ISSN: 2278 – 909X International Journal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering (IJARECE) Volume 2, Issue 6, June


Morphologically Advanced Method for the Separation of Signals using the CCA-EMD Algorithm
Noelle Susan Joy, D. Sugumar, Dr. P. T. Vanathi

Abstract— A combination of various signals as well as noise from the environment is a result when it comes to working with many subjects or multiple working conditions especially in the medical field. These corrupted signals become difficult to study the data retrieved. Hence there is a specific need in utilizing an appropriate algorithm to study these signals on separation while maintaining their basic characteristic property. BSS(Blind Source Separation) has been in long term use when it comes to separation of medical signals. A lot of approaches for BSS have come into existence. Of all the two most significant methods of BSS has been taken here namely CCA and EMD. The main goal is to denoise the corrupted medical signals and further separate them to be studied individually for any medical disorders. The denoising process can be carried out using the methods of wavelet filtering, or adaptive filtering or any other advanced methods of JBSS, ICA, etc.. From an EHG, the heart disorders as well as the the future problems with respect to the growth of the human being can be inferred. The algorithm proposed in this journal is a solution to denoise and separate the EHG signals. To support the algorithm comparison between the other existing methods has been analyzed. JBSS as well as CICA are some of the methods compared to prove that the method suggested is better and successful than any other in terms of signal separation as well as the SIR(Signal to Interference Ratio) values. Index Terms— EHG, CCA, EMD, JBSS, CICA I. INTRODUCTION Electro-hysterogram (EHG) is a mixed signal retrieved from the abdomen of a woman recorded during the later stages of pregnancy especially during the 28 weeks of gestation using

Manuscript received March 15, 2013 . Noelle Susan Joy, ECE Department, Karunya University, Coimbatore, India, D. Sugumar, ECE Department, Karunya University, Coimbatore, India, Dr. P.T.Vanathi ,PSG Tech, Coimbatore, India

bipolar electrodes. These EHG signals are useful when it comes to finding out any unusual heart behavior from the heartbeats of the mother or the fetus which in case of labor would guide the doctor to choose a uterine contraction induction or augmentation, a C-section, or other therapies. Furthermore, the fetal heart rate monitoring with respect to the uterine activity, known as cardiotocography, is used as a screening test for timely recognition of fetal distress (e.g. asphyxia) [1] [2]. EHG signals are non-stationary and are polar in nature. Diagnosing the bipolar signals of EHG is not a point as they are stationary in nature. So monopolar EHG are considered. While recording the EHG, the major noise levels in it include the growing fetus’s movements, muscle contractions within the uterus, base-line wander, power line interference (PLI),electromyogram (EMG), skin impedance, the electronic and electromagnetic noise from the instruments within as well as outside the abdomen as well ECG of mother and fetus. The EHG is of low frequency and has very low amplitude as compared to contaminating noise sources. Wavelet filtering [3] and JBSS (Joint BSS) have been used successfully on bipolar EHG for removing maternal and fetal ECG as well as electric noises. CICA (Constrained ICA), has also been used in denoising the EEG signals retrieved from the brain [4]. In wavelet filtering the main concept employed is low amplitude and bipolar nature of the EHG signals. This is not what is required in reality as our interest is concerned with the monopolar signals. Also since the signal of interest is of low amplitude the noise range coincides with the same frequency levels. The common frequency range for the EHG is from 0.1 to 1.5 Hz. In addition to this the maternal respiration, maternal heartbeat, fetal respiration are some of the smaller signals that are accounted for in the same frequency range making it a complex signal. And as the noise is in the same frequency bands and is of high amplitude and is sporadic, it cannot be rejected by wavelet filters or the filters used in the JBSS process or can’t even match the threshold values in the CICA process. So there are chances that important information is lost by using bipolar signals only. Hence there is a need to go for monopolar signals. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) used in biomedical signal processing involve the analysis of time varying databases such as EMG [5], [6]. There are methods of extracting the fetal ECG from the EHG based on the BAF approach (Blind Adaptive Filtering) where diseases like Arrhythmia can be found out using a moving window [2].This method has out-rated the ICA methods. 632

