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Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core Course Outline for Hawaii DOE

By Mitchell Anderson, Diane Barrett, Roberto Pelayo August 2012 Introduction This course outline is intended to serve as a roadmap for Hawaii DOE Algebra I teachers, providing a step-by-step topic-based syllabus, including those concepts that should be emphasized most and how much time should be allotted to each. The topics and concepts are aligned with the standards they address; this correspondence between topic/concept and specific standards is clearly denoted throughout. Great effort has been taken to identify the primary emphasis of each topic, including both the skills and more importantly the concepts that students should master. Since each topic is aligned to those standards with which it is associated, teaching the course following this outline will ensure that standards are being met. Short examples of the types of lesson plans that might be utilized are provided when the authors felt that additional insight into our intent might be helpful. It is intended that detailed lesson plans and assessments, each aligned directly to the standards, will subsequently be developed and vetted in the classroom to provide a more complete package for teaching Algebra I. Students in Algebra I and II become intimately familiar with the function concept and begin categorizing functions in terms of the properties of each major family of functions. In Algebra I students begin with the two most basic types of functions, linear and quadratic, and in Algebra II students extend their knowledge to the more general family of polynomials, and then to rational functions, exponential and logs, and a brief introduction to the trigonometric functions. Basic Skills It is assumed that students entering Algebra I have been exposed to certain basic algebra skills in their previous studies. Such skills include and are undoubtedly not limited to: Adding, multiplying, and dividing fractions The distributive property Order of operation Percentages Graphing in the Cartesian Plane Fractions vs. decimal representation Balancing equations and inequalities Using integer exponents Simplifying square roots (e.g.

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The authors have opted to review these skills as they appear during the natural flow of topics. This is a more intuitive approach consistent with the Common Core.

Course Outline for Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core

August 2012

The following is an overview of the suggested contents and flow, aligned with the standards: Modeling with Functions Function Notation (2 weeks) Identify key information from a graph (2 weeks) Graphing in context (2 weeks) Solve equations and inequalities both graphically and algebraically (2 weeks) (8 weeks sub-total) Linear Functions Identify Properties unique to Linear Functions (1 week) Identify relationship between linear graphs and slope-intercept parameters (2 weeks) Build the equation of a line (2 weeks) Relationship between linear functions, models, equations and inequalities (3 weeks) Semester Break (16 weeks Total) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Quadratic Functions Relationship between symbolic linear factors and graphing - Graph f(x) = ax2 + b and a(x – c)2 (3 weeks) - Graph f(x) = a(x – h)(x – k) (1 week) - Build the symbolic representation of a quadratic function, given its parabolic graph [with real roots]. (2 weeks) 2 - Graph f(x) = ax + bx + c for expressions that factor. (2 weeks) (8 weeks sub-total) Graph non-factorable quadratic functions (3 weeks) Model Quadratic Functions (1.5 weeks) Identify quadratic inverses and solve equations involving square roots (1.5 weeks) Solve equations and inequalities in two variables (2 weeks) (16 weeks Total) Important note: Each of the main topics is subdivided and presented from the perspective of Student Learning Outcomes, purposefully designated as Skills and Concepts to distinguish between the two. The algebraic manipulation Skills complement and enable a more complete study of the Concepts. The Concepts, presented in their recommended order, are intended to serve as a step-by-step blueprint for teaching the course. The Skills should be introduced as their need intuitively arises in the study of the Concepts, and should be afforded sufficient attention therein. M. Anderson, D. Barrett, and R. Pelayo in Collaboration with D. Gottlieb Page 2

Course Outline for Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core Modeling with Functions (8 weeks)

August 2012

Functions are the primary tool of the Calculus and within the common core form the basis for most of the work in both Algebra I and Algebra II. Algebra I consists primarily of gaining familiarity with Linear and Quadratic Functions. In Algebra II students begin to categorize function behavior as primarily determined by the standard families of functions including polynomials, which include linear and quadratic, rational, and exponential and logarithmic. They also study in depth the general properties of functions that apply across the different families, such as domain and range, translations, inverses, and composition.

