40810 County Center Drive, Suite 100, Temecula, CA 92591-6022 # 951.676.8042 # FAX 951.

676.7240
Offices located throughout California, Arizona & Nevada ■ www.RBF.com





J uly 2, 2013



City of Marina
Attention: Ms. Theresa Szymanis, AICP
211 Hillcrest Avenue
Marina, CA 93933

Subject: Application Package for the
Temporary Slant Test Well Project, Marina, CA

Dear Ms. Szymanis:

On behalf of California American Water (CalAm), RBF Consulting (RBF) is submitting
this application to the City of Marina. The Temporary Slant Test Well, herein referred to
as the “Project”, is located in the northwest portion of the City of Marina, CA, located on
Assessor Parcel Number 203-011-019-000. This parcel is owned by CEMEX, Inc. This
application replaces and supersedes our prior Test Well application, which we hereby
officially withdraw. The Project would be located in a disturbed portion of the active
CEMEX mining area, east of the beach and adjacent to the unimproved roadway
currently used by CEMEX. The temporary slant test well will extend west, underground,
approximately 1,000 linear feet.

The temporary test well Project will provide field data concerning geologic, hydro-
geologic, and water quality characteristics of the Sand Dunes Aquifer, Salinas Valley
Aquitard, and 180-foot Aquifer. Furthermore, the information obtained from this
temporary test well Project will be utilized in the design and permitting of a separate
potential future desalination project – the Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project
(MPWSP). The MPWSP is being processed separately by the California Public Utilities
Commission. The temporary slant test well is functionally independent from and could
not be used for the MPWSP without substantial additional infrastructure and associated
CEQA, NEPA and regulatory permitting compliance.

The revised location avoids virtually all the issues noted for the prior “North CEMEX” test
well site. Although the test well site is in an active portion of the CEMEX site, in a
disturbed area, CalAm is proposing various avoidance/minimization measures to further
ensure no effect on sensitive resources, based on consultation with the U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service and Point Blue Conservation Science.

We have attached biological resources reports (Attachment “F”) for the temporary test
well and the geotechnical boreholes for your information, as borehole CB-1 is in the
same location as the test well and the boreholes report addresses species of state
concern. A cultural resources assessment is attached as Attachment “G”. Based on this
and previously provided information at the J une 10
th
CalAm Agency Update meeting, we
request that the City consider the project’s eligibility for a “Categorical Exemption” CEQA
Ms. Theresa Szymanis, AICP
J uly 2, 2013
Page 2



40810 County Center Drive, Suite 100, Temecula, CA 92591-6022 # 951.676.8042 # FAX 951.676.7240
Offices located throughout California, Arizona & Nevada ■ www.RBF.com

determination pursuant to CEQA Guidelines Section 15306, as well as an Administrative
Coastal Development Permit. The attached materials indicate that:

1. The test well is located in an active mining area, along disturbed portions of the
CEMEX access road;
2. Prior biological and cultural resource studies for this access road indicated a lack
of sensitive resources, with the exception of Monterey spineflower which would
be avoided during construction (we have also attached an updated biological
resources memo by Mike Zander that specifically focuses on boreholes 1, 2 and
4, which covers the test well location, as borehole 1 and the test well location are
the same);
5. The Project has been designed (with avoidance and minimization measures),
based upon input from Michael Zander, J acob Martin and PRBO.

Please direct all communications regarding this application to Richard Svindland at
California American Water, 4701 Beloit Drive, Sacramento, CA, 95838, (916) 568-4296,
richard.svindland@amwater.com and copy Kevin Thomas at RBF Consulting, 40810
County Center Drive, Suite 100, Temecula, CA, 92591, (951) 506-2074,
kthomas@rbf.com. If there is any way we can assist with your review and processing of
this permit application, or should you require additional information, please contact
Richard Svindland at your earliest convenience.

I thank you in advance for your diligence in processing the application for the Project,
which is an important research project for the region. We would be happy to arrange an
in-person meeting at your office or a site visit if this would facilitate your review.

Sincerely,


Kevin Thomas, CEP
Environmental Services Manager


Cc: Richard Svindland, P.E., California American Water

Attachments:

A – City of Marina Cover Page
B – City of Marina Project Description Form
C – City of Marina Environmental Information Form
D – City of Marina Affidavit Form
E – MPWSP Temporary Slant Test Well Project Description (J une 25, 2013)
F – Biological Technical Memo for Temporary Slant Test Well Project (J uly 2013)
Biological Technical Memo for Exploratory Borings Program (J une 2013)
G – Cultural Resources Assessment (J une 25, 2013)
H – Test Well Facilities Map







Attachment A – City of Marina Cover Page
City of Marina City of Marina
211 HILLCREST AVENUE

MARINA, CA 93933
831- 884-1278; FAX 831- 384-9148
www.ci.marina.ca.us




PLANNING APPLICATION COVER PAGE


TYPE OF APPLICATION (check all that apply):

Appeal Specific Plan
Coastal Development Permit/LCP amendment Temporary/Special Use Permit
Conditional Use Permit Tentative Parcel Map
General Plan/Zoning Map orText Amendment Tentative Map
Home Occupation Agreement Tree Removal Permit
Lot Line Adjustment Variance/ Subdivision Exception
Sign Review/Master sign program Time Extension
 Site & Architectural Design Review Identify Permit ______________

Applicant(s):

Name:
Mailing Address:
Phone (Business): Phone (Home):

Property/Land Owner(s):
Name:
Mailing Address:
Phone (Business): Phone (Home):

Name and mailing address of property owner’s or applicant’s duly authorized agent who is to be furnished
with notice of hearing. (Section 65091-California Government Code):

Name:
Mailing Address:
Phone (Business): Phone (Home):
Project Address/Location:

Most Current Assessor’s Parcel Number:


FOR OFFICE USE ONLY:
DATE APPLICATION SUBMITTED FEE COLLECTED $
DATE APPLICATION COMPLETE RECEIPT NUMBER
FILE NUMBER(S)
PLANNER INITIALS: ASSOCIATED PERMITS:




California American Water - Richard Svindland, P.E.
4701 Beloit Drive, Sacramento, CA 95838
(916) 568-4296
(916) 204-2190 cell
CEMEX - Ronald D. Wilson
5180 Golden Foothills Parkway, El Dorado Hills, CA 95762
(916) 941-2852 (916) 337-2420 cell
RBF Consulting - Kevin Thomas, CEP
40810 County Center Drive, Suite 100, Temecula, CA 92591
(951) 506-2074 (714) 269-7427 cell
100 Lapis Road, Marina, CA 93933
203-011-019-000
x







Attachment B – City of Marina Project Description Form
PLANNING DIVISION 209 Cypress Avenue Mail: 211 Hillcrest Ave. Marina CA 93933Telephone (831)
884-1220 Fax (831) 884-9654 www.ci.marina.ca.us




PROJECT DESCRIPTION


Name of Project Applicant:

California American Water – Richard Svindland, P.E.

Mailing Address:

4701 Beloit Drive, Sacramento, CA 95838

Phone:

(916) 568-4296

Name of the project:

Temporary Slant Test Well, Marina, CA

Project location (address and/or Assessor’s Parcel Number(s):

CEMEX property west of Lapis Road & Highway 1. Parcel #203-011-019-000, Marina, CA 93933

Size of project site (acreage):

Approx. 0.12 acres of temporary construction footprint (See Attachment “E”)

Existing General Plan Land Use Designation:

Habitat Preserve and Open Space

Existing Zoning Designation:

C-D (Coastal Conservation and Development District) and C-P (Coastal Development Permit
Combining District)

Describe the existing land use(s) of the site:

Refer to Attachment “E” - The proposed test well location is shown on Figure 1, USGS Location
Map and Figure 2, Test Well Facilities Map. The slant test well site, shown in Figure 2, would be
located in a disturbed portion of the active CEMEX mining area, east of the beach and adjacent to
the unimproved roadway currently used by CEMEX. The facilities are located on CEMEX
property (APN 203-011-019-000). The existing onsite CEMEX activities involve truck traffic and
the use of a dredge to extract sand for building material production.


PLANNING DIVISION 209 Cypress Avenue Mail: 211 Hillcrest Ave. Marina CA 93933Telephone (831)
884-1220 Fax (831) 884-9654 www.ci.marina.ca.us

Describe the existing land use of properties surrounding the site:

Existing land uses surrounding the CEMEX property include the Marina Dunes Preserve to the
south, the Pacific Ocean to the west, vacant open space to the north, and agricultural/open space
land uses to the east.

Describe the proposed land use(s)/Project:
The slant well test facilities will include the slant well, submersible well pump, and well-head vault;
vertical monitoring wells; test water disposal facilities; test water disposal connection to the outfall;
electrical facilities; and temporary flow measurement/sampling equipment. The slant test well will
be operated continuously for a period of up to 24 months. Discharge from the well of up to 2500
gallons per minute will be routed directly into the MRPWCA outfall. The existing CEMEX facility
will continue operational activities. Refer to Attachment "E", Temporary Slant Test Well Project
Description.

For residential uses, indicate the number, type, and size of the units, and the estimated
range of the sale and rental prices:

N/A – No residential use proposed.

For commercial uses, indicate the type (neighborhood, city, or regional orientation), the
total square footage, the estimated number of employees, and the hours of operation:

N/A – No commercial use proposed.

For industrial uses, indicate the type, the total square footage, the estimated number of
employees, and the hours of operation:

N/A – No industrial use proposed.

For other uses, indicate the major function, the total square footage, the estimated
number of employees, and the hours of operation:

The temporary slant test well project’s major function is to obtain field data concerning geologic,
hydrogeologic, and water quality characteristics of the Sand Dunes Aquifer, Salinas Valley
Aquitard, and 180 ft. Aquifer; To operate the test well year round for up to 24 months to acquire
water quality data and predict the length of operation that will be required for the extracted water
to reach stable salinity; to verify and refine construction means and methods, schedule
requirements, and minimization and avoidance measures for implementation of the future
potential MPWSP intake wells; to discharge the well product water into the existing Monterey
Regional Water Pollution Control Authority’s outfall, which generally runs beneath the access
road. The temporary slant test well will be in operation year round for 24 months. The temporary
slant test well would operate for 24 hours per day. During construction, the number of employees
at the site each day is anticipated to be approximately seven to ten personnel. During operation,
there would be periodic site visits for sampling that is anticipated to involve two to four employees
per site visit. The temporary slant well vault and the associated facilities would occupy
approximately 0.12 acre of temporary construction footprint.


PLANNING DIVISION 209 Cypress Avenue Mail: 211 Hillcrest Ave. Marina CA 93933Telephone (831)
884-1220 Fax (831) 884-9654 www.ci.marina.ca.us

List and describe any other permits or public approvals required for this project, including
those required by city, regional, state, and federal agencies:

• City of Marina – Coastal Act Compliance
• California State Lands Commission - Surface Lease
• California Coastal Commission – Coastal Development Permit
• Central Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board – To Be Determined
• Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary - Authorization

Are there water, sewer, gas, electric, and telecommuni cation facilities available to the
project site? (X) Yes ( ) No If no, are connections to these facilities proposed?

Electrical power for construction and pumping operations will be provided by a connection to
either CEMEX or a new connection to PG&E at the CEMEX site. An electrical panel will be located
at the well site. Water, sewer, gas, or telecommunication facilities are not proposed or required for
the temporary slant test well project.

Please describe any odor, noise, smoke, or dust which will result from the proposed
development or use:

The project anticipates temporary construction equipment noise, smoke, dust, and minimal
amounts of construction equipment odor during the construction phase of the project. During the
testing/operational phase, there will be minimal pump noise generated.

Will there be any potentially hazardous materials, toxic substances, or flammable
materials used, stored, manufactured, or disposed of at the project site? (X) yes ( ) no If
yes, please explain:

Vehicles and equipment machinery will require fuel/oil for power and lubrication and will be
utilized in a manner acceptable to applicable regulatory agencies.

Please describe the proposed scheduling and phasing of the project’s construction:
The anticipated sequence of construction for the construction and testing is as follows:
• Mobilize monitoring well drill rig;
• Drill and develop monitoring wells;
• Demobilize monitoring well drill rig;
• Excavate and place wellhead vault structure (pre-cast);
• Install test water discharge piping, meter, and sampling facilities, construct connection to
the outfall and install temporary sedimentation tanks;
• Mobilize slant well drill rig;
• Drill and install slant test well (through openings provided in well head vault);
• Develop slant well and conduct initial testing, aquifer testing, and short term pumping
program;
• Demobilize slant well drill rig and temporary sedimentation tanks;
• Install underground electrical conduit, cable and electrical panel, and telemetry;
PLANNING DIVISION 209 Cypress Avenue Mail: 211 Hillcrest Ave. Marina CA 93933Telephone (831)
884-1220 Fax (831) 884-9654 www.ci.marina.ca.us

• Remove upper section of well casing to terminate in wellhead vault.
• Install submersible well pump and make final electrical and piping connections;
• Backfill around well-head vault, grade remaining drill cuttings into existing access road;
• Demobilize all construction equipment.
The slant test well will be operated continuously using a submersible well pump for a period of up
to 24 months. Discharge from the well of up to 2500 gpm will be routed directly into the
MRPWCA outfall. Operators will travel to the site using the existing active CEMEX access road on
a weekly basis for 30 to 60 minutes per visit to check that the pump, meter, and water quality
measurement equipment is operating properly, and to collect water quality samples. Radio
telemetry at the site will communicate alarms of any system malfunction. Controls will be used to
shut down the well pump in the event of system malfunction.

Please provide any additional relevant information that can assist in the processing of this
application:

Please refer to the attachments listed in the cover letter.







Attachment C – City of Marina Environmental Information Form
PLANNING DIVISION 209 Cypress Avenue Mail: 211 Hillcrest Ave. Marina CA 93933Telephone (831)
884-1220 Fax (831) 884-9654 www.ci.marina.ca.us




ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION

ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING

Please provide the following information on a separate piece of paper:

• Describe the project site as it exists before the project, including information on topography, soil
stability, plants and animals, cultural and historic resources, and any scenic aspects of the sites.
Describe any existing structures on the site and the uses of those structures. (PROVIDED IN THE
CITY OF MARINA FORM – PROJECT DESCRIPTION)

• Describe the surrounding properties, including information on topography, soil stability, plants and
animals, cultural and historic resources, and any scenic aspects of the area. (PROVIDED IN THE
ATTACHMENTS INDICATED ON THE COVER LETTER)

• Indicate the type and intensity of land uses, and the scale of the development. (PROVIDED IN THE
CITY OF MARINA FORM – PROJECT DESCRIPTION)

ENVIRONMENTAL CHECKLIST:

Would the Project result in the following (provide a brief description for each item checked “yes”):

Change in existing features of any streams, creeks, lakes, or wetlands: ( ) Yes (X) No


Change in scenic views or vistas from existing residential areas or public land or roads:
( ) Yes (X) No

The temporary slant test well site is not visible from any existing residential areas or roadways. There are
dunes between Highway 1 and the project site on the beach that block any views. There would be a
temporary change in scenic views from vessels out in the Pacific Ocean looking east onto the beach and
potentially from the distant northern beach and southern beach off of the CEMEX parcel. After construction,
the test well facility will not be visible from any public area.

Use or disposal of hazardous, toxic or flammable materials or explosives: (X) Yes ( ) No

Electrical power for construction and pumping operations will be provided by a connection to either CEMEX or
a new connection to PG&E at the CEMEX site. Water pumped from the test well will be discharged into the
outfall via a new subsurface connection to the outfall at the temporary test well location. Also,
vehicles/equipment that would be utilized at the site would use fuel and oil to power and lubricate the
vehicles/equipment and will be required to comply with Federal and State regulations.

PLANNING DIVISION 209 Cypress Avenue Mail: 211 Hillcrest Ave. Marina CA 93933Telephone (831)
884-1220 Fax (831) 884-9654 www.ci.marina.ca.us




Change in ocean, bay, lake, stream, or ground water quality or quantity, or alteration of existing
drainage patterns: ( ) Yes (X) No

Change in pattern, scale, or character of surrounding area of project: ( ) Yes (X) No

Significant amounts of solid waste or litter: ( ) Yes (X) No


Substantial alteration to topography or ground contours: ( ) Yes (X) No

Change in dust, ash, smoke, fumes, or odors in the vicinity of the project: ( ) Yes (X) No

The project anticipates temporary construction smoke, dust, and minimal amounts of construction equipment
fumes/odor during the construction phase of the project. These construction related issues are considered
minimal, given the remote proximity of the project site in relation to areas where people may reside or visit.

Substantial change in existing noise or vibration levels in the vicinity: (X) Yes ( ) No

The contractor shall install noise blankets as directed by a biologist to provide visual and sound attenuation
for any sensitive species on the beach. All work would be conducted in the snowy plover non-nesting period
(October 1
st
– February 28
th
). The test well pump will be submersible, generation nominal noise, in an already
active mining area.

Substantial change in demand for municipal services (police, fire, water, sewer, etc.):
( ) Yes (X) No


Substantial increase in fossil fuel consumption (electricity, oil, natural gas, etc): ( ) Yes (X) No


Relationship to a larger project or a series of projects: (X) Yes ( ) No

It should be noted that the temporary slant test well project will field data concerning geologic, hydrogeologic,
and water quality characteristics of the Sand Dunes Aquifer, Salinas Valley Aquitard, and 180-Foot Aquifer.
This information will then be used to finalize the number, capacity, location, and design criteria of the potential
future Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project (MPWSP) intake wells, and also to improve the precision of
ground water modeling that is required to determine the fraction of the extracted water that will come from
inland sources. Furthermore, the information obtained from this temporary slant test well project will be
utilized in the design and permitting of the separate MPWSP. The MPWSP is being processed separately by
the California Public Utilities Commission. The temporary slant test well is functionally independent from and
could not be used for the MPWSP without substantial additional infrastructure and associated CEQA, NEPA
and regulatory permitting compliance.

Substantial change or increase of traffic on surrounding roads and highways: ( ) Yes (X) No









Attachment D – City of Marina Affidavit Form







Attachment E – Temporary Slant Test Well Project Description



June 25, 2013 P a g e | 1
MPWSP Temporary Slant Test Well
PROJECT DESCRIPTION

MPWSP TEMPORARY SLANT TEST WELL
INTRODUCTION
This document describes the construction and operation of a proposed temporary Slant Test Well
(Project) and associated monitoring wells and appurtenances. The temporary test well facility is being
proposed to gather technical data related to the feasibility of a subsurface intake system and to facilitate
design and intake siting for the separately proposed Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project (MPWSP).
The goals and objectives of the slant test well program are to:
• Obtain current, site-specific field data concerning geologic, hydrogeologic, and water quality
characteristics of the Sand Dunes Aquifer, Salinas Valley Aquitard, and 180-Foot Aquifer. This
information will then be used to finalize the number, capacity, location, and design criteria of the
MPWSP intake wells, and also to improve the precision of ground water modeling that is required
to determine the fraction of the extracted water that will come from inland sources.
• Operate the test well year-round for up to 24 months to acquire water quality data and predict the
length of operation that will be required for the extracted water to reach stable salinity. This
information will be used to develop a start-up plan for the MPWSP desalination plant. Verify and
refine information required to obtain permits for implementation of the MPWSP intake wells.
• Verify and refine construction means and methods, schedule requirements, and minimization and
avoidance measures for implementation of the MPWSP intake wells.
• Discharge the well product water into the existing Monterey Regional Water Pollution Control
Authority’s outfall, which generally runs beneath the access road. This connection would be
accomplished by a short subsurface pipeline to an existing manhole in the outfall.
The proposed test well location is shown on Figure 1, USGS Location Map, Figure 2, Test Well
Facilities Map. The slant test well site, shown in Figure 2, would be located in a disturbed portion of the
active CEMEX mining area, east of the beach and adjacent to the unimproved roadway currently used by
CEMEX. The facilities are located on CEMEX property (APN 203-011-019-000). For the purposes of
this application, the slant test well will be a temporary permitted facility until March of 2016. The
MPWSP is a separate, potential future project, and its intake wells will be the subject of a separate
permitting process. Conversion of the temporary slant test well to a permanent well would require
considerable additional information such as conveyance, pumps and treatment, all of which would be
addressed, if desired, as part of a separate CEQA and permitting process for the potential future MPWSP.








JN 130770 JUN 2013
Source: USGS 7.5-Minute Series, Marina Quadrangle
Figure 1
MONTEREY PENINSULA WATER SUPPLY PROJECT
TEMPORARY SLANT TEST WELL
U.S.G.S. Location Map
C
I
T
Y

O
F

M
A
R
I
N
A
M
O
N
T
E
R
E
Y


C
O
U
N
T
Y
C
I
T
Y

O
F

M
A
R
I
N
A
M
O
N
T
E
R
E
Y


C
O
U
N
T
Y
TEST WELL SITE
EXISTING CEMEX
ACCESS ROAD
CEMEX SITE
JN 130770 JUN 2013
Figure 2
MONTEREY PENINSULA WATER SUPPLY PROJECT
TEMPORARY SLANT TEST WELL
Test Well Facilities Map
Note: Access path will be field verified by a
qualified biologist to avoid sensitive locations.
!



June 25, 2013 P a g e | 4
MPWSP Temporary Slant Test Well
PROJECT DESCRIPTION

SITE ALTERNATIVES
Various alternative sites were considered for the temporary test well facilities, including two sites located
at the southern extent of the CEMEX property (at the terminus of a Regional Park District beach access
path), one site at the extreme north boundary of the CEMEX property within the beach “swash zone” (the
previously submitted “North CEMEX” site), and one site located north of the CEMEX site
entrance/facility area approximately 550 feet north of the CEMEX sand extraction pond, Also, a North
CEMEX site option located higher on the beach was considered. Several southerly sites were considered
including one at the State Parks parking lot at the terminus of Reservation Road. However, these sites are
all less preferable than the proposed Project based on the results of investigations and discussions,
including:
• Biological Assessment;
• Preliminary ground water modeling;
• Discussions with CEMEX concerning site acquisition, access and electrical power supply;
• Discussions with PG&E regarding electrical service;
• Discussions with City of Marina regarding Coastal Act permitting concerns;
• Discussions with stakeholders, including the California Public Utility Commission’s technical
advisory group on subsurface intake feasibility;
• Discussions with Monterey Peninsula Regional Parks District regarding access; and
• Discussions with California Department of Fish and Wildlife, Monterey Bay National Marine
Sanctuary, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Point Reyes Bird Observatory.





June 25, 2013 P a g e | 5
MPWSP Temporary Slant Test Well
PROJECT DESCRIPTION

FACILITIES
The slant well test facilities will include the slant well, submersible well pump, and well-head vault;
vertical monitoring wells; test water disposal facilities; test water disposal connection to the outfall;
electrical facilities; and temporary flow measurement/sampling equipment.
Slant Test Well and Well-head Facilities. The slant test well will be designed using similar materials,
size and construction methodology as the proposed intake wells for the MPWSP. Cross-sectional views
of the slant well and well-head facilities are shown in Figures 3 and 4. It should be noted that the
configuration and geology presented in Figure 3 are preliminary. The actual well configuration will be
determined once the geology is confirmed during installation of the monitoring wells.
The slant test well will be drilled towards the ocean at 19-degrees from horizontal such that a 1,000 LF
slant well will proceed to the bottom of the 180-Foot aquifer formation. The slant test well will be
completed using up to 22-inch diameter casing and up to 12-inch diameter screen of “Super Duplex”
Stainless Steel, a specialty metal designed for use in seawater environments. Well screen will be installed
starting at elevation 30 feet BMSL through both the Dune Sands Aquifer and the 180-Foot Aquifers.


Figure 3
Cross Sectional View of Slant Test Well



June 25, 2013 P a g e | 6
MPWSP Temporary Slant Test Well
PROJECT DESCRIPTION



Figure 4
Cross Sectional View of Well-head Facilities
Monitoring Wells. Two individual vertical monitoring wells will be drilled prior to drilling the slant test
well in order to measure changes in groundwater level during operation of the test well. One of the
monitoring wells will be in the immediate vicinity of the slant test well and the second monitoring well
will be approximately 1,200 ft inland on the side of the CEMEX service road.
The monitoring wells will be 2-inch diameter wells, drilled to a depth of approximately 300 feet BMSL.
Boreholes for the monitoring wells will be approximately 6-inches in diameter, and will be drilled using a
sonic drilling method. The monitoring wells will be constructed with a filter pack and surface seal in
accordance with both County and State well standards for monitoring wells.
Electrical Power Supply. Electrical power for construction and pumping operations will be provided by
a connection to either CEMEX or a new connection to PG&E at the CEMEX site. An electrical panel will
be located at the well site.
Test Water Disposal Facilities. Water pumped from the test well will be discharged into the outfall via a
new subsurface connection to the outfall at the temporary test well location.
ACCESS
Access to the well facility will be obtained by vehicles transporting personnel, construction equipment
and construction materials to and from the site by using the CEMEX service road.



June 25, 2013 P a g e | 7
MPWSP Temporary Slant Test Well
PROJECT DESCRIPTION

CONSTRUCTION
The temporary slant test well would be constructed within the area of the active CEMEX service road.
The anticipated sequence of construction for the construction and testing is as follows:
• Mobilize monitoring well drill rig;
• Drill and develop monitoring wells;
• Demobilize monitoring well drill rig;
• Excavate and place wellhead vault structure (pre-cast);
• Install test water discharge piping, meter, and sampling facilities, construct connection to the
outfall and install temporary sedimentation tanks;
• Mobilize slant well drill rig;
• Drill and install slant test well (through openings provided in well head vault);
• Develop slant well and conduct initial testing, aquifer testing, and short term pumping program;
• Demobilize slant well drill rig and temporary sedimentation tanks;
• Install underground electrical conduit, cable and electrical panel, and telemetry;
• Remove upper section of well casing to terminate in wellhead vault.
• Install submersible well pump and make final electrical and piping connections;
• Backfill around well-head vault, grade remaining drill cuttings into existing access road;
• Demobilize all construction equipment.

Figures 5, 6 and 7 are photographs of the drilling operation for a slant test well that was recently
constructed on Doheny State Beach in Dana Point, California. Figure 8 shows the Dana Point project site
during the operational phase, after construction demolition.



June 25, 2013 P a g e | 8
MPWSP Temporary Slant Test Well
PROJECT DESCRIPTION


Figure 5:
Slant Test Well Drilling Operation at Doheny State Beach, Dana Point, California
(Source: Geoscience Support Services, Inc.)


Figure 6
Slant Test Well Site Plan at Doheny State Beach, Dana Point, California
(Source: Geoscience Support Services, Inc.)



June 25, 2013 P a g e | 9
MPWSP Temporary Slant Test Well
PROJECT DESCRIPTION


Figure 7
Slant Test Well Drilling Operation at Doheny State Beach, Dana Point, California
(Source: Geoscience)

Figure 8
Slant Test Well Site - Post Construction Operational Phase
Doheny State Beach, Dana Point, California
(Source: Geoscience Support Services, Inc.)



