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Software Life-Cycle Models Answers --1. Which of the following is not a software life-cycle model? Your response: H.

all are software life-cycle models Correct! There are many different software life-cycle models - the use of each may be appropriate in different circumstances. Schach C3 p64 --2. Which of the following is not a software life-cycle model? Your response: E. jacuzzi Correct! There are many different software life-cycle models - the Jacuzzi is not one of them (although some have promoted it as a type of OO build and fix model somewhat reminiscent of Nike's slogan 'Just Do It'). Schach C3 p64 --3. In which of the following circumstances might the 'build-and-fix' software lifecycle model be an appropriate one to use? Your response: E. short programs that will not need maintenance Correct! The 'build-and-fix' software life-cycle model may be an appropriate one to use for short programs that will not need maintenance. Schach C3.1 p65 --4. In which of the following circumstances might the spiral software life-cycle model be an appropriate one to use? Your response: A. large-scale, in-house products Correct! The spiral software life-cycle model may be an appropriate one to use for large-scale, in-house products. Schach C3.7 p82 ---

5. In which of the following circumstances might the rapid prototyping software lifecycle model be an appropriate one to use? Your response: B. for products with complex user-interface where it is important to meet a particular client's needs Correct! The rapid prototyping software life-cycle model may be an appropriate one to use for products with complex user-interface where it is important to meet a particular client's needs. Schach C3.4 p72 --6. In which of the following circumstances might the waterfall software life-cycle model be an appropriate one to use? Your response: E. large document-driven projects requiring a disciplined approach Correct! The waterfall software life-cycle model may be an appropriate one to use for large document-driven projects requiring a disciplined approach. Schach C3.2.1 p68-9 --7. What is a drawback of the synchronise-and-stabilise software life-cycle model? Your response: E. it has not been widely used other than at Microsoft. Correct! a drawback of the synchronise-and-stabilise software life-cycle model is that it has not been widely used other than at Microsoft. Schach C3.6 p77, C3.9 Table 3.10 --8. Which feature of the waterfall software life-cycle model allows modifications to be made to the deliverables produced at an earlier stage? Your response: E. feedback loops Correct! Feedback loops of the waterfall software life-cycle model allow modifications to be made to the deliverables produced at an earlier stage. Schach C3.2 p68 --9. A critical point of the waterfall software life-cycle model is that:

Your response: E. no phase is complete until the documentation for that phase has been completed and the deliverables for that phase have been approved by the SQA group. Correct! A critical point of the waterfall software life-cycle model is that no phase is complete until the documentation for that phase have been completed and the deliverables for that phase have been approved by the SQA group. Schach C3.2 p68 --10. Which of the following statements about the waterfall software life-cycle model is true? Your response: E. All of these statements are false. Correct! Features of the waterfall model include: testing is carried out and documentation produced at the end of each phase; this documentation is updated as changes are made; as the specifications exist only on paper it is difficult for the client to understand what the product itself will be like. Schach C3.2 p65--11. To a certain extent the use of the rapid prototyping software life-cycle model is to overcome one of the weaknesses of the waterfall model. To this extent the working model is primarily designed to be evaluated by the: Your response: E. end-users Correct! The first step of the rapid prototype is to let the client and future users interact with the working model and experiment with it. Schach C3.3 p70 --12. Which property of the rapid prototype is not important? Your response: E. its internal structure Correct! The sole use of the rapid prototype is to determine what the client's real needs are as rapidly as possible. The rapid prototype is then effectively discarded so its internal structure is not relevant. Schach C3.3 p70-1 ---

13. Introducing rapid prototyping into an organization as a front-end to the waterfall model has an additional advantage. It will give management the opportunity to: Your response: D. assess the technique while minimising the associated risk. Correct! Introducing rapid prototyping into an organization as a front-end to the waterfall model has an additional advantage. It will give management the opportunity to assess the technique while minimising the associated risk. Schach C3.3.1 p72 --14. In one sense the Incremental model is a contradiction in terms. Your response: E. The developer must design the product as a whole but simultaneously view it as a sequence of builds. Correct! The developer must design the product as a whole but simultaneously view it as a sequence of builds. Schach C3.4.1 p75 --15. An additional advantage of the Incremental model is that: Your response: E. as the design is flexible enough to support incremental builds, enhancements undertaken during the maintenance phase can be easily incorporated as they are additional builds. Correct! An additional advantage of the Incremental model is that as the design is flexible enough to support incremental builds, enhancements undertaken during the maintenance phase can be easily incorporated as they are additional builds. Schach C3.4.1 p75 --16. An advantage of the Incremental model is that: Your response: E. All of these are advantages of the incremental model. Correct! Advantages of the Incremental model include: change and adaptation are natural to the model; an operational quality product is delivered to the client at each stage; as the design is flexible enough to support incremental builds, enhancements undertaken during the maintenance phase can be easily incorporated as they are additional builds; and, it reduces the traumatic effect of introducing changes to the

organization as each new increment builds upon the work delivered in the previous one. Schach C3.4.1 p75 --17. A disadvantage of the Incremental model is that: Your response: C. the model can easily degenerate into the 'build-and-fix' approach. Correct! A disadvantage of the Incremental model is that the model can easily degenerate into the 'build-and-fix' approach. Control of the process as a whole can be lost, and the resulting product, instead of being open-ended, becomes a maintainer's nightmare. Schach C3.4.1 p75 --18. The extreme programming software life-cycle model is an adaptation of the ____________ model. Your response: D. incremental Correct! The extreme programming software life-cycle model is an adaptation of the incremental model. It has been used on a number of small and medium sized projects. Schach C3.5 p76-7 --19. In extreme programming there is no overall design phase before the various builds are constructed. Instead the design is modified while the product is being built. This procedure is termed: Your response: D. refactoring Correct! Whenever a test case will not run, the code is reorganized until the team is satisfied that the design is simple, straightforward and runs all test cases satisfactorily. Schach C3.5 p77 --20. In extreme programming, the first step is that the software development team determine the various features that the client would like the product to support. These are termed:

