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The Interoperability Dilemma
RTU – Remote Terminal Unit
Distributed Management System Customer Information System Energy Management System Outage Management System
Way Too Expensive & Complex
RTU RTU RTU RTU RTU RTU RTU RTU
O.C. Diff. O.C. Diff. Transformer Recloser Breaker Meter RTU SOE O.C. Diff. Transformer Recloser Breaker Breaker Transformer Meter RTU Recloser SOE Relay O.C. Diff. Relay Meter RTU SOE Relay O.C. O.C. Diff. Relay SOE Transformer Recloser Breaker Breaker Transformer Meter RTU Recloser Relay Diff. Relay Meter RTU SOE Relay O.C. Diff. Relay Transformer Recloser Breaker Breaker Transformer Diffrential. Meter RTU Recloser SOE Relay O.C. Relay Meter RTU SOE Relay Relay SOE Recloser Breaker Transformer Meter RTU Relay Relay Relay Relay
2 July 8, 2005
Typical Legacy Protocol Data Model
It is in Register 4023 and 4024
I need the Phase A voltage for the 345KV primary feeder #1
Traditional Register-based Protocols Carry Significant Configuration Costs & Complexity
3 July 8, 2005
Standards Are Good!
“Standards are great. Everyone should have one.” – Bob Metcalfe, Co-inventor of Ethernet
Fewer of the Right Standards are Better!!
4 July 8, 2005
Where We have Come From . . .
Communication Networks and Systems in Substations
P r o je ct UC
The international Goal
with -6 e c n d rie Expe 870-5 an 0 I EC 6
Global Driver • Necessity to simplify & standardize Substation design,
Construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance
Driven By • Utilities through UCA & IEC standard committees
5 July 8, 2005
2005 .IEC 61850 Scope 61850-7-3 Common Data 61850-9 Process Bus V. Status 61850 Addresses All Aspects of Substation Communication and Configuration 6 July 8.I.
IEC61850 Modeling Approach • Define the Semantics (meaning) of information • Define the Syntax (structure) of information 7 July 8. 2005 .
IEC 61850 & The Digital Substation EMS/DMS/OMS LEVEL 3 Enterprise 61850 Configuration LEVEL 2 Substation 61850 Station Bus: Client/Server. I/O 61850 Process Bus Multilink Switch 8 July 8. GOOSE NWIP IEC to EMS LEVEL 1 IEDs Multilink Switch LEVEL 0 Sensors. 2005 .
2005 . connectionless communication architecture 9 July 8. •Peer-to-peer – any entity may access the network equally – Client-Server – defines roles between 2 peers on a network. – Publisher-Subscriber – a one to many. Modbus).Some Terms •Master Slave – a master controls slave access to the network (e.g.
IEC 61850 Standard Basic principles Glossary General Requirements System and project management Communication requirements Substation Automation System Configuration Basic Communication Structure (4 sections) Part 8 Mapping to MMS and Ethernet Sampled Measured Values Mapping to Ethernet Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 9 Conformance testing Part 10 Structured Using Extensive Past Experience 10 July 8. 2005 .
Standardized Object Naming 11 July 8.Anatomy of an IEC61850 Object Names V MX MX A Functional Constraint Logical Nodes MMXU1 MMXU2 Logical Device (e.g. Relay1) Physical Device (network address) “MMXU2$MX$A” = Feeder #2 Current Measurements …Intuitive. 2005 .
2005 .Logical Node Definition: A Logical Node is an abstract model of a real device or function ∆θ XCBR Circuit Breaker RSYN Protection Related YPTR Transformer 12 July 8.
Logical Node Groups L System LN (2) P Protection (28) R Protection related (10) C Control (5) G Generic (3) I Interfacing and archiving (4) A Automatic control (4) M Metering and measurement (8) S Sensor and monitoring (4) X Switchgear (2) T Instrument transformers (2) Y Power transformers (4) Z Further power system equipment (15) Examples: PDIF: Differential protection RBRF: Breaker failure XCBR: Circuit breaker CSWI: Switch controller MMXU: Measurement unit YPTR: Power transformer 13 July 8. 2005 .
2005 .Logical Node Names Example for Breaker: dddXCBR01 Logical Node Instance # Logical Node Name per IEC 61850-7-4 (breaker) Optional Application Specific Prefix Simple. Structured Naming 14 July 8.
Logical Node Tree… MMXU FC Data Items “Tree” View of Measurement Unit MX CF DC RP TotW TotVAr TotVA TotPF Hz PPV PhV A W VAr VA TotPF Z 15 July 8. 2005 .
