 0.16 0.26 MgO 5.51 8.59 7.01 6.23 5.71 6.26 10.05 cso 9.25 9.16 7.20 7.14 9.94 2.41Nul0 4.65 2.07 4.25 2.92 3.27 3.37 2.72 KlO 3.961.293.832.16 0.530.700.760.31 0.53 0.41 PI05 0.14 0.88 c o 0.64 z 0.21 0.41 0.42 3.73 LO1 3.34 4.92 2.82 3.03 3.10 TOTAL 98.89 9821 97.74 97.75 97.55 98.31

DE2
28 46.79 0.69 12.86 2.19 8.56 0.18 8.29 11.03 1.75 2.50 0.17 0.95 2.62 97.63 2D 49.19 0.57 11.15 2.07 7.30 0.16 921 12.96 3.51 0.65 0.41 0.70 2.37 99.55 2D 48.51 0.69 16.63 2.19 5.80 0.21 4.07 6.80 4.68 2.96 0.50 0.73 4.66 97.70 45.96 0.71 12.42 2.21 8.34 0.24 6.56 13.67 1.68 3.36 0.72 0.07 2.38 98.25 2B 47.99 0.62 9.65 2.12 7.93 0.19 10.35 11.92 2.14 2.04 0.52 0.14 3.08 98.55 50.27 0.65
10.11

DE3
28

2B 47.90 0.85 15.75 2.35 8.99 024 5.85 8.98 4.15 1.78 0.58 0.00 2.64 100.06 49.17 0.87 16.17 2.41 923 0.25 6.00 9.22 426 1.83 0.60

28

DE6 DE5 DE4 2D


45.70 0.77 11.70 2.27 9.79 0.18 7.90 12.65 2.52 1.63 0.67 0.00 3.14 98.92

ZB

2B

35095 2C 50.77 1.00 18.50 2.50 5.51 023 3.19 6.81 5.40 1.82 0.50 0.61 2.79 99.02

35563 2C 46.36 0 . 7 2 17.12 2.22 7.20 0.20 5.35 8.25 3.83 2.38 0.44 0.48 4.58 98.65

DE7 2C 48.20 0.62 13.75 2.12 7.83 0.23 7.85 12.65 2.00 3.12 0.56 0.00 2.22 101.15

DE8
2C

RMI 2C
51.43 0.75 15.76 2.25 6.22 0.17 3.86 6.65 3.87 4.80 0.38 0.00 2.12 9826

31608 35570 2D 50.32 051 10.64 2.01 6.64 0.19 12.54 9.51 1.50 1.88 0.23
0.01

2D 47.60 0.68 10.31 2.18 8.94 0.20 9.59 14.14 2.09 1.51 0.42 0.07 0.86 98.52

4830 0.69 13.10 2.19 8.60 023 7.10 8.32 0.95 6.88 0.71 0.00 2.86 99.93

48.70 0.69 12.90 2.19 7.77 0.19 9.50 10.25 2.55 2.12
0 . 7 2

0.00 2.49 100.07

47.40 46.20 0.72 0.82 11.90 13.10 2.22 2.32 8.23 9.41 0.18 0.19 10.20 6.70 11.35 1120 3.95 4.30 0.95 1.79 0.74 0.52 0.00 0.00 2.81 4.70 100.65 101.25

48.40 0.81 17.80 2.31 7.86 0.24 4.85 8.65 5.00 0.64 0.47 0.00 3.04 100.07

2.82 98.79

OXIDES RECALCULATED VOLATILE FREE so,50.38 49.93 49.99 52.06 52.08 TI02 0.63 0.83 0.73 0.86 0 . 6 6 14.31 14.53 12.42 17.25 15.94 All03 2.22 2.26 2.41 2.34 2.43 Fez03 FeO 8.07 8.65 8.16 7.02 6.76 0.22 MnO 0.21 0.19 0.17 0.17 5.74 921 6.60 7.42 6.07 MgO cno 7.49 9.82 9.80 7.55 10.69 4.42 2.22 3.w 4.93 2.56 Nn20 2.25 4.11 1.37 3.57 4.21 KIO 0.32 0.81 0.74 0.56 0.56 PI05 TOTAL 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
ClPW NORM VOLATILE FREE or 13.29 24.26 8.07 sb 10.98 32.33 25.48 8" 11.82 20.58 13.52 8.76 ne 4.22 2.76 ai 11.84 7.5.60 24.82 le 0.00 0.00 0.00
~ ~

49.50 49.25 50.62 52.14 47.94 0.74 0.71 0.73 0.74 0.59 14.33 13.54 11.47 17.87 12.% 2.31 2.29 2.31 2.35 2.13 6.23 8.70 9.16 9.01 7.51 0.25 0.27 0.19 0.23 0.16 6.57 4.37 6.84 8.73 9.48 14.26 10.44 7.31 11.61 13.34 1.75 3.43 1.84 3.61 5.03 3.18 3.50 2.86 2.63 0.67 0.75 0.43 0.54 0.18 0.42 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 16.88 13.69 15.25 8.32 27.78
0.00

2.22 8.31 0.20 10.84 12.49 2.24 2.14 0.54 100.00 12.63 14.55 11.22 2.39 38.13 0.00 0.00 15.40 3.22 1.23 1.27 43.53

49.91 49.76 0.71 0.71 1350 13.22 2.26 2.24 886 7.% 0.24 0.19 7.31 9.74 8.57 10.50 0.98 2.61 7.09 2.17 0.73 0.74 100.00 100.00 100.00 10.80 23.16 19.61 6.98 18.35 0.00
0.00

47.71 48.45 0.74 0.80 12.16 12.22 2.27 2.37 8.41 10.22 0.18 0.19 8.25 10.43 13.21 11.60 4.04 2.63 0.97 1.85 1.70 0.76 0.54 0.70 100.00 100.00 100.00
10.06 10.57 16.51 6.33 36.46 0.00 0.00 13.52 3.44 1.53 1.63 60.97

1.89 0.52 100.00 11.18 39.20 21.70 4.48 8.24


0.00

2.53 0.47 100.00 14.95 20.17 23.93 7.73 13.57 0.00 0.00 13.72 3.42 1.45
1.09

48.72 49.88 53.49 52.43 48.74 0.78 0.53 0.70 0.83 0.63 10.56 13.90 18.34 16.39 11.09 2.14 2.38 2.34 2.09 2.23 8.10 6.47 6.92 9.15 7.91 0.25 0.18 0.20 0.20 0.23 5.00 4.01 9.82 7.93 13.07 8.91 6.92 9.91 14.48 12.79 5.15 4.03 1.56 2.14 2.02 3.15 0 . 6 6 4.99 1.96 1.55 0.48 0.40 0.24 0.57 0.43 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 18.64 5.69 19.55 6.18 32.74 3.90 32.59 24.99 5.96 13.28
0.00
~ ~ ~

hy
01

0.00

0.00

mt 3.39 11 1.38
SP

AN=

16.48 13.32 3.52 1.64 1.90 0.75 51.86 38.89

0.00 12.57 3.50 1.57 1.73 34.67

24.89 21.07 9.53 25.50 15.10 19.12 6.59 ~ ~ . 0.34 . 11.92 28.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 16.35 9.94 3.27 3.22 1.25 1.21 1.31 1.31 61.31 42.85

0.00 12.43 3.32 1.36


1.00

52.70

15.55 11.89 20.90 2.00 28.96 0.00 0.00 15.58 3.34 1.38 0.42 63.74

3.95 20.66 13.13 5.36 40.66


0.00

0.00 11.08 3.09 1.1 I 0.98 38.85

18.80 19.98 0.00 27.43 16.81 17.14 8.19 8.03 13.09 39.96 0.00 0.57 0.00 0.00 9.64 7.85 3.34 3.41 1.41 1.41 1.75 1.25 38.00 100.00

35.98
0.00

14.60 3.50 1.66 1.39 45.85

11.51 4.48 21.50 4.63 0.00 15.61 3;27 1.35 I .70 100.00

12.84 20.32 17.94

O . %
23.76 0.00 0.00 17.89 3.25 1.34
1.72

46.88

5.74 17.25 12.21 9.16 32.69 0.00 0.00 16.54 3.29 1.40 1.76 41.45

10.96 10.55 11.57 14.70 34.96


0.00

29.50 21.82 1193


6.62 . . . .

11.58 13.22 17.46


0 ~ 0 0 . . . .

n.rm .."