Concepts Function notation (2 weeks) - Evaluate f(x) for various values of x, given symbolically. (F-IF.2) An appropriate starting point will be to review graphing in the Cartesian plane. The depth of the review would be minimal at this point, requiring only the ability to locate given points (a, b), and perhaps locating points (x, y) for a few different values of x, given a formula for y in terms of x. - Demonstrate the relationship between the four function representations. (F-IF.4, F-IF.9)  Create a table of values based on a symbolic representation of a function corresponding to various values of x, and then graph the resulting points.  Determine if a given point is a point on the graph of a symbolically defined function and justify your answer. Interpret the significance of your answer in context.  Interpret in context the meaning of, for example, C(t) for various values of t. Identify key information from a graph (2 weeks) (F-IF.4 - .5) The primary objective here is to further emphasize that points on a graph provide relational information. Functions can be described verbally1 or symbolically. In the case of verbal descriptions the emphasis is sometimes more on general behavior rather than the desire to arrive at precise numerical solutions. Indentifying information from graphs
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Although the term verbally seems to be restricted to the spoken language, in function jargon verbally is intended to include a problem/model that is described using words rather than symbols, graphs, or tables of points, regardless of the method of delivery. In most instances these words are in fact provided in written form rather than orally.

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Course Outline for Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core

August 2012

is central to both Algebra I and Algebra II, and as such this material sets a definite desirable tone for the course. It will be a recurring theme in both courses, and a good deal of time should be allotted at this introductory level with plenty of diverse examples. Many of the examples will be used later in ever increasing fidelity. Additionally we begin to ask inverse-type questions in context, which will later lead to solving equations. One aspect that should receive particular attention is the distinction, in context, between the two coordinates. In many cases we ask ambiguous questions such as “Where  is  the  maximum  value?”  or  “Where  is   it positive?”    Unless  we  are  very  careful   students   become  confused  between  the  two  coordinates.     If  we  instead   ask,  “For   which   value  of  x  is   the   y   value  largest,   or  for  which  value(s)  of  x  is   profit  positive”,  stu dents begin to understand that a graph consists of ordered pairs (x, y) and we are generally interested in the behavior of the y values as we change the x values, and while our answer is usually in terms of x, these answers are generally found by investigating the values for y. This move between x and y causes a lot of confusion for students. Nevertheless, we continually ask such questions, and this is an excellent place to reinforce for the students the distinction between the two coordinates, and later between the two variables. Types of information desired from graphs: what the intercepts represent in context, the difference between increasing and decreasing in context, how the shape of the graph changes as the context changes (e.g. accelerating as opposed to constant velocity), maximum/minimum in context, inequalities in context (e.g. for which quantities produced is profit positive?), etc. Note: We cannot overemphasize the need to be able to decipher information from graphs; it enables students to solve fundamental and ubiquitous problems such as solving equations. Examples: i. Compare two graphs, each depicting distance traveled versus time for someone walking at a constant rate, the difference between the two graphs resulting from one walking twice as fast as the other. Ask students to identify which one is walking faster, and to describe in terms of context how they can tell from the graph. ii. Given the graph of profit versus quantity produced, how do we tell from the graph for which quantity is the company making a profit. What is the significance of the portion of the graph where P is increasing and negative, or decreasing and positive? What is the significance of the intercepts? Which x values should have corresponding P values? iii. Given a graph for the height of water entering a container, when was the container half full? When was the height increasing the fastest? When was it full? When was the water turned off? How high did the water get in the container? When did the height of the water reach 3 inches? M. Anderson, D. Barrett, and R. Pelayo in Collaboration with D. Gottlieb Page 4

Course Outline for Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core

August 2012

iv. Given the graph for Keoni running, when did he arrive at the bus stop? During what times was he not moving? When was he traveling the fastest? How long did it take him to travel halfway to the bus stop? v. Domain and Range – What is the domain for the Keoni running problem(s)? If you graph the price of x-pounds of apples, assuming you will not purchase more than 50 pounds of apples what are the allowable values for x and the price you pay for x pounds? For example, is it possible to purchase π pounds of apples, or pay dollars? So, assuming the scale the store uses to weigh the apples provides accuracy up to 1/1000 of a pound, what are the allowable values for x? How many points are there in the domain? What about the range? Graphing in context (2 weeks) (F-IF.4, N-Q.2) This is the dual problem to the previous bullet. The goal here is for students to translate the types of information given above to a graph. In many instances the context is so general that units for x and y may not be required. The capacity to graph from context is more sophisticated than reading information from a graph and is again ubiquitous throughout Algebra I and II, albeit usually from symbolic forms of functions. Ultimately students will learn the advantages and disadvantages of each of the four different function representations. The  advantage  of  graphs  is  the  ability  to  “see”  where  desired  behavior   occurs, with the disadvantage of a limited domain and an inability to provide exact values. Students will undoubtedly intuitively discover and utilize reasonable domains. Examples: i. Graph distance from home with Keoni running at different rates, with and without acceleration. ii. Graph the height of water entering various sized cylindrical containers at varying rates. iii. Graph the height of water entering non-cylindrical containers at a constant rate. iv. Graph the distance from a plane to its takeoff position as it travels from Hilo to Honolulu, circling Oahu before it lands.