2005 .Functional Constraints… FC Name Description ST MX CO SP SV CF DC SG SE EX BR RP LG GO GS MS US XX Status Information Measurands (analog values) Control Set point Substitution Configuration Description Setting Group Setting Group Editable Extended Definition (naming – read only) Buffered Report Unbuffered Report Logging GOOSE Control GSSE Control Multicast Sampled Value (9-2) Unicast Sampled Value (9-1) Used as wild card in ACSI 16 July 8.
Logical Node Tree… MMXU MX CF DC RP TotW TotVAr TotVA TotPF Hz PPV PhV A W VAr VA PF Z “Tree” View of Measurement Unit Common Data Class – “WYE” PhA PhB PhC neut net res instCVal cVal mag ang 17 July 8. 2005 .
CDC are complex objects built on predefined simple base types organized into functional constraints (FC) Examples: – Single point status (SPS) – on/off – Double point status (DPS) – on/off/transient – 3 phase measurement (WYE) Logical Node Æ FC Æ Data Items Æ Common Data Class 18 July 8. 2005 .Common Data Classes (CDC) Defines structure for common types that are used to describe data objects.
Security Violation Counting Binary Counter Reading Measured Value Complex Measured Value Sampled Value Phase to ground measured values for 3-phase system Phase to phase measured values for 3-phase system Sequence Harmonic value Harmonic value for WYE Harmonic value for DEL 19 July 8.Common Data Classes Table Name SPS DPS INS ACT ACD SEC BCR MV CMV SAV WYE DEL SEQ HMV HWYE HDEL Description Single Point Status Double Point Status Integer Status Protection Activation Directional Protection Activation Info. 2005 .
Controllable Analogue Set Point Info. Single Point Setting Integer Status Setting Analogue Setting Setting Curve Device Name Plate Logical Node Name Plate Curve Shape Description SPC DPC INC BSC ISC APC SPG ING ASG CURVE DPL LPL CSD 20 July 8. 2005 .Common Data Classes Table… Name Description Controllable Single Point Controllable Double Point Controllable Integer Status Binary Controlled Step Position Info. Integer Controlled Step Position Info.
Common Data Class Example Single Point Status (SPS) From IEC61850-7-3 Attribute Type Name per clause 8 of IEC61850-7-3 Functional Trigger Constraint Options Makes Maximum Re-Use of Data Attributes Range of Values Mandatory/ Optional 21 July 8. 2005 .
Logical Node Example Measurement Unit (MMXU) illustration as per Standard From IEC61850-7-4 22 July 8. 2005 .
2005 .IEC 61850 Profiles Ethernet – The Foundation of All Future Substation Communications 23 July 8.
Abstract Communications Service Interface (ACSI) •Defines a set of Abstract Services to manipulate and access data objects •Defines a base set of data types for describing objects •Defines the behavior of an Object Abstraction Makes 61850 “Future Proof “! 24 July 8. 2005 .
Examples Abstract Communications Service Interface • GetDataValues – Read • SetDataValues – Write • GetDataDirectory – Read list of object names Self-Description Differentiates 61850 From All Other Existing Protocols 25 July 8. 2005 .
2005 .0 over TCP and UDP – UCA2.Grant County PUD Experience Substation Modernization Pilot did 2 substations – DNP3.0 (subset of IEC61850) Time to get DNP3 relay configured and communicating: ~ 2-3 days Time to get UCA/IEC61850 relay configured and communicating: 2-3 hours Minimization of Configuration is a Major Customer Requirement 26 July 8.
UR Implemented 61850 Services Abstract Communications Service Interface Buffered report control Unbuffered report control GOOSE GSSE (UCA GOOSE) ServerDirectory Time (SNTP) GetFile / GetFileAttributes Associate GetDataSetValue SetDataSetValues Abort Release LogicalDeviceDirectory LogicalNodeDirectory GetAllDataValues GetDataValues SetDataValues GetDataSetDirectory GOOSE GSSE (Generic Substation Status Event) SBO GetDataDirectory GetDataDefinition Report (buffered & unbuffered) . 2005 .data-change (dchg) GetBRCBValues SetBRCBValues Highlighted Services Enable Self-Description 27 July 8.
2005 .IEC 61850 Station Bus Transactions Circuit Breaker Simplified! Making It All Work Together 28 July 8.
Bkr N Trip BFI Requirements: • Reliable Message delivery from one to multiple other devices . 2005 .Relay to Relay Communications Functional Requirements Relay Bkr 1 Relay Bkr 2 Relay Bkr 3 Relay ...simultaneously • Fast Delivery (< 4ms) 29 July 8.