0.00 10.95 3.48 1.61 1.26 52.31

0.00 828 3.77 1.97 1.21 35.63

54.26

0.00 11.62 3.11 1.19 1.32 43.41 77.44

0.00

13.15 3.45 1.59 1.13

16.33 0.00 0.00 8.03 3.39 1.48 0.92 35.34

24.13 0.00 22.87 6.16 3.04 1.01 0.56 56.91

9.14 9.18 14.64 4.84 44.22 0.00 0.00 12.46 3.24 1.32 I .00 61.47

(APPENDIX K Continued)

QuesnolCIPWNorms SAMPLE DB9 UBI0 35097 32050 37024 MAPUNIT 2D 2D

2E 2E

2E 48.13 0.64 13.74 2.14 8.48 0.21 6.20 9.31 3.21


~ ~~

RMZ 2E
45.20 0.74 13.72 2.24 8.61 0.24 5.84 10.31 3.28 51.48 0.74 17.69 2.24 4.77 0.20 4.12 4.14 4.55 . . "
0.00

31600
2G

31603

31604 35093 35094 36265 35092


2C

2C

3
48.% 0.80 16.36 2.30 6.20 0.24 3.71 8.20 2.88 4.44 0.39 0.62 4.18 98.65

3A

DBll 3A

DB12 DB13 DB14 DE15 DB16 DB17 3A 3A

3A
53.50 0.74 19.90 224 5.70 021 3.03 6.85 5.00 2.70 0.41 0.00 2.04 102.32

3A
49.80 1.07 18.00 2.57 622 022 3.00 8.18 4.90 1.68 0.42

3A
48.60 0.84 17.50 2.34 6.95 0.21 3.65 8.32 3.95 2.90 0.40

3A 50.00 0.83 17.80 2.33 6.86 024 4.45 5.10 5.30 3.32 0.38 0.00 3.86 100.47

DBl8 3A

DBZO DB19 38

3B

35556 4
48.50

OXlDESASDETERMlNED 46.50 47.80 48.61 0.81 0.93 0.84 12.00 17.10 17.70 2.31 2.43 2.34 9.70 8.77 5.60 0.24 0.23 0.20 9.75 5.10 2.91 11.00 7.00 5.56 3.90 3.62 5.33 . 1.30 5.51 1.87 2.78 3.45 3.20 0.82 0.54 0.450.510.35 Pa05 0.00 0.00 0.35 0.27 0.34 coa LO12.83 5.79 3.79 3.87 2.48 4.39 5.64 TOTAL 101.44 100.31 100.32 98.37 98.12 100.09 98.84
~~

55.18 0.64 17.31 2.14 620 0.24 4.05 521


5.1 I
~~~~

0 . 6 8 0.230.48
0.01

54.40 0.55 16.75 2.05 4.27 0.14 4.42 5.88 3.13 4.38 ~. 0.25
~

48.07 0.76 16.23 2.26 6.32 0.19 5.56


11.18

0.11

2.21 98.43 48.74 0.80 14.80 2.42 9.29 0.26 6.30 11.12 3.54 2.02 0.73 100.00 0.00 11.92 17.33 18.55 6.82 53.67 0.77 18.44 2.34 4.97 0.21 4.30 4.32 4.74 5.74 0.50 100.00
0.00 33.95 23.33 12.08 9.10 0.00 4.93 0.00 10.63 3.39 1.47 1.17 34.11

2.91 1.13 0.57 0.01 2.67 97.85


~~~~

57.94 0.46 17.19 1.96 4.07 0.15 1.59 3.51 6.9s ... 2.08 0.39 1.51 2.96 99.28
~

54.87 0.70
18.61

2.20 3.35 0.18 1.49 5.56 5.42 ~. . 3.81 0.23 0.84 2.82 9924 56.91 0.73 19.30 2.28 3.47 0.19 1.55 5.77 5.62 3.95 0.24 100.00 0.00 40.29 3.93 0.00 9.31 0.00 2.13 3.31 1.38 0.56 28.14

56.17 47.70 46.00 51.90 0.77 0.76 0.75 0.99 17.58 17.40 15.60 19.40 2.27 2.26 2.25 2.49 4.97 6.15 9.25 5.70 0.17 0.22 0.22 0.26 2.96 4.40 6.20 2.63 5.78 7.82 9.93 6.87 4.72 4.30 3.05 5.30 1.76 3-60 2.62 3.63 025 0.56 0.33 0.60 0.62 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.93 4.99 2.10 2.87 99.33 100.20 100.M 100.84
~~ ~

" "

0.w 3.26 99.32


51.84 1.11 18.74

0.00 4.26 99.92


50.80 0.88 18.29

53.70 47.10 50.50 0.64 0.82 0.88 13.10 18.40 18.50 2.14 232 2.38 4.82 829 6.06 025 0.21 0.12 3.95 5.05 3.52 8.72 4.60 6.62 130 1.98 4.30 4.52 3.93 328 0.28 0.29 0.31 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.03 2.87 3.86 95.29 100.02 100.33 57.58 48.48 52.35 0.69 0.84 0.91 14.05 18.94 19.18 2.29 2.39 2.47 5.17 8.53 6.28 0.23 026 0.12 4.24 5.20 3.65 493 898 6.86 5.68 4.462.04 4.85 3.404.05 0.30 0.320.30 100.00 100.00 lcQ.00

0.80 16.67 2.30 7.36 0.22 4.40 7.88 4.17 2.38 0.52 0.49 3.65

98.8s
50.95 0.84 17.51 2.42 7.73 0.23 4.62 8.28 4.38 2.50 0.55
100.00

OXIDES RECALCULATED VOLATILE FREE 50.51 0.67 14.42 2.25 8.90 0.22 6.51 9.77 . ..~. .... 3.37 0.84 3.71 3.32 2.92 0.550.360.55 0.47 100.00 100.00 lW.00 100.00

56.53 0.66 17.73 2.19 6.35 0.25 4.15 5.34 5.24 1.33 0.24 100.00 0.72 7.87 44.28 20.97 0.00
0.00

60.15 0.48 17.85 2.03 4.23 0.16 1.65 3.64 7.25 2.16 0.40 100.00 0.39 26.90 27.52 19.47 0 . 0 0 0.00 7.41 13.57 0.00 3.09 1.09 0.61 41.43

57.67 50.10 0.79 0.80 18.05 18.28 2.33 2.37 5.10 6.46 0.17 0.23 3.04 4.62 5.93 8.21 4.85 4.52 1.81 3.78 0.26 0.63 100.00 100.00 4.34 10.68 40.99 22.18 0.00 0.00 4.60 11.77 0.00 3.38 1.50 0.60 35.11 0.00 22.34 16.46 18.44 11.78 0.00 14.93

46.% 52.98 53.35 0.77 1.01 0.74 15.92 19.80 19.84 2.54 2.30 2.45 2.68 2.23 9.44 5.82 5.68 0.22 0.27 021 6.33 2.68 3.02 7.01 10.14 6.83 3.11 5.41 4.99 3.71 2.67 2.69 0.57 0.34 0.41 100.00 100.00 100.00
0.00 15.80 21.W 3.84 21.87 18.55 12.19
0.00

51.75 0.86 18.42 2.41 7.27 7.10 6.48 0.22 0.25 0.23 4.61 3.12 3.82 8.70 8.52 5.28 5.10 4.13 5.49 1.75 3.03 3.44 0.39 0.44 0.42 100.00 100.00 100.00

ClPW NORM VOLATILE FREE

0.00 4.97 ab 27.83 20.40 16.14 B" 15.26 21.73 13.15 ne 11.17 6.13 9.57 BC 0.00 dl 8.949.84 31.91 0.00 hy 01 16.02 17.99 mt 3.653.653.43 1.71 I1 1.83 1.58 1.28 0.85 1.29 *P AN= 35.4151.5744.89
or 21.91 19.59

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00 0.00 828

0.00

0.00 17.24 18.46 15.62 5.44 0.00 24.50 0.00 13.15 3.26 1.28 1.10 45.83

0.0
26.24 0.00 12.45 3.50 1.52 1.71 51.71

3.27 17.94 0.00 3.i8 1.25 0.55 32.14

0.00 7.02 25.86 29.31 0.00 0.00 20.43 3.55 7.52 3.44 1.52 1.40 53.13

0.00 0.00 27.77 23.35 12.76 16.90 61.30 19.70 15.78 9.81 4.81 0.00 0.00 0.00 17.05 4.70 0.00 4.72 7.69 1.94 3.53 2.95 1.61 0.91 0.96 0.94 53.82 13.80

nan . . . .
15.91 36.44 23.83
3.11 .."

oan . ...
10.33 34.53 23.08
4.67 ....

33.93 6.41 0.00 8.92 0.00 7.53 3.33 1.45 0.79 39.19

0.00 9.65 3.44 1.52 1.47 52.84

0.00 23.09 0.00 13.54 3.69 1.92 1.33 82.85

0.00 6.12

0.00 9.03 3.24 1.40 0.95 39.54

0.00 13.52 0.00 6.88 3.88 2.12 1.02 40.07

0.00 20.31 28.23 15.52 6~40 ...~ 9.85 0.00 0.00 14.91 6.a 0.00 0.00 9.13 13.41 3.55 3.50 1.67 1.63 0.97 0.92 49.43 35.47 17.91 22.96 22.44

n M . . . .