June 25, 2013 P a g e | 10
MPWSP Temporary Slant Test Well
PROJECT DESCRIPTION

OPERATION AND SCHEDULE
The slant test well will be operated continuously using a submersible well pump for a period of up to 24
months. Discharge from the well of up to 2500 gpm will be routed directly into the MRPWCA outfall.
Operators will travel to the site using the existing active CEMEX access road on a weekly basis for 30 to
60 minutes per visit to check that the pump, meter, and water quality measurement equipment is operating
properly, and to collect water quality samples. Radio telemetry at the site will communicate alarms of
any system malfunction. Controls will be used to shut down the well pump in the event of system
malfunction.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Snowy Plover Protection. Construction activities will occur during the Plover non-nesting season,
October 1st through February 28
th
, and in a disturbed area not expected to be used as a nesting area during
the nesting season (i.e., in or on the shoulder of the active CEMEX access road).
Management of Drill Cuttings. Cuttings generated during the drilling process will be drained in a
separation unit, with the drainage discharged to the tailings ponds adjacent to the test well site. The
dewatered cuttings (estimated at less than 200 cubic yards) will be used to re-grade the CEMEX access
road during and following construction of the test well.
Emissions. Air quality permits may be required for temporary emissions from diesel-fueled equipment
that is necessary for construction operations.
Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan. It is anticipated that a SWPP will not be required because the
disturbed area for the project is less than 1 acre, and is located off the beach on existing disturbed
CEMEX property.
AVOIDANCE AND MINIMIZATION MEASURES (PROJECT DESIGN FEATURES)
The following summarizes the avoidance measures proposed by the project, in order to address the
environmental issues outlined above:
1) Facility Siting. As noted above, over the last nine months CAW has been working with
regulatory agencies and other stakeholders in the environmentally sensitive siting and design of
the temporary test well facility. After extensive discussions and preliminary studies, including
several “all hands on” regulatory agency strategy meetings, CAW has relocated the proposed
Project to the current location, in the active CEMEX access road area. The proposed site avoids
the prior beach construction traffic, periodic beach access, and temporary disruption to
recreational activity, beach habitat, noise and visual impacts that were associated with the North
CEMEX site.
2) Facility Design. The test well construction footprint is as compact and oriented as sensitively as
possible so as to create the smallest reasonable working area, allowing for adequate worker safety
and access. The beach diffuser component of the prior North CEMEX site has been replaced
with an environmentally preferable direct connection to the PCA outfall. The subsurface HDD
electrical and water quality testing pipe associated with the earlier North CEMEX concept is no



June 25, 2013 P a g e | 11
MPWSP Temporary Slant Test Well
PROJECT DESCRIPTION

longer needed due to siting in close proximity to existing electrical service along an active access
road. Following construction, the facility will not be visible from any public area. The test well
pump will be a submersible pump and will not generate noise or vibration that is detectable from
any public area or from any snowy plover nesting area.
3) Construction Limits. CAW will restrict construction activities to the proposed construction area
and access route, in order to minimize access impacts to CEMEX operations. All construction
activities shall be in non-native or disturbed areas on or adjacent to the active CEMEX access
road. No construction equipment, materials, or activity will occur outside the specified areas.
The property owner will be consulted, prior to commencement of construction, in order to
schedule construction activities during non-peak hours and provide advance notice of
construction activities.
4) Timing of Construction Activities (Biological Resources). To avoid potential adverse impacts
on the snowy plover, construction and demobilization activities will be limited to the plover’s
non-nesting season (October 1st through February 28th).
5) Sensitive Habitat and Species.
a. A biologist will conduct pre-construction surveys for snowy plover to confirm absence
of active nests within 100 feet of the drill rig or safe distance as determined by USFWS;
b. A biologist will be present during drill rig setup to stake off the drilling work area to
ensure that drilling activities avoid any state or federally listed species;
c. The contractor shall install noise blankets as directed by the biologist to provide visual
and sound attenuation for any sensitive species on the beach, such as snowy plover. Due
to the limited duration of the drilling, and use of noise blankets, considering the access
road is an active road traveled by heavy equipment, the proposed drilling operation is not
expected to generate a substantial increase in noise or otherwise represent any significant
environmental impact.
6) Biological Education and Monitoring. Prior to initiation of access or construction activities, a
designated biologist will conduct an educational session with all construction personnel. An
appropriately trained biologist will be designated to monitor equipment access in order to avoid
disturbance to sensitive habitat.









Attachment F – Biological Technical Memos








BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
FOR THE

MPWSP
TEMPORARY SLANT TEST WELL PROJECT
MARINA, CALIFORNIA






Prepared by:

Zander Associates
4460 Redwood Hwy, Suite 16-240
San Rafael, CA 94903


Submitted to:

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
San Francisco District
1455 Market Street
San Francisco, California 94103


On behalf of:

RBF Consulting
40810 County Center Drive, Suite 100
Temecula, California 92591



J uly 2013

i
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Project Overview ............................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Threatened or Endangered Species that May Be Affected ............................................... 1
1.3 Critical Habitat ................................................................................................................. 5

2.0 CONSULTATION TO DATE ............................................................................................ 5

3.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION .............................................................. 6
3.1 Access .............................................................................................................................. 6
3.2 Restricted Construction Area ........................................................................................... 6
3.3 Project Facilities ............................................................................................................... 6
3.3.1 Temporary Slant Test Well and Well-head Facilities ................................................. 9
3.3.2 Monitoring Wells ........................................................................................................ 9
3.3.3 Electrical Power Supply .............................................................................................. 9
3.3.4 Test Water Disposal Facilities .................................................................................... 9
3.4 Project Phasing and Scheduling ..................................................................................... 10

4.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE ACTION AREA ...................................................................... 10
4.1 Location and General Characteristics ............................................................................ 10
4.2 Cemex Operations Area ................................................................................................. 10
4.3 Slant Test Well ............................................................................................................... 12

5.0 SPECIES ACCOUNTS AND STATUS IN THE ACTION AREA ................................. 14
5.1 Smith's Blue Butterfly .................................................................................................... 14
5.1.1 Status and Description .............................................................................................. 14
5.1.2 Distribution and Habitat ............................................................................................ 14
5.1.3 Life History ............................................................................................................... 15
5.1.4 Threats to Survival .................................................................................................... 15
5.1.5 Occurrence within the Action Area .......................................................................... 15
5.2 Western Snowy Plover ................................................................................................... 17
5.2.1 Status and Description .............................................................................................. 17
5.2.2 Distribution and Habitat ............................................................................................ 17
5.2.3 Life History ............................................................................................................... 18
5.2.4 Threats to Survival .................................................................................................... 19
5.2.5 Occurrence within the Action Area .......................................................................... 19
5.3 Yadon's Wallflower ....................................................................................................... 20
5.3.1 Status and Description .............................................................................................. 20
5.3.2 Distribution and Habitat ............................................................................................ 22
5.3.3 Life History ............................................................................................................... 22
5.3.4 Threats to Survival .................................................................................................... 22
5.3.5 Occurrence within the Action Area .......................................................................... 23
5.4 Monterey Gilia ............................................................................................................... 23
5.4.1 Status and Description .............................................................................................. 23
5.4.2 Distribution and Habitat ............................................................................................ 23

ii
5.4.3 Life History ............................................................................................................... 24
5.4.4 Threats to Survival .................................................................................................... 24
5.4.5 Occurrence within the Action Area .......................................................................... 24
5.5 Monterey Spineflower .................................................................................................... 25
5.5.1 Status and Description .............................................................................................. 25
5.5.2 Distribution and Habitat ............................................................................................ 25
5.5.3 Life History ............................................................................................................... 25
5.5.4 Threats to Survival .................................................................................................... 26
5.5.5 Occurrence within the Action Area .......................................................................... 26

6.0 POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF THE PROPOSED ACTION ON LISTED SPECIES ......... 26
6.1 Effects on Listed Plants.................................................................................................. 26
6.2 Effects on Listed Animals .............................................................................................. 27
6.2.1 Smith’s blue butterfly................................................................................................ 27
6.2.2 Western snowy plover ............................................................................................... 27
6.3 Effects on Critical Habitat ............................................................................................. 28
6.3.1 Monterey spineflower ............................................................................................... 28
6.3.2 Western snowy plover ............................................................................................... 29

7.0 MINIMIZATION AND MITIGATION MEASURES ..................................................... 29
7.1 Monterey Spineflower .................................................................................................... 30
7.1.1 Pre-construction flagging .......................................................................................... 30
7.1.2 Habitat avoidance ...................................................................................................... 30
7.1.3 Timing of construction and operation ....................................................................... 30
7.1.4 Biological resource education and monitoring ......................................................... 30
7.2 Smith’s Blue Butterfly ................................................................................................... 30
7.2.1 Pre-construction surveys ........................................................................................... 30
7.2.2 Avoidance of buckwheat ........................................................................................... 30
7.2.3 Timing of construction and operation ....................................................................... 31
7.2.4 Biological resource education and monitoring ......................................................... 31
7.3 Western Snowy Plover ................................................................................................... 31
7.3.1 Timing of construction and operation ....................................................................... 31
7.3.2 Project siting and configuration ................................................................................ 31
7.3.3 Construction limits .................................................................................................... 31
7.3.4 Trash and fuel management ...................................................................................... 32
7.3.5 Work area recontouring ............................................................................................ 32
7.3.6 Sampling procedures during operation ..................................................................... 32
7.3.7 Biological resource monitoring and education ......................................................... 32

8.0 CUMULATIVE EFFECTS ............................................................................................... 32

9.0 CONCLUSION AND DETERMINATION ..................................................................... 33

10.0 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................. 34

11.0 LIST OF CONTACTS/CONTRIBUTORS/PREPARERS ............................................... 37


iii
LIST OF FIGURES:

Figure 1: Site Location
Figure 2: Action Area
Figure 3: Slant Test Well Schematic
Figure 4: Slant Test Well Location Detail
Figure 5: Action Area – East-West Access Road Segment

LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS:

Photo 1: Access road through Cemex
Photo 2: Flume parallel to access road
Photo 3: Stockpiles along access road
Photo 4: West end of Cemex road at test well location
Photo 5: Vehicle tracks in sand at end of access road
Photo 6: Coast buckwheat on north slope of flume


Zander Associates
BA – Temporary Slant Test Well Project
J uly 2013 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION
This biological assessment (BA) was prepared by Zander Associates to review the Temporary
Slant Test Well Project (Project) proposed by California American Water (Cal Am). The
temporary test well facility is being proposed to gather technical data related to feasibility of a
subsurface intake system for a potential future desalination project. The data will be used, in
part, to facilitate design and intake siting for the separately proposed Monterey Peninsula Water
Supply Project (MPWSP).

The purpose of this BA is to review the Project in sufficient detail to determine to what extent it
may affect federally threatened, endangered, candidate, proposed threatened or proposed
endangered species, or critical habitat for these species. This BA was prepared in accordance
with the legal requirements set forth under Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) (16
U.S.C. 1536 (c)), and follows the standards established in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration's (NOAA Fisheries) National Environmental Policy (NEPA) implementation
procedures and Endangered Species Act (ESA) guidance. This BA accompanies a request for
authorization submitted to the NOAA Office of Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary on
J une 25, 2013, for the Temporary Slant Test Well Project.
1.1 Project Overview
Cal Am proposes to construct and operate a temporary slant test well and associated monitoring
wells and appurtenances to gather site-specific field data concerning geologic, hydrogeologic,
and water quality characteristics of the Sand Dunes Aquifer, Salinas Valley Aquitard, and 180-
foot Aquifer along the edge of Monterey Bay. The proposed Project would inform the planning,
permitting, design, construction and operation of the separately proposed MPWSP. The Project
would be constructed on lands owned by Cemex (APN 203-011-019-000) in a disturbed portion
of the active mining area, east of the beach and adjacent to the unimproved roadway currently
used by Cemex. (Figures 1 & 2).
1.2 Threatened or Endangered Species that May Be Affected
The federally threatened or endangered species listed below are known to occur nearby the
project area. Other federally listed, candidate or proposed listed species with occurrence records
in the general vicinity of the project area were considered for inclusion in this BA but were
dismissed based on the habitat characteristics in the project area, location of project facilities,
operational procedures and other factors. Many of the listed species eliminated from further
consideration are marine organisms with offshore aquatic habitats that are not expected to be
affected either directly or indirectly by construction and operation of the slant test well project.
Other listed species eliminated from consideration rely on particular environments not found in
the project area (e.g. California red-legged frog [Rana draytonii], Gowen cypress [Cupressus
goveniana], Yadon’s piperia [Piperia yadonii]). Some listed plants (beach layia [Layia
carnosa], Tidestom’s lupine [Lupinus tidestromii], coastal dunes milk vetch [Astragalus tener
var. titi]) occur in coastal dune environments similar to those in the project area, but are only
known from specific, relatively isolated locations in the Monterey Bay region and were also not
considered further here.
Slant Test Well Location
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Site Location
MPWSP
Temporary Slant Test Well
Marina, California
Zander Associates
Environmental Consultants
4460 Redwood Hwy, Suite 16-240
San Rafael, CA 94903
Figure
1
0 0.5 0.25 Miles
Legend
Wellhead Vault
Parcel Boundary
Slant Test Well Location
Wellhead Vault
Zander Associates
Environmental Consultants
4460 Redwood Hwy, Suite 16-240
San Rafael, CA 94903
Figure
2
0 400 200 Feet
Legend
Wellhead Vault
Action Area
Action Area
MPWSP
Temporary Slant Test Well
Marina, California
Zander Associates
BA – Temporary Slant Test Well Project
J uly 2013 4
Smith’s blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi): The Smith's blue butterfly is federally
listed as endangered. Smith's blue butterfly is found in a number of inland and coastal sand
dunes, serpentine grasslands and cliffside chaparral plant communities along the central
California coast. It is completely dependent upon coast and seacliff buckwheat (Eriogonum
latifolium and E. parvifolium) during all life stages. During its one-year lifespan, mate location,
copulation, oviposition and pupae emergence all occur on the flowerheads of the buckwheat
species during peak flowering season, J une through September. The dormant pupal form occurs
during non-flowering periods.

Western snowy plover (Charadrius nivosus nivosus): The western snowy plover (formerly
Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) is federally listed as threatened and is designated a Species of
Special Concern by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW). It is a shorebird
distinguished from other plovers (family Charadriidae) by its small size, pale brown upper parts,
dark patches on either side of the upper breast, and dark gray to blackish legs. Nesting sites for
western snowy plovers are found along beaches and adjacent bare dunes of the Pacific coast from
Washington to Baja California. The species also occurs along the shores of salt ponds and alkali
or brackish inland lakes. Monterey Bay as a whole is considered one of eight primary coastal
nesting areas.

Yadon’s wallflower (Erysimum menziesii ssp. yadonii): Yadon's wallflower is federally listed
and state listed as endangered. It is restricted to four populations in the vicinity of the Marina
Dunes near the Salinas River in Monterey County. It is found in coastal dunes, mostly on the
seaward edge of stabilized foredunes, growing in more saline sites than other subspecies of E.
menziesii. Yadon's wallflower was likely more abundant along the coastal bluffs of Marina at
one time, but the colonies “migrate” considerably due to storm and bluff erosion (Thomas Reid
Associates, 1997). It thrives in open areas free of other plant competition and tolerates moderate
sand burial.

Monterey gilia (Gilia tenuiflora ssp. arenaria): Monterey gilia (also commonly referred to as
sand gilia) is federally listed as endangered and state listed as threatened. It is a small, erect
annual plant in the phlox family (Polemoniaceae) that is endemic to the Monterey Bay area.
Along the coast, Monterey gilia is found on rear dunes, near the dune summit in level areas, and
on depressions or slopes in wind-sheltered openings in low-growing dune scrub vegetation. It
does not occur in areas exposed to strong winds and salt spray. Monterey gilia is distributed in
discontinuous populations and its range extends from Spanish Bay on the Monterey Peninsula
north to Sunset Beach State Park in Santa Cruz County.

Monterey spineflower (Chorizanthe pungens var. pungens): Monterey spineflower is a
prostrate annual herb in the buckwheat family (Polygonaceae). It is federally listed as threatened
but is not listed by the State of California. Monterey spineflower occurs along the coast of
southern Santa Cruz and northern Monterey Counties and inland to the coastal plain of the
Salinas Valley. It flowers from April through J une and is likely self-pollinated in addition to
being insect pollinated. It produces small seeds that are dropped or shaken by wind from their
capsule and may then be dispersed with blowing sand or by fur-bearing animals to which the
spiny fruits may attach and be carried. The species colonizes open sandy sites and tends to
Zander Associates
BA – Temporary Slant Test Well Project
J uly 2013 5
invade roadsides and firebreaks. It is found in maritime chaparral, coastal live oak woodland,
coastal scrub, grassland, and coastal dune habitats.
1.3 Critical Habitat
Critical habitat is defined as specific areas that have been found to be essential to the
conservation of a federally listed species, and which may require special management
considerations or protections. Critical habitat is determined using the best scientific and
commercial information available and taking the physical and biological (primary constituent
elements [PCEs]) needs of the species into consideration. The action area addressed in this BA
is within designated critical habitat for the Monterey spineflower (USFWS 2008a), and a small
portion at the west end of the action area is within designated critical habitat for the Pacific Coast
distinct population segment (DPS) of the western snowy plover (Pacific Coast WSP) (USFWS
2012a). The action area is not within critical habitat for any other federally-listed species for
which critical habitat has been designated.
2.0 CONSULTATION TO DATE
On behalf of Cal Am, RBF Consulting (RBF) evaluated numerous alternative temporary slant
test well sites during the summer and fall of 2012. Zander Associates biologists reviewed several
of those alternatives and initiated contact with state and federal resource agencies to solicit their
comments beginning in J uly 2012. An initial meeting with representatives of the U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service (USFWS), Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS), California
Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW, formerly California Department of Fish and Game,
CDFG), PRBO Conservation Science (now known as Point Blue Conservation Science and
hereinafter referred to as Point Blue), Cal Am, RBF and Zander Associates was held at RBF
offices in Marina on September 20, 2012. At that meeting, RBF presented plans for a proposed
test well site on the beach toward the north end of the Cemex property as the preferred project
alternative. The proposed location of the slant test well project relative to western snowy plover
use of that area of beach was identified as the most critical issue for USFWS. Avoidance of
impacts to other special status plant and animal species associated with the coastal dune
environment, using horizontal directional drilling techniques and other methods for installing
pipelines and infrastructure, was considered potentially feasible by the resource agencies.
However, the agencies encouraged Cal Am to seek an alternative location in previously disturbed
areas south of the Cemex property to avoid potential impacts to plovers.

A second meeting was held at the RBF Marina offices on November 1, 2012 to review issues
limiting the choice of alternative locations and to discuss a modified version of the preferred
project. USFWS maintained its position that an alternative location would be preferable and that
heavy equipment impacts to potential nesting areas on sandy substrates were sufficiently
unknown to warrant caution at the preferred location. According to USFWS and Point Blue,
sand disturbance and compaction from use of heavy equipment and vehicles could have negative
consequences on plover breeding behavior, even if work occurred outside of the breeding season
as proposed.

Zander Associates
BA – Temporary Slant Test Well Project
J uly 2013 6
As a result of the second agency meeting, Cal Am and RBF developed another alternative plan
with specific avoidance and minimization measures intended to avoid impacts to sandy substrates
that could serve as nesting habitat for plovers. Zander Associates forwarded preliminary exhibits
for this alternative plan to USFWS and Point Blue in late November 2012. Follow up contact
(email exchange and brief telephone discussions) with both USFWS and Point Blue occurred in
December 2012, February 2013 and March 2013. In April 2013, a Biological Assessment (BA)
was completed for that alternative plan.

Additional contact between Cal Am and various agency representatives occurred between April
and J une 2013 to further explore alternative test well sites. An all-hands agency meeting was
held on J une 10, 2013, to review a new siting option for the slant test well and associated
monitoring wells and appurtenances located entirely within previously disturbed areas on the
Cemex property. The alternative plan developed as a result of that meeting is the subject of this
BA.
3.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION
The temporary slant test well and related facilities would be located in a disturbed portion of the
active Cemex mining area (APN 203-011-019-000), east of the beach, on and adjacent to the
unimproved roadway currently used by Cemex (Figure 2). The temporary slant well test facilities
would include the slant well, submersible well pump, and well-head vault; vertical monitoring
wells; test water disposal facilities; test water disposal connection to an existing outfall; electrical
facilities; and temporary flow measurement/sampling equipment (Figure 3). The Project does
not include any reverse osmosis (RO), treatment, brine discharge, or conveyance infrastructure.

To minimize potential impacts on western snowy plover nesting habitat, the temporary slant test
well and all associated facilities would be located within the previously disturbed Cemex access
road area (Figure 4). All construction and demobilization activities would occur in the plover’s
non-breeding season (October 1
st
through February 28
th
).
3.1 Access
Access to the temporary well facility would be obtained by vehicles transporting personnel,
construction equipment and construction materials to and from the site by using the existing
established route through the Cemex operations area.
3.2 Restricted Construction Area
All construction activities would be restricted to a proposed construction area and access route.
All construction activities would be in non-native or disturbed areas on or adjacent to the active
Cemex access road. No construction equipment, materials, or activity would occur outside the
specified areas.
3.3 Project Facilities
An overview of the layout of the proposed test well facilities is shown on Figure 3. A more
detailed view of the test well facilities at the well-head is shown on Figure 4. The exact location
Zander Associates
Environmental Consultants
4460 Redwood Hwy, Suite 16-240
San Rafael, CA 94903

¯
Test Well Facilities
MPWSP
Temporary Slant Test Well
Marina, California
Figure
3










Zander Associates
Environmental Consultants
4460 Redwood Hwy, Suite 16-240
San Rafael, CA 94903



¯

Source: RBF Consulting

Slant Test Well Site Schematic
MPWSP
Temporary Slant Test Well
Marina, California


Figure
4


Zander Associates
BA – Temporary Slant Test Well Project
J uly 2013 9
of the test well facilities would be determined immediately prior to construction, based on field
conditions at that time.
3.3.1 Temporary Slant Test Well and Well-head Facilities
The temporary slant test well would be designed using similar materials, size and construction
methodology as the proposed intake wells for the MPWSP. The slant test well would be drilled
towards the ocean at 19-degrees from horizontal such that a 1,000 linear foot slant well would
proceed to the bottom of the 180-foot aquifer formation. The slant test well would be completed
using up to 22-inch diameter casing and up to 12-inch diameter screen of “Super Duplex”
stainless steel, a specialty metal designed for use in seawater environments. Well screen would
be installed starting at elevation 30 feet below mean sea level (BMSL) through both the Dune
Sands Aquifer and the 180-Foot Aquifers.
3.3.2 Monitoring Wells
Two individual vertical monitoring wells would be drilled prior to drilling the slant test well in
order to provide confirmation of geologic conditions. One of the monitoring wells would be in
the immediate vicinity of the slant test well and the second monitoring well would be
approximately 1,200 feet inland on the side of the Cemex access road. The wells would be two-
inch diameter wells, with one being drilled to a depth of approximately 300 feet BMSL, and the
other to approximately 400 feet BMSL. Boreholes for the monitoring wells would be
approximately six inches in diameter, and would be drilled using a sonic drilling method. The
monitoring wells would be constructed with a filter pack and surface seal in accordance with
both County of Monterey and State of California well standards for monitoring wells.
3.3.3 Electrical Power Supply
Electrical power for construction and pumping operations would be provided by a connection to
either Cemex or a new connection to PG&E at the Cemex site. A buried conduit, approximately
four inches in diameter would run about 2,000 linear feet from an existing transformer at the
Cemex administrative buildings out to the test well, generally following the alignment of the
existing Cemex access road. The eastern third of the alignment would most likely be installed
using trenchless technology (either horizontal directional drilling (HDD) or drill-and-burst), but
the western portion would be installed in a trench about 12 inches wide and 3 feet deep that
would be backfilled as the conduit is installed. The conduit would terminate at an above ground
electrical panel to be installed near the well-head that would be about 5 feet high, 4 feet wide,
and 30 inches deep.
3.3.4 Test Water Disposal Facilities
Water pumped from the test well would be discharged from the well head into a 12-16 inch
diameter pipe that would be connected to a junction structure on an existing outfall pipeline
seaward of the test well. The discharge pipe would be approximately 180 linear feet. It would
follow the alignment generally shown on Figure 4 and is intended to be on disturbed ground as
much as possible. The pipe would be installed in a trench and buried 3 to 6 feet under the sand.
The top of the junction structure is approximately 6 feet under the existing ground elevation and
would need to be exposed in order to make the connection. Consequently, a cone shaped
Zander Associates
BA – Temporary Slant Test Well Project
J uly 2013 10
excavation approximately 6 feet deep and 20 to 30 feet in diameter at the ground surface would
be needed to connect the pipe to the junction structure.
3.4 Project Phasing and Scheduling
The temporary slant test well program would be implemented in a Construction/Initial Testing
Phase, followed by a Monitoring Phase. The Construction/ Initial Testing Phase would consist of
drilling monitoring wells, drilling and developing the test slant well, connecting the discharge
pipe to the existing outfall, and performing short-term pumping tests within the five month non-
nesting season (for the snowy plover) from October 1, 2013 through February 28, 2014.
Construction equipment would be mobilized on October 1 assuming all permits are secured. Site
preparation, drilling and development of the slant test well would be performed around the clock.

Once the well is developed, it would be operated continuously using a submersible well pump for
a period of up to 24 months. Operators would travel to the site using the existing Cemex access
road on a weekly basis for 30 to 60 minutes per visit to check that the pump, meter, and water
quality measurement equipment are operating properly, and to collect water quality samples.

4.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE ACTION AREA
The “action area” is defined as “all areas to be affected directly or indirectly by the Federal action
and not merely the immediate area involved in the action” (50 CFR δ402.02).
4.1 Location and General Characteristics
The action area considered for this BA is an approximately 12.6-acre portion of the Cemex Lapis
Sand Plant property (APN 203-011-019-000) (Figure 2). It includes all areas that would be
directly affected by the project and extends approximately 100 feet out from those areas. The
action area is comprised of developed industrial facilities and disturbed, formerly mined coastal
sand dunes.
4.2 Cemex Operations Area
The operations area at the Cemex Lapis Sand Plant includes administrative buildings, sand
processing facilities and areas of disturbed dune characterized by beach sands and Aeolian sand
dunes of the Flandrian complex overlying Pre-Flandrian dune deposits. The area covers about
104 acres and is the subject of an approved Reclamation Plan (CA Mine ID #91-27-0006).

The temporary slant test well project will use existing Cemex access roads from the eastern
Cemex site entrance all the way to the slant test well facility. Disturbed areas immediately
adjacent to the main east-west access road would be used for installation of the electrical conduit
and the test water discharge pipe. For the purposes of this BA, the action area extends
approximately 100 feet on either side of the centerline of the roads and 100 feet out from the
outfall junction structure towards the beach.