2005 .Generic Object Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE) •User Dataset sent in Multicast message • Primarily Local but Wide Area possible (and operating!) • Bridgeable but not routable • Sent on change of state • Sent periodically for self-test • Reliability by message repeat GOOSE Header: • Multicast Address • Name • Time Until Next GOOSE • Etc. Reliable. Interoperable Device to Device Communication 30 July 8. User-Defined Dataset • Status Information • Analog Values • Data Quality • Time Fast.
1Q 2 Bytes 2 Bytes TAG Protocol Identifier User Priority CFI 3 Bits 1 Bit VLAN ID 12 Bits TAG CONTROL INFORMATION • 4 bytes added to the Ethernet frame • Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID) set to 8100 hex …identifies an 802.VLAN Packet Structure 8 Bytes Preamble 6 Bytes DA 6 Bytes SA 4 Bytes 2 Bytes Type/Length 46-1500 Bytes Data and Pad 4 Bytes Frame Check 802.1Q message type • 12 bits used for VLAN Identifier • 3 bits used for Priority – 8 levels 31 July 8. 2005 .
Ethernet VLAN R5 R6 R7 5 5 7 Ethernet Switch w/ VLAN Mux Mux Mux VLAN 5 Message 5 5 Mux 5 Ethernet Switch w/ VLAN 2 5 5 5 R1 R2 R3 R4 32 July 8. 2005 .
2005 .Ethernet Priority •IEC GOOSE implements the 802.1Q priority setting •Priority messages moved to the priority queues •Implemented in many Ethernet switched Ethernet Switch Port 5 15 µsec Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 Port 6 Msg 1 New Msg 1 2 3 Msg 2 4 Msg 3 Msg 4 Port 4 New “high priority” message for Port 6 33 July 8.
2005 .Additional Services GOOSE • GetGoReference – Retrieve the Data Name for a specific dataset member reference • GetGOOSEElementNumber– Retrieve the position of a member in a Dataset What is element 5 called? Element 5 is “BFI” Relay 1 Relay 2 Services Enable Virtual Wire Check 34 July 8.
Goose Impact: LAN Interlocking and Tripping Ideal for interlocking • Multicasting eliminates multiple connections between devices • Simplified logic program replaces complex one Inter-zone Protective Relaying • Improved Performance • Complete Solution Using UR 61850 GOOSE Traditional Wiring 35 July 8. 2005 .
Remote Breaker Control Line Protection Trip/Block Control House Switch Yard Transformer Protection Bus Protection Trip/Block Trip/Block Ethernet Switch XCBR1 Local Position BlkOpn BlkCls SIMG1 Pressure InsTr Density InsBlk Temp XCBR2 Local Position BlkOpn BlkCls C30 Via FlexLogic Via GOOSE C30 36 July 8. 2005 .
2005 .Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant 37 July 8.
• This Impacted the safe Operation of the California Oregon Intertie • Loss of any 2 Palo Verde Units under full load requires mitigation Malin / Round Mountain #1 Malin / Round Mountain #2 Captain Jack / Olinda 38 July 8.The Need For Mitigation? • Palo Verde Unit 2 Was Up-Rated by 121MW. 2005 .
2005 .Design Parameters • Shed 120 MW of load upon loss of any 2 units – If the sum of any 2 generators exceeds 2574 MW – If the 2 units trip within 5 minutes of one another • Load must be shed within 1 second • No automatic restoration (Supervisory only) • Redundant with no common mode failures And the Solution Is… 39 July 8.
Arming Logic ARM Load Gen1 MW Yes Gen2 Σ GEN (1+2) or GEN (2+3) or GEN (1+3) >2550MW Gen3 No UN-ARM Load 40 July 8. 2005 .
Pick Up DO – Drop Out Armed Load’ <150MW ? Yes Enable Sum Σ Station Load Substation XYZ 41 July 8. 2005 .Substation Dynamic Load Aggregation Armed Load’ New Armed Load ARM Load PU DO PU .
2005 .SRP SONET System Data In Data Out Network elements: 17 OC-48 Nodes 218 MUX Nodes 42 July 8.
2005 .703(Direct I/O) 11ms 20ms 33ms 46ms 61850 Provides New Solutions to Complex Power System Issues 43 July 8.Palo Verde Round Trip Communication Timing Multicast through fiber Site Gaucho Alameda Indian Bend Buckhorn Ethernet 14ms 14ms 14ms 14ms G.
SCL – Substation Configuration Language • Description language for communication in electrical substations related to the IEDs • XML based language that allows a formal description of – Substation automation system and the switchyard and the relation between them – IED configuration 44 July 8. 2005 .