0.00 28.64 33.23 0.00 6.53 2.46 18.42 0.00 6.65 2.10 1.30 0.70 0.00

0 . 0 0
23.90 11.32 30.60 321 0.00 9.91 0.00 15.33 3.46 1.60 0.70 72.99

0.00
20.09 29.18 22.29 4.62 0.00 7.96 0.00 9.83 3.58 1.73 0.75 43.31

0.00 14.77 27.32 20.75 5.27 0.00 13.84

0.00
11.70 3.50
1.60

1.27 43.17

(APPENDIX K Continued)
Quesnel CIPW Norms
SAMPLE DBZI MAPUNIT 7 7 4
47.90 0.95 16.90 2.45 8.31 0.21 4.15 7.95 4.18 3.22 0.53 0.00 3.92 100.67

DMZ 74
50.40 0.73 14.20 2.23 9.00 0.17 5.80 8.40 4.90 0.91 0.38 0.W 2.96
100.08

31599

31618

31602

31605 7 50.35 0.68 15.61 2.18 7.85 0.21 4.95 9.31 2.48 3.65 0.45 0.34 0.47 98.19 51.52 0.70 15.97 2.23 8.03 0.21 5.07 9.53 2.54 3.74 0.46

31606

7 48.13 0.61 9.94 2.11 8.17 0.20 10.63 13.33 1.56 2.18 0.30
0.11

7 52.20
I .M

7 48.20 0.99 17.80 2.49 7.10 0.11 4.13 9.65 3.02 2.50 0.37 0.34 2.46 98.82 50.02
1.03

31610 37025 77 53.55 0.77 17.93 2.27 5.48 0.19 3.01 7.41 3.71 2.55 0.40 0.01 1.47 98.74 55.05 0.79 18.43 2.33 5.63 0.20 3.09 7.62 3.81 2.62 0.41

3703 7 54.89 0.61


18.34

38436

RM3

37027 37028 8 54.29 1.04 16.75 2.54 6.42 0.14 3.84 5.90 4.76 0.38 0.13 0.17 3.02 99.21 56.44
1.08

35091

8
59.73 0.63
13.92

loa

35096 37029 10b 58.59 0.41 17.54 1.91 3.06 0.19 1.15 5.66 4.00 2.30 0.18 1.77 4.24 99.23 61.68 0.43 18.47 2.01 3.22 0.20 1.21 5.96 4.21 2.42 0.19

1Oc

3509% 11

OXIDES AS DETERMINED
54.35 0.59 17.71 2.08 5.10 0.15 3.31 6.69 3.90 3.65 0.45 0.06 1.10 99.08 47.51 0.76 17.37 2.26 7.93 0.22 4.98 9.03 3.13 2.72 0.49 0.15 2.42 98.82 49.28 0.79 18.02 2.34 8.23 0.23 5.17 9.37 3.25 2.82 0.51 52.26 0.72 16.75 2.22 4.85 0.13 5.01 10.05 2.22 2.28 0.25 1.14 2.81 99.55 54.02 0.74 17.31 2.29 5.01 0.13 5.18 10.39 2.29 2.36 0.26
1oo.W

48.53
1.11

14.98 2.54 6.91 0.22 6.16 9.25 2.97 1.82


0.30 0.01

LO1 TOTAL

2.11 99.27

1.32 99.71

2.11 4.36 0.19 3.19 7.84 3.48 2.52 0.30 0.15 1.86 99.69 56.11 0.62 18.75 2.16 4.46 0.19 3.26
8.01

14.10 2.61 7.47 0.15 7.04


10.01

3.61 2.08
0.40 0.00

1.79 98.90 49.97 1.14 14.52 2.69 7.69 0.15 7.25 10.31 3.72 2.14 0.41
IW.00 0.00

2.13 3.37 0.12 4.83 5.05 4.05 2.20 0.22 1.14 2.94 99.19 62.06 0.65 14.46 2.21 3.50 0.12 5.02 5.25 4.21 2.29 0.23

51.23 1.01 11.87 2.51 2.99 0.11 5.43 6.97 2.85 4.31 0.78 7.53 8.74 98.80 56.88 1.12 13.18 2.79 3.32 0.12 6.03 7.74 3.16 4.79 0.87

45.54
1.11

11.43 2.61 5.85 0.16 8.86 8.77 2.63 0.96 0.89 5.60 8.94 97.75 51.28 1.25 12.87 2.94 6.59 0.18 9.98 9.88 2.96 1.08
1.W IO0.W

48.55 2.02 13.06 3.54 8.25 0.17 8.43 8.92 2.91 0.77 0.33 1.71 1.88 98.85 50.07 2.10 13.47 3.65 8.51 0.18 8.69 9.20 3.00 0.79 0.34

OXIDES RECALCULATED VOLATILE FREE Si02 53.05 49.54 51.89 49.51 55.47 TI02 1.06 0.63 0.75 0.98 0.60 18.08 15.23 10.23 14.62 17.47 A1203 2.30 2.53 2.58 2.17 2.12 FeO 7.02 8.41 9.27 8.59 5.21 MnO 0.22 0.18 0.22 0.21 0.15 10.94 5.974.29 3.38 Mgo 6.26 C80 8.22 8.65 9.40 13.72 6.83 NazO 5.05 4.32 1.61 3.02 3.98 0.94 2.24 1.85 3.33 3.73 KZO 0.55 0.39 0.31 0.30 0.46 pros TOTAL 100.00 100.00 1W.W Iw.0 100.03 CIPW NORM VOLATILE FREE

18.47 2.58 7.37 0.11 4.29 10.01 3.13 2.59 0.38

3.56 2.58
0.31

1w.w 1w.w loo.w 1w.w 1w.w


0.w 22.07 20.00 21.18 0.79 0.00 19.07
0.W

17.41 2.64 6.67 0.15 3.99 6.13 4.95 0.40 0.14 1W.00 4.73 2.33 41.86 24.15 0.w
0.00

loo.w lw.w 1w.w


11.39 13.51 35.59 13.84 0.w 1.50 28.28 26.77 7.64
0.00

1 W . W
0.W 4.69 25.38 20.94

Q
or

ab
a"
"0

Be

di

0.00 19.67 18.21 18.46 9.93 0.00 15.58


0.00

0.M)

5.54 35.41 14.50 3.93 0.00 21.36


0.W

0.W 13.26 8.36 14.09 2.83 0.w 42.01


0.W

0.31

hr
01

10.93 25.53 22.54 0.00 0.00 18.00 16.26


0.M)

rnt I1

11.37 3.67 1.86

I
iI

. 1.10

13.62 3.33 1.43


"
" . I .

^^

-.

14.42 3.15 1.19

; . ; i
62.76

AN-

50.33

29.M

3.74 2.01 x i 46.89

0.w 22.01 33.67 20.47 0.W 0.w 8.56 6.56 3.47 3.08 1.14
I.",

0.00 15.33 22.27 28.69 2.29 0.w 15.26


0.00

1.77 15.49 32.26 25.45


0.00

4.01 15.22 30.09 27S9


0.00 0.00 8.31

0.00

16.67 19.09 26.27 4.54

0.00 7.98 11.23


0.00

9.78
0 . 0 0 3.13 1.18
".,I

. "-

11.29 3.23 1.32

. ~I.",

9.59 3.75 1.95

".)I"
^^^

3.38 1.50
" 2 "

~~,

0.w 13.94 0.W 13.43 3.40 1.50


1.10

. .-

3.84 13.93 19.41 29.99 0.W 0.w 16.07 11.45 0.w 3.33 1.41
".W

12.66 20.41 16.62 5.98

12.99 14.31 35.62 24.35


0.00 0.00

0.w 25.87
0 . 0 0

4.44 16.31
0.00

"," ~ " , ^^
~

11.47 3.90 2.17


Y.7"

3.83 2.05
".>A

0.w 8.55 12.16 0.w 3.21 1.24


?.X

0.w 19.82 7.84


0.00

51.43 37.80

47.84 44.10 56.29

44.87 60.71 57.91

36.59

27.99

4.04 2.13 iDi 2'2.19

3.32 5.27 0.00 2.92 0.82 42.67 40.60

"C

-..