But in CCA. the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) [3]. From the figure below it is seen that the EHG signals taken from the womb are passed through the CCA algorithm to obtain separated noisy mother and fetal signals. Huang et al introduced the EMD concept which analyzes non stationary and nonlinear signal [8] especially biomedical signals. Block Diagram showing the CCA-EMD process Fig.ISSN: 2278 – 909X International Journal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering (IJARECE) Volume 2. Source signals that are uncorrelated and maximally autocorrelated and an ordered decreasing autocorrelation are obtained in CCA. the sources are forced to be maximally auto correlated and mutually uncorrelated while the mixing matrix is taken to be a square matrix. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) CCA is a process of solving the BSS problem of contrast functions.canonical correlation coefficient . as well as in removing artifacts from ECG signals [9]. Noisy MECG 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 1000 0 -1000 x6 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 1000 0 -1000 x7 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 Fig 2. external noise is removed to get clear MECG and FECG. are the signals taken from the abdomen whereas the last two signals have been taken from the thoracic region of the pregnant lady. From fig. the estimated sources are considered to be non Gaussian as possible.wq. P(t) and Q(t).Application of CCA includes Speaker Recognition and Image Retrieval. Wavelet Transform (WT) denoising methods could also be good candidates for the second step of the processing presented here. where ρ . Using EMD as an artifact removal method is successful in EGG (electrogastrogram) signals.1. CCA proves to be robust and its efficiency is tested through the coefficients obtained. The first five channels shown in the . The sampling rate is 250 Hz and T=2500 the square root of the Eigen value and Eigen vectors as wp . in this first attempt EMD was chosen rather than WT methods because of reasons [11] ORIGINAL MIXED ECG SIGNAL FROM A PREGNANT WOMAN 50 0 -50 x1 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 200 0 -200 x2 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 100 0 -100 x3 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 50 0 -50 x4 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 100 0 -100 x5 0 1 2 3 4 II. On application of the EMD process. The weak and fast rated signals are the heart pulses of the fetus which is seen in the first few channels. A new method introduced.ijarece. However.. a version of EMD showed better performance than EMD in extracting the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). [20]. In ICA (Independent Component Analysis). The task is to separate out the weak fetal ECG signal. On considering the observed data matrix P(t) and its delayed version Q(t). 633 www. Issue 6. The canonical correlation between P and Q can be calculated by solving these equations: Cpp-1Cpq-1Cqq-1wp=ρ2wp Cqq-1Cqp-1Cpp-1wq=ρ2wq (1) (2) EMD MECG EHG signals CCA Noisy FECG EMD FECG Fig 1.1 shows the mixed ECG signal plot. June 2013 The artifacts involved with the muscle in the body during recording can be removed too using the BSS technique called as Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) [5][7]. The Correlation Coefficients are proportion of correlation between the canonical variates accounted for by the particular variable. MATERIALS AND METHODS A. In CCA the correlation between the variable projections on to the basis vectors are found and later maximized [10]. Mixed ECG signal in MATLAB format B.their corresponding canonical correlations will be found based on a basis vector or a Canonical Variate.These are already recorded EHG signals from a pregnant woman whose ECG is mixed with the fetal ECG signals within the womb. it is seen in all the seven channels that the strong and slow heart beat signal is that of the mother. The correlations between the successively extracted canonical variates would be gradually smaller and smaller. Measurements The FECG measurements are taken from [19].

the signal to interference ratio is found and compared with Joint Blind Source Separation (JBSS) and Constrained Independent Component Analysis (CICA). 4. Emperical Mode Decomposition (EMD) EMD is a nonlinear and data driven technique used on non stationary signal decomposition. ECG signals of the original and delayed signals are plotted. From the results below it is hence proven that the separation of maternal fetal signals are faster and better when compared to the existing methods. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Fig. Initially the size of the signal is obtained from where it was determined if the signal is a 1-D or 2-D signal. Respiration signals were monitored in P. After the EMD is found. Delayed ECG signal 200 0 -200 B1 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 200 0 -200 B2 0 1 2 3 4 III.ISSN: 2278 – 909X International Journal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering (IJARECE) Volume 2. each of them being a Zero-mean AM-FM . Original ECG signals D.6 the repeated IMF findings shall in turn reduce the amount of noise and thus make it visible for us to identify the mother and fetal signals which are plotted independently. that follows a well behaved Hilbert Transforms. the signals are passed to the EMD algorithm where the corresponding IMFs are found using the step by step procedure just like mentioned before.Q axes by measuring the acceleration 2. Process Steps: 1. This helps in easily recognizing the maternal and fetal signals. Here the main idea is to represent a signal as a sum of components. here the correlation coefficients are calculated and their corresponding variates are found.. Application of the EMD on each axis signal A6 Original Ecg signal 50 0 -50 A1 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 200 0 -200 A2 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 100 0 -100 A3 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 50 0 -50 A4 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 100 0 -100 A5 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 Application of the spectral criteria on each IMF of 2-axes respiratory signal Evaluation of the EMD based technique was aided by metrics computation (Cross Correlation Coefficients) A7 1000 0 -1000 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 1000 0 -1000 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 Fig 3.2 and 3 shows the mixing matrices plotted for applying the BSS approach on the Mixed ECG signals. 3. Once the CCA process is over.ijarece. Issue 6. The plots are made on the basis of checking out the dimensions and they are maximized. Delayed ECG signals In Fig. Corresponding mixing matrices A and B are found using the BSS_CCA combined approach Fig. The covariates found are then inversed. CCA-EMD A combination of the above two methods will be used here. June 2013 C. Decomposing a complicated set of data into a finite number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF). 200 0 -200 B3 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 200 0 -200 B4 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 1000 0 -1000 B5 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 1000 0 -1000 B6 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 500 0 -500 B7 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 Fig 4. 4 and 5. The separation process has been 634 www. A total of 2500 samples were taken which were sampled for 10 seconds. In EMD. Partial Signal Reconstruction by appropriate selection of IMFs is performed and exclusion of those IMFs that contribute to the noise contamination and feature distortion of the signal of choice.

