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Literature review Description of equipments Dynamo Spur Gear Rectifier Filter Battery Design and drawing Fabrication Working principle Merits and Demerits Applications List of materials Cost Estimation Conclusion Bibliography Photography

1 2 3 4 5 6 Base frame Revolving door Spur gear (big) Spur gear (small) Dynamo Overall diagram



CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION .The objective of this project is to generate the electric power through the revolving door arrangement in park place. so this project is used to generate the electrical power in order to compensate the electric power demand. Now day’s power demand has increased.

Alternative energy refers to energy sources which are not based on the burning of fossil fuels or the splitting of atoms.Energy is the ability to do work. • • Solar Wind Power Geothermal Tides Hydroelectric • • • . The alternatives are. the ability to harness it and use it for constructive ends as economically as possible is the challenge before mankind. Fortunately there are many means of harnessing energy which have less damaging impacts on our environment. While energy surrounds us in all aspects of life. The renewed interest in this field of study comes from the undesirable effects of pollution (as witnessed today) both from burning fossil fuels and from nuclear waste byproducts.

In addition to these we have developed a new methodology of generating power using human energy and the name of this alternative is a railway track power generation. .

Natural phenomena such as solar . and its projected continuation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that most of the increase since the midtwentieth century is "very likely" due to the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. which is the demand for power has exceed the supply due to the rise in population. wood. GLOBAL WARMING: Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid20th century.Global surface temperature increased 0. In addition to this the traditional methods cause pollution.32 °F) during the 100 years ending in 2005.18 °C (1. encourage deforestation (cutting of trees) the consequences are global warming. diesel (generators) etc is continuously depleting our natural resources such as fossil fuels. power shortage like we are facing nowadays.33 ± 0.CHAPTER -2 LITERATURE SURVEY POWER GENERATION FROM REVOLVING DOOR: The usage of traditional power generation method such as burning of coal.74 ± 0.

. and significant changes to the amount and pattern of precipitation.variation combined with volcanoes probably had a small warming effect from pre-industrial times to 1950 and a small cooling effect from 1950 onward. Climate model projections summarized by the IPCC indicate that average global surface temperature will likely rise a further 1. an increase in the intensity of extreme weather events. likely including an expanse of the subtropical desert regions. Other expected effects of global warming include changes in agricultural .1 to 6. The delay in reaching equilibrium is a result of the large heat capacity of the oceans.4 °C (2. This range of values results from the use of differing scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions as well as models with differing climate sensitivity. Increasing global temperature is expected to cause sea levels to rise.5 °F) during the twenty-first century. Although most studies focus on the period up to 2100.0 to 11. warming and sea level rise are expected to continue for more than a thousand years even if greenhouse gas levels are stabilized.

From 1960 to 1990 humancaused aerosols likely precipitated this effect. mass species extinctions. if any. Scientists have stated with 66–90% confidence that the effects of human-caused aerosols. may have partially mitigated global warming in the late 20th century. modifications of trade routes. glacier retreat.yields. and how warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe. and that greenhouse gases would have resulted in more warming than observed if not for these dimming agents. the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earth's surface. along with volcanic activity. and increases in the ranges of disease vectors. but there is ongoing political and public debate worldwide regarding what. have offset some of the global warming. Most national governments have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. action should be taken to reduce or reverse future warming or to adapt to its expected consequences. Remaining scientific uncertainties include the amount of warming expected in the future. . Global dimming.

The use of standby generators is common in industrial and IT hubs. Although there are areas of linkage.Ozone depletion. the relationship between the two is not strong. is frequently cited in relation to global warming. . the steady decline in the total amount of ozone in Earth's stratosphere. ULTIMATE AIM: The ultimate aim of this project is to develop much cleaner cost effective way of power generation method. Wealthier people in these countries may use a power-inverter (rechargeable batteries) or a diesel/petrol-run electric generator at their homes during the power-cut. POWER SHORTAGE: Some developing countries and newly-industrialized countries have several hours of daily power-cuts in almost all cities and villages because the increase in demand for electricity exceeds the increase in electric power generation. which in turns helps to bring down the global warming as well as reduce the power shortages.

They must know the electrical and mechanical systems in order to troubleshoot problems in the facility and add to the reliability of the facility. and price. During hours of peak demand. the stored water is released to produce electric power. The power plant must be able to respond to an emergency and know the procedures in place to deal with it.CHAPTER 3 DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENTS: POWER GENERATION: Power generation is the electrical energy generating facility. and other important information on regular intervals. They maintain the equipment with periodic inspections and logs temperatures. . They are able to synchronize and adjust the voltage output of the added generation with the running electrical system without upsetting the system. Power plant is a net consumer of energy but decreases the price of electricity. when the price of electricity is high. for electricity is low. The plants are responsible for starting and stopping the generators depending on need. Water is pumped to a high reservoir during the night when the demand. pressures.