0.W 6.39 25.05 18.64 0.00 0.w 19.05 17.52 4.41 4.26 2.37
' . A "

OM)
0.w
18.12

- ~ ."., -~ l
~

16.73 4.07 5.29 4.w

45.21

(APPENDIX K Continued)

AVE AVE AVE AVE SAMPLE AVE AVE AYE AVE AVE AVE AVE AVE AYE AVE AVE AVE 3A 38 4 7 loa lob MAPUNIT 1A 2A 28 2D 2E 2G 3 8 2C 2Aj2D OXIDES AS DETERMINED 48.93 58.59 SIO* 47.51 50.33 47.70 49.78 51.00 57.01 51.23 49.03 48.06 48.36 52.55 53.92 50.82 48.80 0.82 1.01 0.41 TI02 0.73 0.85 0.83 0.84 0.79 0.69 0 . 6 6 0.73 0.70 0.78 0.74 0.65 0.65 17.54 12.51 13.73 13.17 15.99 15.71 16.76 17.39 17.36 18.45 15.92 16.05 15.34 11.87 13.04 16.59 Ah03 2.32 2.51 1.91 2.23 2.35 2.33 2.34 FeA 11.23 2.16 2.23 2.20 2.28 2.24 2.15 2.15 2.29 6.29 2.99 3.06 8.08 F O O 6.88 7.48 8.51 4.54 7.18 8.22 6.52 4.90 6.92 6.87 5.60 0.22 0.20 0.11 0.19 MnO0.200.170.190.19 0.22 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.13 0.21 0.21 0.19 3.81 5.43 1.15 4.68 2.26 4.29 4.78 5.24 4.34 5.02 9.25 4.77 7.47 MsO 5.62 7.70 9.55 7.05 6.97 5.66 cao 10.41 5.76 7.67 8.08 9.26 5.48 10.52 11.23 8.05 10.29 8.60 7.33 7.42 4.65 2.85 4.00 NarO 2.78 3.14 4.42 3.01 4.41 4.02 4.09 3.72 5.09 2.09 2.54 3.33 2.97 210 1.85 2.97 3.61 2.17 4.31 2.61 K,b 2.07 2.09 1.71 2.55 3.40 2.27 3.44 2.60 1.29 0.40 0.78 0.18 0.37 0.18 0.39 0.35 0.34 0.30 0.48 0.47 0.53 0.57 PlOS 0.31 0.34 0.34 0.07 0.16 7.53 1.77 0.23 1.81 0.22 0.02 0.04 0.99 0.00 0.66 0.64 0.32 0.30 0.24 COa 4.24 2.45 3.04 3.37 3.51 2.84 8.74 LO1 5.28 3.00 3.24 2.95 4.66 3.32 1.78 2.98 3.43 99.23 99.77 99.75 100.18 99.87 99.08 99.20 98.80 TOTAL 99.89 98.70 98.71 98.88 99.43 98.91 98.79 99.06 OXIDES RECALCULATED VOLATILE FREE 56.88 61.68 Si02 49.68 52.59 50.08 49.92 51.29 54.52 56.29 52.56 50.42 50.78 52.40 59.25 50.83 49.59 0.76 0.68 0.85 0.86 0.87 1.12 0.43 Ti02 0.730.760.690.69 0.81 0.79 0.69 0.88 0.81 12.92 16.53 18.47 13.6s 16.70 13.84 13.78 17.21 16.67 17.40 18.16 17.93 19.06 16.50 15.94 13.18 Ab03 2.01 2.30 2.23 2.40 2.42 2.43 2.79 2.27 11.24 2.302.33 2.36 2.38 2.25 2.43 2.35 Fez03 -...- 7.84 8.44 7.19 7.17 5.81 FeO 8.78 6.50 8.53 5.09 3.32 3.22 7.30 4.75 7.41 6.71 0.20 MnO 0.22 0.23 0.21 0.14 0.12 0.20 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.18 0.22 0.23 0.20 0.19 0.18 1.21 5.19 5.06 4.86 9.54 3.94 4.96 4.51 6.03 Me0 9.57 8.07 7.80 5.87 2.38 4.43 5.39 5.96 8.89 7.80 7.73 C*O 10.75 8.41 11.78 10.55 10.73 7.28 8.38 5.69 7.74 6.03 7.92 9.52 2.86 3.16 4.21 NazO 3.10 3.47 2.67 2.09 4.18 4.35 3.85 5.31 4.58 3.25 4.81 4.58 3.09 2.42 2.74 2.16 2.19 1.72 2.64 1.92 3.60 2.36 3.60 2.263.733.08 1.35 4.79 2.67 X20 0.40 0.37 0.49 0.56 0.35 0.42 0.31 0.50 0.87 OS9 0.38 0.19 P0.33 A 0.36 0.35 0.60 TOTAL 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 1w.m 100.00 100.00 100.00 IW.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 1w.m
CIPW NORM VOLATlLE FREE

AVE
1 0 e

AVE
11

45.54 1.11 11.43 2.61 5.85 0.16 8.86 8.77 2.63 0.96 0.89 5.60 8.94 97.75 51.28 1.25 12.87 2.94 6.59 0.18 9.98 9.88 2.96 1.08 1.00
100.00

48.55 2.04 13.06 3.54 8.25 0.17 8.43 8.92 2.91 0.77 0.33 1.71 1.88 98.85 50.07 2.10 13.47 3.65 8.51 0.18 8.69 9.20 3.00 0.79 0.34
100.00

0.19 0.00 0.74 10.15 12.97 12.78 15.73 16.41 27.49 8" 23.12 19.29 23.61 ne 6.05 1.03 3.36 1.07 0.m 0.000.00 BF 27.92 di 13.07 29.89 21.91 IC 0.00 0.W 0.00 7.97 11.83 0.20 hy 7.76 01 9.85 12.47 3.38 mt 3.18 3.29 11 1.31 1.31 1.39 1.45 1.40 0.76 BD 0.84 0.81 45.21 42.67 40.60 22.19 32.29 51.06 40.85 58.15 AN41.61 31.92 42.23 41.77 53.71 49.22 54.69 46.59 58.13 61.92

or ab

0.00 15.78 15.10 15.21


0 . 0 0

0.33 0.00 13.53 3.33

0.00 15.63 23.89 20.42 6.19 0.00 16.83 0.00 0.00 10.96 3.43 1.54 1.13

0.00 11.32 14.74 16.75 5.14 0.00 27.53


0.00

5.72 13.16 3.34 I. 4 4 0.93

0.00 21.26 21.74 15.38 8.13 0.00 16.15 0.00 0.00 11.13 3.45 1.50 1.32

0.37 13.93 32.55 23.25 0 . 0 0


0.00

0.00 21.29 39.50


15.10

10.37 0.00 11.69 2.51 3.24 1.29 0.85

2.91 0.00 10.35 0.00 1.57 3.92 3.26 1.30 0.82

0.48 18.20 27.85 18.43 6.78 0.27 12.35 0.00 1.31 8.42 3.35 1.61 0.97

0.00 22.00 20.25 26.45 3.92 0.00 8.94 0.00 0.00 12.58 3.52 1.67 0.73

0.00 13.33 26.98 17.90 6.38

0.99 15.76 23.11 23.29 1.64 0.00 0.00 16.93 17.51 o m 0.00 0.00 5.53 12.23 617 3.50 3.41 1.63 1.65 1.54 1.15 0.89

8.06 7.92 38.73 19.00 0.00 0.00 6.50 0.00 14.24 0.00 3.52 0.43

1.50 28.28 26.77 7.64 0.00 0.00 19.82 0.00 7.84 0.00 4.04 2.13 2.M

12.99 14.31

35.62
24.35 0.00 0.00 3.32 0.00 5.27
0 . 0 0

2.92 0.82 0.44

0.00 6.39 25.05 18.64 0.00 0.00 19.05 0.00 17.52 4.41 4.26 2.37 2.34

0 . 0 0 4.69 25.38 20.94 0.00


0.00

18.12 0.00 16.73 4.07 5.29 4.00 0.79

*CIPWnorma cnicuiated by GSBprogram (Don Maclnlyre 1592) ~~Av~ragrseolcuiot~dfor&1anoiy~~~plur29onalysesofunlllAfromBioodgood,1987. AVE-aver~g~vnlueforUnil ***Fe20, volussfor,millA-Fo,O, Toral:nd=noldelennined

APPENDIX L ANALYSIS OF FERRIC AND FERROUS IRON and Fe'?, IN PERCENT, FROM QUESNEL VOLCANIC AND INTRUSIVE ROCKS COMPARED TO VALUES CALCULATED FROM TOTAL Fe @eo*)

"

Fe203 Lab No 4.5 3.2 4.1 1.5 4.3 4.7 2.9 2b 5.8 7.3 5.2 6.2 4.3 6.3 6.6 7 31597 4.9 611 607 5.4 6.1 609 600 4.2 603 3.4 604 4.1 608 5.9 5.2 599 602 7 605 5.2606 610 3.5

Map unit
2a 2a 2a 2g 2g 2g 2d 8.2 5.1 7.97 7.1 5.5 7

FeO Analyzed Calculated Analyzed Calculated

2 1

2.1 2 2.1 2.1 2.2

2.5 7 2.3

5.4 3.6 5.3 4.6 4.4

3.7 5

Convention used - Imine and Baragar (1971):FeO* or FeOT reported as Fe203; Fe203= approximately Ti + 1.5 and FeO* = FeO + Fe, 0 , x 0.8998and Fe203*= Fe, 0 , + FeOx 1.11135

British Columbia

146

Geological Survey Branch

Ministo o f Employment and Invesrrnenf

"

APPENDIX M

LITHOGEOCAEMICALANALYSES(125 ASSAY SAMPLES), IN ppm LAB


FIELD Au < *84 21
Ag

"