Here the reference signals for the mother as well as for the fetus are plotted and the simulated signals are compared with the reference signals. For this a proper reference signal has to be created that is closely related to the desired source signal. The maternal and fetal signals can be identified by the difference in the frequency rates. CCA_BSS on Original Signals Noise removed using BSS-CCA in Delayed ECG signal 10 Y11 0 -10 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 Y12 0 -10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 Y13 0 -5 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 Y14 0 -10 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 Y15 0 -10 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 Y16 0 -10 10 0 -10 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 Y17 0 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 Fig 6. In the JBSS algorithm. this method is not always feasible in practice. separation of the FECG and MECG signal from the recorded ECG signal so that there is a correct diagnosis obtained during pregnancy. an improperly selected threshold will result in the failure of CICA. Joint Blind Source Separation (JBSS) In this algorithm. A feasible threshold depends on both the designed reference signal and the closeness measure.ijarece. 10 0 -10 Y2 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 5 0 -5 Y3 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 10 0 -10 Y4 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 10 0 -10 Y5 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 5 0 -5 Y6 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 5 0 -5 Y7 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 Fig 5. especially when the fetus is in early phase. Issue 6. different reference signals require different suitable ranges of the threshold value. C. the desired FECG is very weak so that the accurate occurrence time and shape of each complex of FECG are often not easy to obtain. there are two peaks showing a fetal signal which is less in the maternal signal. In CICA the shape and pulse of the reference signal highly affect the extracted signals.ISSN: 2278 – 909X International Journal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering (IJARECE) Volume 2. It is seen that CCA-EMD process shows better separation results as there are components of noise added to the separated signals in both CICA and JBSS. 8 and 9 the separated ECG plots for JBSS. For example. different closeness measures also determine different suitable ranges. Reference signals are created in such a way that it is sharply closer to the desired signal making it highly important to CICA. Comparison of the Separated EHG Signals In Fig 7. Finally the separation was performed to get the independent mother and fetal . As it is seen. After that construction of cumulant matrix was done to convert the original matrix into one dimensional matrix which was followed by joint diagonalization. in the non-invasive extraction of FECG. Besides. and then gradually increase the threshold. Given the same data set. Then the process of pre-whitening was done for uniform distribution. CICA and CCA-EMD against the samples are shown. June 2013 Noise removed using BSS-CCA in Original ECG signal 10 0 -10 Y1 0 1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 evaluated with respect to the time and noise removal has been taken with respect to the sample count. the noise has been removed using the Butterworth filter. IV. ECG after CCA-EMD (in time domain) 635 www. It has been suggested to use a small threshold initially. Sharp reference signals are difficult to be constructed with respect to applications. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A. It is seen that the mother and fetal signals resemble exactly the reference signals B. Similarly. However. Constrained ICA (CICA) The constrained ICA (CICA) (also called ICA with reference) is another option for extracting a number of source signals from a large number of observed signals. in a time span of 1sec. CCA_BSS on Delayed signals (in time domain) fetal signal 5 0 -5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 maternal signal 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Fig 7.