The dynamo uses rotating coils of wire and magnetic fields to convert mechanical rotation into a pulsing direct electric current.1 DYNAMO: Dynamo is an electrical generator. larger machines have the constant magnetic field provided by one or more electromagnets. which provides a constant magnetic field. called the stator. This dynamo produces direct current with the use of a commutator. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure.dynamo were the first generator capable of the power industries. and a set of rotating windings called the armature which turn within that field. which are usually called field coils. . On small machines the constant magnetic field may be provided by one or more permanent magnets.LIST OF COMPONENTS  Dynamo  Spur gear  Rectifier  Filter  Battery 3.

which reverses the connection of the windings to the external circuit when the potential reverses. in the early days of electric experimentation. When a loop of wire rotates in a magnetic field. the only positive drive is by gears or toothed wheels. 3.2 SPUR GEAR: The slipping of belt is a common phenomenon. The commutator is a set of contacts mounted on the machine's shaft. in which a definite velocity ratio is of importance. The few uses for electricity. so instead of alternating current. alternating current generally had no known use.The commutator was needed to produce direct current. However. the potential induced in it reverses with each half turn. in the transmission of motion or power between two shafts. such as electroplating. used direct current provided by messy liquid batteries. A gear drive is also . Dynamos were invented as a replacement for batteries. generating an alternating current. a pulsing direct current is produced. The effect of slipping is to reduce the velocity ratio of the system precision machines.

provided.rectifier has many uses it can be found in many power supply components and also as a detector.  It may be used to transmit large power  It may be used for small center distance of shafts.  It has compact layout. Almost all rectifiers comprise a . is converting to the alternating current to direct current this process known as a rectification. when the distance between the driver and the follower is very small. ADVANTAGES:  It transmits exact velocity ratio. The term rectifier describes a diode that is being used to convert AC to DC.  It has high efficiency  It has reliable service.3 RECTIFIER: Rectifier is an electrical device .

3.number of diodes in a specific arrangement for more efficiently converting AC to DC than is possible with only one diode. also called rechargeable batteries can be charged and discharged many . 3. specifically intended to remove unwanted signal components and/or enhance wanted ones. Secondary. There are two types of batteries. which store chemical energy and make it available as electric current.5 BATTERY: In our project we are using secondary type battery. they are recharged by running a charging current through the battery. Primary batteries can only be used once because they use up their chemicals in an irreversible reaction. both of which convert chemical energy to electrical energy. Secondary batteries can be recharged because the chemical reactions they use are reversible. primary (disposable) and secondary (rechargeable).4 FILTER: Electronic filters are electronic circuits which perform signal processing functions. It is rechargeable Type. but in the opposite direction of the discharge current.A battery is one or more electrochemical cells.

After wearing out some batteries can be recycled. The use of batteries has created many environmental concerns. The electrodes do not touch each other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte. A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy it consists of one or more voltaic cells. its internal resistance is low. and the other is the negative electrode. such as toxic metal pollution. which can be either solid or liquid. Batteries have gained popularity as they became portable and useful for many purposes. One half-cell is the positive electrode. so the voltage across the load is almost equal to that of the battery's internal .times before wearing out. Each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte. the resulting voltage across the load depends on the ratio of the battery's internal resistance to the resistance of the load. A battery can be simply modeled as a perfect voltage source which has its own resistance. When the battery is fresh.

2. A lead acid cell when ready for use contains two plates immersed in a dilute sulphuric acid (H2SO4) of specific gravity about 1. . When the cell supplies current to a load (discharging). the voltage drop across its internal resistance increases. and the battery's ability to deliver power to the load decreases. The cell is then said to be discharged. After a certain amount of energy has been withdrawn from the cell.the positive plate (anode) is of Lead –peroxide (PbO2) which has chocolate brown colour and the negative plate (cathode) is lead (Pb) which is of grey colour. As the battery runs down and its internal resistance increases.5A.voltage source. the chemical action that takes place forms lead sulphate (PbSO 4) on both the plates with water being formed in the electrolyte. The battery used is a lead-acid type and has a capacity of 12v. so the voltage at its terminals decreases. both plates are Transformed into the same material and the specific gravity of the electrolyte (H2so4) is lower.28.the most inexpensive secondary cell is the lead acid cell and is widely used for commercial purposes. Battery is use for storing the energy produced from the solar power.

The chemical changes that Occur during discharging and recharging of a lead-acid cell.There are several methods to ascertain whether the cell is discharged or not. direct current is passed through the cell in the reverse direction to that in which the cell provided current. This reverses the chemical process and again forms a lead peroxide (PbO2) positive plate and a pure lead (Pb) negative plate. restoring the electrolyte (H2so4 ) to its original condition.(H2so4) is formed at the expense of water. To charge the cell. . At the same time.

CHAPTER 4 DESIGN AND DRAWING ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION FROM REVOLVING DOOR IN PARK PLACE The electrical power generation from revolving door in park place consists of the following components to full fill the requirements of complete operations of a machine.  Dynamo  Battery  Spur gear (96 teeth)  Spur gear (24 teeth)  Base frame  Revolving door .

3mm No of teeth =96 no Thickness of the gear =10mm Gear 2: Dia of gear = Ø31. BATTERY Voltage =12v dc Material =plastic Type =lead acid battery Quantity 1 3. SPUR GEAR Gear 1: Dia of gear = Ø125.5mm . DYNAMO Material of yoke =mild steel Quantity =1 2.1.