Cu

Pb

Zn Co

Ni Mo

H g

As

Sb,
<: <:
.S
c

Ba
0
0

31617 32647 32649 3265 1 34904 34907 34909 34917 37033 37385 37034 37036 37037 37038 37043 88AP-13/07-AX12 37044 88AP-15/02-AX13 38432 88AP-26/13-AX19 38433 88AP-3U07-AX20 38526 88AP-11/06-37-AX21 3.5303 C10-1B 35335 c10-IC 35304 C10-ID 35305 ClO-1E 35306 CIO-IF 35307 C10-2D 35307 C10-2E 35314 C13-2B 35315 C13-4 35316 C13-6 35343 C13-7 35317 C13-8B 3491 1 87AP-18/11-AXlO 37042 37045 37046 38428 38429 38430 88AP-23/02-AX17 35336 C10-3A 35337 C10-3B 35338 C10-3D 35318 Cll-4 31615 85AP-19/1-110-AX7 31616 85AP-19L3-llOB-AXS 32048 86AP-9/4-37-AXl 32049 86AP-125-48-AX2 32648 86AP-23/4-AX4 32650 86AP-26/2-86-AX6 32652 86AP-38/1-145-AX8 32653 86AP-41/1-161-AX9 32654 86AP-4U2-165-AXlO 34905 87AP-13/2-AX04 34906 34914 34915
~ ~~ ~

<

<
<

< < <


<

<
<

<
<

<
1 3 1 1 *260 1 1 1 *40
1

<
< < 1

<
2 < < A 1

. 8
.5 < <

32

<

< < < 30


f50

<
<

30 *40 <

<
< 30 < 9
1

< < < < <


< <

< 5 <
2 1
1

1
1

1
*55

1 1

*40 20 30 30 < < < < 38

< < <


<

<
< <

<
33 < < <

< < <


< < < < <

< < <

< <

0 16 21 0 0 11070 10 0 0 82 0 0 0 0 0 101 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 20 11 88 0 o < 51 60 61 < 66 0 4 250 67 o < 0 o < 19 51 5057 10 0 o < 15 *90 32 12011 23 8 62 0 88 27 0 0 0 *12 10 97 14 4 *328 32 *420 14 15 111 *370 0 0 0 50 17 0 0 0 2593 6 6 324 0 0 0 3468 6 11868 6 115 11 0 0 0 116 0 0 0 15 12879 6 8 69 0 8 *330 0 0 101 *683 55 *48 *128 62 0 0 0 46 0 0 0 1 12 96 134 38 7 97 0 0 0 9 26 112 < 17 9 124 0 o < < < *246 4 87 0 18 < 24 < 12 90 0 o < 32 183 10 0 o < 7584 16 44 *78 0 0 10 2679 12 95 17 0 o < 154 33 125 17 72 0 26 o < 13 42 12 12 8 0 o < o 10 11 67 13 13 0 o < 2 17 80 18 10 9 0 o < < *133 6 0 12 < 6 54 35 5 0 o < 17087 10 *78 *880 12215 0 o < *1554 *45 6 104 0 8 17 122 0 0 142 *112 0 0 0 168 5253 6 8 71 458 56 315 0 0 0 104 54 30 11 100 0 0 0 2 13 87 0 13 63 2 0 0 12 32 154 101 0 0 0 132 16 24 0 *205 < 62 60 5.3 13 15 83 0 < < 76 8 15 11 8960 4 0 4 < 3 11 98 0 o < 140 10 19 22 85 30 25 0 0 26 164 95 21 0 < 126 23 22 0 44 5 63 0 *480 c *380 0 < 70 8 58 0 19 < *380 0 0 0 < 27 0 0 0 38 < 0 0 0 0 0 0 < 0 0 0 0 0 0 *0.93% 0 0 28 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 252 *0.21% 0 0 42 17 59 0 10 o < 45 11 64 0 30 0 *56 170 *90 29 0 o < 79 127 7 18 72 18 60 0 o < 13 147
~~

< <
1

1C
3 3
6

1 C 2 2 3
4

*34 3
c .C < .9 <

0 449 125 391 828 1169 349 437 124 263 811 860 269 1635 840 260 0
0

1 1.6 .7

<

0 0 0 0 0
0

.9 1.6 2.5 .7

0
0

< .9 3
1 2 2

0 0 74 622

6 3 2.8 < <


*85

873 741 408 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 0 0

< < < < 8 < <

0 0 523 5 *1.2:4% < 851 < 832

"

Bullefin 97

147

British C o M i a

(APPENDIX M continued)
LAB NO
FIELD
Au
Ag

Cu

Pb

Zu Co

Ni Hg Mo

As

Sb

Ba

NO
< *430 <11 21
116 80 8 9 < 13 < 90 19 < < 10 168 < 12 < 22 <11 117 < 13 138 < 167 < 145 170 *25 *70 47 *44 < 54 66 9 83 6 < 18 < 36 7 < < 10 < 42 1 27 1 *2100 < 58 < 85 < 14 < 7 < 102 < 123 < 108 < *510 82 < < *440 c *221 15 < < *295 < 40 *IO 40 63 < 35 < < 16
8

< 34916 87AP-M/3-66-AX15 < 34918 87AP-28/1-87-AX23 1 37039 88AP-O8/03-AXW 1 37040 88AP-08/04-AXlO < 35325 c4-IO < 35301 C4-12 35326 C4-12B 30 20 35328 C6-2C 20 35329 C6-3A < 35330 c7-3 20 35312 Cll-17 < 35341 < 31613 < 31614 < 34908 87AP-1611-AXO7 < 34910 87AP-4/1-AX09 < 34798 87AP-25I2-AX17 < 34799 87AP-25/2-AX18 < 34800 87AP-26/6-AX19 < 34801 87AP-26i7-AX20 < 34802 8 7 ~ ~ - 2 6 n - ~ x 2 1 < 34803 87AP-26fl-AX22 < 30118 .AP85-65-AX3 < 30119 AP85-664x4 < 30116 AP85-14-AX1 1 37041 88AP-lUO1-38-AX10A < 34902 < 34912 < 34913 20 35321 (3-3 20 35322 c3-4 < 35323 c i l o < 35324 c4-2c 30 35309 C1 I-SA *40 35339 Cll-9 < 35310 Cll-10 < 35340 c11-11 30 35311 Cll-12 20 35313 Cll-13 20 35348 G8-1 < 35349 G8-3 M 35350 G8-4 < 34903 87AP-814-AXO2 < 34804 DB87-010 32 35589 DB87-011 I 37032 88AP-ol/WAXO1 *50 35344 G3-3 M 35345 G3-4 *52 33265 84AP-01 *450 33266 84AP -01A < 30117 AP85-33-Ax2 1 37035 88AP-04/09-AX05 38431 88AP-26104-79-AX18 *130 *30 < 20 34805 DB87-037
~~ ~

< < <

8 14 *28 8 9 14

13 8 10 22 20 *30 *30 *38 *42 *39

95 0 *130 0 85 0 81 0 105 0 *187 0 105 0 89 0 80 0 0 97 81 0 77 0 87 23 87 44 100 0 118 0 0 0 30 0 100 0 50 0


100
0

o o
0 0 50

< <
<
<
0 0

91 11 13 15
10

19 50 92 23

< < < <

<

< 13
22

< 0

< < < < 48 127 < 0


0

*78 40 8 5 11 19 14
1

o o o o o o o
o 0 0
0 0

< < < < < < <

<
<

<
6 22 9 7 20 6 10 10 9 12 8 21 8 5 7 8 3 *40 11 15 8 <
0 0

<

<
<
c

0 0

13 0 0 12
177

80 9 8 17 77 *I51 30 64 90 82 78 46 6 74 95 85 75 113 107 76 46 98 59 70 75 114 47 78


0
0

0
0

c 0 0

16 18 6 '970 165 10 *360 *340 0


0 0

I2 *284 20 13 0 60 5 40 *lo6 55 '74 *194


22

2 2 5 2 1.8 3.4 .6 < .8 < .7 .9 < <

843 980 943 210 0 0 0


0
0

0
0

0 0
0

<
1 6 10 6
10 10

640 699 *5970 1031 689 743


81

57
0 0

*13 <
C

110 0
0 0
118

0
0

0 0

0 0 140 0 33 0 < 0 < 0 o 0 70 0 o 0 82 0 o 0 o 0 59 0 3 0 52 0 o


0 0

o o o

< < <

0 0

<

<

< < <


< <

< < <

220 78 12 54 *560 15 78 < < 12 < 17


C

o o

< < <

< < <

165 16 20 2 43
10

0 0 0 0
0

<
6

1 1 0 76 0

0 23 89 0 0 0 0

<
< 0 0 0
0

15 24 82 38
0 0

30 16 *lo8 51 6 2 30 11 30 7 5 13 12 7 20 14 23 19 45 4 3 63 12

< .9 2

<
C

2.8 .6 4.2 .6 .7 < < < < .5

692 252 975 0 0 0 0


0

<
1.7 0.8 < .7 1 2 1.1 < < < <
2

0 956 0
0

47 1
0

< <
< <
11

0
*445

0 0 0 0 364

2.4

<

140

.5

148

Geological Survey Branch

Ministry ofEmpIoymnt an,ilnvestmnl

(APPENDIX M continued)
LAB

NO
30 30

FIELD NO

Au

Ag

Cu
23 66
11

Pb Mo Z n Ni Co
12
0 20 55 0 *360 3 83 0< 3 0 o 58 0 9 04 0 0 < 3 0 o 0 3 0 0 1 8 0 < 30 0 14 9 3 7 0 < 63 0 11 *I28 0 0 *I67 0 0 '153 0 147