Zander Associates
BA – Temporary Slant Test Well Project
J uly 2013 11
The road from the site entrance to the vicinity of the Cemex facility is paved and passes through
operational areas on either side as described above. No dune habitat (or any native habitat,
disturbed or otherwise) occurs in this area based on observations during site reconnaissance visits
on September 20, 2012, March 5, 2013 and April 25, 2013. From the Cemex facility westerly to
the beach entrance, the road consists of unvegetated, compacted sand with disturbed dunes on
either side (Photo 1).
1
The redwood lined flume parallels the road on the north and carries
process water to settling ponds near the beach end of the road (Photo 2). The ponds appear to be
periodically maintained by removing accumulated sediment which is stockpiled alongside the
road. Other stockpiles of sandy material and previously scraped areas characterize both sides of
this section of road along its length (Photo 3). During the March 5
th
and April 25
th
site visits, no
undisturbed dune habitat was observed within 100 feet of either side of the unpaved road. In the
few vegetated areas observed, iceplant (Carpobrotus spp.), was dominant, but occasional
occurrences of native plants such as beach sagewort (Artemisia pycnocephala), mock heather
(Ericameria ericoides), sand verbena (Abronia sp.), beach knotweed (Polygonum paronychia),
and beach evening primrose (Cammissonia cheiranthifolia) were observed. During the April 25
th

plant surveys, Monterey spineflower (Chorizanthe pungens var. pungens) was found in bare sand
areas within the action area and in some cases extended up to the edge of the road, but was not
found within the active roadbed. Individuals of coast buckwheat (Eriogonum latifolium), a host
plant for the Smith’s blue butterfly, were also encountered within the action area, especially on
the northerly side of the flume adjacent to the road (see below).



Photo 1: Access road through Cemex facility looking west


1
A railroad spur formerly ran along the south side of this road out to the beach, but has since been removed.
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Photo 2: Flume parallel to access road through Cemex facility looking east


Photo 3: Stockpiles along both sides of Cemex facility access road
4.3 Slant Test Well
The temporary slant test well facilities would be located near where the existing Cemex access
road ends at the beach, approximately 450 feet from the shoreline (Figures 2 & 4; Photo 4). The
Cemex extraction pond is located just northerly of the termination of the road. The existing
buried outfall junction structure is at the westernmost end of the action area, within bare sand at
the top of the beach (Photo 5). Equipment associated with the Cemex operations appears to use
the area occasionally for access to dredge anchors around the perimeter of the extraction pond.
The sand in this area also appears frequently contoured by the wind and is virtually devoid of

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Photo 4: West end of Cemex access road in approximate vicinity of test well


Photo 5: Vehicle tracks in the sand near existing manhole at the end of the Cemex access road.

vegetation. However, successful nests and nesting attempts by western snowy plovers have been
recorded by Point Blue in this area (see below).

The test well would be located about 160 feet east (inland) of the outfall junction structure.
Again, all facilities would be constructed in previously disturbed areas. Although there are
historical records of western snowy plovers nests in this area, no nesting attempts have been
observed here for several years.
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5.0 SPECIES ACCOUNTS AND STATUS IN THE ACTION AREA
5.1 Smith's Blue Butterfly
5.1.1 Status and Description
The Smith's blue butterfly was listed by USFWS as endangered on J une 1, 1976 (41 FR 22041).
Critical habitat for Smith’s blue butterfly was proposed in 1977 (42 FR 7972), but to date there
has been no final designation.

When it was listed in 1976 Smith's blue butterfly was known primarily from remnant, partially
stabilized sand dunes around Monterey Bay. Since it was listed additional colonies have been
discovered in other locations and habitat types. The species recovery plan approved by USFWS
in 1984 indicates that the discovery of these additional colonies may warrant reclassification of
the species. In the five-year review document for Smith's blue butterfly, published in September
2006, USFWS recommends that the species be downlisted from endangered to threatened due to
an expansion of the subspecies known range from the time of listing, largely within the southern
part of its range. However, USFWS remains concerned about extirpation of the species from
parts of its northern range due to habitat fragmentation from residential and industrial
development, isolation from the species’ larger southern populations, and habitat degradation
from invasive non-native plants and industrial and recreational use.

The Smith’s blue butterfly is relatively small, slightly less than one inch (2.5 cm) across with
wings fully spread. The undersides are whitish-gray, speckled with black dots, and have a band
of red-orange marks across the hind wings. Sexual differences are seen on the upper wing
surface. Males are bright lustrous blue, whereas females are brown above with a band of red-
orange marks across the hind-wings. Above, both sexes have prominently checkered fringes on
both fore-wings and hind-wings, while males have wide black borders, and a very hairy
appearance of the body and adjacent wings (USFWS 1984). The Smith's blue butterfly is
separated from other subspecies of E. enoptes by the light undersurface ground color with
prominent overlying black markings together with a faint black terminal line.
5.1.2 Distribution and Habitat
In Monterey County, Smith's blue butterfly is found on coastal sand dunes in association with
both coast buckwheat and seacliff buckwheat. Coast buckwheat is often predominant in the
dunes of the northern part of the range, while there are several sand-dune inhabiting populations
that occur in association with seacliff buckwheat from the southern portion of Fort Ord to
Monterey. South of Monterey, into northern San Luis Obispo County, at least as far as San
Carpoforo Creek, Smith’s blue butterfly is found at several dozen locations in the Santa Lucia
Mountains and along the immediate coastline, where there are coastal sage scrub or chaparral
habitats and E. parvifolium. Similarly, inland populations of the butterfly, such as those
occurring in the Carmel River Valley, are primarily associated with coastal sage scrub and
chaparral habitats, and feed on E. parvifolium. At some interior locations, adults of the Smith’s
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blue have also been observed nectaring on naked buckwheat (E. nudum), but it is not known if
larvae feed on this buckwheat (Arnold 1991).
5.1.3 Life History
Smith’s blue butterfly is univoltine, i.e., it has only one generation per year. Adult emergence
and seasonal activity is synchronized with the blooming period of the particular buckwheat used
at a given site. At a particular location, adults are active for about four to eight weeks, but the
adult activity period and duration can vary dramatically from year-to-year and from one location
to another. Individual adult males and females live approximately one week, and both sexes
spend the majority of their time on Eriogonum flowerheads (USFWS 2006). There they perch,
bask (i.e., thermoregulate), forage for nectar, search for mates, copulate, and lay their eggs.
Females lay single eggs on the buckwheat flowers. Larvae hatch in about one week and begin
feeding in the buckwheat flowerheads. Young larvae feed on the pollen and developing flower
parts, while older larvae feed on the seed s. Older larvae are tended by ants, which may provide
some protection from parasites and predators. Upon maturing in about one month, the larvae
pupate in the flowerheads or in the leaf litter and sand at the base of the buckwheat plant. Pupae
that form in the flowerheads later drop to the ground. Dispersal data from capture-recapture
studies (USFWS 2006) indicate that most adults are quite sedentary, with home ranges no more
than a few acres. However, a small percentage of adults disperse farther and exhibited home
ranges between 20-30 acres (USFWS 2006).

Not all of the buckwheat host plants within the range of the Smith’s blue are used by the butterfly
at any given point in time. Butterflies that feed on Eriogonum flowers favor mature, robust
individuals of the perennial buckwheats because they produce more flowers (USFWS 2006).
Thus, buckwheat stands that consist of younger or older, senescent individuals, which produce
fewer flowers, may not be visited by the butterfly until these plants mature or are augmented by
robust, flowering specimens. Among butterflies, it is somewhat unusual for both the adult and
larval stages to feed only on one plant, and, in particular, only on just the flowers. Most
butterflies feed as caterpillars on one or a few closely-related plants, and then as adults obtain
nectar from flowers that are generally unrelated to what the caterpillars fed on. Because of the
Smith’s blue’s dual dependency on the flowers of its buckwheat foodplants, it is more
susceptible to habitat degradation. Although it is more extinction prone because of its total
dependence upon the flowers of buckwheats, conservation efforts are greatly simplified because
resource managers only need worry about a single plant rather than several plants to maintain this
endangered butterfly.
5.1.4 Threats to Survival
The decline of Smith’s blue butterfly across its range is attributed to degradation and loss of
habitat as a result of urban development, recreational activities, sand mining, military activities,
fire suppression, and encroachment of invasive non-native plants. All of these threats, except
military activities are ongoing within occupied Smith’s blue butterfly habitat.
5.1.5 Occurrence within the Action Area
The California natural diversity data base (CDFW 2013) has a relatively large element
occurrence (EO 15) of Smith’s blue butterfly mapped on the Cemex property; the southern tip of
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the EO 15 polygon is traversed by the east-west access road segment of the action area. This
occurrence represents the extent of available habitat identified during surveys conducted in 1985
and 1986 for the Marina Dunes Plan under the aegis of the Marina Dunes Coastal Zone Planning
Task Force (Thomas Reid Associates 1997). These surveys and additional surveys conducted in
1996 & 1997 by Thomas Reid Associates indicate that the area is occupied by Smith’s blue
butterfly, but the amount of available habitat was not quantified (USFWS 2006).

Environmental Science Associates (ESA) conducted field surveys on the Cemex property in May
and J une 2012 and assumed that Smith’s blue butterfly habitat occurred throughout their study
area because of high densities of coast buckwheat (ESA 2012). Although most of the dune
portions of their study area did not overlap with those of the action area considered in this BA,
the conclusion that Smith’s blue butterfly could potentially occur on any coast buckwheat plants
in the area also applies to the action area.

During field visits by a Zander Associates biologist on September 20, 2012, and March 5, 2013,
numerous individual coast buckwheat plants were observed along the east-west access road
through the Cemex facility. The plants were mostly limited to the slopes adjacent to the return
water flume parallel to and north of the road, but were also seen on remnant dune substrates to
the north of the flume (Photo 6). No buckwheat plants were observed within the action area
south of the road but several were seen in less disturbed areas several hundred feet south of the
action area boundary. During the April 25, 2013 survey, Zander Associates biologists again
observed coast buckwheat plants, primarily on the north side of the road and no closer than about
15 feet from the road's edge. Because of ongoing use, disturbance and compaction, coast
buckwheat is not expected to colonize the roadway or the areas immediately adjacent to it.


Photo 6: Coast buckwheat plants among iceplant mats on north side slope of flume

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5.2 Western Snowy Plover
5.2.1 Status and Description
The Pacific Coast western snowy plover was listed by USFWS as threatened on March 5, 1993
(58 FR 12864). A final Recovery Plan for the species was issued in 2007 (USFWS 2007). In
December of 1999, the USFWS designated critical habitat for the species, including 28 areas
along the coast of California, Oregon, and Washington (64 FR 68508). That rule was remanded
and partially vacated by the U. S. District Court for the District of Oregon on J uly 2, 2003, in
order to conduct a new analysis of economic impacts (Coos County Board of County
Commissioners et al. v. Department of the Interior et al., CV 02–6128, M. Hogan). A revised
rule designating critical habitat was published on September 29, 2005 (70 FR 56970). As part of
a settlement agreement, USFWS agreed to reconsider the designations and a final revised critical
habitat was published in the Federal Register on J une 19, 2012 (77 FR 36727).

The western snowy plover is a small shorebird in the family Charadriidae. It weighs from 34 to
58 grams (1.2 to 2 ounces) and ranges in length from 15 to 17 centimeters (5.9 to 6.6 inches)
(USFWS 2007). It is pale gray-brown above and white below, with a white hindneck collar and
dark lateral breast patches, forehead bar, and eye patches. The bill and legs are blackish. In
breeding plumage, males usually have black markings on the head and breast; in females, usually
one or more of these markings are dark brown. Early in the breeding season a rufous crown may
be evident on breeding males, but it is not typically seen on females. In non-breeding plumage,
sexes cannot be distinguished because the breeding markings disappear. Fledged juveniles have
buffy edges on their upper parts and can be distinguished from adults until approximately J uly
through October, depending on when in the nesting season they hatched. After this period, molt
and feather wear makes fledged juveniles indistinguishable from adults. Individual birds one year
or older are considered to be breeding adults. The mean annual life span of western snowy
plovers is estimated at about three years, but at least one individual was at least 15 years old
when last seen (USFWS 2007).
5.2.2 Distribution and Habitat
The Pacific coast population of the western snowy plover breeds primarily on coastal beaches
from southern Washington to southern Baja California, Mexico. Sand spits, dune-backed
beaches, beaches at creek and river mouths, and salt pans at lagoons and estuaries are the main
coastal habitats for nesting (USFWS, 2007). This habitat is unstable because of unconsolidated
soils, high winds, storms, wave action, and colonization by plants. Less common nesting
habitats include bluff-backed beaches, dredged material disposal sites, salt pond levees, dry salt
ponds, and river bars (USFWS 2007).

Western snowy plovers concentrate in suitable habitat, with the number of adults at coastal
breeding locations ranging from one to over 300, depending in part, on the size of the area.
Nesting sites for western snowy plovers are found along beaches and adjacent bare dunes of the
Pacific coast from Washington to Baja California. The species also occurs along the shores of
salt ponds and alkali or brackish inland lakes. Monterey Bay as a whole is considered one of
eight primary coastal nesting areas.
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Breeding and nesting occurs mid-March through mid-September and nests are found above the
high tide level on sandy, open ground where both the male and female incubate the eggs. In
winter, western snowy plovers are found on many of the beaches used for nesting as well as on
beaches where they do not nest, in man-made salt ponds, and on estuarine sand and mud flats.
Western snowy plovers are highly sensitive to human disturbance and may abandon their nests if
disturbed.
5.2.3 Life History
Nesting western snowy plovers at coastal locations consist of both year-round residents and
migrants. Migrants begin arriving in central California as early as J anuary, although the main
arrival is from early March to late April (USFWS 2007). Since some individuals nest at multiple
locations during the same year, birds may continue arriving through J une. Western snowy
plovers are monogamous by clutch and can have multiple clutches per year with typically three
(but sometimes two) eggs per clutch. Females may lay up to six clutches per year. The young are
precocial and will leave the nest within hours of hatching in search of food. They are not able to
fly for about one month after hatching; fledging requires 28-33 days. Broods of chicks may
remain in the nesting area until fledging or may travel along the beach as far as 6.4 kilometers
(four miles) from their natural area (USFWS 2007).

Nests typically occur in flat, open areas with sandy or saline substrates; vegetation and driftwood
are usually sparse or absent (USFWS 2007). Nests consist of a shallow scrape or depression,
sometimes lined with beach debris (e.g., small pebbles, shell fragments, plant debris, and mud
chips); nest lining increases as incubation progresses. Driftwood, kelp, and dune plants provide
cover for chicks that crouch near objects to hide from predators. Invertebrates are often found
near debris, so driftwood and kelp are also important for harboring western snowy plover food
sources. Nests are usually within 100 meters (328 feet) of water, but could be several hundred
meters away if there is no vegetative barrier between the nest and water. It is believed that the
absence of such a barrier is probably important for newly-hatched chicks to have access to the
shore (USFWS 2007).

Adult western snowy plovers do not feed their chicks, but lead them to suitable feeding areas.
Adults use distraction displays to lure predators and people away from chicks. With
vocalizations, adult western snowy plovers signal the chicks to crouch as another way to protect
them. They also may lead chicks, especially larger ones, away from predators (USFWS 2007).
Young chicks must be brooded frequently by an adult to maintain homeostasis. Females
generally desert mates and broods by the sixth day after hatching and thereafter the chicks are
typically accompanied by only the male. While males rear broods, females obtain new mates and
initiate new nests (Page et al. 1995). Females typically help rear the last brood of the season.

Western snowy plovers are primarily visual foragers, using the run-stop-peck method of feeding
typical of Charadrius species. They forage on invertebrates in the wet sand and amongst surf-
cast kelp within the intertidal zone, in dry sand areas above the high tide, on salt pans, on spoil
sites, and along the edges of salt marshes, salt ponds, and lagoons. They sometimes probe for
prey in the sand and pick insects from low-growing plants.
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While some western snowy plovers remain in their coastal breeding areas year round, others
migrate south or north for winter. In Monterey Bay, 41 percent of nesting males and 24 percent
of the females were consistent year-round residents. The migrants vacate California coastal
nesting areas primarily from late J une to late October (USFWS 2007).

In winter, western snowy plovers are found on many of the beaches used for nesting, as well as
some beaches where they do not nest. Also occurring in these areas are snowy plovers that breed
in the interior but migrate to the coast for winter. Plovers from both interior and coastal breeding
populations also occur in man-made salt ponds and on estuarine sand and mud flats. In
California, most wintering western snowy plovers concentrate on sand spits and dune-backed
beaches. Some also occur on urban and bluff-backed beaches, which are rarely used for nesting
(USFWS 2007). Plovers are typically gregarious in winter, usually roosting and foraging in loose
flocks. Wintering plovers usually roost in small depressions in the sand or in the lee of kelp,
other debris or small dunes which provide some shelter from wind and cover from predators.
When disturbed, winter roosting plovers may run a few meters to a new spot, displacing other
individuals, or the whole flock may fly to a new location.
5.2.4 Threats to Survival
Human disturbance has been identified as a factor that may limit or prohibit the use of beaches
by nesting snowy plovers (USFWS 2007). Pedestrians may cause plovers to flush from potential
nesting areas, trample nest scrapes, eggs, or chicks, and force broods to move into unsuitable
areas. High rates of disturbance may cause eventual abandonment of breeding sites (Lafferty
2001), although with significant habitat protections and enforcement, plovers can nest
successfully at beaches with high levels of recreation (Lafferty et al. 2006). Predators of snowy
plovers such as the merlin (Falco columbarius) or peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) also
disturb plovers when they are hunting in the wintering and breeding areas.
5.2.5 Occurrence within the Action Area
The shoreline along the Cemex property lies within designated critical habitat for the Pacific
Coast distinct population segment (DPS) of the western snowy plover and is within Recovery
Unit 4 - Sonoma to Monterey Counties, California – as described in the Western Snowy Plover
Recovery Plan (USFWS 2007). A small portion at the western end of the action area, where the
discharge pipeline would be connected to the existing outfall junction structure, is within the
limits of designated critical habitat. Each recovery unit includes specific locations and in some
cases subareas that are identified as important for the recovery of the plover. The Cemex
shoreline lies within the Moss Landing to Monterey specific location (CA-65) and the "Lonestar
Beach and interior areas" subarea (USFWS 2007). According to the Recovery Plan (Appendix
B), the management potential for plovers in CA-65 (162 breeding adults) is the highest in
Recovery Unit 4 and the Lonestar (now Cemex) Beach subarea management potential (32
breeding birds) is second only to the Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) within CA-
65.

The beach adjacent to the action area has been identified as both important nesting and wintering
habitat for the plover as a result of nearly 30 years of monitoring. Point Blue has intensively
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monitored the productivity and population size of snowy plovers within this area during the
breeding season (March 1-Sept 30) since 1984. During the non-breeding season, at least one
annual “winter window” survey of the area has been conducted since the winter of 2003-2004. In
addition, incidental winter surveys at known flock areas have been conducted opportunistically to
monitor survival rates of color-banded plovers. Because roosting flocks of wintering birds
persist into the breeding season (roughly into mid-April) and reform before breeding ceases
(roughly beginning mid-J uly), information from incidental surveys of flocked birds during the
breeding season is also available (Point Blue 2013, unpubl. data).

The breeding plover population size along the Cemex shoreline has varied from 39 to 60 plovers
between 2003 and 2012 (Point Blue 2013, unpubl. data). At the adjacent Salinas River NWR to
the north, the breeding population size has ranged from 34 to 68, for an average of about 105
nesting snowy plovers within and directly adjacent to the action area. The most recent
monitoring activity (2012 nesting season) identified about 38 nesting attempts with 23
successfully hatched (Figure 6) along the Cemex shoreline (Page et al 2012). The nests are
typically located between the spring and summer wrack zone and the base of the foredunes, but
can also be found around the Cemex pond and adjacent to the Cemex access road, within the
action area (Figure 5).

Numbers of plovers recorded on the annual winter window surveys of shoreline areas have been
highly variable, probably due to the irregular distribution of plovers in winter. According to
Appendix B of the Recovery Plan, numbers of wintering birds along the subject shoreline ranged
from 0 to 63 over the period 2000-2005 (USFWS 2007). Between 2005 and 2012, numbers
ranged from 0 to 21 individuals along the Cemex shoreline and from 0 to 34 at the adjacent
Salinas River NWR. Data from the recent annual winter window survey indicate that 37 adult
plovers were observed between the Salinas River NWR and the southern end of the Cemex
shoreline during a one day reconnaissance on J anuary 22, 2013 (Point Blue 2013, unpubl. data).
5.3 Yadon's Wallflower
5.3.1 Status and Description
Yadon's wallflower is one of four subspecies of Erysimum menziesii. When first listed as
endangered by the State of California in 1984, and later by USFWS in 1992 (57 FR 27848), E.
menziesii was treated as a single species distributed in coastal dune systems from Monterey
County to Oregon. Following its listing, research showed that the species is a complex,
comprised of four subspecies, three of which are rare. According to the Recovery Plan for the
species (USFWS 2008), the three rare subspecies (ssp. menziesii, ssp. eurekense, and ssp.
yadonii) are endemic to three counties in northern California and are known from sixteen
populations consisting of about 33,300 individuals. The fourth subspecies, cream-colored
wallflower (ssp. concinnum), is not listed; its distribution extends from southern Oregon to Point
Reyes in Marin County, California. These subspecies are primarily differentiated by geographic
location. Critical habitat has not been proposed for the species.
Wellhead Vault
Zander Associates
Environmental Consultants
4460 Redwood Hwy, Suite 16-240
San Rafael, CA 94903
Figure
5
0 100 50 Feet
Legend
Plover Winter Roosting Site
Hatched Plover Nests 2012
Hatched Plover Nests 2011
Hatched Plover Nests 2010
Failed Plover Nests 2012
Failed Plover Nests 2010
Plover Nest Locations Before 2010
Drill Rig
Existing J unction Structure
Temporary Construction Footprint
Wellhead Vault
Action Area
Western Snowy Plover Locations
MPWSP
Temporary Slant Test Well
Marina, California
Sources: RBF Consulting
PRBO Conservation Science
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Erysimum menziesii is a biennial or perennial herb in the Mustard Family (Brassicaceae).
Flowers are fragrant and pale to bright yellow. Each plant usually has several flowering stems
from 1-6 inches tall. The fleshy leaves form a basal rosette and are somewhat spoon-shaped and
abruptly narrow to the leaf stalk. The fruit consists of very long, narrow pods, 1-5 inches long.
While the other subspecies of E. menziesii typically have a blooming season limited to late
winter or spring, E. menziesii ssp. yadonii often blooms through the summer (J une-August) and
tends to be perennial with a branched caudex (thickened stem).
5.3.2 Distribution and Habitat
Yadon's wallflower is restricted to four occurrences in the vicinity of the Marina Dunes, two at
Marina State Beach, and the others at the Cemex Lapis Sand Plant property approximately 0.8-
kilometer (0.5 mile) south of the Salinas River Lagoon (USFWS 1998). The largest sub-
populations (thousands of plants) have been recorded in the stable foredunes around the Cemex
facility and Marina State Beach in the southern portion of the Monterey Bay dune complex.

Yadon's wallflower can occur on the upper coastal strand, in areas relatively close to the high tide
line, but largely protected from wave action. The subspecies has a high tolerance to exposure to
strong wind, salt spray, and occasional wave action from storms and high tides. Its preferred
substrate is loose sand lacking in organic matter and minerals (USFWS 1998). Associated
species include beach primrose, beach-bur, sea rocket, beach knotweed, sand verbena and
iceplant.
5.3.3 Life History
Erysimum menziesii is a biennial or short-lived perennial. The species reproduces by seed, and
the seeds are dispersed by wind. Subspecies yadonii can be perennial, but does not typically fruit
more than twice. Yadon’s wallflower forms a basal rosette of leaves that may persist for up to
eight years before flowering. Blooming typically occurs from March through April, although it
may begin as early as late February with an extended blooming season well into the summer
months. The species is self-compatible; therefore, the reproduction of this species involves
selfing and facultative outcrossing (able to produce seed either by self-pollination, or pollination
by other plants). Evidence suggests that the seed bank is contained in the old standing plants and
that the seed in the soil (sand) does not seem to persist (USFWS 1998). Most seed dispersal is
restricted to the immediate vicinity of the parent plants. Long distance dispersal of seed may
occur by fragmentation of seed-bearing branches breaking off and tumbling with the prevailing
wind.
5.3.4 Threats to Survival
The species is threatened by invasion by non-native species, industrial and residential
development, and trampling by recreational users such as pedestrians, equestrians, hang gliders,
and ORV users (USFWS 1992). Coastal erosion, sand mining activities, and the deposition of
dredge material from adjacent water bodies pose additional threats to the plants in Monterey
County.
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5.3.5 Occurrence within the Action Area
The CNDDB lists two separate element occurrences for Erysimum menziesii on the Cemex
property (EO 17 & EO 18). One of the occurrences (EO 18 - approximately 500 plants in
observed 1991) is south of the action area along the southern Cemex property line with the
Marina Dunes Preserve, and may be the result of dune restoration activities in that area. The
other occurrence (EO 17) is described as about 13,900 plants observed and mapped in 1986,
1987 and 1997 “along the west face of the dunes from the railroad tracks [parallel to the existing
east west Cemex access road] to about 0.9 miles north of the railroad tracks.” The CNDDB
mapping for EO 17 indicates a small wallflower population adjacent to the Cemex access road
with most of the plants mapped in an area of the upper strand and foredunes north of the Cemex
facility. However, large numbers of those plants were reported to have been lost during winter
storms of 1998.

Field surveys conducted on the Cemex property in May and J une 2012 identified Yadon’s
wallflower along the seaward side of the dunes, north of the Cemex operations area (ESA 2012).
A large population was mapped between the face of the foredunes to approximately 100 feet
inland (Figure 6). ESA also observed Yadon’s wallflower at the southern end of the Cemex
property along the north and south sides of the beach access path between the Cemex property
and Marina Dunes Preserve. These observations are generally consistent with the CNDDB
records noted above. However, ESA did not conduct surveys within the action area adjacent to
the Cemex access road.

Emerging basal rosettes of several individuals of E. menziesii were observed on March 5
th
,
approximately 400 feet south of the access road, where less disturbed dune areas occurred. No
individuals of E. menziesii, or any other wallflower species, were observed during the April 25,
2013 survey anywhere within the action area.
5.4 Monterey Gilia
5.4.1 Status and Description
Monterey gilia was listed as federally endangered on J une 22, 1992 (57 FR 27848) and it was
listed by the State of California as threatened in J anuary 1987. Critical habitat has not been
proposed for the species.

Monterey gilia is a short, sticky-haired annual herb in the phlox family (Polemoniaceae). It has
an erect central stem with a basal rosette of leaves, and produces purple funnel-shaped flowers
with narrow petal lobes and a purple throat. Monterey gilia is distinguished from the other three
subspecies of G. tenuiflora by its relatively large fruit capsules and stamens which are only
slightly exerted from the corolla. Sand gilia is known to locally intergrade with G. tenuiflora ssp.
tenuiflora at the more inland areas of its distribution at Fort Ord.
5.4.2 Distribution and Habitat
Monterey gilia is endemic to the Monterey Bay and Monterey Peninsula dune complexes. It is
distributed in discontinuous populations and its range extends from Spanish Bay on the Monterey
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Peninsula north to Sunset Beach State Park in Santa Cruz County (CDFW 2013). Most of these
populations are on private land and are unprotected. Along the coast, Monterey gilia is found on
rear dunes, near the dune summit in level areas, and on depressions or slopes in wind-sheltered
openings in low-growing dune scrub vegetation. It does not occur in areas exposed to strong
winds and salt spray (USFWS 2005). On ancient dune soils, which extend inland six to eight
miles in the former Fort Ord area, it occurs in openings among maritime chaparral, coastal sage
scrub, oak woodlands and where other vegetative cover is low.