REVOLVING DOOR: Length of door =200mm Height of door =600mm .No of teeth =24 no Thickness of the gear =10mm 4. BASE FRAME: Length of frame =470mm Height of frame =124mm 5.





c.CHAPTER -5 FABRICATION The spur gear used in this project is made of nylon material and is injection molded for the required p. .d and teeth. This supporting stand on which the components are fixed consist of bearing block and stand for placing the dynamo.

Through this way electric energy is generated and compensated the electric demands. When the dynamo is rotated it generates the electrical power supply. Design is simplified because. After the filtration the pure DC voltage is given to battery through the charging circuit.CHAPTER -6 WORKING PRINCIPLE Revolving gate is used for power generation it is reliable and much more efficient. No pointing mechanism is required to allow for shifting revolve direction and the gate is self starting. The AC voltage is given to the rectifier circuit to convert into DC voltage. For demo purpose here we are connecting the CFL to the inverter for the light to glow. The generated voltage is the alternate voltage. The rotation of the gate and the gear which is fixed on the gate shaft on the below. Then the rectified voltage is given to filter circuit to remove the ripple voltage. . The stored DC voltage is used for different applications. the gear rotation will transmit the rotation to the dynamo.

CHAPTER -7 MERITS AND DEMERITS MERITS:      Alternate power generating unit Easy installation Maintenance cost is less Non polluting Occupying very less space DEMERITS:   Technical persons required for construction Proper rectifiers required for charging Battery .

CHAPTER -8 APPLICATIONS Electrical power generation from revolving door in park place can be used in most of the places such as  House  Hotels  Cinema theaters  Shopping complex  Industries .

1.CHAPTER -9 LIST OF MATERIALS FACTORS DETERMINING THE CHOICE OF MATERIALS The various factors which determine the choice of material are discussed below. surface finish. Properties: The material selected must posses the necessary properties for the proposed application. rigidity. The following four types of principle properties of materials decisively affect their selection a. ability to withstand environmental attack from chemicals. Mechanical c. The various requirements to be satisfied can be weight. From manufacturing point of view d. Physical b. reliability etc. Chemical . service life.

electrical conductivity. coefficient of thermal expansion.The various physical properties concerned are melting point. magnetic purposes etc. • Cast ability • Weld ability • Bribability • Surface properties • Shrinkage • Deep drawing etc. thermal Conductivity. hardness. The various Mechanical properties Concerned are strength in tensile. Compressive shear. 2. specific heat. wear resistance and sliding properties. and modulus of elasticity. eleastic limit. specific gravity. The various properties concerned from the manufacturing point of view are. fatigue resistance. endurance limit. Manufacturing case: . impact resistance. torsional and buckling load. bending.

Quality Required: This generally affects the manufacturing process and ultimately the material.the delivery of materials and the delivery date of product should also be kept in mind. 5. . Space consideration: Sometimes high strength materials have to be selected because the forces involved are high and space limitations are there. Availability of Material: Some materials may be scarce or in short then becomes obligatory for the designer to use some other material which though may not be a perfect substitute for the material designed. 4.Sometimes the demand for lowest possible manufacturing cost or surface qualities obtainable by the application of suitable coating substances may demand the use of special materials. 3. For example. it would never be desirable to go casting of a less number of components which can be fabricated much more economically by welding or hand forging the steel.

and nonmaintenance of the designed part are involved in the selection of proper materials. Some times factors like scrap utilization. in selection of material the cost of material plays an important part and should not be ignored. . Cost: As in any other problem. appearance.6.

grinding. power hacksaw. drilling.CHAPTER -10 COST ESTIMATION 1. OVERHEAD CHARGES: The overhead charges are arrived by” manufacturing cost” Manufacturing Cost = = Overhead Charges =20%of the manufacturing cost = =Material Cost + Labour Cost . LABOUR COST: Lathe. gas cutting cost =Rs 3. welding. MATERIAL COST: 2.

TOTAL COST: Total cost = Material Cost +Labour Cost +Overhead Charges = = Total cost for this project = .4.

that it provides flexibility in operation.CHAPTER -11 CONCLUSION This project is made with pre planning. This innovation has made the more desirable This project “ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION FROM REVOLVING DOOR IN PARK PLACE” is designed with the hope that it is very much economical and help full to many industries and workshops. This project helped us to know the periodic steps in completing a project work. Smoother and noiseless operation by the medium of “ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION FROM REVOLVING DOOR IN PARK PLACE” The comparative gain that can be accomplished is the utilization of roller bar. .

. Project has been designed to perform the entire requirement task which has also been provided. Thus we have completed the project successfully.This project has also reduced the cost involved in the concern.

jalaludeen 5.S. Strength of Materials 3.Haslehurst.s. Manufacturing Technology -P.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.Tech. 4.G. Design of transmission elements .Kurumi . Design of machine elements .S.Md.Kurmi -M. Design data book 2.R.S. -R.