P6b
<
c 20 15 c

Hg ppb

As

SI)
13 ':

Ba
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 *3188 813 0

"

*25

20

G5-2 35346 G7-3 35347 35319 C1-9 35298 C2-1 35320 (2-3 35299 C2-4 35300 c2-11 35342 C12-6 4 35302 C8-2 35331 C8-3 35332 C8-6 35333 C8-7C 35334 C8-7K 34919 87AP-323-98-AX24 87AP-3U5-AX25 34920 C5-235327

<

21 < 2 <

26 28

<
30
c

< < < < <

<
c

<

3 .6 4*43 < 12 69 .5 2 2 < 3 2 94 c "28 38 < 16 < 4 < '27 2 < I 1 0 8 <16 11 c *780 11 < 9 36 < 51 5

<
C

c
<

4 0
1

< : <:

33
C

<:

<
c 22 < c

49 19

0 0

<:
<:

1.2

<
<

<
c

<
C

10

< <

3 13 < < 14 51 12

.5
c'

c,

3.4 1.1
.9

c *96"785

<

2 <

STATISTICS SUMMARY
NUMBER of ANALYSES N 114 115 115 123 125 MEAN 1.6 12 STANDARD DEVIATION 7.8 27 328 12 167 38 128 22.5 194 9.4 39 ANOMALOUS X+ISTD DEV (anomalous values indicated by *)
" U N I T AVERAGES UNiTlN=31 MEAN UNIT2 N=50 MEAN lJNlT8Nd MEAN
5 36 34 86 113 13 3 80 65 27 108 9.5 48 11 102 215 9

113 125 111 '782 3.0 27 40 1936 9.2 67 1'7 12.2 18

47

20 7 c1

c1

72
100

3.3
<I

11.3 14.1

96 82

16 79

26 45 18.4

"

117 22 587 4.9 150 !i98 4.9 38 22 0.9 6 0.6 3 1.0 6

NOTE 0 - NOT ANALYZED < NOT DETECTED SAMPLE LOCATIONS and DESCRIPTIONS SHOWN IN APPENDIX N

"

Bulletin 97

149

British Columbia

150

Geo[ogica[SurveyBranch

___.~

APPENDIX N ASSAY SAMPLES (APPENDIX M)- LOCATIONS ANDDESCRIPTIONS


LATITUDE LONGITUDE LoCATIONlAREA NTSMAP MAP NUM 85AP-20/12118-AX9 86AP-I4/IZAX3 86AP-2514-77-AXS 86AP-2614-87-AX7 87AP-IU3-AX03 5 6 87AP-1414-AXC6 7 8 87AP-16/5-AX08 87AP-24/1-74-AX16
0 t S I 0

FIELDNUM REC LAB NUM 31617 32647 32649 32651 34904 34907 34909 34917 37033 37385 37034 37036 37037 37038 37043 37044 38432 38433 38526 35303 35335 35304 35305 35306 35307 35308 35314 35315 35316 35343

SAMPLE DESCRIPTION UNIT 93N 6 93N 6 93N6 93N6 93N5 93N 6 93N 5 93AI 5 93N5 93N 6 93N 6 93N 5 93N 5 93N 5 93N 5 93N 5 93N 6 93N6 93N 5 938116 93B/16 93B/l6 93B/16 938/16 938/16 938/16 93B/16 938/16 938116
93Rllh

11

I 2 3 4

52-29-12.9

52-24-11.2 52-29-21.6 5228.33.3 5224-47.7 52-24- .7


52-24-26.4 522346.7 52-24-28.9 52-21-27.1 52-21-25.1 52-23-32.7 52-23- 4.5 5226- .9 52-28.21.6 52-29-37.3 52-26.34.7 52-28-24.8 52-26.44.0 52-58-14.6 52-58-16.0 52-58-17.2 52-58-18.6 52-58-19.8

121-23-41.7 121-16- 6.7 121-25-12.3 121-20.49.1 121-34.48.3

1 1 1

I
I 1
1

121-11- .8
121-33-17.2 121-3548.0 121-40-49.4

1 1
1

1.8 km W of E tipHorsefly Peninsula 1.5kmSofNikwitL 0.5 km E of W tip Horsefly Peninsula on S shore of Quesnel L 1.7 km W of western tip Antoine L N shore Horsefly L, 3.5 km SSW ofViewland Mtn 1 km S western tip Antoine L on Antoine Ck. 0.6 km NE Roben L
0.5 km N of McCauley L 2kmNWofHorseflyMtn 2 km NW of Horsefly Mtn 1 km SE of McCauley L 2 km S of McCauley L 3.5 km SW of Moorhouse L 1.5 km S of Gavin L

88AP-01/08-AXM 9

IO 88AP-04105-AX03
11 88AP-04106-AX04 I2 88AP-OS/OI-AX06 13 88AP-05/03-AX07 14 88AP-07IlO-AX08

121- 6-53.2 121-6.52.1 121-39-36.4


121-40- 5.4 121-39- 7.4 121-43-40.5 121-47-28.9 121-7-34.5 121-16-42.4 121-48- 5.9 122-18-51.9 122-18-53.7 122-18-55.2 1221846.2 122-18-56.8 12219- 1.3 122-19- 1.8 122-17-34.7 122-17-34.3 122-17-33.3
17217.25.9

I
1

1 1 1
1 1 1

15 88AP-13I07-AX12
I6 88AP-15102-AXI3 17 88AP-26/13-AX19 18 88AP-32JO7-AX20 19 88AP-11I06-37-AX21

2.2 km W of Gavin L 3 km NE of Viewlmd Mtn


3 kmNEofNiquidetL I km SSE of Dorsey L on waterline road on Quesnel R. 3 km N of Deacon Ck on Quesnel R, 3 km N of Deacon Ck on Quesnel R, 3 km N of Deacon Ck on Quesnel R, 3 km N of Deacon Ck on Quesnel R, 3 km N of Deacon Ck an Quesnel R, 3 km N of Deacon Ck on Quesnel R, 3 km N of Deacon Ck on Deacon Ck, 4km fmm Quesnel R on Quesnel R, between Vase and Cantin Ck on Quesnel R, between Vase and CantinCk on Qatesnel R; hetween Vase and Cantin Ck

pyrite with carbonale veinlets carbonate alteration q u a m veinlets pyritic bleached mck quartz vein rusty, carbonate-altered veinlets grab sampover 1 m rusty zone of quam-ankerite vein-brecciainfilling pyrite-carbonate altered fault zone pervasive carbonate-altered, fine-grained pyrite or (?) marcasite clots orange carbonate veins a t basalt argillite contact along fault calcite veinlets in shear zone with clay gouge carbonalealtered. bleached, above shear mne orange carbonate-altered. moderately fractured sandstone-conglomerate. Chip sample pyrite carbonate veinlets pervasive alteration pervasive orange carbonale-altered sandstone, trace pyrite carbonate-altered fault (?) zone carbonate-allered pyroxene basalt sheared, rusty, fine-grained sediments; large shear msty polylithic conglomerate with calcite veinlets sulphides (pyrite and ?others) infeldspathic grit beds

20 CIO-IB
21 CIO-IC 22 CIO-ID 23 CIO-IE 24 C10-IF 25 CIO-ZD CIO-ZE 26 27 C13QB 28 C13-4
29 C13-6 30 C13-7

1 1 1 1 1

52-58-25.5
5248-26.3 52-55- 7.3 52-55 8. I

I I I
1

red tuff pyroxene-beaming wacke red tuff altered zone tuff argillite tuffaceous wacke altered basalt pyritic basalt calcite vein in basalt
hnealt with Iwd chlorite veinino

52-55- 8.9
5255-29.3

1
I

(APPENDIX N Continued)

LAB NUM NUM


35317 3491 I 37042 37045 37046 38428 38429 38430 35336 35337 35338 35318 31615 31616 32048 32049 32648 32650 32652 32653 32654 34905 34906 34914 34915 34916 34918 37039 37040 35325 35301 35326 35328 35329 35330 35312 35341

REC

FIELDNUM

LATITUDE LONGITUDE NTSMAP MAP


0 I

,,

LOCATION/AREA UNIT

SAMPLE DESCRIPTION
chlorite & epidote altered basalt carbonate-altered shear zone, sampled for Cu epidote-altered breccia matrix; chip sample carbonate-altered breccia, chlorite veining carbonate alteration quartz veining NSty, limonite-altered with trace pyrite NSfy, limonitealtered with trace pyrite epidotized. sheared pyroxene basalt breccia basalt basalt, pyritic volcanic pyroxene-bearing wacke basalt silicified breccia with pyrite in bleached volcanic soil quartz gashes, chip sample sheared, carbonate altered quam veinlets very fine grained pyrite, trace chalcopyrite