The plant occurs along trails and roadsides, on the cut banks of sandy ephemeral drainages, in
recently burned chaparral, and in other disturbed patches. It appears to do well on sites that have
undergone recent substrate disturbance. Most populations are small and localized.
5.4.3 Life History
Monterey gilia is an annual herb that typically germinates from December through February. It is
able to self-pollinate as well as outcross, and fruit is set from the end of April to the end of May
(USFWS 2005). It produces small seeds that are dropped or shaken from their capsules and are
then dispersed, likely by gravity or wind. The species appears to produce viable seed even at
very small statures. Seeds are dispersed by wind throughout the dune openings; dispersal is
inhibited however by dense stands of low-growing dune scrub.
5.4.4 Threats to Survival
The loss of populations and habitat for Monterey gilia has resulted from coastal urban
development and sand mining operations. Recreational users, such as off-road vehicle users,
hikers, and equestrians, threaten populations and habitat. The introduction of aggressive, non-
native species like iceplant and European beach grass (Ammophila arenaria) for dune
stabilization has altered habitats, resulting in unsuitable conditions for sand gilia. Commercial
and residential development near Marina, Seaside, Sand City, and the Monterey Peninsula
threaten remaining Monterey gilia populations.
5.4.5 Occurrence within the Action Area
The CNDDB lists several occurrences of Monterey gilia on the Cemex facility with one of them
just north of the action area adjacent to the Cemex facility access road (EO 26). This location
was recorded in 1998 as 1.25 miles northwest of the junction of Hwy 1 and Reservation Road;
the CNDDB indicates that better mapping detail is needed for this occurrence.

ESA did not observe gilia during its field surveys conducted on the Cemex property in May and
J une 2012, but did find the species during separate reconnaissance surveys conducted along the
southern property boundary with the Marina Dunes Preserve in April 2012. The area identified
was likely part of a dune restoration effort on Marina Dunes Preserve lands.

No individuals of Monterey gilia were observed in the action area during the April 25, 2013
survey, but reference locations with plants in bloom were checked on that same day to confirm
the appropriate seasonality of the survey.
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5.5 Monterey Spineflower
5.5.1 Status and Description
Monterey spineflower was listed by USFWS as threatened on February 4, 1994 (54 FR 5499), It
is not listed by the State of California but is considered rare, threatened, or endangered in
California and elsewhere by the California Native Plant Society (Rank 1B.2). Critical habitat
was designated on May 29, 2002 (67 FR 37498) but in response to a lawsuit filed in March 2005,
USFWS proposed revisions to that designation and issued a revised critical habitat designation
on J anuary 9, 2008 (73 FR 1525).

Monterey spineflower is an annual herb in the buckwheat family (Polygonaceae). It has
involucral lobe margins (edges of the spines) that are white (rarely pinkish) rather than dark
pinkish to purple and the plants tend to be prostrate rather than erect (Reveal and Hardham
1989). The involucre’s awns are hooked at the tip (uncinate). Monterey spineflower blooms
from April through J une most years.
5.5.2 Distribution and Habitat
Monterey spineflower occurs along the coast of southern Santa Cruz and northern Monterey
Counties and inland to the coastal plain of the Salinas Valley. It is found in areas of relatively
mild maritime climate, characterized by fog and winter rains. The fog helps keep summer
temperatures cool and winter temperatures relatively warm, and provides moisture in addition to
the normal winter rains.

The species colonizes open sandy sites and tends to invade roadsides and firebreaks. It is found
in maritime chaparral, coastal live oak woodland, coastal scrub, grassland, and coastal dune
habitats. The distribution of suitable habitat within dune systems is subject to inherent dynamic
shifts caused by patterns of dune mobilization, stabilization, and successional trends in coastal
dune scrub that reduce vegetation gaps. Accordingly, individual colonies of Monterey
spineflower in unstable habitat are naturally subject to substantial long-term turnover and shifts
in distribution and size (USFWS 1998).
5.5.3 Life History
Monterey spineflower is likely self-pollinated in addition to being insect pollinated. It produces
small seeds that are dropped or shaken by wind from their capsule and may then be dispersed
with blowing sand or by fur-bearing animals to which the spiny fruits may attach and be carried.
Seedlings establish in areas that are relatively free from other competing native species. Human-
caused disturbances, such as scraping of roads and firebreaks, can reduce the competition from
other herbaceous species and consequently provide temporarily favorable conditions for
Monterey spineflower. However, such activities also often promote the spread and establishment
of nonnative species; in addition, they can bury the seedbank of Monterey spineflower, and they
do not result in the cycling of nutrients and soil microbial changes that are associated with large-
scale natural disturbances such as fires (USFWS 2008a).

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Monterey spineflower appears to function as an opportunistic annual plant, with most of its seeds
germinating under variable winter conditions rather than persisting to create an extensive, long-
lasting soil seed bank (USFWS 2008a).
5.5.4 Threats to Survival
Urban development in coastal cities has resulted in the loss of large portions of the range of
Monterey spineflower. Introduction of non-native, aggressive plants like iceplant and European
beach grass for dune stabilization has altered typical Monterey spineflower habitat and made
conditions unsuitable for the species. Historic occurrences in the Salinas Valley have been
extirpated, primarily because of conversion of natural habitat to agricultural land.
5.5.5 Occurrence within the Action Area
The CNDDB reports several occurrences of Monterey spineflower on leeward side of the dune
complex on the Cemex property, mostly resulting from surveys conducted in 1986 and 1987 for
the Marina Dunes Plan (Thomas Reid Associates 1987). One of these occurrences (EO 17) is
mapped just north and toward the easterly (inland) end of the action area along the Cemex
facility access road. The location information for this occurrence is listed as north of Marina, 0.5
mile west of Lapis Siding; it was most recently observed in 2006.

ESA observed Monterey spineflower and suitable habitat for the species throughout the dune
habitats they surveyed on the Cemex property by in May and J une 2012. However, the ESA
survey area did not include the Cemex facility or access road. During Zander Associates April
25, 2013 survey Monterey spineflower was observed within the action area and was relatively
abundant in some areas, often growing in sandy substrates directly adjacent to the access road.
However, no Monterey spineflower was found within the active roadbed.
6.0 POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF THE PROPOSED ACTION ON LISTED SPECIES
The Project has been designed to minimize impacts on listed species and critical habitat;
however, activities associated with the work could result in direct or indirect effects on Monterey
spineflower or on nesting or wintering western snowy plovers. The potential effects of the
Project on listed species known to occur in the area and designated critical habitat for two of
them are discussed in more detail below. Measures that will be incorporated into the project to
minimize these effects are discussed in Section 7.0.
6.1 Effects on Listed Plants
The proposed test well project is not expected to adversely affect any of the three listed plants
under consideration in this BA. The only special status plant species known to occur in the
action area is Monterey spineflower. Monterey gilia and Yadon’s wallflower were not found
during spring 2013 surveys. Monterey spineflower was found scattered throughout bare sand
areas adjacent to the access road but not within the active roadbed. The proposed schedule for
the test well project (October through February) would fall outside of the active growing season
for Monterey spineflower. While there may be some limited potential for seed bank disturbance
for Monterey spineflower, such effects would be minimal. Minimization measures identified
below (Section 7.0) are intended to reduce the potential for any effects on Monterey spineflower.
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6.2 Effects on Listed Animals
6.2.1 Smith’s blue butterfly
Because the proposed project would occur outside of the flight season for Smith’s blue butterfly,
no direct (e.g. windshield hits) or indirect (e.g. dust on the nectaries of buckwheat foodplants)
impacts on adult butterflies are expected. However, project related effects on pupal stages of
Smith’s blue butterfly could result from direct disturbance in close proximity to coast buckwheat
plants. Because all project-related activities would occur in previously disturbed areas, the
potential for disturbance in close proximity to any coast buckwheat plants would be very low.
Minimization measures identified below (Section 7.0) are intended to reduce the potential for any
effects on these plants.
6.2.2 Western snowy plover
The potential for direct impacts to nesting western snowy plovers has been minimized through
project design and scheduling (see below). However, there remains some potential for direct
effects on nesting habitat and indirect effects on wintering plovers’ roosting, foraging and pre-
nesting behavior.

Direct effects on nesting habitat could occur through disturbance of the short (about 100 feet)
segment of upper beach between the end of the existing Cemex facility access road and the
existing outfall junction structure. Trenching for a discharge pipeline and excavation of an area
approximately 20 to 30 feet in diameter at the junction structure location would occur within
plover nesting habitat during the non-breeding season. Monitoring records (Page et al 2010,
2011 & 2012) indicate that at least three nesting attempts have occurred in the immediate vicinity
of this area during the last three breeding seasons, with two successful hatches in 2011 and one in
2012 (Figure 5). Several more nesting records (undifferentiated by failure or success) exist for
that area over the course of Point Blue’s monitoring (Figure 5). Sand disturbance resulting from
trenching for the pipeline, excavation at the junction structure, and heavy equipment required for
such excavation could create uneven, compacted terrain that would not be removed by wave and
storm action prior to the breeding season. The effects of human-induced sand disturbance in
long-established plover nesting habitat are not well understood, but may affect localized breeding
behavior and nesting success.

Potential indirect effects on the wintering population of plovers along the Cemex shoreline and
nesting habitat just west of the test well could result from increased activity in the action area
over the 24-month operation period. During the non-breeding season, some of the most
frequently used roosting sites along the Cemex shoreline are located on the beaches just to the
north and south of the Cemex pond, though flocks can occur anywhere (Point Blue 2013, unpubl.
data). This area typically experiences little recreational use by humans (and their pets),
especially during the winter months, and is only subject to limited activity associated with
Cemex operations.
2
Consequently, roosting plovers in this area are accustomed to a relatively

2
The need to move the dredge anchors around the Cemex extraction pond requires periodic use of equipment around
the pond.
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low level of disturbance (activity that causes plovers to move or fly) compared with the more
accessible and public beaches to the south. An increase in disturbance to wintering flocks by
increased human activity in the area could cause roosting birds to move, fly or otherwise alter
their spatial distribution. However, because of their site fidelity and narrow habitat requirements,
snowy plovers typically have few alternative roosting sites (Lafferty 2001). In addition,
disturbance of wintering plovers may reduce foraging efficiency and opportunities for rest, which
in turn may deplete energy reserves and result in lower reproductive success (Brown et al 2000,
Burger 1994). In some cases, increased human disturbance can cause birds to abandon habitat
altogether (Burger, 1986).

A study conducted on wintering snowy plovers in Santa Barbara concluded that disturbance rates
are a function of the type of human activity, the frequency of activity and the distance between
the activity and snowy plovers (Lafferty 2001). In that study, snowy plovers were most
frequently disturbed when approached closely by people and animals, especially dogs. The
probability of disturbance decreased with distance between human activity and the roost;
relatively few people and dogs beyond 30 meters (just under 100 feet) were found to disturb
roosting plovers. There was also some evidence that plover feeding was affected by activity on
the beach.

Weekly access to the test well site by crew trucks over a 24 month period would increase regular
activity in the vicinity of roosting and nesting habitat. Because that activity would occur greater
than 100 feet from potential roost sites in an area that is buffered by topography and already used
by Cemex for its operations, potential disturbance to wintering plovers is expected to be minimal.
Regular monitoring in the area by Point Blue Conservation Science during the nesting season
would inform crews about nesting attempts in the area so that maintenance visits could be
scheduled and conducted to reduce disturbance to nesting birds. Further details and additional
minimization measures intended to reduce the potential for project-related effects on snowy
plover nesting habitat and winter roosting birds are identified below (Section 7.0).

6.3 Effects on Critical Habitat
6.3.1 Monterey spineflower
The Federal Register listing notice for Monterey spineflower critical habitat (75 FR 1525)
defines activities that may destroy or adversely modify critical habitat as those that alter the
essential physical and biological features to an extent that appreciably reduces the conservation
value of critical habitat for Monterey spineflower. It identifies such activities as (1) actions that
would degrade or destroy native maritime chaparral, dune, and oak woodland communities,
including, but not limited to, livestock grazing, clearing, disking, introducing or encouraging the
spread of nonnative plants, and heavy recreational use; and (2) actions that would appreciably
diminish habitat value or quality through indirect effects (e.g., edge effects, invasion of nonnative
plants or animals, or fragmentation).
All project-related activities would occur in previously disturbed areas that are not essential for
Monterey spineflower. The project would not cause the degradation or destruction of native
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dune communities in the vicinity because access through these areas would follow an existing
road currently used for the Cemex facility.
3
The project is also not expected to diminish the
value of the dune habitat such that it would preclude maintenance or establishment of Monterey
spineflower plants. Consequently, the project would not destroy or adversely modify critical
habitat for Monterey spineflower.
6.3.2 Western snowy plover
The adverse modification determination included with the designation of critical habitat for the
Pacific Coast distinct population unit of the western snowy plover (77 FR 36727) lists five
activities that may affect critical habitat: 1) management actions in snowy plover habitat; 2)
dredging and dredge spoil placement that permanently removes the essential physical or
biological features of the habitat; 3) construction and maintenance of facilities that interfere with
snowy plover nesting, breeding, or foraging, or that result in increases in predation; 4) storm
water and waste water discharge that could impact invertebrate abundance; 5) flood control
actions that alter the essential biological or physical features of the habitat.

The proposed project would incorporate several measures to avoid or minimize impacts on
breeding and wintering snowy plovers and their habitat (see below). All construction and
demobilization activities would be limited to the plover’s non-nesting season (October 1st
through February 28th). Project facilities would be located within existing disturbed areas on or
adjacent to the active Cemex access road. However, a limited area of plover nesting habitat
would be temporarily disturbed for the trenching and excavation required to connect the
discharge pipeline to the existing outfall junction structure. Nevertheless, the project is not
expected to alter essential physical and biological features to an extent that appreciably reduces
the conservation value of critical habitat for snowy plover.
7.0 MINIMIZATION AND MITIGATION MEASURES
In response to concerns expressed through early consultation with regulatory agencies (see
Section 2.0 above), construction and demobilization activities would occur in the fall and winter
months, outside of the breeding season for western snowy plovers, the flight season for Smith’s
blue butterfly and the blooming season for listed plants. The test well site has been shifted inland
to minimize or avoid disruption of the snowy plover nesting habitat. The construction zone
would be restricted to the previously disturbed Cemex access road area and a relatively short
(+100 ft.) section of the upper beach for connection to the existing outfall structure. The test
well pump would be a submersible pump and is not expected to generate noise or vibration that
would be detectable in the nearby snowy plover nesting area.

3
The Final Rule designating critical habitat for spineflower specifically excludes manmade structures (such as
buildings, aqueducts, airports, and roads) and the land on which such structures are located.
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7.1 Monterey Spineflower
7.1.1 Pre-construction flagging
A qualified biologist would conduct late season (August/September) surveys along the Cemex
access road prior to project initiation in an effort to flag the occurrences of spineflower that occur
within potential work areas. Monterey spineflower occurrences within 20 feet of the access road
and perimeters of the work areas will be identified and marked.
7.1.2 Habitat avoidance
Occupied habitat areas, as identified and flagged by a qualified biologist (see above), would be
avoided by the project to the extent feasible. In the event that any such areas occur within
proposed trenching, excavation or drilling sites, the biologist would establish appropriate buffers
and access procedures, which would be monitored during the term of the project (see below).
7.1.3 Timing of construction and operation
The project would commence on October 1
st
and continue through the winter months to February
28
th
. This five month period is outside of the active growing season for Monterey spineflower,
which is ephemeral; it generally germinates from seed in the spring with annual growth and
bloom cycles complete by autumn.
7.1.4 Biological resource education and monitoring
Prior to initiation of access or construction activities, a qualified biologist would be designated to
conduct an educational training session regarding the listed plant species with all construction
personnel. The training would include a description of the plants and their habitat preferences
with illustrations of each species (project timing would not allow field identification). The
biologist would also monitor equipment access in order to avoid disturbance to areas that support
Monterey spineflower as identified through the pre-construction flagging (see above).
7.2 Smith’s Blue Butterfly
7.2.1 Pre-construction surveys
A qualified biologist would conduct a survey with the appropriate project team members prior to
initiation of access or construction activities to identify and mark the electrical conduit trench
alignment to assure that no buckwheat plants would be disturbed. Buckwheat occurrences within
20 feet of the access road and work areas would also be identified and marked as necessary.
7.2.2 Avoidance of buckwheat
Buckwheat plants or clusters of plants, as identified and flagged by a qualified biologist (see
above), would be avoided by the project. The biologist would establish appropriate buffers and
access procedures for any buckwheat plants occurring within 20 feet of the existing access road,
which would be monitored during the term of the project (see below).
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7.2.3 Timing of construction and operation
Project construction would commence on October 1
st
and continue through the winter months to
February 28
th
. This five month period is well outside of the active flight season for adult Smith’s
blue butterflies. It is also outside of the active larval stage of the species. Pupae (the
overwintering or dormant stage of the life cycle) are typically found in the soil at the base of
buckwheat foodplants during this period, but avoidance of, and setbacks from any buckwheat
plants would avoid potential impacts to pupae of the butterfly.
7.2.4 Biological resource education and monitoring
Prior to initiation of access or construction activities, a qualified biologist would be designated to
conduct an educational training session regarding Smith’s blue butterfly with all construction
personnel. The training would include a description of the butterfly’s life cycle and habitat
preferences and identification of buckwheat along the access road. The biologist would also
monitor equipment access in order to avoid disturbance to buckwheat plants or encroachment
into areas supporting buckwheat.

7.3 Western Snowy Plover
7.3.1 Timing of construction and operation
Project construction and demobilization activities would commence on October 1
st
and continue
through the winter months to February 28
th
. This five month period is outside of the active
breeding and nesting season for western snowy plovers. The intent is to avoid disruption of
plover breeding behavior and eliminate all evidence of construction activities prior to the
beginning of plover breeding season (see below).
7.3.2 Project siting and configuration
The test well site would be located within the active Cemex access road area to minimize or
avoid disruption of potential snowy plover nesting areas along the shoreline. If required, noise
blankets would be installed to provide visual and sound attenuation during drilling operations.
The test well pump would be a submersible pump that is not expected to generate detectable
noise or vibration in snowy plover nesting areas once in operation. Features (wire excluders)
would be incorporated into the top of the above-ground electrical panel at the test well, if
necessary, to deter perching by avian predators (e.g. ravens and crows).
7.3.3 Construction limits
Construction activities would be restricted to the proposed construction area and access route.
No construction equipment, materials, or activity would occur outside the specified work areas.
No construction equipment or materials would be placed, nor would any activity occur on the
sandy upper beach area outside of the immediate construction zone.
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7.3.4 Trash and fuel management
Construction personnel would keep all food-related trash items in sealed containers and remove
them daily from the project site to discourage the concentration of potential predators in snowy
plover habitat (see also use of wire excluders in measure 7.3.3 above). Refueling of construction
equipment and vehicles would not occur in the project area. Construction personnel would check
and maintain equipment and vehicles operated in the project area daily to prevent leaks of fuels,
lubricants or other fluids, in compliance with applicable state and federal regulations.
7.3.5 Work area recontouring
Following completion of the drainage pipe connection to the existing outfall junction structure
and after all construction equipment has left the area, but before March 1
st
, the work area at the
end of the Cemex access road would be recontoured as determined necessary coordination with
representatives of Point Blue. The purpose for the recontouring would be to achieve the
optimum configuration possible for potential nesting plovers.
7.3.6 Sampling procedures during operation
A qualified biologist would consult with Point Blue monitors on a weekly basis during the plover
nesting season to stay current with nesting activity in the vicinity of the test well. The biologist
would coordinate weekly with any Cal Am personnel travelling to the test well during the 24
month operation period and accompany them as necessary during the nesting season based on
information received from Point Blue.
7.3.7 Biological resource monitoring and education
Several days or more prior to project construction, a qualified biologist, in consultation with
Point Blue, would field evaluate the nature and extent of wintering plover activity in the project
area to inform excavation and other construction decisions. Also prior to construction of access
or construction activities, the biologist would conduct an educational session with all
construction personnel to describe snowy plover wintering and breeding behavior, habitat
preferences, threats and other issues. The biologist would also monitor equipment access and
construction/operation activities along trench lines, at the wellhead site, and in the excavation
area for the outfall connection during the project term in order to avoid or minimize disturbance
to potential nesting habitat for snowy plovers and the overwintering flocks in the area.
8.0 CUMULATIVE EFFECTS
The data and experience gained from the project are intended to contribute to the siting and
design decisions for the potential future MPWSP project, which could involve a feedwater intake
system, a desalination plant, a brine conveyance and disposal system, and a desalinated water
conveyance system. Experience from the slant test well project to date would likely lead the
MPWSP project to similar siting and operational conclusions (e.g. maximizing use of existing
disturbed areas; limiting construction activities near the beach to the non-nesting season for
snowy plovers).

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Nonetheless, the MPWSP is a separate, potential future project requiring separate environmental
review and permitting. The slant test well would be a temporary permitted facility until March of
2016 and is independent of any future permanent desalination facility. In fact, the temporary
slant test well design precludes future permanent use due to lack of conveyance infrastructure.
Conversion of the temporary slant test well to a permanent well would require considerable
additional information such as conveyance, pumps and treatment, all of which would be
addressed as part of a separate CEQA and permitting process for the potential future MPWSP.

9.0 CONCLUSION AND DETERMINATION
The proposed Temporary Slant Test Well Project would occur in an area known to support three
federally listed plants, two listed animals and critical habitat for two of these species. However,
the specific locations, timing and operating procedures of project activities were selected to avoid
or minimize impacts to these species and critical habitat. All areas proposed for project-related
activities occur in previously disturbed areas. The proposed schedule for the test well project
construction (October through February) would fall outside of the growing season for the listed
plant species and the critical activity periods for the listed animals. Reasonable and prudent
minimization measures have been incorporated into the siting, design, construction and operation
of the project.

The proposed project is not expected to adversely affect any of the three listed plants under
consideration in this BA: Monterey gilia (Gilia tenuiflora ssp. arenaria), Yadon’s wallflower
(Erysimum menziesii ssp. yadonii) and Monterey spineflower (Chorizanthe pungens var.
pungens), or adversely modify critical habitat for the latter species. Similarly, the proposed
project is not expected to adversely affect the Smith’s blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi),
primarily because adults of that species are not present during the term of the project and
foodplants for the species would be avoided.

Impacts to nesting habitat for the western snowy plover (Charadrius nivosus nivosus) would be
very limited; potential effects on wintering behavior are not expected to harm the local
population of the species. With implementation of all the minimization measures proposed
above, the project is not likely to adversely affect the western snowy plover or appreciably
diminish the value or quality of its critical habitat.



10.0 REFERENCES
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butterfly at the Garland Ranch Regional Park in Carmel Valley, California.
Prepared for the Monterey Peninsula Regional Park District. Entomological
Consulting Services, Inc. Pleasant Hill, California. 29 pp and map

Brown, S., Hickey, C., Harrington, B. (Eds.) 2000. The US Shorebird Conservation Plan.
Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences, Manomet, MA.

Burger J . 1986. The effect of human activity on shorebirds in two coastal bays in the
northeastern United States. Environ. Conserv. 13: 123–130.

Burger, J . 1994. The effect of human disturbance on foraging behavior and habitat use in
piping plover Charadrius melodus. Estuaries 17, 695–701.

California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) 2013. California Natural Diversity
Data Base. CDFW Natural Heritage Division, Rancho Cordova, CA

California Department of Fish and Wildlife. Native Plant Program. The Status of Rare,
Threatened and Endangered Plants of California from 2000-2004
http://www.dfg.ca.gov/wildlife/nongame/t_e_spp/docs/2004/t_eplants.pdf

ESA 2012. E Zigas, King J . Special status species in the vicinity of the proposed test well
sites, Marina, CA. Memorandum prepared for California American Water,
Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project, J une 13, 2012. 3pp. and maps

Lafferty, K.D., 2001. Disturbance to wintering western snowy plovers. Biological
Conservation. 101: 315-325.

Lafferty, K.D., D. Goodman, and C.P. Sandoval., 2006. Restoration of breeding by snowy
plovers following protection from disturbance. Biodiversity and Conservation 15:
2217-2230.

Magoon, O. T., J . C. Haugen, and R. L Sloan., 1972. Coastal Sand Mining in Northern
California, USA., Proceedings, 13th International Conference on Coastal
Engineering, Vancouver, Canada, pages 1571-1597.

Neuman, K.K, L.A. Henkel, and G. W Page., 2008. Shorebird use of sandy beaches in
Central California. Waterbirds 31(1): 115-121

Page, G.W., J .S. Warriner, J .C. Warriner, and P.W.C. Patton., 1995. Snowy Plover
(Charadrius alexandrinus). In The Birds of North America, No. 154 (A. Poole
and F. Gill, eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and the
American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.



Page, G.W., K. Neuman, J .C. Warriner, J .S. Warriner, C. Eyster, J Erbes, D. Dixon, and
A. Palkovic. 2010. Nesting of the snowy plover at Monterey Bay and on beaches
on northern Santa Cruz County California in 2010. Report of PRBO Conservation
Science, Publication #1776, Petaluma, CA. 23 pp.

Page, G.W., K. Neuman, J .C. Warriner, J .S. Warriner, C. Eyster, J Erbes, D. Dixon, and
A. Palkovic. 2011. Nesting of the snowy plover in the Monterey Bay Area,
California in 2011. Report of PRBO Conservation Science, Publication #1833,
Stinson Beach, CA. 23 pp

Page, G.W., K. Neuman, J .C. Warriner, J .S. Warriner, C. Eyster, J Erbes, D. Dixon, and
A. Palkovic. 2012. Nesting of the snowy plover in the Monterey Bay Area,
California in 2012. Report of PRBO Conservation Science, Publication #1898,
Stinson Beach, CA. 26 pp

PRBO Conservation Science 2013. Unpublished data and analysis from PRBO
monitoring activities. Memorandum from Kris Neuman to Mike Zander via email
on March 27, 2013. 4pp.

Reveal, J .L. and C.B. Hardham. 1989. A revisionof the annual species of Chorizanthe
(Polygonaceae: Eriogonoideae). Phytologia 66(2):98—198

Ruhlen, T.D., S. Abbott, L.E. Stenzel and G.W. Page. 2003. Evidence that human
disturbance reduces Snowy Plover chick survival. J ournal of Field Ornithology
74(3): 300-3004.

Thomas Reid Associates 1997. Marina Dunes Plan, Supporting Technical Studies.
Prepared for Marina Coastal Zone Planning Task Force. Palo Alto, CA.

USFWS 1984. Smith's Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan. Portland, Oregon. November 9,
1984. 67 pp.

USFWS 1992. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; Six plants and Myrtle's
silverspot butterfly from coastal dunes in northern California determined to be
endangered. Final Rule. Federal Register 57:27848-27859. J une 22, 1992.

USFWS 1998. Seven Coastal Plants and the Myrtle's Silverspot Butterfly Recovery Plan.
Portland, Oregon. September 29, 1998. 141 pp.