Solve equations and inequalities both graphically and algebraically (2 weeks) This is obviously a critical topic and the objective here is to demonstrate the connection between solving equations and inequalities algebraically and graphically. This connection between symbolic and graphical function representations is central to Algebra I and II, and the ability to use graphs to solve symbolic questions is one of the most powerful tools students will utilize in both courses. Equations and inequalities occur naturally in a wide variety of circumstances ranging from locating x-intercepts to finding where two functions intersect. They are used to identify domains (e.g. radical functions composed with polynomials, functions with possible division by zero), and to answer M. Anderson, D. Barrett, and R. Pelayo in Collaboration with D. Gottlieb Page 5

Course Outline for Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core

August 2012

basic inverse type questions (e.g. solve for x such that f(x) = 3). Students will later learn techniques to algebraically solve linear and quadratic equations including balancing equations, factoring, and the quadratic formula, but each of these is somewhat limited in its applicability elsewhere. Using graphs to solve equations on the other hand is valid on a more general basis. - Solve equations such as f(x) = 0 and g(x) = f(x) both graphically and algebraically, given the graphs and symbolic representations for a number of functions including f, g, and h = f - g. (A-CED.1, A-REI.11) - Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following from the equality of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method. (AREI.1) - Solve g(x) > 0 and g(x) > 0 both graphically and algebraically, given the graph and symbolic representations for g. (A-REI.12) - Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. For  example,  rearrange  Ohm’s  law  V  =  IR  to  highlight  resistance   R. (A-CED.4) Note: students will only be able to algebraically solve certain types of equations such as linear, those leading to linear, very simple quadratics, and possibly simple radicals, but they should be able to solve any type of function when provided its graph. This is an appropriate segue to the next major topic, linear functions. It should also emphasize the need to be able to algebraically manipulate various symbolic functions in order to improve necessary graphing capabilities. Linear Functions (8 weeks) Linear functions play a fundamental role throughout Algebra I and II and later in the Calculus. They are the most basic class of functions and offer an ideal point of departure into the study of the properties of specific functions. Skills Balance linear functions and equations Compute the slope of a line given 2 points Build the equation of a line given 2 points or 1 point and the slope

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Course Outline for Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core Concepts Identify properties unique to linear functions (1 week) (F-LE.1)

August 2012

Students need to begin to categorize linear functions in their thought processes as those functions that have constant rate of change. They should think of this in the context of equal changes in x yield equal changes in y. Later they will discover that the symbolic representation for lines is readily recognizable as well. Examples: i. Given a table of values for a linear function, with equally spaced x values and some y values provided, recognize the pattern and fill in the missing values. Transfer the points to a graph and connect the points to yield a line. ii. Assuming the table above begins at x = 0 and ends at x = 10, extend the table of values to find the y value corresponding x = 30, 50, and 100 by only computing these three values. (Here the students should realize that one way would be to compute the x values one at a time, which is laborious and time consuming, but that once they know how much the y value changed from 0 to 10, it will change the same amount from 10 to 20, and twice as much from 10 to 30. The remaining values are similarly easily obtained. Identify the relationship between linear graphs and the slope-intercept parameters (2 weeks) The primary purpose of this section is for students to recognize the relationship between the slope parameter and the graph, interpreting slope as the constant rate of change, and secondarily the relationship between the y-intercept and the parameter b. - Graph linear functions of the form y = mx + b. Compare and contrast different slopes, and approximate slopes. (F-IF.7, F-LE.5) They will need to do a lot of these, comparing graphs with different slopes, assuming equal units for x and y, and then considering the results when the units for the two axes are unequal. Examples: i. Graph on the same axes y = mx, where m = 1, 2, 5, ½, -1, -2, - ½. Begin by using tables of values, but strive to have students extend to the more sophisticated method of beginning at the y-intercept and then changing the x value by 1 and using the slope to find change in y and hence a second point at x = 1. Continue to a third point at x = 2. Generalize to only needing the first point to get the shape of the graph. M. Anderson, D. Barrett, and R. Pelayo in Collaboration with D. Gottlieb Page 7

Course Outline for Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core

August 2012

ii. Graph y = mx + b for various values of m and b. Proceed as above beginning at the y-intercept, now given by b. Be sure to use combinations of positive and negative values for m and b. iii. Approximate the slope of a line given graphically. Begin with equal units for the axes and extend to the case where the units are unequal.