1,

31 Cl3-8B 32 87AP-18/11-AXIO 88AP-13/05-AXll 33 34 88AP-17/04-AX14 88KH-OU05-IA-AX90 35 36 88AP-2U05-AX15 37 88AP-2UOS-AXI6 88AP-23/02-AXI7 38 39 C10-3A 40 CIO-3B 41 C10-3D 42 Cll-4 85AP-19/l-110-AX7 43 44 85AP-l9/3-llOB-AX8 86AP*9/4-37-AXI 45 46 86AP-lU5-48-AX2 47 86AP-23/4-AX4 48 86AP-26/2-86-AX6 86AP-38/1-145-AX8 49 50 86AP-41/1-16l-AX9 51 86AP-4U2-165-AXIO 52 87AP-l3/2-AX04 53 87AP-13/3-AX05 54 87AP-224-58-AX13 55 87AP-225-59-AX14 87AP-24/3-66-AX15 56 87AP-28/1-87-AX23 57 58 88AP-08/03-AX09 88AP-08/04-AX10 59

52-55-39.3 5219-17.6 52-28-13.6 52-28-53.6 52-28-34.1 52-19-48.1 52-19-48.0 52-19- 2.3 52-59-19.0 52-59-20.8 52-59-24.1 52-58-14.8 52-29- 8.9 52-29-19.3 52-25-12.4 52-24-36.0 52-23-58.5 52-27-35.8 52-23-44.4 52-25-48.8 52-23-38.6 52-23-41.7 52-23-45.0 52-23-39.1 52-24-52.6 52-24-36.4 52-21-38.4 52-25-22.4 52-25-33.7 52-53-18.0 52-53-14.3 52-53-14.2 52-54- 9.5 52-53-54.7 52-53.37.6 52-57-41.6 52-57-39.9

122-17-37.7 121-31-27.9 121-44-37.2 . 121-46- .5 121-38-38.4 121-10-12.3

93B/16 93N5 93N5 93N5 93N5 93N6 93N6 93N6 93B/16 93B/16 93B/16 93B/16 93N6 93N6 93N6 93N6 93N6 93N6 93N6 93N6 93N6 93N6 93N 6 93N6 93N6 93N6 93N6 93N5 93N5 938116 936/16 93B/16 93B/16 93B/16 93B/16 93B/16 93B/16

1
2A

2A 2A 2A 2A
2A 2A 2A

121-10-12.2 121-10-28.5 122-20-47.2 122-20-50.5 122-20-58.8 122-16-11.0 121-24-49.1 121-2434.3 121-21-l6.4 121-21-32.3 121-19-7.5 121-23-34.9
121-20-23.8 121-24-23.9 121-24-38.2 121-24-47.2 121-24-59.4 121-24-33.7 121-25-42.0 121-25-52.9 121-21-18.0 121-41-59.8 121-42-32.4 122- 8-51.1 122- 8.43.7 122- 8.44.7

2A
2A 2A

2B 2B
26

26 28 2B
28 28

2B
2B 28

28 2B
28

60 C4-IO
61 C4-12 62 C4-IZB 63 C6-2C 64 C6-3A 65 C7-3 66 CII-17 67 CII-19

26 2B 2B 28 28
28 2B
2B

122-11-52.0 122-11-44.1
12210-33.0 122-16.28.9 122-16-30.2

2B
2B 2B

on Quesnel R, between Vase and Cantin Ck on Gravel Ck, 7.5 km WSW of Horsefly 2 km S of Gavin L 1.4 km WSW of Gavin L 3.3 km W of Edney L 2 km N of Patenaude L 2 km N of Patenaude L 0.5 km N of Patenaude L on Quesnel R. 3 km NNW of Deacon Ck on Quesnel R. 3 km NNW of Deacon Ck on Quesnel R, 3 km NNW of Deacon Ck on Deacon Ck, 4 km from Quesnel R 1 km S E of W tip of Horseflly Peninsula I km E of W tip of Horsefly Peninsula 2.3 km NW of Kwun L 2 km W KwunL 0.6 km S of Kwun L Horsefly R, I km upstream fmm Quesnel L outlet 0.8 km SW of Kwun L 2.2 km SW of Hooker L on Horsefly R, 0.8 km NE of Ratdam L on Horsefly R, 0 . 8 km NE of Ratdam L on Horsefly R, 0.8 km NE of Ratdam L on Horsefly R, 0.8 km NE of Ratdam L on Horsefly R, 3.5 km E of Antoine L on Horsefly R, 3.5 km ESE of Antoine L 2.5 km W of SW end of Horsefly L 3 km E of SE end George L 2.4 km ENE of SE end George L headwaters of Cantin and Gerimi Cks headwaters of Cantin and Gerimi Cks headwaters of Cantin and Gerimi Cks headwaters of Cantin and Gerimi Cks headwaters of Cantin and Gerimi Cks headwaters of Cantin and Gerimi Cks on Deacon Ck. 4 km from Quesnel R on Deacon Ck, 4 km from Quesnel R

cinnabar with pyrite in quartz-carbonate veinlets carbate-altered fault zone quarlz-calcite drusy vein, (?)marcasite pervasive chlorite &carbonatealteration; grab sample quartz-calcite vein with N S ~ Y margin vuggy calcite chalcedony veinlets carbonate and zeolite alteration in pyroxene basalt rusty fracturess with calcite, chlorite &epidote pervasive chlorite alteration epidote-calcite clots epidotized patches in coatse breccia epidotized breccia basalt with minor pyrite disseminated pyrite in siltstone silicified basalt with Cu staining basalt basalt basalt epidotized basaltic breccia basaltic tuff

(APPENDlX N Continued)
LAB NLJM 31613 31614 34908 34910 34798 34799 34800 34801 34802 34803 30118 30119 301 16 37041 34902 34912 34913 35321 35322 35323 35324 35309 35339 35310 35340 3531 I 35313 35344 35345 35348 35349 35350 34903 34804 35589 37032

REC

FlELDNUM

LATITUDE LONGITUDE NTSMAP


0 I 11

MAP
UNIT
93N6 93N 6 93N5 93N5 93N 5 93N 5 93N5 93N5 93N 5 93N5 93N 6 93N6 938116 93N5 93N6 93N5 93N 6 938116 938116 93B116 938116 938116 938116 938116 938116 938116 938116 938116 938116 938116 938116 93B116 93N 6 93N12 93N12 ?'?.2/C 2E 2E 2E 2E 2E 2E

LOCATION/AREA 4.3 km NE of Shiko L 4.3 km NEof Shiko L 2 km S of Antoine L 2.5 km E ofjunaion of Gravel Ck road 2kmEofRobertL

SAMPLE DESCRIPTION

NUM
68 85AP-17/2.102-AX5 69 85AP-17I2-102AX6 70 87AP-IWl-AXO7 87AP.411-AXW 71 72 87AP-25n-AX17 73 87AP-2512.AX18 87AP-2616-AX19 74 87AP-26fl.AX20 75 76 87AP-26fl-AX21 77 87AP-ZW-AX22 78 AP85-65-AX3 79 AP85-66-AX4 80 AP85-14-AXI 88AP-l2/01-38-AXlOA 81 82 87AP-811-AXOI 87AP-21/9-55-AXll 83 87AP-ZZ/1-57-AX12 84 85 C3-3 86 C3-4 87 C3-IO 88 GI-ZC 89 Cll-8A 90 CII-9 91 CII-IO 92 C I I - l l 93 Cll-12 94 C l l - I 3 95 G3-3 96 G3-4 91 08-1 98 GB-3 99 G8-4 100 87AP-814-AX02 101 DB87-010 102 DB87-011 103 88AP-01104AXflI

0 I ,I

52-28- 6.2 52.28- 6.3 52-23-56.1 52-21-52.1 52-23-31.0 52-23-31.0 52-23-31.4 52-23-28.4 52-23-28.4 52-23-28.4 52-27-22.2 5227-38.0 52-54-16.0 52-26-21.0 52-19- 9.9 52-23-20.3 52-20.5.9 52-55-13.9 52-55- 6 . 8 52-55- 7.5 52-54-14.6 52-58- 6.3 52-58- 1.7 52-57-57.2 52-57-55.5 52-57-53.6 5257-51.0 52-54-33.8 52-54-33.8 52-54-25.6 52-54-25.6 52-54-25.7 52-19-15.8 52-36-31.4 52-36-31.4 5?.7A. ! . a