USFWS 2005b. Biological opinion for Bureau of Land Management ongoing activities
on Fort Ord public lands, Monterey County, California ((1-8-04-F/C-22). Fish and
Wildlife Service. Ventura, California. December 30, 2005



USFWS 2006. Smith's blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi) 5-Year Review:
Summary and Evaluation. Ventura, California. September 2006. 25 pp.

USFWS 2007. Recovery Plan for the Pacific Coast Population of the Western Snowy
Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus). Sacramento, California. August 13,
2007. 274 pp. plus appendices.

USFWS 2008a. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; Designation of critical
habitat for the Monterey spineflower (Chorizanthe pungens var. pungens). Final
Rule. Federal Register 73:1525-1554. J anuary 9, 2008.

USFWS 2008b. Menzie's Wallflower (Erysimum menziesii) 5-Year Review: Summary
and Evaluation. Arcata, California. J une 2008. 41 pp.

USFWS 2008c. Monterey Gilia (Gilia tenuiflora ssp. arenaria) 5-Year Review:
Summary and Evaluation. Ventura, California. March 2008. 29 pp.

USFWS 2009. Monterey Spineflower (Chorizanthe pungens var. pungens) 5-Year
Review: Summary and Evaluation. Ventura, California. J anuary 2009. 17 pp.

USFWS 2012a. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: Revised designation of
critical habitat for the Pacific Coast population of the western snowy plover. Final
Rule. Federal Register 77:36727-36869. J une 19, 2012.

USFWS 2012b. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; Designation of critical
habitat and taxonomic revision for the Pacific Coast population of the western
snowy plover. Proposed Rule. Federal Register 77:2243-2254. J anuary 17, 2012.

Zoger, A. and B. Pavlik. 1987. Marina Dune Rare Plant Survey. Report prepared for
Marina Coastal Zone Planning Task Force.


11.0 LIST OF CONTACTS/CONTRIBUTORS/PREPARERS
Zander Associates
Environmental Consultants
4460 Redwood Hwy, Suite 16-240
(415) 897-8781 (phone)
(415) 814-4125 (fax)
Michael Zander, Principal
Leslie Zander, Principal

RBF Consulting
40810 County Center Drive, Suite 100
Temecula, CA 92591
(951) 676-8042 (phone)
(951) 676-7240 (fax)
Kevin Thomas, CEP
Environmental Services Manager

The Project Applicant is:

California American Water
4701 Beloit Drive
Sacramento, California 95838
(916) 568-4296 (phone)
(916) 466-4535 (fax)
Richard Svinland. P.E.

Persons Contacted

Ambrosius, J oyce. NOAA Fisheries (NMFS). Santa Rosa, CA
Arnold, Richard, Ph.D. Entomological Consulting Services, Limited. Pleasant Hill
California.
Dixon, Dave. Point Blue Conservation Science, Petaluma, CA.
Hendrickson, Beth. California Office of Mine Reclamation. Sacramento, CA
Hoover, Bridget. Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Monterey. CA
Marinovic, Baldo, Ph.D. Associate Research Biologist, Oceanography and Ocean
Processes, Long Marine Laboratory, University of California, Santa Cruz.
Martin, J acob. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ventura Field Office.
Neuman, Kriss. Point Blue Conservation Science, Petaluma, CA.
Page, Gary. Point Blue Conservation Science, Petaluma, CA.
Palkovic, Amy. California Department of Parks and Recreation. Marina, CA
Sanderson, Brandon. California Department of Fish and Wildlife. Fresno, CA
Wilkens, Eric. California Department of Fish and Wildlife. Fresno, CA
Wilson, Ronald D. Manager, Land Use Permits, Pacific Region, Cemex. El Dorado Hills,
CA




TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM




BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT
MPWSP
EXPLORATORY BORINGS PROGRAM
PACKAGE 1 – CEMEX ACTIVE MINING AREA







Prepared for:

RBF Consulting
40810 County Center Drive, Suite 100
Temecula, CA 92591






Prepared by:

Zander Associates
4460 Redwood Hwy, Suite 16-240
San Rafael, California 94903






J une 2013

Zander Associates
Biological Resources Assessment – Exploratory Borings, Package 1
J une 2013 1
BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT
MPWSP EXPLORATORY BORINGS PROGRAM
PACKAGE 1 – CEMEX ACTIVE MINING AREA

Zander Associates is providing this evaluation of the Exploratory Borings Program, Package 1
project, proposed by California American Water (Cal Am) to identify and discuss potential
project effects on biological resources. The exploratory borings are being proposed to gather
technical data related to feasibility of a subsurface intake system for a potential future
desalination project. The data will be used to facilitate design and intake siting for the separately
proposed slant test well and slant wells for the full-scale Monterey Peninsula Water Supply
Project (MPWSP).

Our evaluation is based on review of background materials including a current query of the
California Natural Diversity Data Base (CDFW 2013), surveys of existing biological resources
in the project area completed by ESA Biological Services (Memorandum dated J une 13, 2012),
recent monitoring reports on western snowy plover prepared by PRBO Conservation Science
(December 2012), and other documents. We consulted with resource agency personnel and
acknowledged authorities in particular habitats and species known to occur in the project area
and conducted reconnaissance-level surveys of the project area on September 20, 2012, March 5,
2013, and April 25, 2013.
1
This latter visit involved a complete floristic survey within 100 feet
of either side of the existing Cemex access road at an appropriate time of year to identify most of
the special status plants that might occur in the project area (see below).

Location and General Site Characteristics

The Package 1 Project of the Exploratory Borings Program includes three boring locations, all of
which are located on lands owned by Cemex (APN 203-011-019-000) within the limits of the
City of Marina (Figure 1). The borings would be sited adjacent to the unimproved roadway used
by Cemex to access the sand mining pond (Figure 2) and all would be accessed via this road.
For purposes of this assessment, the project area includes an approximate 200-foot-corridor
along the existing Cemex access roads from the eastern Cemex site entrance all the way to its
western end (Figure 2). This area is comprised of developed industrial facilities and disturbed,
formerly mined coastal sand dunes.

Project Description

Three exploratory borings are planned for the Package 1 Project: CB-1, CB-2, and CB-4 (Figure
2). For each boring, a track-mounted diesel powered sonic drilling rig would be used to collect
the core samples (Figure 3). The work area needed for the drill rig, support equipment, and area
to layout the core samples at each boring location would be approximately 50 feet by 30 feet.
No fences or additional security measures would be required around the drill rig sites.
Exploratory borings would extend down to 350 feet at all three locations. Core samples would
be collected, bagged and carried off-site for further sampling and analysis. Boring holes would
be back-filled with cement.

1
Zander Associates did not conduct species-specific surveys for all special-status plants and animals that could
potentially occur in the project area.
Boring Locations
D
u
n
e
s

R
d
S
a
l
i
n
a
s

R
i
v
e
r
R
e
s
e
r
v
a
t
i
o
n

R
d
L
a
p
i
s

R
d
Marina Dunes
Preserve
CEMEX
D
e
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M
o
n
t
e

B
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v
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H
w
y

1
Site Location
MPWSP
Exploratory Borings, Package 1
Marina, California
Zander Associates
Environmental Consultants
4460 Redwood Hwy, Suite 16-240
San Rafael, CA 94903
Figure
1
0 0.5 0.25 Miles
Legend
Boring Locations
Parcel Boundary
Boring Locations
CB-1
CB-2
CB-4
Zander Associates
Environmental Consultants
4460 Redwood Hwy, Suite 16-240
San Rafael, CA 94903
Figure
2
0 200 100 Feet
Legend
Boring Locations
Study Area Boundary
Project Study Area
MPWSP
Exploratory Borings, Package 1
Marina, California
Track-Mounted Drill Rig
MPWSP
Exploratory Borings, Package 1
Marina, California
Zander Associates
Environmental Consultants
4460 Redwood Hwy, Suite 16-240
San Rafael, CA 94903
Figure
3
Zander Associates
Biological Resources Assessment – Exploratory Borings, Package 1
J une 2013 5
Drilling is planned for summer 2013; mobilization, drilling, and demobilization would be
completed during a three day period and the drilling rig would only be operated during the
daylight hours.

Site Protection during Construction: All construction work will occur in the active/disturbed
areas of the Cemex site. The CB-1 location (at the western end of the Cemex access road), will
be field evaluated by the project biologist in consultation with PRBO, to avoid significant
impacts to western snowy plover. If there are still active snowy plover nests in close proximity
to CB-1 at the preferred time of drilling, additional avoidance/minimization measures will be
applied at the direction of the Project biologist and PRBO such that no adverse effects occur to
snowy plover (see below).

Existing Conditions

The operations area at the Cemex Lapis Sand Plant includes administrative buildings, sand
processing facilities and areas of disturbed dune characterized by beach sands and Aeolian sand
dunes of the Flandrian complex overlying Pre-Flandrian dune deposits. The area covers about
104 acres and is the subject of an approved Reclamation Plan (CA Mine ID #91-27-0006). The
project area includes an approximate 200-foot-corridor along the existing Cemex access roads
from the eastern Cemex site entrance all the way to its western end.

The road from the site entrance to the vicinity of the wet processing plant is paved and passes
through the Cemex facility on either side. No dune habitat (or any native habitat, disturbed or
otherwise) occurs in this area based on observations during site reconnaissance visits on
September 20, 2012, March 5, 2013 and April 25, 2013. From the Cemex facility westerly to the
beach, the road consists of unvegetated, compacted sand with disturbed dunes on either side
(Photo 1).
2
A redwood lined flume parallels the road on the north and carries process water to
settling ponds near the beach end of the road (Photo 2). It is along this portion of the road where
all three boring sites will be located.

During the March 5
th
and April 25
th
site visits, no undisturbed dune habitat was observed within
100 feet of either side of the unpaved road (Photo 3 and Photo 4). Where vegetation was present,
iceplant (Carpobrotus spp.) was dominant, but occasional occurrences of native plants such as
beach sagewort (Artemisia pycnocephala), mock heather (Ericameria ericoides), sand verbena
(Abronia sp.), beach knotweed (Polygonum paronychia), and beach evening primrose
(Cammissonia cheiranthifolia) were observed. During the April 25
th
plant survey, Monterey
spineflower (Chorizanthe pungens var. pungens) was found in bare sand areas within the project
study area, and in some cases extended up to the edge of the road, but was not found within the
active roadbed. Individuals of coast buckwheat (Eriogonum latifolium), a host plant for the
Smith’s blue butterfly, were also encountered within about 20 feet of the road, primarily on the
northerly side of the flume adjacent to the road.


2
A railroad spur formerly ran along the south side of this road out to the beach, but has since been removed.
Zander Associates
Biological Resources Assessment – Exploratory Borings, Package 1
J une 2013 6



Photo 1: Access road through Cemex facility looking west




Photo 2: Flume parallel to access road through Cemex facility looking east



Zander Associates
Biological Resources Assessment – Exploratory Borings, Package 1
J une 2013 7



Photo 3: Stockpiles along both sides of Cemex facility access road




Photo 4: West end of Cemex access road in approximate vicinity of CB-1


Zander Associates
Biological Resources Assessment – Exploratory Borings, Package 1
J une 2013 8
Special Status Species & Critical Habitat

Several species of plants and animals that are listed as threatened or endangered under the
federal and/or state endangered species acts (ESA & CESA, respectively) are known from or
could potentially occur in the project area. Designated critical habitat for one of these species,
Monterey spineflower (Chorizanthe pungens var. pungens), includes the project area. Some
plant species known to occur in the area are listed by the California Native Plant Society
(CNPS), and some animals are considered species of special concern by the California
Department of Fish and Wildlife (formerly Fish and Game). In addition, the City of Marina
Local Coastal Land Use Plan (LUP) lists rare and endangered species for dune habitat areas
within the plan area (LUP Exhibit ‘A’).

Table 1 presents the results of a current search of CNDDB records within a three mile radius of
the exploratory boring project area. It also includes those species listed in LUP Exhibit A that
are otherwise not found in current CNDDB records.
3
Listing status, habitat characteristics and
an assessment of actual or potential presence or absence in the project area are provided for each
species.

Spring (April, May & J une 2012) survey work conducted in dune and strand areas on the Cemex
property by ESA Biological Services (Environmental Science Associates J une 13, 2012) found
special status plant species, including a sizeable population (6,000 to 8,000 plants) of the state
and federally endangered Yadon’s wallflower, the federally listed Monterey spineflower, the
CNPS listed (1B) coast wallflower (Erysimum ammophilum), and suitable habitat for others,
including the state threatened and federally endangered Monterey sand gilia (Gilia tenuiflora ssp.
arenaria). Coast buckwheat (Eriogonum latifolium), a host plant for the federally endangered
Smith’s blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi) was also observed in high densities throughout
the study area for those surveys.

During field visits by Zander Associates biologists on September 20, 2012 and March 5, 2013,
numerous individual coast buckwheat plants were observed along the east-west access road
through the Cemex facility. Emerging basal rosettes of several individuals of E. menziesii were
also observed on March 5
th
, approximately 400 feet south of the access road, where less
disturbed dune areas occurred. During the April 25, 2013 survey, Zander Associates biologists
again observed coast buckwheat plants, primarily on the north side of the road and no closer than
about 15 feet from the road's edge. Monterey spineflower was just beginning its growing season,
but was relatively abundant in some areas, often growing in sandy areas directly adjacent to the
access road. However, no Monterey spineflower was found within the active roadbed. No other
special status plant species were observed in the project area during the April 25
th
survey, but
reference locations for many of the potential species were observed that same day to confirm the
appropriate timing of the survey (see Table 1). Protocol-level, site specific surveys for special
status animals that could use habitat in the project study area (e.g. legless lizards [Anniella
pulchra], coast horned lizard [Phrynosoma coronatum]) were not conducted during any of these
visits.

3
Some of the species listed in Exhibit A (e.g. bush lupines, coast buckwheat) were included by association with
other special status species (e.g. legless lizards, Smith’s blue butterfly) and have no formal legal status. Others were
once candidates for federal listing status (e.g. globose dune beetle) but were dropped from consideration due to
insufficient data to make any listing decision. Nonetheless, all of the species listed in LUP Exhibit A are included
and assessed in Table 1.


9

Table 1: Special Status Species Evaluated for Potential to Occur within the Exploratory Borings Program Package 1 Project Study Area*
PLANTS Status
1
Fed/CA/CNPS
Habitat and Blooming Period Assessment
2
Arctostaphylos pumila
(Sandmat manzanita)
--/--/1B.2 Closed-cone coniferous forest, chaparral, coastal dines, and
cismontane woodland habitats; sandy soil with other chaparral
associates; blooms February through May (evergreen)
Possible occurrence in undisturbed dune
habitats in general vicinity but not observed or
expected w/in project study area boundary
Astragalus tener var. titi
(coastal dunes milk-vetch) E/E/1B.1
Low ground, alkali flats, and flooded lands in coastal bluff
scrub or coastal dunes along the coast; blooms March through
J une
Only limited and localized records for this
plant in Monterey County. Habitats in project
area not appropriate; not expected to occur.
Castilleja latifolia #
(Seaside paintbrush)
--/--/4.3 Coastal strand, northern coastal scrub; perennial herb found on
dunes in Monterey Bay area; blooms March through August.
Observed in undisturbed dune habitats in
general vicinity but not observed or expected
within project study area boundary.
Chorizanthe pungens var. pungens
(Monterey spineflower)

T/--/1B.2 Coastal dunes, chaparral, cismontane woodland, and coastal
scrub habitats in Monterey and Santa Cruz counties; blooms
April through J une
Found in disturbed areas adjacent to Cemex
access road but not found or expected to
colonize active roadbed.
Ericameria fasciculata #
(Eastwood’s golden bush)
--/--/1B Sandy openings of closed-cone coniferous forest, maritime
chaparral, coastal scrub or coastal dune habitats in Monterey
County; blooming period J uly through October
Probable occurrence in undisturbed dune
habitats in general vicinity but not observed or
expected within project study area boundary.
Eriogonum latifolium #
(Coast buckwheat)
na Common on dunes and coastal areas along the Monterey
County shoreline. Species is not protected but is host plant for
Smith’s blue butterfly. Blooms May through Sept.
Observed within study area and in general
vicinity, but not expected to colonize Cemex
access road or other project areas.
Eriogonum parvifolium #
(Seacliff buckwheat)
na Common on dunes and coastal areas, especially along the
southern Monterey County shoreline and extending inland.
Species is not protected but is host plant for Smith’s blue
butterfly. Blooms May through Sept
Possible occurrence in undisturbed dune
habitats in general vicinity but not found or
expected within project study area boundary.
Erysimum ammophilum
(Coast wallflower)
--/--/1B.2 Chaparral (maritime), coastal dunes, coastal scrub. Sandy
openings; blooms February through J une.
Known occurrence in dune habitats in general
vicinity but not expected within project study
area boundary.
Erysimum menziesii ssp. yadonii
(Yadon’s wallflower) E/E/1B.1
Very localized variety of species limited in range to Monterey
and two other counties; occurs on coastal dunes; blooms
March through J une.
Known occurrence in dune habitats in general
vicinity but not expected within project study
area boundary.
Gilia tenuiflora ssp. arenaria
(Sand gilia)

E/T/1B.2 Cismontane woodland, maritime chaparral, coastal scrub and
dune habitats in Monterey County, in particular bare, wind-
sheltered areas near dune summits or hind dunes; blooms April
through May.
Known occurrence in dune habitats in general
vicinity but not found or expected within
project study area boundary.
Horkelia cuneata ssp. sericea
(Kellogg’s horkelia)

--/--/1B.1 Closed-cone coniferous forest, chaparral, and coastal scrub
habitats, old dunes and coastal sand hills; blooms April
through September.
Probable occurrence in undisturbed dune
habitats in general vicinity but not expected
within project study area boundary.
Lupinus spp. #
(Bush lupines)
na Both purple and yellow bush lupines (L. chamissonis & L.
arboreus) are common along the Monterey County shoreline;
neither is protected. Blooms April through J uly
Known occurrence in dune habitats in general
vicinity but not expected within project study
area. Included in Marina LUP because of
association with legless lizards (see below).



10
Table 1 (Cont.): Special Status Species Evaluated for Potential to Occur within the Exploratory Borings Program Package 1 Project Area *
ANIMALS Status
1

Fed/CA
Habitat

Assessment
2

INVERTEBRATES
Coelus globosus #
(Globose dune beetle)
na Extensive geographic range along coastal California but
habitat is restricted to foredunes immediately bordering the
sea in open or sparsely vegetated loose sand above the mean
high tide line.
Possible occurrence at wrack line and in
strand and foredune areas nearby project area.
No suitable habitat within project study area,
not expected to occur.
Euphilotes enoptes smithi
(Smith’s blue butterfly)
E/-- Most commonly found in coastal dunes and coastal sage scrub
plant communities in Monterey and Santa Cruz counties.
Found in association with host plant, Eriogonum latifolium
and Eriogonum parvifolium, which are utilized as both larval
and adult food plants.
Probable occurrence on coast buckwheat in
study area but all buckwheat will be avoided
by project.
FISH
Eucyclogobius newberryi
(tidewater goby)
E/CSC Brackish water habitats along the California coast fromAgua
Hedionda Lagoon, San Diego County to the mouth of the
Smith River. Found in shallow lagoons and lower stream
reaches, they need fairly still but not stagnant water and high
oxygen levels
Nearest record is at mouth of Salinas River.
Very unlikely to occur in marine environment
along Cemex shoreline and will not be
affected by project.
AMPHIBIANS / REPTILES
Rana draytonii
(California red-legged frog)
T/CSC Lowlands and foothills in or near permanent sources of deep
water within streams, marshes, and occasionally ponds with
dense, shrubby, or emergent riparian vegetation.
Nearest record is at Salinas River; no suitable
habitat in project area and will not be affected
by project.
Emys marmorata
(Western pond turtle)
--/CSC Requires aquatic habitats with permanent or persistent water
and protected areas for basking such as partially submerged
rocks or logs, floating vegetation mats or open mud banks.
Nearest record is at Salinas River; no suitable
habitat in project area and will not be affected
by project.
Anniella pulchra
(California legless lizard)
--/CSC Sandy or loose loamy soils usually in dune substrates with
sparse vegetation, especially mock heather & bush lupine.
Soil moisture is essential. Black variant found in Monterey
and Morro Bay areas.
Probable occurrence in undisturbed dune
habitats in general vicinity but not expected in
disturbed areas along and in Cemex access
road or other project areas.
Phrynosoma coronatum (blainvillii)
(Coast horned lizard)

--/CSC Frequents a wide variety of habitats, mostly common in
lowlands along sandy washes with scattered low bushes. Open
areas for sunning, bushes for cover, patches of loose soil for
burial, and abundant supply of ants and other insects.
Probable occurrence in undisturbed dune
habitats in general vicinity but not expected in
disturbed areas along and in Cemex access
road or other project areas.
BIRDS
Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus
(Western snowy plover)
T/CSC Federal listing applies to nesting sites of pacific coastal
populations only. For nesting, require sandy, gravelly or
friable soils that are found on sandy beaches, salt pond levees
and shores of large alkali lakes. Winter roosting sites often
based on history of use
Known summer nesting and winter roosting
habitat nearby project study area.
Athene cunicularia
(Burrowing owl)
--/CSC Ground nester in open dry annual or perennial grasslands,
deserts and scrublands with low-growing vegetation, depends
on burrowing mammals (i.e. California ground squirrel).
Could occur in sand hills, grasslands and other
areas in general vicinity, but no suitable
habitat in project study area



11
Table 1 (Cont.): Special Status Species Evaluated for Potential to Occur within the Exploratory Borings Program Package 1 Project Area *
BIRDS (Cont.)
Agelaius tricolor
(Tricolored blackbird t)
--/CSC Highly colonial species, most numerous in Central Valley and
vicinity, requires open water, protected nesting substrate and
foraging area with insect prey within a few kmof the colony.

No suitable habitat in project area and will not
be affected by project.
Buteo regalis
(Ferruginous hawk)

--/-- Open grasslands, sagebrush flats, desert scrub, low foothills
and fringes of pinyon-juniper habitats. East mostly
lagomorphs, ground squirrels and mice. Population trends may
follow lagomorph population cycles.
No suitable habitat in project area and will not
be affected by project.
Eremophila alpestris actia
(California horned lark)

--/-- Coastal regions, chiefly fromSonoma County to San Diego
County. Also main part of San J oaquin Valley and east to
foothills. Short grass prairie, Bald Hills, mountain meadows,
open coastal plains, fallow grain fields, alkali flats.
No suitable habitat in project area and will not
be affected by project.
MAMMALS
Dipodomys heermanni goldmani #
(Salinas kangaroo rat)
na A variety of a common and widespread species known to
colonize grasslands, fallow agricultural lands and other upland
habitats. Not listed at either the state or federal level.
No suitable habitat in project area and will not
be affected by project.
Reithrodontomys megalotis distichlis
(Salinas harvest mouse)
--/-- Known only fromthe Monterey Bay region. Occurs in fresh
and brackish water wetlands and probably in the adjacent
uplands around the mouth of the Salinas River.
No suitable habitat in project area and will not
be affected by project.


1. Status Explanations
Federal (Fed)
E =listed as endangered under thefederal Endangered Species Act
T =listed as threatened under thefederal Endangered Species Act
D =delisted
-- =no designation

California State (CA)
R =listed as rareunder theCalifornia Endangered Species Act
E =listed as endangered under theCalifornia Endangered Species Act
T =listed as threatened under theCalifornia Endangered Species Act
CE – candidatefor endangered under theCalifornia Endangered Species Act
CSC =California Department of Fish and GameSpecies of Special Concern
-- =no designation
California Native Plant Society (CNPS)
1B =plants considered rare, threatened or endangered in Californiaand elsewhere.
1B.1 =seriously endangered in CA
1B.2 =fairly endangered in CA
1B.3 =not very endangered in CA
4 =Plants of limited distribution; a watch list
4.3 =not very threatened in CA

2. Findings based on literaturereview, field surveys and assessment of habitat types present, and knowledgeof species habitat requirements.

*Source: Search of theCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife's Natural Diversity Database(CDFW 2013) occurrences and theCalifornia NativePlant Society's On-lineInventory
(CNPS 2013) for theMarina and Moss Landing 7.5-minuteUSGS quadrangles.

#Species listed in City of Marina LUP, Exhibit A, that areotherwisenot found in current CNDDB records.
Zander Associates

Biological Resources Assessment – Exploratory Borings, Package 1
J une 2013

12

The beach adjacent to the project area has been identified as both important nesting and
wintering habitat for the western snowy plover as a result of nearly 30 years of monitoring by
PRBO. The most recent nesting data available (2012 nesting season) identified about 38 nesting
attempts with 23 successfully hatched along that stretch of beach (PRBO 2012). The nests are
typically located between the spring and summer wrack zone and the base of the foredunes.
However, some nests have been located around the Cemex pond and adjacent to the portion of
the Cemex access road that is within the project study area (Figure 4). The sparsely vegetated
foredunes and sand hummocks immediately bordering the sea (typically no more than
approximately 50 meters inland from the mean high tide line) provide habitat for the globose
dune beetle but there is no suitable habitat for globose dune beetle within the project study area.

Potential Impacts

The project has been designed to avoid or minimize impacts on special status species; it has been
sited completely within previously disturbed areas and away from the coastal dunes, strand and
shoreline habitats. However, activities associated with the work could result in direct or indirect
effects on Monterey spineflower or nesting western snowy plovers. The potential effects of the
project on special status species known to occur in the area and designated critical habitat for one
of them are discussed in more detail below. Measures that will be incorporated into the project
to minimize and mitigate these effects are discussed in the following section.

Potential Effects on Special Status Plants: The Exploratory Borings Package 1 Project is not
expected to adversely affect any special status plants. The only special status plant species
known to occur in the project study area is Monterey spineflower. All of the other plant species
listed in Table 1 are typically found in relatively undisturbed dune habitats and none were
observed or are expected to occur within the project study area. Monterey spineflower was
found scattered throughout bare sand areas adjacent to the access road but not within the active
roadbed. In order to avoid direct effects on Monterey spineflower, the work areas for each of the
three proposed boring locations will need to be sited outside of occupied habitat. While there
may be some limited potential for seed bank disturbance for Monterey spineflower, this effect
would be minimal in the context of ongoing operational activities at the Cemex facility.
Minimization and mitigation measures identified below are intended to reduce the potential for
any effects on Monterey spineflower.

Potential Effects on Special Status Animals: Only four of the special status animal species
listed in Table 1 potentially occur within the project area. These species include Smith’s blue
butterfly, California legless lizard, coast horned lizard and western snowy plover. Other special
status animal species with occurrence records within a three mile radius can be dismissed based
on the habitat characteristics in the project area, location of project facilities, operational
procedures and other factors (see Table 1). Following is an assessment of potential project
impacts on each of the four animal species known, or with some potential, to occur in the study
area.