SCD: Substation Configuration Description. description of a single substation. 2005 . CID: Configured IED Description. Intended to Address ALL Aspects of Power System Configuration 45 July 8. ICD: IED Capability Description. description of the entire system.SCL File Types SSD: System Specification Description. configuration for a specific IED. description of items supported by an IED.
2005 .Example of SCL Easily Readable & Logical Format 46 July 8.
61850 Process Bus IED Control House Switch Yard Ethernet Switch MU – Merging Unit MU Breaker Breaker MU Breaker MU Synch 61850 Process Bus • Synchronous sampling • Reduction of Point-Point wiring • Minimization of configuration time • Elimination of copper wire 47 July 8. 2005 .
2005 .Why a Process Bus? • Need for an interface with optical voltage and current transformers • Desire to eliminate copper wiring in the field • Desire to minimize configuration time • Desire to optimize reconfiguration 48 July 8.
Input. Current.Process Bus Interface with Conventional CTs and PTs Implementation Needs: • Time Sync through the network • Voltage. 2005 . Output processing • Redundant 100BaseFx fiber communication ports • Redundant Power Supply Process Bus Merging Unit (MU) • Voltage/Current/other analogs • Contact/Status Inputs • Control Outputs V I Digital I/O Analog Input 49 July 8.
2005 . 50 July 8.Implementation Agreement IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINE FOR DIGITAL INTERFACE TO INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS USING IEC 61850-9-2 Purpose: to define a subset of IEC 61850-9-2 that shall support a fast market introduction of this standard.
01 =0 Defined per the Implementation Agreement 51 July 8.Process Bus Dataset & Common Data Class LN LLN0 PhsMeas1 IATCTR.scaleFactor = 0.Amp ICTCTR.Amp UATVTR.Vol Unm/cTVTR.Amp IBTCTR.Vol MSVCB01 DatSet = PhsMeas1 MsvID = MSVCB01 SmpRate = 80 NoASDU = 1 Attribute Name instMag.offset =0 sVC. 2005 .Vol UCTVTR.offset sVC.001 sVC.Amp Inm/cTCTR.Vol UBTVTR.i q sVC Attribute Type INT32 Quality ScaledValueConfig sVC.scaleFactor = 0.
2005 .Analog Filter Compensation V/I XFMR Analog Filter Sample & Hold A/D Conversion Buffer P R O C E S S O R ∆t Group Delay Provides Compensated Sample Time Stamping 52 July 8.
Sample Sets: Single or Aggregated t P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 80 samples/nominal cycle 1 sample set/packet P1 P2 256 samples/nominal cycle 8 samples/packet P3 t Sampling Capability for Now and the Future 53 July 8. 2005 .
IEC61850 Substation Architecture Station Bus-10/100/1000 MB Ethernet Relay(s) Subscribe to Datasets Relay IED Relay IED Process Bus .1/1/10GB Ethernet Relay IED Remote Remote Access Access MU Publishes V/I/Status Datasets Network Network Clk1 Clk1 MU MU MU MU MU MU Clk2 Clk2 PT1 I/O Optical CT PT2 I/O CT2 MU = Merging Unit Optical I/O Optical PT CT Simplified Architecture… Positioned for the Future 54 July 8. 2005 .
2005 Back-Up Easy to Configure for Redundancy .1 Ethernet1 Ethernet2 MAC – 2 IP Addr .Redundancy Implementations Redundant Port: 2 independent Ethernet ports with 2 different addresses MAC – 1 IP Addr .1 Ethernet Switch Primary Switches on loss of Ethernet link pulses 55 July 8.2 Redundant Media: 1 Ethernet port with switched media MAC – 1 IP Addr .
Process Bus System Implementation Breaker Protection-1 Breaker Protection-2 Line Protection Transformer Protection Process Bus Test Set Merging Unit Sw Merging Unit Merging Unit Swift & Economical Test Capabilities 56 July 8. 2005 .
specification. and maintenance. • Standardized naming conventions with power system context eliminates device dependencies and tag mapping saving $$$$ in configuration. setup.IEC61850 Benefits . configuration. 57 July 8.1 • High-level services enable self-describing devices & automatic object discovery saving $$$$$ in configuration. setup and maintenance. setup. and maintenance. 2005 . • Standardized configuration file formats enables exchange of device configuration saving $$$$ in design.
58 July 8. • Multi-cast messaging enables sharing of transducer (CT/PT) signals saving $$$$ by reducing transducers and calibration costs.2 • Higher performance multi-cast messaging for inter-relay communications enables functions not possible with hard wires and save $$$$ in wiring and maintenance.IEC61850 Benefits . 2005 .
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