121-27- .5 121-27- .5 121-3231.7 121-30-51.1 121-33-42.5 121-33-42.5 121-33-55.4 121-33-55.1 121-33-55.1 121-33-55.2 121-27dS.l 121-27-57.9 122-22-30.6 121-47-16.1 121-26-26.3 121-30-54.4 121-28- 7.4

carbonate in limonitic shear epidotized analcite basalt breccia native Cu in amygdaloidal, analcitepyroxene basalt silicified, vuggy with pervasive chalcedony and some carbonate alteration peripheral to A X 1 7 grab over 30 m of carbonate altered volcanic breccia pervasive carbonate alteration random grab over30 m of vuggy, silicified amygdaloidal pyroxene basaltbreccia grab sampleover 20 m ofcsrbonate-silicaaltered rock grab over 20 m of carbonate-silica altered rmk pyrite and epidote in pyroxene-plagioclase basalt epidote-altered pyroxene-plagioclase basalt rusty, leached quaiz-calcite veinlets pervasive carbonate alteration, calcite veinlets carbonate veinletsin lahar rusty fragmented basalt with limestone clasts malachite-staind lahar and sandstone debris altered basalt with trace write .. basalt vyriteincalcite veins basalt. localllv with .. basaltic breccia gabbro? dark green, c o m e grained basalt epidotized basalt bash altered baslt epidotized wacke syenite pyroxenite basalt porphyry basaltic tuff basaltic porphyry carbonate alteration minor veins, mainly pervasive epidote-altered matrixof basil breccia grey basalt caicite veins

2 km E of Robert L
2kmEofRobertL

2E
2E 2E 2E

2 km E of Robert L
2kmEofRobeRL ZkmEofRobertL Shiko L Shiko L Dragon Mm 0.5 km SE of Beaver L 1 km ENE of China Cabin L 3 km S of Antoine L 4.5 km W of Horsefly village headwaters of Cantin and Gerimi Cks headwaters of Cantin and Gerimi Cks headwaters of Cantin and Gerimi Cks headwaters of Cantin and Gerimi Cks on Deacon Ck, 4 km from Quesnel R on Deacon Ck. 4 km from Quesnel R on Deacon Ck, 4km from Quesnel R on Deacon Ck, 4 km from Qnesnel R on Deacon Ck, 4 km from Quesnel R on Deacon Ck, 4 km from Quesnel R headwaters of Cantin and Gerimi Cks headwaters of Cantin and Gerimi Cks headwaters of Cantin and Gerimi Ckr headwaters of Cantin and Gerimi Cks headwaters of Cantin and Gerimi Cks 0.5 km N of China CabinL hior L

20

20 2H 2H
3 3 3 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 4 4

122-12-51.1
122-13.4 122-12-40.5

122.10. 2.1
122-16-12.9 122-16-13.2 122-16-16.9 122-16-18.9 122-16-20.3 122-16-20.8 122-10-10.9 122-10-10.9 122- 9-59.1 l U - 9-59.1 122-9-59.1 121-27- 7.4 121-40.41.1 121-40-41.3 !2!-?5-??.!

(APPENDIX N Continued)

LAB NUM 33265 33266 301 17 37035 38431 34805 35346 35347 35319 35298 35320 35299 35300 35342 35302 35331 35332 35333 35334 34919 34920 35327

REC
NUM

FlELDNUM

LATITUDE LONGITUDE NTSMAP


0 I ,I 0 I 9,

MAP
UNIT 93Nl2 93N12 93N12 93N6 93N6 93N12 938136 936116 938116 936116 938116 938116 936116 936116 936116 938116 938116 938116 938136 93N5 93N5 93B1L6 7

LOCATION/AREA

SAMPLE DESCRlPTlON

1 0 4 84AP-01 105 84AP-01A


106 107 108 109 AP85-33-AX2 88AP-M/09-AXO5 88AP-26/04-79-AX18 DB87-037 110 05-2 I11 07-3

112 I13 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121

c1-9
CZ-1

CZ-3
'2-4 C2-I1 C12-6 C8-2 C8-3 C8-6 C8-7c

122 C8-7K
123 87AP-323-98-AX24 124 87AP-325-AX25

52-39-29.1 52-39-29.1 5237-32.4 52-21-24.3 5225-36.9 52-39-41.5 52-54-37.4 52-54-55.2 52-58- 5.7 52-57-34.9 52-57-37.4 52-57-39.4 52-57-37.3 52-56-17.3 52-53-43.3 52-54-17.9 52-54-34.8 52-54-35.0 52-54-35.1 52-29-38.3 52-29-58.1 52-56-7.0

121-47-58.6 12147-58.6 121-38- 5.0 121- 5-52.6 121- 4-50.4 121-45-20.9

122-10-24.1 122-11-12.2 122-11-41.8 122-11-47.3 122-11-45.7 122-11-47.1 122-10-55.7 122-12-36.7 122-l6.41.1 122-16-38.9 122-17-10.4 122-16-54.7 122-16-54.9 121-30-51.8
121-31-9.9 122-14-355

QR deposit trench QR deposit trench 7 Bullion Pit 1.2 km NNW of Horsefly Mtn 7 7 4.5 km N of Hom Bluff (Horsefly L) 7 on Quesnel R, 2.8 km E of QR deposit 7A headwaters of Cantin and Gerimi Cks 7A headwaters of Cantin and Gerimi Cks 7B headwaters of Deacon and Cantin Cks 7 8 headwaters of Deacon and Cantin Cks 7 8 headwaters of Deacon and Cantin Cks 7 8 headwaters of Deacon and Cantin C b 7 8 headwaters of Deacon and Cantin Cks 7 8 hadwaters of Cantin and Gerimi Cks 8 on Quesnel R, 2 km S of Cantin Ck 8 on Quesnel R, 2 km S of Cantin Ck 8 on Quesnel R,2 km S of Cantin Ck 8 on Quesnel R, 2 km S of Cantin Ck 8 on Quesnel R,2 km S of Cantin Ck 9A/B 1.6 km W of Hazeltine R, Quesnel L

9A/8

1.6 km W o f Hazeltine Pi, Quesnel L

125 C5-2

TILL headwaters of Cantin and Gerimi Cks

propylitic basalt weakly altered, minor pyrite propylitic basalt intensly altered, abundant pyrite talus chips from dense, slightlyrusty rocks cabonate-altered chloritized diorite in fault zone weak silicification, blebby pyrite in diorite dike calcite vein altered basalt pyroxenite syenite porphyrywith sparse pyrite quam vein syenite porphyry cut by K-feldspar veins quartz vein quartz vein syenite porphyry altered grmite basaltic tuff granite volcanic-source, pyroxene-bearing wacke granite porphyry rnsty fractures, minor chalcedony and calcite in feldspar crystal ash tuff msty orange carbonate and vuggy chalcedony-quam veinlets, in Tertiary conglomerate altered basalt
~ ~

~~

___.

Ministry of Employmenr and Investment

"

PLA-,

APPENDIX 0 PALLADIUM AND GOLD ANALYSES LAB FIELD P t Pd Au NO NO (ppb) (ppb) (ppb) 4.3 6.2 15.9 32365 84AP-1 < 3.8 16.9 33266 84AP-1A 5.0 7.1 31597 85AP-111-35A 8.0 11.8 13.2 9.9 31559 85AP-518-56A 31601 85AP-7/2-63 3.2 6.1 3.0 < < < 31603 85AP-8/6-67 7.212.01.0 31605 AP85-8/2-69 < < 3 31606 AP85-8/9-71 < 31609 85AP-2012-115 6.1 2.4 < < 2.7 31610 85AP-21/2-120 32050 86AP-4/6-18 < 2.0 24.4 32051 86AP-4/6-26 4.8 6.6 1.8 1.8 19.3 32052 86AP-6/10-29 2.1 3.3 21.2 2.3 32053 86AP-10/8-44 4.9 17.8 1.9 32054 86AP-13/3-51 4.0 11.3 17.7 32641 86AP-21/4-66 < 9.3 10.1 32642 86AP-28/4-92 32643 8 6 ~ ~ - 2 8 n - 9 8 10.3 3.8 6.4 . < 2.6 8.8 34799 81AP-25/2-AX18 < < < 35319 C1-9 < 1.1 35320 C2-3 8.0 5.8 5.1 35328 C6-2C 7.6 < 3.0 4.3 35329 C6-3A 35330 0 - 3 1.2 8.9 2.4 35331 C8-3 < < < < < < 35332 C8-6 5.21.7 8.1 35339 Cll-9 35340 c11-11 1.6 3.9 7.1 < < < 35343 C13-7 1.7 2.7 11.4 35345 G3-4 2.3 26.3 2.1 35341 G1-3 11.04.8 8.6 35348 G8-1 11.14.6 8.8 35350 G8-4 5.0 5.1 < 35797 MB-15 < 11.0 13.5 35798 MB-02 5.9 3.5 < 35799 MB-16 1.0 9.7 < 35800 MB-05 35801 MB-185 10.0 14.6 < 9.0 5.4 1.0 35802 MB-219 1.2 5.6 7.1 35803 MB-269 < 35804 MB-274 11.3 4.6 < 5.3 < 35805 MB-358A 9.1 5.7 35806 MB-172 < 35807 MB-395 9.1 5.7 < 35808 MB-374 4.9 2.4 < 35809 MB-409 1.7 11.7 2.3 35810 63310A 4.0 8.8 1.0 35811 63310B < < < 35812 86MB-20 64.9 < 1.4 .
~ ~~~ ~

"

below detection limit indicated by < Collector code:A. Panteleyev - AP; J. Lu - c; M.A. Bloodgood - others

"

Bulletin 97

155

Britkh Columbia

I56

Geological Survey Branch