Your response: D. stories Correct! the first step, constructing stories, corresponds to the requirements and specification phases of the incremental model. Schach C3.5 p75 --21. In extreme programming, what is the first step in a task that is to be part of a build? Your response: C. testing Correct! The programmers draw up test cases for the task, these are retained and used for further integration testing. Schach C3.5 p77 --22. Which of the following is not a feature of extreme programming (XP)? Your response: F. None. That is, all of these are features of extreme programming. Correct! a number of feature of XP are somewhat unusual. These include: computers of the XP team are set up in the centre of a large room, a client works with the XP team at all times, no individual can work overtime for more than 2 successive weeks, there is no specialization, all members work on specification, design, code and testing and there is no overall design phase. Schach C3.5 p77 --23. The synchronise-and-stabilise software life-cycle model is an adaptation of the ____________ model. Your response: D. incremental Correct! The synchronise-and-stabilise software life-cycle model is an adaptation of the incremental model. Microsoft, the world's largest manufacturer of shrink-wrapped software, has adopted it. Schach C3.6 p77 --24. The spiral software life-cycle model is an adaptation of the ____________ model(s).

Your response: E. all of the above Correct! The spiral software life-cycle model incorporates aspects of all of the other models. Schach C3.7 p78 --25. The aim of the synchronisation stage of the synchronise-and-stabilise software life-cycle model is to: Your response: E. put the partially completed components together and test and debug the resulting product Correct! At the synchronisation stage of the synchronise-and-stabilise software lifecycle model the partially completed components are put together and the resulting product is tested and debugged. Schach C3.6 p78 --26. A disadvantage of the synchronise-and-stabilise software model is that: Your response: F. the approach needs the existence of a disciplined change control operation before it can be put in place. Thus it is unlikely to be used by the many small software development organizations that typify the industry. Correct! A disadvantage of the synchronise-and-stabilise approach is that the approach needs the existence of a disciplined change control operation before it can be put in place. Thus it is unlikely to be used by the many small software development organizations that typify the industry. Schach C3.6 p78 --27. An example of the risk involved in software development is: Your response: E. All of these are risks involved in software development. Correct! There are many risks involved in software development. Schach C3.7 p78-82 --28. A simple way of looking at the spiral software life-cycle model is as a _________ model with each phase preceded by risk analysis.

Your response: B. waterfall Correct! A simple way of looking at the spiral software life-cycle model is as a waterfall model with each phase proceeded by risk analysis. Schach C3.7 p78 --29. A simple way of looking at the spiral software life-cycle model is as a waterfall model with each phase proceeded by: Your response: E. risk analysis Correct! A simple way of looking at the spiral software life-cycle model is as a waterfall model with each phase proceeded by risk analysis. Schach C3.7 p78 --30. There are many risks associated with software development. Which of the following represents the soundest scenario by way of resolving risk? Your response: E. building a prototype to test say a routing algorithm, the failure of which would otherwise cause widespread disruption to the business. Correct! Some risk avoidance techniques are unsound. For example, adding additional people to a project won't necessarily speed it up and you can't 'test-in' quality. Schach C3.7 p78-82 --31. Which of the following are limitations of the spiral model? Your response: D. All of these are limitations on or restrictions to the use of risk analysis. Correct! Limitations on or restrictions to the use of risk analysis include: It is suited to internal development. For instance, termination of a contract with an external developer may lead to costly litigation. For small projects the cost of conducting risk analysis may not be warranted when put alongside the total cost of the product. Members of the development team may not be competent risk analysts. Schach C3.7 p78-82 ---

32. How is maintenance treated the spiral model of software development? Your response: E. Maintenance is treated as a further iteration of the model. Correct! Maintenance is treated as a further iteration of the spiral model. Schach C3.7 p78-82 --33. A common feature(s) of object-oriented life cycle models is/are: Your response: D. All of these are features Correct! Common features of object-oriented life cycle models are: iteration, parallelism, and incremental development. Schach C3.8 p83 --34. An intrinsic property of software production and the object-oriented paradigm in particular is: Your response: A. iteration Correct! Iteration is an intrinsic property of software production and the objectoriented paradigm in particular. Schach C3.8 p84 --35. In an analysis of some of the life cycle models, Schach concludes that the _____________ model is the best. Your response: E. none of these are "the" best. Correct! Each software development organization should decided on a life cycle model appropriate for that organization, its management, its employees, and its software process and vary the model depending on the features of the specific product currently under development. Such a model will incorporate appropriate aspects of the various life-cycle models, utilizing their strengths and minimizing their weaknesses. Schach C3.9 p85