- Model linear functions and interpret in context the slope, values, and intercepts. (F-LE.5, F-IF.7) Similar problems were done earlier under general function modeling. The difference here is to concentrate more on the relationship between the graphs and the parameters in the slope-intercept form of a line. Modeling should be introduced seamlessly with the work above, moving back and forth between the symbolic, graphical, and contextual orientations. Examples: i. Assume Keoni walks to the bus stop at a rate of 2 miles per hour and that the bus stop is 1 mile from his house. Graph his distance traveled D, versus time t, where t = 0 represents when he left home. Find the symbolic representation of D(t). How can you tell from the graph when Keoni arrives at the bus stop? How would you answer this algebraically? ii. Now   assume   Keoni’s   sister   Leilani   leaves   the   house   at   exactly   the   same   time   and runs twice as fast as Keoni. Answer the same questions as above for Leilani. Be sure to  graph  Leilani’s  distance  traveled  on  the  same  graph. iii. Suppose  Leilani  leaves  the  house  15  minutes  after  Keoni.    How  does  Leilani’s   graph change? When are Leilani and Keoni the same distance from their home? iv. A lychee vendor must pay $25 for a booth and sells lychees for $2/lb. Denote by P(x) the profit the vendor makes by selling x pounds of lychee. Note that if the vendor does not sell any lychee he must still pay the $25. Find the symbolic form for the linear function P. P(x) = ______________. Graph P. Solve for x, both symbolically and graphically, so that P(x) = 0. What is the practical meaning of your answer?

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Course Outline for Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core

August 2012

- Identify the effects of vertical translations of linear functions, both in terms of context and in terms of the symbolic parameters. (Optional: horizontal shifts in terms of context and the resulting symbolic form. This type of translation will be necessary later for completing the square.) (F-BF.3) This concept is best presented through models, categorizing changes in certain aspects of the models with their impact on the symbolic forms. Examples: i. Describe the effect on the graph of y = 2x + 3 if we change the 2 to a 4, ½, or 2. Describe the effect on the graph by changing the 3 to a 5, -1, or 0. ii. If Keoni runs 2 miles an hour the distance from his house after t hours is given by d(t) = 2t. How does the formula change if he runs twice as fast, or ½ as fast? Describe in practical terms what d(t) would represent if we changed the formula to d(t) = 2t + 1. Suppose  Keoni’s distance t hours after leaving his house is again given by d(t) = 2t, and that his sister Leilani leaves the house 15 minutes later traveling at the same   speed   as   Keoni.     What   does   the   formula   for   Leilani’s   distance   from   the   house at time t look like, if t still represents the time Keoni left? Try to do this in the general form, where d(t) = mt and the time Leilani left is given as h hours later. Compare the graphs for Keoni and Leilani. Build the equation of a line (Primarily skill-based) (2 weeks) Note: A number of the basic algebra skills need to be reviewed here including order of operation, distributive property, the algebra of fractions, and even balancing equations as it relates to transforming linear functions into the mx + b form. Students should identify that the point-slope form of a line should be used in most cases where a linear formula needs to be built. Emphasize the benefit of having the formula. - Build the equation of a line, given a point and the slope (A-REI.3) Begin with integer values for both coordinates and slopes. Have students transform their answers into slope-intercept form, and check to make sure the initial point fits the formula. Graph the lines from just the given point and slope and then from the derived slope-intercept form. Example: i. Find the equation for the line passing through the point (10, 3) with slope -2. Find the x and y intercepts. What is the value for y when x = 100? M. Anderson, D. Barrett, and R. Pelayo in Collaboration with D. Gottlieb Page 9

Course Outline for Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core - Build the equation of a line, given two points (A-REI.3)