Canonical decomposition of ictal scalp EEG reliably detects the seizure onset zone. De Clercq. W. Detecting the fetal heart beat helps in understanding the chances of various heart problems which could be diagnosed at an early gestation period and can be rectified as soon as the baby is born or while still inside the womb. vol. A. Experiments are carried out in stages of pregnancy and during labor. WangS. ―Extraction of Featl ECG fromMaternal ECG in early Pregnancy‖.5 -1 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 PLOT OF SEPARATED MOTHER 2 1 0 -1 -2 The above table shows that the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) for CCA-EMD is better in comparison to the JBSS as well as CICA measurements. Data Anal. autonomic nervous system activities by spectral heart rate analysis. The SIR values have been calculated and found out to be that the SIR values on application of CCA-EMD for mother and fetus are 10 and 12 times more than the values of compared methods. 2005. Separated mother and fetal signals using JBSS (plotted 2500 samples for 10sec) 4 Samples 2 0 -2 -4 500 1000 Reference Maternal Ecg 4 1500 2000 2500 Samples 2 0 -2 -4 500 1000 Separated Maternal Ecg 4 1500 2000 2500 Samples 2 0 -2 -4 500 1000 Reference Fetal Ecg 4 1500 2000 2500 Samples 2 0 -2 -4 500 1000 Reference Fetal Ecg 1500 2000 2500 Fig 9. CONCLUSION 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Fig 8.95 SIRm (in dB) 77. vol. Similarly the SIR values for the fetal signals while CCA-EMD used was 12 times improved than the JBSS case.ISSN: 2278 – 909X International Journal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering (IJARECE) Volume 2. De Lathauwer. Vol. Palmini. Ljubljana. ―Abdominal EHG on a 4 by 4 grid: Mapping and presenting the propagation of uterine contractions. Marque. De Clercq.2007. pp. L.‖ Extracting rhythmic brain activity for brain computer interfacing through constrained independent component analysis‖. M. etc. But when it comes to CICA the SIR values are almost closer to it but greater in magnitude.5 0 -0. A. Biol. Separated mother and fetal signals using CICA (plotted 2500 samples for 10sec) COMBINED ECG SIGNAL 1000 500 0 This work includes the separation of the FECG and MECG signal from the recorded ECG signal so that a correct diagnosis can be given during pregnancy regarding the normalcies in the labor or the growth of the child in the womb. [2] [3] COMPARISON WITH SIR VALUES SIRf (in dB) 74. ―Ensemble empirical mode decomposition: A noiseassisted data analysis method. Down’s syndrome. Comput.35 67. 1. 139–143. Van Paesschen. cardiac arrhythmia.Med. and C. REFERENCES [1] -500 0 500 1000 PLOT OF SEPARATED FETUS 1500 2000 2500 1 .1. De Lathauwer. S. Van Paesschen. S. De Vos. Comput Intell Neurosci 2007: 41468 M.‖ in Proc.56 73.James CJ. 1. 37. Issue 6. Gumundsson.44 73. V. Diseases like hypoxia.11th Mediterranean Conf. 37. J. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to sincerely thank Mahmoud Hassan and his team for his support in helping us with the CCA-EMD method suggested. No. 2007. Van Huffel. T. pp. The significance of this work is a better approach in finding out the fetal related heart disorders as well as growth process while still in the womb..54 Methods CCA-EMD CICA JBSS [4] [5] B. These attempts are expected to provide a robust method for the FECG separation and diagnosis problem. Yunde Zhong. uterine contraction information. Adapt. Slovenia. Vergult.Wu and N. arrhythmia is found out through the heart waves. Terrien. Van Huffel. Comparison of Parameters TABLE I. P. pp. A.‖ Neuroimage. V. pp. the identification of cardiac diseases such as acidosis. Z. W. A. Analyzing the FECG signals permits the determination of cardiac parameters and. Vergult. The value of SIR in CCA-EMD for the maternal signal is 10 times better than the JBSS SIR value. andW. June 2013 COMBINED ECG SIGNAL 1000 500 0 -500 0 500 1000 PLOT OF SEPARATED FETUS 1500 2000 2500 1 0.ijarece.Menachem Graupe. 2007.7.‖ Adv. Karlsson. 844–854. Steingr´ımsd´ottir.‖ Neuroimage. Dupont. Sep.5 0 -0. L. Sep. De Vos. P. 844–854. 636 www. . premature ventricular contractions (PVC). Dupont. Separated mother and fetal signals using CCA-EMD (plotted 2500 samples for 10sec) D. ―Canonical decomposition of ictal scalp EEG reliably detects the seizure onset zone. CCA-EMD (Canonical Correlation Analysis and Emperical Mode Decomposition) is employed here. vol. andW.66 62. Huang. in turn. 1–41. IJBEM.5 -1 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 PLOT OF SEPARATED MOTHER 2 1 0 -1 -2 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Fig 10. Daniel Graupe. Palmini. Eng. 1.

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