CB-1
CB-2
CB-4
Zander Associates
Environmental Consultants
4460 Redwood Hwy, Suite 16-240
San Rafael, CA 94903
Figure
4
0 200 100 Feet
Legend
Boring Locations
Hatched Plover Nests 2012
Hatched Plover Nests 2011
Hatched Plover Nests 2010
Failed Plover Nests 2012
Failed Plover Nests 2010
Plover Nest Locations Before 2010
Study Area Boundary
Special Status Species Locations
MPWSP
Exploratory Borings, Package 1
Marina, California
Sources: RBF Consulting
PRBO Conservation Science
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• Smith’s blue butterfly: Drilling operations are proposed to occur in summer, within the
flight season for Smith’s blue butterfly. However, direct (e.g. windshield hits) or indirect
(e.g. dust on the nectaries of buckwheat foodplants) impacts on adult butterflies are not
expected to occur for the following reasons. The majority of buckwheat plants were
found north of the access road. Butterflies that may be using these plants are likely to
move about in that general vicinity; not necessarily crossing the road in large numbers.
The drill rig is track-mounted and will move slowly along the access road to reach each
boring location, thereby reducing the potential for windshield hits and minimizing
fugitive dust. Because all project-related activities would occur in previously disturbed
areas where buckwheat plants were not found, the potential for disturbance in close
proximity to the butterfly's hostplant would be very low. Minimization and mitigation
measures identified below are intended to reduce the potential for any effects on Smith's
blue butterfly.
• California legless lizard: This fossorial (burrowing) species can be found in a number of
habitats in dunes and sandy areas, from immediately above high tide, the crest of sand
dunes, and the edge of the hind dunes to inland sandy areas associated with oak
woodlands, grasslands, maritime chaparral and other habitats. Legless lizards burrow in
sand and leaf litter beneath plants growing in these habitats and feed on insects and other
invertebrates; some plant cover is required to support insects that, in turn, serve as food
for the lizards. Because dune habitats with native vegetation will be avoided by the
project, no adverse impacts on legless lizards are expected. Minimization and mitigation
measures identified below are intended to reduce the potential for any effects on legless
lizards.
• Coast horned lizard: Coast horned lizards inhabit open country, especially sandy areas,
washes, flood plains, and wind-blown deposits in a wide variety of habitats, including
coastal dunes, shrublands, woodlands, riparian habitats and annual grassland. Warm,
sunny, open areas with sparse vegetation are primary habitat requirements, along with
patches of loose soil where the lizard can bury itself. The disturbed, compacted and
unvegetated roadbed through the Cemex facility does not provide suitable habitat for the
coast horned lizard. Minimization and mitigation measures identified below are intended
to reduce the potential for any effects on coast horned lizards.
• Western snowy plover: Because drilling operations are proposed within the plover's
nesting season, there is some potential for direct effects on nesting habitat, primarily for
boring location CB-1. The other two borings – CB-2 and CB-4 – are far enough inland
and out of line of sight from nests that direct or indirect effects on plover nesting habitat
are not expected to occur. Since CB-1 will be located at the west end of the access road,
nearby plover nesting habitat, drilling operations could disrupt active nesting activities if
they occur in close proximity to the drill site. The minimization and mitigation measures
identified below are intended to reduce the potential for project-related effects on snowy
plover nesting habitat.

Potential Effects on Critical Habitat: The potential effects on designated critical habitat for
Monterey spineflower are discussed below.

• Monterey spineflower: The Federal Register listing notice for Monterey spineflower
critical habitat (73 FR 1525) defines activities that may destroy or adversely modify
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critical habitat as those that alter the essential physical and biological features to an extent
that appreciably reduces the conservation value of critical habitat for Monterey
spineflower. It identifies such activities as (1) actions that would degrade or destroy
native maritime chaparral, dune, and oak woodland communities, including, but not
limited to, livestock grazing, clearing, disking, introducing or encouraging the spread of
nonnative plants, and heavy recreational use; and (2) actions that would appreciably
diminish habitat value or quality through indirect effects (e.g., edge effects, invasion of
nonnative plants or animals, or fragmentation).

All project-related activities would occur in previously disturbed areas that are not
essential for Monterey spineflower. The project would not cause the degradation or
destruction of native dune communities in the vicinity because access through these areas
would follow an existing road currently used by Cemex .
4
The project is also not
expected to diminish the value of the dune habitat such that it would preclude
maintenance or establishment of Monterey spineflower plants. Consequently, the project
would not destroy or adversely modify critical habitat for Monterey spineflower.

Minimization and Mitigation Measures

Monterey spineflower: The following measures are intended to avoid or further minimize and
mitigate potential impacts to Monterey spineflower that may occur in the study area.
• Pre-construction surveys: A qualified biologist will conduct a survey with the
appropriate project team members prior to equipment mobilization to identify and mark
the work areas for each of the three borings to assure that no Monterey spineflower will
be disturbed. Monterey spineflower occurrences within 20 feet of the access road and
perimeters of the work areas will be identified and marked.
• Habitat avoidance: The designated work area for each boring will be clearly delineated
with rope line or fencing and project activities will be restricted to that specific area.
Access to the work areas will be along the existing Cemex access road. Where Monterey
spineflower occurs within 20 feet of the access road, the biologist will establish
appropriate buffers and access procedures for the drilling operations (see below).
• Biological resource education and monitoring: Prior to mobilization of equipment or
initiation of drilling operations, a qualified biologist would be designated to conduct an
educational training session regarding Monterey spineflower with all construction
personnel. The training would include a description of the plant and its habitat
preferences with onsite identification and/or illustrations. The biologist would also
monitor equipment access in order to avoid disturbance to areas that support or could
support Monterey spineflower as identified through the pre-construction surveys (see
above).

Smith’s blue butterfly: The following measures are intended to avoid or further minimize
potential impacts to Smith’s blue butterfly in the study area.
• Pre-construction surveys: A qualified biologist will conduct a survey with the
appropriate project team members prior to equipment mobilization to identify and mark
the work areas for each of the three borings to assure that no buckwheat plants will be

4
The Final Rule designating critical habitat for spineflower specifically excludes manmade structures (such as
buildings, aqueducts, airports, and roads) and the land on which such structures are located.
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disturbed. Buckwheat occurrences within 20 feet of the access road and work areas will
also be identified and marked as necessary.
• Avoidance of buckwheat: Buckwheat plants or clusters of plants, as identified and
marked by a qualified biologist (see above), would be avoided by the project. The
biologist would establish appropriate buffers and access procedures for any buckwheat
plants occurring within 20 feet of the existing access road, which would be monitored
during drilling operations (see below).
• Biological resource education and monitoring: Prior to mobilization of equipment or
initiation of drilling operations, a qualified biologist would be designated to conduct an
educational training session regarding Smith’s blue butterfly with all construction
personnel. The training would include a description of the butterfly’s life cycle and
habitat preferences and identification of buckwheat along the access road. The biologist
would also monitor equipment access in order to avoid disturbance to buckwheat plants
or encroachment into areas supporting buckwheat.

California legless lizard: The following measures are intended to avoid or further minimize and
mitigate potential impacts to California legless lizard in the study area.
• Habitat avoidance: Areas potentially suitable to support legless lizards, especially areas
of sparsely vegetated loose sand with bush lupines, mock heather and other dune shrubs,
would be avoided by the project. In the event that any such areas occur within 20 feet of
the existing access road or boring locations, a qualified biologist would establish
appropriate buffers and access procedures, which would be monitored during the term of
the project (see below).
• Biological resource education and monitoring: Prior to mobilization of equipment or
initiation of drilling operations, a qualified biologist would be designated to conduct an
educational training session regarding the legless lizard with all construction personnel.
The training would include a description of the lizard’s life cycle and habitat preferences,
illustrations of the species and identification of potentially suitable habitat. The biologist
would also monitor equipment access in order to avoid disturbance to potentially suitable
habitats or encroachment into areas potentially supporting the legless lizard.

Coast horned lizard: The following measures are intended to avoid or further minimize and
mitigate potential impacts to coast horned lizard in the study area.
• Habitat avoidance: Areas potentially suitable to support coast horned lizards, especially
areas of sparsely vegetated loose sand with native dune shrubs, would be avoided by the
project. In the event that any such areas occur within 20 feet of the existing access road
or boring locations, a qualified biologist would establish appropriate buffers and access
procedures, which would be monitored during the term of the project (see below).
• Biological resource education and monitoring: Prior to mobilization of equipment or
initiation of drilling operations, a qualified biologist would be designated to conduct an
educational training session regarding the coast horned lizard with all construction
personnel. The training would include a description of the lizard’s life cycle and habitat
preferences and identification of potentially suitable habitat areas. The biologist would
also monitor equipment access in order to avoid disturbance to potentially suitable
habitats or encroachment into areas potentially supporting the coast horned lizard.

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Western Snowy Plover: The following measures are intended to avoid or further minimize and
mitigate potential impacts to western snowy plover in the study area.
• Pre-drilling evaluation: A qualified biologist will be present prior to and during drill rig
setup to stake off the work areas with the drilling contractor to ensure that drilling
activities avoid any impacts to nesting plovers. Prior to initiation of drilling operations at
boring location CB-1, the biologist will coordinate with PRBO and review current (J une-
J uly-August 2013) nest monitoring data to determine the location and status of active
nests and broods within 200 feet of the western end of the Cemex access road.
• Avoidance of Nesting Disturbance: If the biologist and PRBO determine that there are
active nests in close enough proximity to CB-1 at the proposed time of drilling that they
could be disturbed by drilling operations, then the nesting activity will be monitored and
drilling at CB-1 would not commence until the young in those nests have fledged and/or
nesting has not been reinitiated in the area. If adults and chicks are still using the area
late into the summer, drilling of CB-1 may not occur until the official end of the nesting
season (October 1
st
). Also, the contractor may be directed to install noise blankets at CB-
1 as determined necessary by the biologist. The decisions to allow drilling operations to
commence at boring location CB-1 prior to the end of the nesting season and
determination of any further minimization measures would be made in consultation with
the USFWS.
• Project operation limits: Drilling activities would be restricted to the designated work
areas and access route. No construction equipment, materials, or activity would occur
outside of these work areas.
• Trash management: Construction personnel would keep all food-related trash items in
sealed containers and remove them daily from the work areas to discourage the
concentration of potential predators in snowy plover habitat.
• Biological resource monitoring and education: Prior to mobilization of equipment or
initiation of drilling operations, a qualified biologist would conduct an educational
session with all construction personnel to describe snowy plover nesting behavior, habitat
preferences, threats and other issues. The biologist would also monitor equipment access
and drilling operations to assure avoidance of active nesting areas or encroachment into
areas potentially used by snowy plovers.

Conclusion

The Exploratory Borings, Package 1 project would occur adjacent to an area of coastal dune,
strand and shoreline habitat known to support several special status species of plants and animals
and within designated critical habitat for one federally listed species. However, the specific
locations of project activities were selected to avoid or minimize impacts to sensitive habitats
and special status species. All proposed boring locations occur in previously disturbed areas.
The proposed schedule for the drilling operation (J uly or August) would fall within the growing
season for Monterey spineflower and the nesting period for western snowy plover. Reasonable
and prudent minimization and mitigation measures have been incorporated into the siting and
operation of the project.

The proposed project is not expected to affect any of the special status plants under consideration
herein or adversely modify critical habitat for Monterey spineflower. Similarly, the proposed
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project is not expected to affect Smith’s blue butterfly, California legless lizard or coast horned
lizard, primarily because the habitats of these animals will be avoided.

Impacts to nesting habitat for the western snowy plover would be avoided with implementation
of all the minimization and mitigation measures proposed above. Therefore, the project is not
likely to result in significant effects on the western snowy plover or appreciably diminish the
value or quality of its habitat.
Zander Associates



References

Brown, S., Hickey, C., Harrington, B. (Eds.) 2000. The US Shorebird Conservation Plan.
Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences, Manomet, MA.

Burger J . 1986. The effect of human activity on shorebirds in two coastal bays in the
northeastern United States. Environ. Conserv. 13: 123–130.

Burger, J . 1994. The effect of human disturbance on foraging behavior and habitat use in piping
plover Charadrius melodus. Estuaries 17, 695–701.

California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) 2013. California Natural Diversity Data
Base. CDFW Natural Heritage Division, Rancho Cordova, CA

California Department of Fish and Wildlife. Native Plant Program. The Status of Rare,
Threatened and Endangered Plants of California from 2000-2004
http://www.dfg.ca.gov/wildlife/nongame/t_e_spp/docs/2004/t_eplants.pdf

Environmental Science Associates 2012. E Zigas, King J . Special status species in the vicinity of
the proposed test well sites, Marina, CA. Memorandum prepared for California American
Water, Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project, J une 13, 2012. 3pp. and maps

Lafferty, K.D., 2001. Disturbance to wintering western snowy plovers. Biological Conservation.
101: 315-325.

Lafferty, K.D., D. Goodman, and C.P. Sandoval., 2006. Restoration of breeding by snowy
plovers following protection from disturbance. Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 2217-
2230.

Neuman, K.K, L.A. Henkel, and G. W Page., 2008. Shorebird use of sandy beaches in Central
California. Waterbirds 31(1): 115-121

Page, G.W., J .S. Warriner, J .C. Warriner, and P.W.C. Patton., 1995. Snowy Plover (Charadrius
alexandrinus). In The Birds of North America, No. 154 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and the American Ornithologists'
Union, Washington, D.C.

Page, G.W., K. Neuman, J .C. Warriner, J .S. Warriner, C. Eyster, J Erbes, D. Dixon, and A.
Palkovic. 2010. Nesting of the snowy plover at Monterey Bay and on beaches on
northern Santa Cruz County California in 2010. Report of PRBO Conservation Science,
Publication #1776, Petaluma, CA. 23 pp.
Zander Associates



Page, G.W., K. Neuman, J .C. Warriner, J .S. Warriner, C. Eyster, J Erbes, D. Dixon, and A.
Palkovic. 2011. Nesting of the snowy plover in the Monterey Bay Area, California in
2011. Report of PRBO Conservation Science, Publication #1833, Stinson Beach, CA. 23
pp

Page, G.W., K. Neuman, J .C. Warriner, J .S. Warriner, C. Eyster, J Erbes, D. Dixon, and A.
Palkovic. 2012. Nesting of the snowy plover in the Monterey Bay Area, California in
2012. Report of PRBO Conservation Science, Publication #1898, Stinson Beach, CA. 26
pp

PRBO Conservation Science 2013. Unpublished data and analysis from PRBO monitoring
activities. Memorandum from Kris Neuman to Mike Zander via email on March 27,
2013. 4pp.

Thomas Reid Associates 1997. Marina Dunes Plan, Supporting Technical Studies. Prepared for
Marina Coastal Zone Planning Task Force. Palo Alto, CA.

USFWS 2008. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; Designation of critical habitat for
the Monterey spineflower (Chorizanthe pungens var. pungens). Final Rule. Federal
Register 73:1525-1554. J anuary 9, 2008.

USFWS 2012. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: Revised designation of critical
habitat for the Pacific Coast population of the western snowy plover. Final Rule. Federal
Register 77:36727-36869. J une 19, 2012.

Zoger, A. and B. Pavlik. 1987. Marina Dune Rare Plant Survey. Report prepared for Marina
Coastal Zone Planning Task Force.
Zander Associates



List of Contacts/Contributors/Preparers

Zander Associates
Environmental Consultants
4460 Redwood Hwy, Suite 16-240
(415) 897-8781 (phone)
(415) 814-4125 (fax)
Michael Zander, Principal
Leslie Zander, Principal

RBF Consulting
40810 County Center Drive, Suite 100
Temecula, CA 92591
(951) 676-8042 (phone)
(951) 676-7240 (fax)
Kevin Thomas, CEP
Environmental Services Manager

The Project Applicant is:

California American Water
4701 Beloit Drive
Sacramento, California 95838
(916) 568-4296 (phone)
(916) 466-4535 (fax)
Richard Svinland. P.E.

Persons Contacted

Ambrosius, J oyce. NOAA Fisheries (NMFS). Santa Rosa, CA
Arnold, Richard, Ph.D. Entomological Consulting Services, Limited. Pleasant Hill California.
Hendrickson, Beth. California Office of Mine Reclamation. Sacramento, CA
Hoover, Bridget. Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Monterey. CA
Marinovic, Baldo, Ph.D. Associate Research Biologist, Oceanography and Ocean Processes,
Long Marine Laboratory, University of California, Santa Cruz.
Martin, J acob. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ventura Field Office.
Neuman, Kriss. PRBO Conservation Science, Petaluma, CA.
Page, Gary. PRBO Conservation Science, Petaluma, CA.
Palkovic, Amy. California Department of Parks and Recreation. Marina, CA
Sanderson, Brandon. California Department of Fish and Wildlife. Fresno, CA
Wilkens, Eric. California Department of Fish and Wildlife. Fresno, CA
Wilson, Ronald D. Manager, Land Use Permits, Pacific Region, Cemex. El Dorado Hills, CA








Attachment G – Cultural Resources Assessment
C U L T U R A L R E S O U R C E S A S S E S S ME N T
Monterey Peni nsul a Water Suppl y Sl ant Test Wel l Proj ect
Ci t y of Mari na and Uni ncorporat ed Monterey County, Cal i forni a


Prepared for:
Sarp Sekeroglu
RBF Consulting
9755 Clairemont Mesa Boulevard, Suite 100
San Diego, California 92124-1324
Prepared by:
David Brunzell, M.A., RPA and Kara Brunzell, M.A.
BCR Consulting LLC
1420 Guadalajara Place
Claremont, California 91711
Project No. RBF1302

National Archaeological Data Base Information:
Type of Study: Class III Cultural Resources Assessment/Inventory
Resources Recorded: None
Keywords: City of Marina, Unincorporated Monterey County
USGS Quadrangle: 7.5-minute Marina, California (1983)



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MANAGEMENT SUMMARY
BCR Consulting LLC (BCR Consulting) is under contract to RBF Consulting to conduct a
Class III Cultural Resources Assessment of the Monterey Peninsula Water Supply (MPWS)
Slant Test Well Project in the City of Marina, Monterey County and portions of
unincorporated Monterey County, California. A reconnaissance-level pedestrian cultural
resources survey of the Area of Potential Effects (APE) was performed in partial fulfillment of
requirements of 36 CFR Part 800, the regulations implementing Section 106 of the National
Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (Section 106 of the NHPA), as amended. BCR Consulting
has completed a cultural resources records search and field survey, and initiated Native
American Consultation, for the APE. The records search revealed that 19 cultural resources
studies have taken place resulting in the recording of one cultural resource within one-mile
of the APE. Of the 19 previous studies, one has previously assessed portions of the APE,
resulting in the recording of no cultural resources within its boundaries.

During the field survey, BCR Consulting archaeologists did not discover any cultural
resources (including prehistoric or historic archaeological sites or historic buildings) within
the MPWS Slant Test Well Project APE. As a result, BCR Consulting recommends a finding
of no historic properties affected for this undertaking. BCR Consulting also recommends that
no additional cultural resources work or monitoring is necessary during proposed project
activities associated with the development of the APE. However, if previously
undocumented cultural resources are identified during earthmoving activities, a qualified
archaeologist should be contacted to assess the nature and significance of the find,
diverting construction excavation if necessary. Results of the Native American Consultation
are provided in Appendix B.

If human remains are encountered during the undertaking, State Health and Safety Code
Section 7050.5 states that no further disturbance shall occur until the County Coroner has
made a determination of origin and disposition pursuant to Public Resources Code Section
5097.98. The County Coroner must be notified of the find immediately. If the remains are
determined to be prehistoric, the Coroner will notify the Native American Heritage
Commission (NAHC), which will determine and notify a Most Likely Descendant (MLD). With
the permission of the landowner or his/her authorized representative, the MLD may inspect
the site of the discovery. The MLD shall complete the inspection within 48 hours of
notification by the NAHC.



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TABLE OF CONTENTS
MANAGEMENT SUMMARY .................................................................................................... ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... iii
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 1
AREA OF POTENTIAL EFFECTS AND UNDERTAKING ...................................................... 1
NATURAL SETTING ............................................................................................................... 1
CULTURAL SETTING ............................................................................................................ 3
PREHISTORY ................................................................................................................... 3
ETHNOGRAPHY .............................................................................................................. 4
HISTORY .......................................................................................................................... 4
PERSONNEL .......................................................................................................................... 7
METHODS .............................................................................................................................. 8
RESEARCH ...................................................................................................................... 8
FIELD SURVEY ................................................................................................................ 8
RESULTS ............................................................................................................................... 8
RESEARCH ...................................................................................................................... 8
FIELD SURVEY ................................................................................................................ 9
RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................................... 9
CERTIFICATION .................................................................................................................. 10
REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................... 11

FIGURES
1: Area of Potential Effects Map ........................................................................................... 2

TABLES
A: Prehistoric Periods of California’s Central Coast .............................................................. 3
B: Cultural Resources and Reports Within One Mile of the APE .......................................... 8

APPENDICES
A: CONSTRUCTION EXHIBITS OF AREA OF POTENTIAL EFFECTS
B: NATIVE AMERICAN CONSULTATION
C: PERSONNEL QUALIFICATIONS
D: PROJECT PHOTOGRAPHS

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INTRODUCTION
Brunzell Cultural Resource Consulting (BCR Consulting) is under contract to conduct a
Class III Cultural Resources Assessment of the Monterey Peninsula Water Supply (MPWS)
Slant Test Well Project in the City of Marina, Monterey County, and unincorporated portions
of Monterey County, California. The work is being performed in partial fulfillment of
requirements of 36 CFR Part 800, the regulations implementing Section 106 of the National
Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (Section 106 of the NHPA), as amended.

AREA OF POTENTIAL EFFECTS AND UNDERTAKING
The Area of Potential Effects (APE) is located in a non-sectioned portion of Township 14
South, Range 1 East, Mount Diablo Baseline and Meridian. It is depicted on the United
States Geological Survey (USGS) Marina, California (1983) 7.5-minute topographic
quadrangle (Figure 1). A construction plan and siting area exhibit depict the proposed test
well facilities in greater detail in Appendix A. In general, the MPWS Project will utilize 7 to 10
slant wells similar to this test well to extract up to 25 million gallons per day (MGD) of
seawater from under the ocean floor. The water produced by these wells will be the feed
water that will be desalinated through a reverse osmosis (RO) process at the proposed
MPWS Project desalination plant. The goals and objectives of the slant test well program
are to:

• Obtain actual field data concerning geologic, hydrogeologic, and water quality
characteristics of the Sand Dunes Aquifer, Salinas Valley Aquitard, and 180-Foot
Aquifer. This information will then be used to finalize the number, capacity, location,
and design criteria of the MPWS Project intake wells; and to improve the precision of
ground water modeling that is required to determine the fraction of the extracted
water that will come from inland sources.

• Operate the test well for a sufficient period to predict the length of operation that will
be required for the extracted water to reach stable salinity. This information will be
used to develop a start-up plan for the MPWS Project desalination plant.

• Verify and refine information required to obtain permits for implementation of the
MPWSP intake wells.

• Verify and refine construction means and methods, schedule requirements, and
avoidance measures for implementation of the MPWS Project intake wells.

• Discharge the well product water into the existing Monterey Regional Water Pollution
Control Authority’s outfall, which generally runs beneath the access road. This
connection would be accomplished by a short subsurface pipeline to an existing
manhole in the outfall.

NATURAL SETTING
The elevation of the APE is approximately 10 above mean sea level. Coastal strand native
habitat has historically dominated the area (see Williams et al. 2008:136) and coastal dunes
define the local topography. Most of the local vegetation currently consists of non-native ice
Test Well
Figure 1
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 0.125
Miles
0 1
Kilometers
´
Reference: Topo! 2010 National Geographic; USGS Quad: Marina (1983), CA
Area of Potential Effect
MPSWP Slant Test Well Project
RBF Consulting
9755 Caliremont Mesa Blvd. Suite 100
San Diego, CA 92124-1324
Project Location
Vicinity Map
0 50 100
Miles
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plant with some native buckwheat also present. The proposed test well site is located within
the swash zone adjacent to a beach that could potentially be snowy plover habitat. The
Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge is located approximately two miles to the north of the
APE, and exhibits coastal dunes, beaches, salt marshes, saline ponds, grasslands, and
riparian habitats (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2012). Local rainfall averages approximately
19 inches per year, and the runoff flows from east-southeast to west-northwest. Soils
include beach sands mixed with some rocks and shell, which have not yielded evidence of
prehistoric or historic cultural utility within the APE.

CULTURAL SETTING
Prehistory
Evidence for human occupation of the Central Coast first appears during the early
Holocene. Humans proliferated globally during this era due to gradual environmental
warming that marked the close of the last ice age. Changes in settlement patterns and
subsistence focus are widely cited as adaptations to the new conditions and have been
organized into a number of chronological frameworks for the region (see Moratto 1984,
Warren and Crabtree 1986, and others). Although a matter of some dispute among
archaeologists, the most widely accepted prehistoric cultural setting for California’s Central
Coast utilizes six sequentially organized periods. These periods have been based upon
archaeological evidence for cultural hallmarks indicated by the presence of particular
diagnostic artifact assemblages, and the results of related settlement and subsistence
pattern and site interaction studies. Such studies have indicated human habitation of the
region as far back as 9,000 years before present (see Greenwood 1972 and others). A
summary of the chronological periods and relevant citations is summarized in Table A.

Table A. Prehistoric Periods of California’s Central Coast
Period Cultural Hallmarks Notable Artifacts Citations
Early Holocene
(Pre-6500 BC)
Low population densities;
reliance on plants, shellfish,
and some vertebrates.
Flaked stone tools. Moratto 1984;
Erlandson 1994
Millingstone
(6500-3500 BC)
Populations expand due to
new reliance on seeds for
dietary supplements
evidenced by milling stones.
Flaked stone tools accompany
hand stones and milling-slab style
grinding implements.
Erlandson 1994,
1988, 1991;
Glassow 1992;
Jones et al. 1989;
Wallace 1978
Early Period
(3500-600 BC)
Larger, relatively mobile
populations exhibit more
regular and continuous use of
habitation sites. Seed
grinding is more heavily
emphasized.
Flaked stone tools, grinding
implements include hand stones
and milling-slabs; mortars and
pestles appear.
Glassow and
Wilcoxon 1988;
Jones et al. 1994
Middle Period
(600 B.C.-A.D.
1000)
More systematic hunting,
fishing, plant processing;
trading relationships
established; fish and acorns
highly exploited; development
of food storage.
Earlier artifacts continue along with
increased use of body ornaments,
higher diversity of obsidian and
beads than previously, shell
fishhooks; flaked stone tool kit is
diversified to include stemmed
projectile points.
Glassow and
Wilcoxon 1988; King
1990


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Table A (Continued). Prehistoric Periods of California’s Central Coast
Period Cultural Hallmarks Notable Artifacts Citations
Middle-Late
Transitional (AD
1000-1250)
Continued systematic
resource exploitation; social
complexity including political
complexity, and social
ranking. Settlement shifts to
the interior.
Grinding implements unchanged;
flaked stone tool kit adds smaller
leaf-shaped projectile points that
indicates introduction of the bow
and arrow.
Arnold 1992; Jones
et al. 1994; Jones et
al. 2007
Late Period (A.D.
1300-1769)
Social and political complexity
and population continues to
increase; economies
introduced. Settlement shifts
back to coast.
Projectile points and other highly
specialized flaked stone tools,
bedrock mortars, hopper mortars,
and beads.
Jones et al. 2007

Ethnography
The APE is situated within the traditional boundaries of the Mutsun sub-group of the
Costanoan people, who occupied the region during the Late Period (see Table A).
Costanoan territory ranges from the southern San Francisco Bay in the north, along the
coast to the Sur River forming the southern boundary, and is bounded on the east by
California’s Diablo Range (Levy 1978:485). The Costanoan designation is linguistic, and
comprises eight distinct languages that were divided into approximately 50 autonomous
tribelets (Levy 1978:485; Kroeber 1925). Like many other California natives, the Costanoans
relied on hunting and gathering for subsistence, although their relatively sedentary
settlement pattern and high population fostered careful land management traditions. Acorns
were a staple, while roots, berries, and various other vegetation and terrestrial and marine
mammals supplemented their diet (see Crespi 1927; Galvan 1968).

History
Historic-era California is generally divided into three periods: the Spanish or Mission Period
(1769 to 1821), the Mexican or Rancho Period (1821 to 1848), and the American Period
(1848 to present).

Spanish Period. The Spanish period (1769-1821) is represented by exploration of the
region; establishment of Mission San Antonio de Padua and Mission San Miguel; and the
introduction of livestock, agricultural goods, and European architecture and construction
techniques. Spanish influence continued to some extent after 1821 due to the continued
implementation of the mission system.

Mexican Period. The Mexican period (1821-1848) began with Mexican independence from
Spain and continued until the end of the Mexican-American War (Cleland 1941). The
Secularization Act resulted in the transfer, through land grants (called ranchos) of large
mission tracts to politically prominent individuals. At that time cattle ranching was a more
substantial business than agricultural activities, and trade in hides and tallow increased
during the early portion of this period. Until the Gold Rush of 1849, livestock and horticulture
dominated California's economy (Beattie and Beattie 1974).

American Period. The American Period, 1848–Present, began with the Treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo. In 1850, California was accepted into the Union of the United States
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primarily due to the population increase created by the Gold Rush. The cattle industry
reached its greatest prosperity during the first years of the American Period. Mexican Period
land grants had created large pastoral estates in California, and demand for beef during the
Gold Rush led to a cattle boom that lasted from 1849–1855. However, beginning about
1855, the demand for beef began to decline due to imports of sheep from New Mexico and
cattle from the Mississippi and Missouri Valleys. When the beef market collapsed, many
California ranchers lost their ranchos through foreclosure (Beattie and Beattie 1974). This
set the stage for the development of agricultural and municipal economies that proliferated
during 20
th
century and continue to this day.

City of Marina (quoted from City of Marina 2013). Dating back to (circa) 1868,
about 9,000 acres of land stretching north along the Pacific Ocean, and east along
the Salinas River, was owned by the late David Jacks and James Bardin. The land
block breakup began in 1885, when the Bardin heirs sold 1,372 acres to John
Armstrong for farmland and grazing. About a year later, 1,450 acres were sold,
named the Sand Hill Ranch. Four hundred acres near the ocean were sold to the
San Francisco Sand Company, which subsequently constructed a sand plant in
1906 [see also Lapis Sand Plant/Cemex Marina Plant section below]. Thus, a third
of the large block of land had been parceled out. In 1913, a land map designated
the general area “Bardin”, but this designation was short-lived. Within two years,
the area was known as “Locke-Paddon Colonies”, then “Paddonville”. In 1915, real
estate salesman William Locke-Paddon from San Francisco was looking for land to
sub-divide and found the breakup of the large Bardin and Jacks estate as an
opportunity. On May 29, 1915, Locke-Paddon purchased 1500 acres south of Sand
Hill Ranch designated as the “Pueblo Tract No. 1, City Lands of Monterey”
requiring him to obtain a loan of one thousand dollars through the auspices of C.F.
Reindollar, then president of the San Rafael Bank. Lock-Paddon then sold 5-acre
plots for about $75.00 an acre, hoping to create a future farming community.

People were slow in staking their claims, and many were not farmers but managed
to raise peas, potatoes, turnips, and cabbage, thereby enabling them to subsist on
their land, along with the rabbit stew (rabbits were plentiful in the area) and
sourdough bread that they concocted. Shelters consisted of unpainted wooden
shacks — tarpaper outside, cardboard inside — with the one-room dwellings
partitioned by burlap sacks. The Southern Pacific railroad laid tracks through the
middle of this land, and Locke-Paddon convinced the rail authorities to make a
“flag” stop to accommodate his clients coming from the San Francisco area. The
stop was called “Mile Post 117" later “Paddonville”, a name not especially
acceptable to Locke-Paddon, who preferred “Marina”, for his newly established
community and so renamed it in 1918. Portions of the land being developed were
set aside for a school and a church, both of which Locke-Paddon considered
essential to a well-organized community.

A Marina Post Office was established in April 1919, with Murtle E. Samuels as the
first Postmaster…Camp Gigling was constructed as an Army cavalry post, at what
is now known as the former Fort Ord East Garrison. A county road, now Carmel
Avenue, provided direct access from Marina to Camp Gigling and on to Spreckles
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and Salinas. In June of 1940, the Seventh Division of the United States Army, after
some twenty years of demobilization, was activated, training troops at a new Fort
Ord. This activity made some impact on the community of Marina, as it became a
“rest and relaxation” area for troops stationed at Fort Ord “Mortimers” was a
favorite gathering place for the off-duty soldiers for the available food, beverages,
and entertainment. Clarence Cosky and staff created pleasant, relaxing
surroundings for the young troops far away from home. [After World War II]
Marina’s population now numbered approximately 6,000 individuals. Many former
active duty military personnel utilized their GI Bill program to acquire their houses.
A home-owned grocery store was located on Carmel Avenue. Reservation Road
was mainly a “sand-dune” road, with Pavia’s Pizza House providing an alternative
among community restaurants.

Fort Ord military training build-up ensued due to the Korean conflict. With a short
supply of on-post military housing, Marina housing was in demand. The Southern
Pacific rail line through Marina carried much traffic. A passenger service called the
“Del Monte Special” would leave Monterey in the morning and return in the
evening, going to and from San Francisco. Marina was a stop in both directions,
and this service continued through about 1975. A pleasant feature of this trip
recalled by early residents, was the boarding of vendors in the vicinity of the
Castroville Stop selling coffee, doughnuts, or snacks. Commercial rail traffic
included Fort Ord equipment and personnel transported for military maneuvers to
other locations such as Ft. Lewis, Washington. Rail carloads of high-quality beach
sands, excavated from the Pacific Grove/Carmel coastline and used for optical and
commercial lenses, passed through Marina. Paradise Lodge, a motel added to the
Mortimer complex, was one of the first large accommodations of its kind in the city,
opening for business in 1953.

New street names were emerging at this time such as Mortimer Lane and Cosky
Drive, establishing a residential area developed by Joe Tate further out on Del
Monte Boulevard — and named to honor Clarence Cosky. Cosky died in 1976.
During this period, several elementary schools (part of the Marina Union School
District) and churches of various denominations were being built. More than a
dozen Civic and Veterans organizations are now located in the city, some with
founding dates back to this period. The Post Office moved across Palm Avenue in
1953 to its own building and remodeled. The Post Office eventually needed more
space and moved to a new and larger facility on Reservation and DeForest Road
in 1998. The former Post Office now houses Paige’s Security. In 1956, the Marina
Fire District was formed as an all-volunteer department, replacing service formerly
provided by the California Division of Forestry, located in Castroville. Reservation
Road began to develop as a commercial area, with El Rancho Shopping Center,
consisting of a home-owned grocery store, a women’s ready-to-wear store, and
other business establishments. Feeder streets connecting Reservation Road with
Carmel Avenue saw further residential development.

Pre-incorporation efforts were in progress for the Marina area, which was under the
jurisdiction of the Monterey County government and service. The first and second
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official incorporation attempts through the early 1970's failed…Marina voters
approved incorporation on November 5, 1975, by a 20 percent margin, and a City
Hall was established on Hillcrest Avenue...The official date of incorporation was
filed on November 13, 1975 by California Secretary of State March Fong Eu.
Marina’s form of government is a council-manager form of government. The city
became a Home-Rule City Charter (from a General Law City) with voter approval in
June 1998.

Lapis Sand Plant/Cemex Marina Plant. In 1906, the E.B. and A.L. Stone
Company purchased 400 acres of coastal land west of the Lapis Siding on the
Southern Pacific Railroad (Bradley 1917:20). The E.B. and A.L. Stone Company,
which was headquartered in San Francisco, operated several other quarries in
California. Early operations involved loading beach and dune sands into railroad
cars with minimal processing. Products included aggregate for concrete and
mortar and specialty sand for sandblasting, foundries, marble cutting, and railroad
track sand (Hart 1966:88). The company constructed two plant buildings, and by
1913 had constructed a railroad spur from the Southern Pacific Line to the ocean
(USGS 1913). By 1917 the Lapis Sand Plant was extracting between 1000 and
1200 tons of material per day (Bradley 1917:20-21).

The Bay Development Company purchased the Lapis Sand Plant in 1918, and
operated the plant for the next two decades (Hart 1966:88). In 1929, Pacific Coast
Aggregates, which later changed its name to Pacific Cement and Aggregates, Inc.,
purchased the plant (Hart 1966:88). By mid-century washing, screening, and
sometimes drying steps had been added to the sand extraction process (Hart
1966:88). In 1959, Pacific Cement and Aggregate, Inc. stopped using recently
deposited beach and dune sand and began extracting coarser sand from a beach
deposit buried in the dunes ¼ mile east of the beach. The company used a suction
dredger to extract sand from a dredge pond, and hydraulically classified it into eight
different size ranges (Hart 1966:88 – 89). In 1960, Pacific Cement and Aggregate,
Inc. constructed a screening and drying facility next to the classifying section (Hart
1966:89). By 1961, sand products were being shipped both wet and dry, in sacks
and in bulk, and by both truck and rail. Prices for dried sand ranged from $5.20 -
$10.20 per ton (Hart 1966:89).

By 1972, Lone Star Industries had absorbed Pacific Cement and Aggregate, Inc.
and owned the sand plant (Magoon 1972). The railroad spur from the Lapis tracks
was removed circa the late 1990s. The main line along Lapis road remains intact
(USGS 1983). Cemex, an international building materials company based in
Mexico, purchased the Lapis Sand Plant in 2005 (Coastal Sediment Management
Workgroup 2008). Cemex continues to operate the plant as a hydraulic sand mine,
selling approximately three million tons of the sand extracted on site each year
(Berner 2008).

PERSONNEL
David Brunzell, M.A., RPA acted as the Project Manager and Principal Investigator for the
current study. Mr. Brunzell performed the cultural resources records search at the Northwest
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Information Center (NWIC) located in Rohnert Park, California. Mr. Brunzell also completed
the field survey and teamed with Kara Brunzell, M.A. (staff Architectural Historian) to
compile the technical report. Personnel qualifications are provided in Appendix C.

METHODS
Research
Prior to fieldwork, an archaeological records search was conducted at the NWIC. This
included a review of all recorded historic and prehistoric cultural resources, as well as a
review of known cultural resources, and survey and excavation reports generated from
projects located within one mile of the APE (summarized in Table B). In addition, a review
was conducted of the National Register of Historic Places (National Register), the California
Register of Historical Resources (California Register), and documents and inventories from
the California Office of Historic Preservation including the lists of California Historical
Landmarks, California Points of Historical Interest, Listing of National Register Properties,
and the Inventory of Historic Structures. Additional research was completed through local
archives and repositories, internet resources, and the California State Lands Commission
Shipwrecks Database.

Field Survey
An archaeological pedestrian field survey of the APE was conducted on March 5, 2013. The
survey was conducted by walking parallel transects spaced approximately 15 meters apart
across 100 percent of the APE. The surface was carefully inspected for evidence of cultural
resources.

RESULTS
Research
Data from the NWIC revealed that 19 cultural resource studies have taken place resulting in
the recording of one cultural resource within a one-mile radius of the APE. The nearest
cultural resource was a historic period railroad grade, recorded approximately one mile
southeast of the APE. Of the 19 previous studies, two have previously assessed portions of
the APE, resulting in the recording of no cultural resources within its boundaries.

Table B. Cultural Resources and Reports Within One Mile of the APE
USGS 7.5 Minute
Quadrangle
Cultural Resources
Within One Mile of APE
Reports Within One Mile of APE
Marina, California (1983) P-27-2417


E-48*, E-137, E-224, E-614, E-14001, MT-17494,
MT-22657, MT-23937, MT-30832, MT-31328,
MT-31346, MT-36240, MT-37725, MT-32920, S-
9552, S-9636, S-12218*, S-14001, S-16462
*Previously assessed portions of the APE.

Additional research has revealed the former presence of railroad tracks within the portion of
the APE connecting the CEMEX Lapis Plant to the beach. The tracks were present in 1913
(USGS 1913) and remained in place until at least 1983 (USGS 1983; see Figure 1). The
tracks comprised part of the mining operation that has locally procured, processed, and
distributed sands for various construction and industrial uses during the past century. The
San Francisco Sand Company started mining sand locally in 1906, and the operation
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continues to function as the CEMEX Lapis Plant (Coastal Sediment Management
Workgroup 2008, USGS 1913; see also Lapis Sand Plant/Cemex Marina Plant section
above). A shipwrecks database query of the California State Lands Commission Shipwrecks
Database failed to yield records of any shipwrecks within a mile of the APE (see
http://shipwrecks.slc.ca.gov/). Furthermore, the archaeological records search performed at
the Northwest Information Center did not indicate a high likelihood for submerged cultural
resources related to shipwrecks in the vicinity of the proposed project.

Field Survey
During the field survey, David Brunzell carefully inspected the APE, and identified no cultural
resources/historic properties within its boundaries. Surface visibility was very high within the
APE. Ground disturbances were noted within the access route, which has been graded flat
and impacted by mechanized vehicles and foot traffic. Disturbances were also noted in the
swash zone and along the beach, which is subject to heavy erosion from ocean turbulence
and the dredge mine operation. Photographs taken during the field survey are provided in
Appendix D.

RECOMMENDATIONS
BCR Consulting conducted a Class III Cultural Resources Assessment of the MPWS Slant
Test Well Project in the City of Marina, Monterey County, and unincorporated portions of
Monterey County, California. This work was completed pursuant to Section 106 of the
NHPA, as amended. The records search and field survey did not identify any cultural
resources (including prehistoric or historic archaeological sites or historic buildings) within
the APE. Furthermore, research results combined with surface conditions have failed to
indicate sensitivity for buried cultural resources. Please note that the APE for the current
project is limited to the Lapis Sand Plant/Cemex Marina Plant’s proposed slant well and
associated features. Construction of the proposed slant well and associated features will not
impact the plant buildings or their setting. Based on these results, BCR Consulting
recommends a finding of no historic properties affected for this undertaking. BCR Consulting
also recommends that no additional cultural resources work or monitoring is necessary
during the proposed undertaking. However, if previously undocumented cultural resources
are identified during earthmoving activities, a qualified archaeologist should be contacted to
assess the nature and significance of the find, diverting construction excavation if
necessary.

If human remains are encountered during the undertaking, State Health and Safety Code
Section 7050.5 states that no further disturbance shall occur until the County Coroner has
made a determination of origin and disposition pursuant to Public Resources Code Section
5097.98. The County Coroner must be notified of the find immediately. If the remains are
determined to be prehistoric, the Coroner will notify the Native American Heritage
Commission (NAHC), which will determine and notify a Most Likely Descendant (MLD). With
the permission of the landowner or his/her authorized representative, the MLD may inspect
the site of the discovery. The MLD shall complete the inspection within 48 hours of
notification by the NAHC.

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CERTIFICATION
I hereby certify that the statements furnished above and in the attached appendices present
the data and information required for this archaeological report, and that the facts,
statements, and information presented are true and correct to the best of my knowledge and
belief.


Date: June 25, 2013



David Brunzell
Authorized Signature Printed Name
Registered Professional Archaeologist (RPA)

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REFERENCES
Arnold, Jeanne E.
1992 Complex Hunter-Gatherer-Fishers of Prehistoric California: Chiefs, Specialists, and
Maritime Adaptations of the Channel Islands. American Antiquity 57:60-84.

Beattie, George W., and Helen P. Beattie
1974 Heritage of the Valley: San Bernardino’s First Century. Biobooks: Oakland.

Berner, Andrew D.
2008 “Sand Mining on the Monterey Bay, September 2008. Sierra Club, Ventana
Chapter. Electronic Document: http://ventana.sierraclub.org/conservation
/marina/sand_mining.shtml, Accessed April 24, 2013.

Bradley, Walter W.
1917 Mines and Mineral Resources of the Counties of Monterey, San Benito, San Luis
Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura. California State Printing Office.

City of Marina
2013 Marina’s History. Electronic Document: http://www.ci.marina.ca.us/documents/8/
Marina %20History.PDF, accessed March 12, 2013.

Cleland, Robert Glass
1941 The Cattle on a Thousand Hills—Southern California, 1850-80. San Marino,
California: Huntington Library.

Coastal Sediment Management Workgroup
2008 Layer: CEMEX Mine Dredge Pond. Electronic Document: http://arcserve.lawr.
ucdavis.edu/arcgis/rest/services/CSMW/CEMEX_Mine_Dredge_Pond/MapServer/0,
accessed March 11, 2013.

Crespi, Juan
1927 Fray Juan Crespi: Missionary Explorer on the Pacific Coast 1769-1774. Herbert E.
Bolton, Editor/Translator, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Erlandson, Jon M.
1994 Early Hunter-Gatherers of the California Coast. Plenum, New York.

Galvan, P. Michael
1952 People of the West: The Ohlone Story. The Indian Historian 1(2):9-13.

Glassow, Michael
1992 The Relative Dietary Importance of Marine Foods through Time in Western Santa
Barbara County. In Essays on the Prehistory of Maritime California, edited by Terry
L. Jones, pp. 115-128. Center for Archaeological Research Publication No. 10.
University of California, Davis.


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Glassow, Michael A., and Larry R. Wilcoxon
1988 Coastal Adaptations near Point Conception, California, with Particular Regard to
Shellfish Exploitation. American Antiquity 53:36-51.

Greenwood, Roberta S.
1972 9000 Years of Prehistory at Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, California.
San Luis Obispo County Archaeological Society Occasional Paper No. 7.

Hart, Earl W.
1966 Mines and Mineral Resources of Monterey County, California. County Report 5,
California Division of Mines and Geology.

Jones, Terry L., K. Davis, Glenn Farris, S.D. Grantham, Teresa W. Fung, and Betty Rivers
1994 Toward a Prehistory of Morro Bay: Phase II Archaeological Investigations for the
Highway 41 Widening Project, San Luis Obispo County, California. On File at the
Northwest Information Center, Rohnert Park, California.

Jones, Terry L., N.E. Stevens, D.A. Jones, Richard T. Fitzgerald, and Mark G. Hylkema
2007 The Central Coast: A Midlatitude Milieu. In California Prehistory: Colonization,
Culture, and Complexity, edited by Terry L. Jones and Kathryn A. Klar, pp. 125-146.
AltaMira Press, Lanham, Maryland.

Jones, Terry L., S. Anderson, Gary M. Brown, A. Garsia, K. Hildebrand, and Andrew York
1989 Surface Archaeology at Landels-Hill Big Creek Reserve and the Gamboa Point
Properties. Environmental Field Program 18. University of California, Santa Cruz.

King, Chester D.
1990 Evolution of Chumash Society: A Comparative Study of Artifacts Used for Social
System Maintenance in the Santa Barbara Channel Region Before A.D. 1804. The
Evolution of North American Indians, edited by David Hurst Thomas. Garland, New
York.

Kroeber, Alfred L.
1925 Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 78.
Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. Reprinted in 1976, New York: Dover
Publications.

Levy, Richard
1978 Coastanoan. In California, edited by R.F. Heizer, pp. 485-495. Handbook of North
American Indians, Vol. 8, W.C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D.C.

Magoon, O.T.
1972 Coastal Sand Mining in Northern California. ASCE: 1571-1598.

Moratto, Michael J.
1984 California Archaeology. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida.
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United States Geological Survey
1983 Marina, California 7.5-minute topographic quadrangle map.
1948 Monterey, California 15-minute topographic quadrangle map.
1913 Monterey, California 15-minute topographic quadrangle map.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
2010 Salinas National Wildlife Refuge. Electronic Document: http://www.fws.gov/sfbay
refuges/salinasriver/#, accessed March 10, 2013.

Wallace, William J.
1978 Post-Pleistocene Archeology, 9000 to 2000 B.C. In California, edited by R.F.
Heizer. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 8, W.C. Sturtevant, general
editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Warren, Claude N., and R.H. Crabtree
1986 The Prehistory of the Southwestern Great Basin. In Handbook of the North
American Indians, Vol. 11, Great Basin, edited by W.L. d’Azevedo, pp.183-193.
W.C. Sturtevant, General Editor. Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.

Williams, Pamela, Leah Messinger, and Sarah Johnson
2008 Habitats Alive! An Ecological Guide to California’s Diverse Habitats. California
Institute for Biodiversity, Oakland, California.








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APPENDIX A

CONSTRUCTION EXHIBITS OF APE
JN 130770 JUN 2013
Figure 2
MONTEREY PENINSULA WATER SUPPLY PROJECT
TEMPORARY SLANT TEST WELL
Test Well Facilities Map
Note: Access path will be field verified by a
qualified biologist to avoid sensitive locations.
!
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APPENDIX B

NATIVE AMERICAN CONSULTATION
3/11/13 12:52 PM Print
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Hi Rob,
I'd like to request a Sacred Lands File search and list of potentially interested tribes for the
proposed construction and operation of a Slant Test Well and associated monitoring wells in the
City of Marina, Monterey County, California. This undertaking is proposed in a non-sectioned
portion of Township 14 South, Range 1 East, Mt. Diablo Baseline and Meridian (see attached
map).
Please send the list to my email or the below fax number, and please get in touch with any
questions.
Thanks,

David Brunzell
Principal Investigator/Archaeologist

BCR Consulting LLC
Certified Small Business (SB)
1420 Guadalajara Place
Claremont, California 91711
Fax: 909-621-7678
Tel: 909-525-7078

www.bcrconsulting.net
*
*SEE REPORT FIGURE 1.
Native American Consultation Summary for the MPSWP Slant Test Well Project, Marina, Monterey County, California.
Native American Heritage Commission replied to BCR Consulting Request on March 18, 2013. Results of Sacred Land File Search
did not indicate presence of Native American cultural resources, and recommended that the below groups/individuals be contacted.
Groups Contacted Letter/Email Date Response from Tribes
Jakki Kehl Letter: 3/23/13
Email: N/A
None
Tony Cerda, Chairperson
Coastanoan Rumsen Carmel Tribe
Letter: 3/23/13
Email: 3/23/13
None
Valentin Lopez, Chairperson
Amah Mutsun Tribal Band
Letter: 3/23/13
Email: 3/23/13
None
Ann Marie Sayers, Chairperson
Indian Canyon Mutsun Band of Coastanoan
Letter: 3/23/13
Email: 3/23/13
None
Edward Ketchum
Amah Mutsun Tribal Band
Letter: 3/23/13
Email: N/A
None
Louise Miranda-Ramirez, Chairperson
Ohlone/Coastanoan-Esselen Nation
Letter: 3/23/13
Email: 3/23/13
4/18/13: Ms. Ramirez responded requesting
avoidance of all cultural and sacred items, and that
the tribe be consulted regarding known or
predicted impacts to such items (letter attached).
Irene Zwierlein, Chairperson
Amah Mutsun Tribal Band
Letter: 3/23/13
Email: N/A
None
Christianne Arias, Vice Chairperson
Ohlone/Coastanoan-Esselen Nation
Letter: 3/23/13
Email: N/A
None
Jean-Marie Feyling
Amah Mutsun Tribal Band
Letter: 3/23/13
Email: 3/23/13
None
Pauline Martinez-Arias
Ohlone Coastonoan-Esselen Nation
Letter: 3/23/13
Email: 3/23/13
Email came back undeliverable:
maklici0-us@gmail.com
Ramona Garibay, Representative
Trina Marine Ruano Family
Letter: 3/23/13
Email: N/A
None


March 22, 2013


J akki Kehl
720 North 2
nd
Street
Patterson, California 95363


Subject: Tribal Consultation for the MPSWP Slant Test Well Project, Marina,
Monterey County, California


Dear J akki:

This is an invitation to consult on a proposed development project at locations with which
you have tribal cultural affiliation. The purpose of the consultation is to ensure the protection
of Native American cultural resources on which the proposed undertaking may have an
impact. In the tribal consultation process, early consultation is encouraged in order to
provide for full and reasonable public input from Native American groups and individuals, as
consulting parties, on potential effect of the development project and to avoid costly delays.
Further, we understand that much of the content of the consultation will be confidential and
will include, but not be limited to, the relationship of proposed project details to Native
American Cultural Historic Properties, such as burial sites, known or unknown, architectural
features and artifacts, ceremonial sites, sacred shrines, and cultural landscapes. The
proposed project is located within Sections 12 and 13 of Township 14 South, Range 1 East,
Mt. Diablo Baseline and Meridian, and is depicted on the Marina (1983), California USGS
7.5 Minute Topographic Quadrangle (see attached).
If you know of any cultural resources in the vicinity that may be of religious and/or cultural
significance to your community or if you would like more information, please contact me at
909-525-7078 or david.brunzell@yahoo.com. Correspondence can also be sent to BCR
Consulting, Attn: David Brunzell, 1420 Guadalajara Place, Claremont, California 91711. I
request a response by April 5, 2013. If you require more time, please let me know. Thank
you for your involvement in this process.

Sincerely,

BCR Consulting LLC

David Brunzell, M.A./RPA
Principal Investigator/Archaeologist
Attachment: USGS Map 

March 22, 2013


Tony Cerda
Chairperson
Coastanoan Rumsen Carmel TAribe
240 East 1
st
Street
Pomona, California 91766


Subject: Tribal Consultation for the MPSWP Slant Test Well Project, Marina,
Monterey County, California


Dear Tony:

This is an invitation to consult on a proposed development project at locations with which
you have tribal cultural affiliation. The purpose of the consultation is to ensure the protection
of Native American cultural resources on which the proposed undertaking may have an
impact. In the tribal consultation process, early consultation is encouraged in order to
provide for full and reasonable public input from Native American groups and individuals, as
consulting parties, on potential effect of the development project and to avoid costly delays.
Further, we understand that much of the content of the consultation will be confidential and
will include, but not be limited to, the relationship of proposed project details to Native
American Cultural Historic Properties, such as burial sites, known or unknown, architectural
features and artifacts, ceremonial sites, sacred shrines, and cultural landscapes. The
proposed project is located within Sections 12 and 13 of Township 14 South, Range 1 East,
Mt. Diablo Baseline and Meridian, and is depicted on the Marina (1983), California USGS
7.5 Minute Topographic Quadrangle (see attached).
If you know of any cultural resources in the vicinity that may be of religious and/or cultural
significance to your community or if you would like more information, please contact me at
909-525-7078 or david.brunzell@yahoo.com. Correspondence can also be sent to BCR
Consulting, Attn: David Brunzell, 1420 Guadalajara Place, Claremont, California 91711. I
request a response by April 5, 2013. If you require more time, please let me know. Thank
you for your involvement in this process.

Sincerely,

BCR Consulting LLC

David Brunzell, M.A./RPA
Principal Investigator/Archaeologist
Attachment: USGS Map 

March 22, 2013


Valentin Lopez
Chairperson
Amah Mutsun Tribal Band
P.O. Box 5272
Galt, California 95632


Subject: Tribal Consultation for the MPSWP Slant Test Well Project, Marina,
Monterey County, California


Dear Valentin:

This is an invitation to consult on a proposed development project at locations with which
you have tribal cultural affiliation. The purpose of the consultation is to ensure the protection
of Native American cultural resources on which the proposed undertaking may have an
impact. In the tribal consultation process, early consultation is encouraged in order to
provide for full and reasonable public input from Native American groups and individuals, as
consulting parties, on potential effect of the development project and to avoid costly delays.
Further, we understand that much of the content of the consultation will be confidential and
will include, but not be limited to, the relationship of proposed project details to Native
American Cultural Historic Properties, such as burial sites, known or unknown, architectural
features and artifacts, ceremonial sites, sacred shrines, and cultural landscapes. The
proposed project is located within Sections 12 and 13 of Township 14 South, Range 1 East,
Mt. Diablo Baseline and Meridian, and is depicted on the Marina (1983), California USGS
7.5 Minute Topographic Quadrangle (see attached).
If you know of any cultural resources in the vicinity that may be of religious and/or cultural
significance to your community or if you would like more information, please contact me at
909-525-7078 or david.brunzell@yahoo.com. Correspondence can also be sent to BCR
Consulting, Attn: David Brunzell, 1420 Guadalajara Place, Claremont, California 91711. I
request a response by April 5, 2013. If you require more time, please let me know. Thank
you for your involvement in this process.

Sincerely,

BCR Consulting LLC

David Brunzell, M.A./RPA
Principal Investigator/Archaeologist
Attachment: USGS Map 

March 22, 2013


Ann Marie Sayers
Chairperson
Indian Canyon Mutsun Band of Coastanoan
P.O. Box 28
Hollister, California 95024


Subject: Tribal Consultation for the MPSWP Slant Test Well Project, Marina,
Monterey County, California


Dear Ann Marie:

This is an invitation to consult on a proposed development project at locations with which
you have tribal cultural affiliation. The purpose of the consultation is to ensure the protection
of Native American cultural resources on which the proposed undertaking may have an
impact. In the tribal consultation process, early consultation is encouraged in order to
provide for full and reasonable public input from Native American groups and individuals, as
consulting parties, on potential effect of the development project and to avoid costly delays.
Further, we understand that much of the content of the consultation will be confidential and
will include, but not be limited to, the relationship of proposed project details to Native
American Cultural Historic Properties, such as burial sites, known or unknown, architectural
features and artifacts, ceremonial sites, sacred shrines, and cultural landscapes. The
proposed project is located within Sections 12 and 13 of Township 14 South, Range 1 East,
Mt. Diablo Baseline and Meridian, and is depicted on the Marina (1983), California USGS
7.5 Minute Topographic Quadrangle (see attached).
If you know of any cultural resources in the vicinity that may be of religious and/or cultural
significance to your community or if you would like more information, please contact me at
909-525-7078 or david.brunzell@yahoo.com. Correspondence can also be sent to BCR
Consulting, Attn: David Brunzell, 1420 Guadalajara Place, Claremont, California 91711. I
request a response by April 5, 2013. If you require more time, please let me know. Thank
you for your involvement in this process.

Sincerely,

BCR Consulting LLC

David Brunzell, M.A./RPA
Principal Investigator/Archaeologist
Attachment: USGS Map 

March 22, 2013


Edward Ketchum
Amah Mutsun Tribal Band
35867 Yosemite Ave.
Davis, California 95616


Subject: Tribal Consultation for the MPSWP Slant Test Well Project, Marina,
Monterey County, California


Dear Edward:

This is an invitation to consult on a proposed development project at locations with which
you have tribal cultural affiliation. The purpose of the consultation is to ensure the protection
of Native American cultural resources on which the proposed undertaking may have an
impact. In the tribal consultation process, early consultation is encouraged in order to
provide for full and reasonable public input from Native American groups and individuals, as
consulting parties, on potential effect of the development project and to avoid costly delays.
Further, we understand that much of the content of the consultation will be confidential and
will include, but not be limited to, the relationship of proposed project details to Native
American Cultural Historic Properties, such as burial sites, known or unknown, architectural
features and artifacts, ceremonial sites, sacred shrines, and cultural landscapes. The
proposed project is located within Sections 12 and 13 of Township 14 South, Range 1 East,
Mt. Diablo Baseline and Meridian, and is depicted on the Marina (1983), California USGS
7.5 Minute Topographic Quadrangle (see attached).
If you know of any cultural resources in the vicinity that may be of religious and/or cultural
significance to your community or if you would like more information, please contact me at
909-525-7078 or david.brunzell@yahoo.com. Correspondence can also be sent to BCR
Consulting, Attn: David Brunzell, 1420 Guadalajara Place, Claremont, California 91711. I
request a response by April 5, 2013. If you require more time, please let me know. Thank
you for your involvement in this process.

Sincerely,

BCR Consulting LLC

David Brunzell, M.A./RPA
Principal Investigator/Archaeologist
Attachment: USGS Map 

March 22, 2013


Louise Miranda-Ramirez
Chairperson
Ohlone/Coastanoan-Esselen Nation
P.O. Box 1301
Monterey, California 93942


Subject: Tribal Consultation for the MPSWP Slant Test Well Project, Marina,
Monterey County, California


Dear Louise:

This is an invitation to consult on a proposed development project at locations with which
you have tribal cultural affiliation. The purpose of the consultation is to ensure the protection
of Native American cultural resources on which the proposed undertaking may have an
impact. In the tribal consultation process, early consultation is encouraged in order to
provide for full and reasonable public input from Native American groups and individuals, as
consulting parties, on potential effect of the development project and to avoid costly delays.
Further, we understand that much of the content of the consultation will be confidential and
will include, but not be limited to, the relationship of proposed project details to Native
American Cultural Historic Properties, such as burial sites, known or unknown, architectural
features and artifacts, ceremonial sites, sacred shrines, and cultural landscapes. The
proposed project is located within Sections 12 and 13 of Township 14 South, Range 1 East,
Mt. Diablo Baseline and Meridian, and is depicted on the Marina (1983), California USGS
7.5 Minute Topographic Quadrangle (see attached).
If you know of any cultural resources in the vicinity that may be of religious and/or cultural
significance to your community or if you would like more information, please contact me at
909-525-7078 or david.brunzell@yahoo.com. Correspondence can also be sent to BCR
Consulting, Attn: David Brunzell, 1420 Guadalajara Place, Claremont, California 91711. I
request a response by April 5, 2013. If you require more time, please let me know. Thank
you for your involvement in this process.

Sincerely,

BCR Consulting LLC

David Brunzell, M.A./RPA
Principal Investigator/Archaeologist
Attachment: USGS Map 

March 22, 2013


Irene Zwierlein
Chairperson
Amah Mutsun Tribal Band
789 Canada Road
Woodside, California 94062


Subject: Tribal Consultation for the MPSWP Slant Test Well Project, Marina,
Monterey County, California


Dear Irene:

This is an invitation to consult on a proposed development project at locations with which
you have tribal cultural affiliation. The purpose of the consultation is to ensure the protection
of Native American cultural resources on which the proposed undertaking may have an
impact. In the tribal consultation process, early consultation is encouraged in order to
provide for full and reasonable public input from Native American groups and individuals, as
consulting parties, on potential effect of the development project and to avoid costly delays.
Further, we understand that much of the content of the consultation will be confidential and
will include, but not be limited to, the relationship of proposed project details to Native
American Cultural Historic Properties, such as burial sites, known or unknown, architectural
features and artifacts, ceremonial sites, sacred shrines, and cultural landscapes. The
proposed project is located within Sections 12 and 13 of Township 14 South, Range 1 East,
Mt. Diablo Baseline and Meridian, and is depicted on the Marina (1983), California USGS
7.5 Minute Topographic Quadrangle (see attached).
If you know of any cultural resources in the vicinity that may be of religious and/or cultural
significance to your community or if you would like more information, please contact me at
909-525-7078 or david.brunzell@yahoo.com. Correspondence can also be sent to BCR
Consulting, Attn: David Brunzell, 1420 Guadalajara Place, Claremont, California 91711. I
request a response by April 5, 2013. If you require more time, please let me know. Thank
you for your involvement in this process.

Sincerely,

BCR Consulting LLC

David Brunzell, M.A./RPA
Principal Investigator/Archaeologist
Attachment: USGS Map 

March 22, 2013


Christianne Arias
Vice Chairperson
Ohlone/Coastanoan-Esselen Nation
P.O. Box 552
Soledad, California 93960


Subject: Tribal Consultation for the MPSWP Slant Test Well Project, Marina,
Monterey County, California


Dear Christianne:

This is an invitation to consult on a proposed development project at locations with which
you have tribal cultural affiliation. The purpose of the consultation is to ensure the protection
of Native American cultural resources on which the proposed undertaking may have an
impact. In the tribal consultation process, early consultation is encouraged in order to
provide for full and reasonable public input from Native American groups and individuals, as
consulting parties, on potential effect of the development project and to avoid costly delays.
Further, we understand that much of the content of the consultation will be confidential and
will include, but not be limited to, the relationship of proposed project details to Native
American Cultural Historic Properties, such as burial sites, known or unknown, architectural
features and artifacts, ceremonial sites, sacred shrines, and cultural landscapes. The
proposed project is located within Sections 12 and 13 of Township 14 South, Range 1 East,
Mt. Diablo Baseline and Meridian, and is depicted on the Marina (1983), California USGS
7.5 Minute Topographic Quadrangle (see attached).
If you know of any cultural resources in the vicinity that may be of religious and/or cultural
significance to your community or if you would like more information, please contact me at
909-525-7078 or david.brunzell@yahoo.com. Correspondence can also be sent to BCR
Consulting, Attn: David Brunzell, 1420 Guadalajara Place, Claremont, California 91711. I
request a response by April 5, 2013. If you require more time, please let me know. Thank
you for your involvement in this process.

Sincerely,

BCR Consulting LLC

David Brunzell, M.A./RPA
Principal Investigator/Archaeologist
Attachment: USGS Map 

March 22, 2013


J ean-Marie Feyling
Amah Mutsun Tribal Band
19350 Hunter Court
Redding, California 96003


Subject: Tribal Consultation for the MPSWP Slant Test Well Project, Marina,
Monterey County, California


Dear J ean-Marie:

This is an invitation to consult on a proposed development project at locations with which
you have tribal cultural affiliation. The purpose of the consultation is to ensure the protection
of Native American cultural resources on which the proposed undertaking may have an
impact. In the tribal consultation process, early consultation is encouraged in order to
provide for full and reasonable public input from Native American groups and individuals, as
consulting parties, on potential effect of the development project and to avoid costly delays.
Further, we understand that much of the content of the consultation will be confidential and
will include, but not be limited to, the relationship of proposed project details to Native
American Cultural Historic Properties, such as burial sites, known or unknown, architectural
features and artifacts, ceremonial sites, sacred shrines, and cultural landscapes. The
proposed project is located within Sections 12 and 13 of Township 14 South, Range 1 East,
Mt. Diablo Baseline and Meridian, and is depicted on the Marina (1983), California USGS
7.5 Minute Topographic Quadrangle (see attached).
If you know of any cultural resources in the vicinity that may be of religious and/or cultural
significance to your community or if you would like more information, please contact me at
909-525-7078 or david.brunzell@yahoo.com. Correspondence can also be sent to BCR
Consulting, Attn: David Brunzell, 1420 Guadalajara Place, Claremont, California 91711. I
request a response by April 5, 2013. If you require more time, please let me know. Thank
you for your involvement in this process.

Sincerely,

BCR Consulting LLC

David Brunzell, M.A./RPA
Principal Investigator/Archaeologist
Attachment: USGS Map 

March 22, 2013


Pauline Martinez-Arias
Ohlone Coastonoan-Esselen Nation
1116 Merlot Way
Gonzales, California 93926


Subject: Tribal Consultation for the MPSWP Slant Test Well Project, Marina,
Monterey County, California


Dear Pauline:

This is an invitation to consult on a proposed development project at locations with which
you have tribal cultural affiliation. The purpose of the consultation is to ensure the protection
of Native American cultural resources on which the proposed undertaking may have an
impact. In the tribal consultation process, early consultation is encouraged in order to
provide for full and reasonable public input from Native American groups and individuals, as
consulting parties, on potential effect of the development project and to avoid costly delays.
Further, we understand that much of the content of the consultation will be confidential and
will include, but not be limited to, the relationship of proposed project details to Native
American Cultural Historic Properties, such as burial sites, known or unknown, architectural
features and artifacts, ceremonial sites, sacred shrines, and cultural landscapes. The
proposed project is located within Sections 12 and 13 of Township 14 South, Range 1 East,
Mt. Diablo Baseline and Meridian, and is depicted on the Marina (1983), California USGS
7.5 Minute Topographic Quadrangle (see attached).
If you know of any cultural resources in the vicinity that may be of religious and/or cultural
significance to your community or if you would like more information, please contact me at
909-525-7078 or david.brunzell@yahoo.com. Correspondence can also be sent to BCR
Consulting, Attn: David Brunzell, 1420 Guadalajara Place, Claremont, California 91711. I
request a response by April 5, 2013. If you require more time, please let me know. Thank
you for your involvement in this process.

Sincerely,

BCR Consulting LLC

David Brunzell, M.A./RPA
Principal Investigator/Archaeologist
Attachment: USGS Map 

March 22, 2013


Ramona Garibay
Representative
Trina Marine Ruano Family
30940 Watkins Street
Union City, California 94587


Subject: Tribal Consultation for the MPSWP Slant Test Well Project, Marina,
Monterey County, California


Dear Ramona:

This is an invitation to consult on a proposed development project at locations with which
you have tribal cultural affiliation. The purpose of the consultation is to ensure the protection
of Native American cultural resources on which the proposed undertaking may have an
impact. In the tribal consultation process, early consultation is encouraged in order to
provide for full and reasonable public input from Native American groups and individuals, as
consulting parties, on potential effect of the development project and to avoid costly delays.
Further, we understand that much of the content of the consultation will be confidential and
will include, but not be limited to, the relationship of proposed project details to Native
American Cultural Historic Properties, such as burial sites, known or unknown, architectural
features and artifacts, ceremonial sites, sacred shrines, and cultural landscapes. The
proposed project is located within Sections 12 and 13 of Township 14 South, Range 1 East,
Mt. Diablo Baseline and Meridian, and is depicted on the Marina (1983), California USGS
7.5 Minute Topographic Quadrangle (see attached).
If you know of any cultural resources in the vicinity that may be of religious and/or cultural
significance to your community or if you would like more information, please contact me at
909-525-7078 or david.brunzell@yahoo.com. Correspondence can also be sent to BCR
Consulting, Attn: David Brunzell, 1420 Guadalajara Place, Claremont, California 91711. I
request a response by April 5, 2013. If you require more time, please let me know. Thank
you for your involvement in this process.

Sincerely,

BCR Consulting LLC

David Brunzell, M.A./RPA
Principal Investigator/Archaeologist
Attachment: USGS Map 
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C U L T U R A L R E S O U R C E S A S S E S S M E N T
M P WS S L A N T T E S T WE L L P R O J E C T


APPENDIX C

PERSONNEL QUALIFICATIONS


DAVID BRUNZELL, M.A., RPA
Owner/Principal Investigator (2002-Present)
BCR Consulting LLC
909-525-7078
david.brunzell@yahoo.com

EXPERTISE
Cultural Resource Project Management
National Environmental Policy Act Cultural Resource Compliance
California Environmental Quality Act Cultural Resource Compliance
National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) Section 106 Compliance
Government Agency (Federal/State/Regional) Partnering, Streamlining, and Consultation
Technical Report Writing for Archaeology, History, and Architectural History
NRHP/CRHR Evaluation of Pre/historic Archaeological, and Historic Architectural Resources
Preparation of all DPR523 Site Records
Archaeological, Historical, and Architectural History Research
Archaeological Excavation
Archaeological and Architectural History Survey
Laboratory (Including Lithic and Ground Stone) Analysis
Global Positioning Systems / Archaeological Mapping and Orienteering
Fossil Preparation
Native American Consultation

EDUCATION
California State University, Fullerton, M.A. Anthropology/Archaeology, 2002
California State University, Fullerton, B.A. Anthropology, 1997
Pomona College Field School, Southern Oregon/Northern California, 1995

Continuing Education
Native American Consultation Cultural Sensitivity Training, Riverside County, 2011, 09, 07
California State University San Bernardino Extension, the Science of Flint Knapping, 2007
National Preservation Institute NHPA Section 106 Training, 2004

PERMITS
BLM Principal Investigator for Cultural Resource Investigations (California, Great Basin)
California Department of Transportation Principal Investigator for Cultural Resources
Authorized Researcher at Each of the Twelve California Archaeological Information Centers

PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS, AWARDS, AND CERTIFICATIONS
2002-13 Member, Register of Professional Archaeologists
2000-13 Member, Society for American Archaeology
2009-13 Member, Society for California Archaeology
2011-13 Certified Archaeologist for Unincorporated Orange County
2013 Board of Directors, Claremont Heritage
2000 McKenna Scholarship Award, 4
th
Recipient
1996-2002 Lambda Alpha Society, National Collegiate Honors Society for Anthropology
2008-09 Board of Directors, Pomona Valley Historical Society




SELECTED PROJECTS MANAGED
Cultural Resources Assessment of the Western Oil Independent, LLC Capps Tank Facility
Project, Monterey County, California.
Cultural Resources Assessment of the Crown Castle Seacliff Project, Santa Cruz County,
California
Cultural Resources Assessment of the Crown Castle Gilroy Hub, Gilroy, Santa Clara
County, California
Cultural Resources Assessment of the Crown Castle Hillsborough Project, San Mateo
County, California
Cultural Resources Assessment of South Kirby 1 and 2 Oil and Gas Exploration Project,
Unincorporated Solano County, California.
Cultural Resources Assessment of the Hunters Point Natural Gas Pipeline Project,
Unincorporated Solano County, California.
Cultural Resources Assessment of the California Department of Transportation Theresa
Avenue Sidewalk Project, Phase III, American Canyon, Napa County, California.
Cultural Resources Assessment of the California Department of Transportation Napa
Junction Pedestrian Improvement Project, American Canyon, Napa County, California.
Cultural Resources Identification and Recommendations within the Cobb Mountain Spring
Water Company Property, Lake County, California
Phase I Cultural Resources Inventory of Fuel Reduction Units in the Whiskeytown National
Recreation Area (NRA), Shasta County, California.
Cultural Resources Assessment of E & B Natural Resources Management Corporation
Lupin 4R Oil and Gas Exploration Project, Alameda County, California
Cultural Resources Assessment of Vintage Production California LLC Jordan 11 Oil and
Gas Exploration Project, Unincorporated Contra Costa County, California
Cultural Resources Assessment of Management Areas 1 and 2 of the Chuckwalla Desert
Wildlife Management Area for the Mojave Desert Land Trust, Imperial County, California
Cultural Resources Assessment of West Coast Land Service Six Proposed Well Sites and
Associated Access Roads in Barrel Valley, Unincorporated Kern County, California
National Register Eligibility Evaluation of the Coalinga Library Building, Coalinga, Fresno
County, California
Cultural Resource Assessment and Architectural Evaluation for Ridgeline Equestrian
Estates, City of Orange, Orange County, California
Cultural Resources Impacts Assessment of the Proposed Wattstar Cinema Project on the
National Register Listed Watts Station, Watts Community of Los Angeles, Los Angeles
County, California
Cultural Resources Assessment of the Mountain View Mobile Home Park, Santa Monica,
Los Angeles County, California
Archaeological Monitoring of the Marina Del Rey 18" Waterline Replacement, Phase II, Los
Angeles County, California


KARA BRUNZELL
BCR Consulting LLC
Project Manager/Architectural Historian
707/290-2918
barzells@comcast.net

EXPERTISE
Project Management
Architectural/Historical Research
Non-Profit Management
Historic Preservation Planning
Grant Writing
Government Agency Partnering, Streamlining, and Consultation
Excellent Written and Verbal Communication
Public Speaking and Professional Presenting to Large Groups
PC and Macintosh Computer Systems

EDUCATION
UCLA, Bachelor of Arts in History, 1988
CSU Sacramento, Master of Arts in Public History, 2009

Continuing Education
California Preservation Foundation (CPF) Webinar 2011: “Environmental Benefits of Reuse”
CPF Conference 2011: Santa Monica, California, “Preservation on the Edge”
CPF Workshop 2011: Napa, Calif., “Preservation Ordinances”
CPF Workshop 2009: “The Use and Application of the California Historical Building Code”
CPF Conference 2008: Napa, California, “Balance and Complexity: The Vineyard and Beyond”
CPF Workshop 2008: Davis, California, Historic Resource Surveys: A to Z”

PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS, AWARDS, AND CERTIFICATIONS
2011-13 Member, California Preservation Foundation
2010 Grant Application, 2010-2011 CLG Grant Awarded, City of Napa, California
2009 Grant Application, 2009-2010 CLG Grant Awarded, City of Napa, California
2009-13 Member, Napa County Landmarks
2008 Grant Application, 2008-2009 CLG Grant Awarded, City of Napa, California
2007-13 Member, Napa County Historical Society

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
BCR Consulting LLC
Project Manager/Architectural Historian
December 2009 – Present
As a Project Manager at a small Cultural Resource Management firm, I take responsibility for
every aspect of a historical resource evaluation. In addition to site visits, archival research,
significance evaluations, and report writing I am involved in business development, marketing,
scoping, and client relations. CEQA compliance, NRHP/CRHR evaluation of historic resources,
preparation of DPR523 site records, and technical report preparation are among my specialties.



I am comfortable collaborating with other disciplines and am experienced at interface with both
local governments and non-profit historic preservation organizations.

Program Director
Napa County Landmarks: June 2010 – October 2011
I managed Napa’s non-profit historic preservation organization. Duties included board
development, coordination of technical services, fundraising, event planning, volunteer
recruitment and oversight, education program planning, member communication, staff
supervision, financial management, grant-writing, outreach, and web marketing. Projects include
working with a consultant to consolidate and update member database and website, master-
planning a major expansion of successful Historic Walking Tour program, and assessing
upcoming projects throughout Napa County for threats to historic resources. During my first 8
months with Napa County Landmarks staff activities including grant writing, membership drives,
and fundraising events garnered over $25,000 for the organization.

Research Assistant II
JRP Historical: April 2010-June 2010
I performed archival and online research, document organization, database management, and
report writing for a historical consultant. I worked with firm researchers, historians, and partners
on a variety of Cultural Resource Management and legal projects, both in the field and office.

Owner/Builder: April 2009-October 2010
I renovated a 1906 house I own near Downtown Napa. In addition to removing dated and worn
out fixtures from a 1970s addition I removed hazards such as an un-reinforced masonry
chimney that was no longer connected to a fireplace. I adapted the newer portion of the house
to function as a modern dwelling while meshing aesthetically with the unaltered core of the
original house.

Graduate Student Intern
City of Napa: February 2008-February 2010
Assisted Planning Department with historic preservation efforts, including acting as liaison with
Cultural Heritage Commission and assisting consultant Page & Turnbull with Historic Context
Survey and intensive neighborhood surveys. I have worked in conjunction with Page & Turnbull
on research and public relations, as well as in conducting windshield and pedestrian
neighborhood surveys. I spearheaded and am coordinating an ongoing series of Napa CHC
historic preservation workshops that offer free technical information on the maintenance and
rehabilitation of historic houses. I have authored two grant applications which were awarded to
the City of Napa by the State Office of Historic Preservation.

Graduate Student Intern
North Central Information Center: October 2007-February 2008
Catalogued, recorded, and mapped results of historical and archeological surveys at CSU
Sacramento’s archeological information repository for surveys performed in Sacramento and
adjoining counties.

PROFESSIONAL PROJECTS
2012 Architectural/Historical Evaluation and Cultural Resources Assessment of Tentative
Tract 60973, Hacienda Heights, Unincorporated Los Angeles County, California
2011 Architectural/Historical Evaluation, 367 E. Napa Street, Sonoma, California



2011 Historic Resources Reconnaissance Survey of the Soda Springs Complex, the White
Sulphur Springs Resort, the Pope Valley Store and Garage, the Rutherford Train
Station and the Rutherford Olive Oil Company in Unincorporated portions of Napa
County, California
2011 Nomination of Main Street Bridge to local Historic Register, Napa, California
2010 Environmental Impact Report, California High-Speed Train Project, Fresno to
Bakersfield Section, Davis, California
2010 Urban Levee Geotechnical Evaluation Project, Sacramento Deep Water Ship Channel
Levee Research, Davis, California
2010 Urban Levee Geotechnical Evaluation Project, Sacramento UNP3 Levee Research,
Davis, California
2010 Urban Levee Geotechnical Evaluation Project, South Sacramento Streams Levee
Research, Davis, California
2010 Legal/Chain of Title Research, Union and Roberts Island Riparian Water Rights,
Davis, California
2010 Legal/Chain of Title Research, Seghesio Farms Riparian Water Rights, Sonoma
County, California, Davis, California
2010 Cultural Resource Assessment, Historic Architecture Evaluation, Freeway Drive
neighborhood, City of Napa, California
2010 Preserve America Community Application, City of Napa, California
2009 Historic Architecture Evaluation and DPR 523 forms of Historic House in East
Sacramento, California
2009 Cultural Resources Assessment and Historic Architecture Evaluations of Five
Campuses within the Hayward Unified School District, Alameda County, California
2009 Heritage Napa Historic Context Survey, City of Napa, California
2009 City of Napa, Planning Division: Historic Homes Workshops
2009 Cultural Resource Assessment and Historic Architecture Evaluation of Three Historic
Houses in Lone Oak neighborhood, City of Napa, California

ACADEMIC PAPERS/PROFESSIONAL PRESENTATIONS
2011 Historic Preservation: Engine of the Napa Economy
2008 Historic Landscape Regulation and Practice in the City of Napa
2008 September 11: History, Memory, and Comics
2008 Marxism and History
2008 Historiography of the American West (Published in Clio, CSUS Graduate Journal)
2007 History of the Silverado Trail, Napa County, California
2007 The Chinese Community in Napa as Portrayed by the Napa County Reporter,
1860-1880
2007 The Chinese Community in Early Napa: A Museum Exhibit
2007 Downtown Napa Intensive Building Survey and Historic Context Statement
M A R C H 1 5 , 2 0 1 3 B C R C O N S U L T I N G L L C
C U L T U R A L R E S O U R C E S A S S E S S M E N T
M P WS S L A N T T E S T WE L L P R O J E C T


APPENDIX D

PROJECT PHOTOGRAPHS



J U N E 2 5 , 2 0 1 3 B C R C O N S U L T I N G L L C
C U L T U R A L R E S O U R C E S A S S E S S M E N T
M P WS S L A N T T E S T WE L L P R O J E C T




Photo 1: Overview from APE towards CEMEX Lapis Plant (View ESE)











Attachment H – Test Well Facilities Map

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