August 2012

We again use the point-slope of the line. Begin with integer values that lead to integer slopes. Extend to integer values that lead to non-integer slopes. Have students transform their answers into slope-intercept form, and check to make sure the two initial points fit the formula. Graph the lines using just the two points and then from the derived slope-intercept form. Example: i. Find the symbolic representation for the line passing through the two points (100, 20) and (110, 40). Find the x and y intercepts. What is the y value for the point with x = 500? (Note: you can extend this problem in a number of ways: ask instead for the x value when y = 800. If you wish to re-emphasize the idea of slope, replace x = 110 by x = 100 + c, where c represents an unknown but constant positive integer. Then ask for the y value where x = 100 + 40c. This can easily be put into context via an appropriate model.) - Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related. (S – ID.6 - .8) Now that students can build equations for lines based on their slope and y-intercept, or based on two points, and interpret them in context, this is an ideal place to introduce scatter plots that can be closely approximated with lines. Students should be able to approximate such lines visually, interpret in context the implications of the slope and intercepts, and compare their guesses with symbolic lines built from points on the graph. These lines can then be used, either in symbolic or graphical form, to answers questions in context, such as making predictions for values outside the domain  of  the  scatter  plot.    Technology   can  also  be  used  to   find  the  “best   fit”  lines   and can be compared to those found visually. Similar problems can be presented later using quadratic functions in Algebra I and exponential functions in Algebra II. Example: i. Graph the scatter plot for a contextual set of data that appears to be linear based on the plot. Visually approximate a line that seems to best fit the data and find its  equation.    Use  technology  to   find  the   “best   fit”  line  using  linear  regression   and compare it with your results. Use technology to find the correlation coefficient and interpret its values with how well your line seemed to fit the data. Use your visual line to predict a number of values outside the domain of the data and compare them with those using the best fit line. How do the results compare as your input values for x get farther and farther away from the domain values? M. Anderson, D. Barrett, and R. Pelayo in Collaboration with D. Gottlieb Page 10

Course Outline for Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core

August 2012

Relationship between linear functions, linear models, equations and inequalities (3 weeks) - Interpret linear models in context; solve linear equations and inequalities arising from contextual and graphical interpretations of intercepts, intersections, and inverse-type questions leading to further equations. (F-LE.2, F-LE.5, F-CED.2 .3, F-BF.1) Examples: i. Suppose an athlete has been practicing the pole vault for 180 days and that on day 180 she can pole vault 12 ft. (144 inches) and that every 30 days she practices she improves by 1 inch. Find a symbolic representation for the height she can vault on day t, say H(t), where t = 0 represents the day she began practicing. How high could she vault when she began practicing? How long will it take her to vault 13 ft? How high will she vault on day 195? ii. Suppose a woman has been following a weight-loss program for the past 30 days and that her weight has been declining linearly. Her weight on day 20 was 160 lbs. and her weight on day 30 was 155 lbs. Find a symbolic representation for her weight W(d) where d = 0 represents her weight when she began her program. How much did she weigh when she began the program? How long will it take her to reach her target weight of 130 lbs? Do you think the formula for her weight loss can remain linear for 1 year? Explain. iii. A train begins traveling north at time t = 0 at a speed of 80 mi/hr. The distance, in miles, from the train to the station t hours later is denoted P(t) = 80t - 50. (Here P(t) is positive if the train is north of the station and negative if it is south.) Where was the train relative to the station when it began its trip? At what time did it pass through the station? During what times was it south of the station? When did the train reach the next town, located 100 miles north of the station? Quadratic Functions (16 weeks) Quadratic functions represent the second step in the natural progression of the study of families of functions. They are studied in great detail at this point in Algebra I and will be reviewed in Algebra II. The primary goals in Algebra I are to understand that quadratic functions coincide with parabolas, that they are symmetric about their line of symmetry, in particular that the roots are equidistant from the line of symmetry with the vertex halfway between, that there are standard methods for algebraically solving quadratic equations and translating parabolas, and that there is a connection between solving quadratic equations and graphing quadratic functions. This material should be presented in such a manner as to compliment and reinforce the earlier M. Anderson, D. Barrett, and R. Pelayo in Collaboration with D. Gottlieb Page 11

Course Outline for Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core

August 2012

goals of visualization as a primary mathematics tool. As such, the reader should note that although the majority of the topics are denoted as graphing sections, the goal is to lead the students through the algebraic techniques associated with quadratic functions, continually motivating the algebra by demonstrating the relationship between the symbolic manipulations and the associated graphs. Skills Solve quadratic equations using factoring (factor out common factors, factor into two linear factors) Solve quadratic equations using the quadratic formula, including complex solutions Complete the square Write radical expressions using rational exponents Concepts Relationship between symbolic linear factors and graphing (8 weeks) - Graph f(x) = ax2 + b (2 weeks) (F-IF.7, F-BF.3) The goal here is to begin the process whereby students visualize quadratic functions as parabolas. Begin with y = x2, via tables of values. Notice that y is an even function (negative values of x yield identical y values as those for positive values of x). Discuss domain and range. Notice the range differs from those for most linear functions, which is an important property that distinguishes quadratic functions from linear functions. Then graph y = ax2 for various values of a, including negatives. Notice that all parabolas will coincide with, and look like, one of these for a specific value of a, simply shifted up, sideways, or both. Finally, graph y = ax2 + b for various values of a and b. This reinforces the vertical translations section within linear functions. Examples: i. Compare the graphs for f(x) = x2, f(x) = x2 + 1, and f(x) = x2 – 1. Generalize the effect on the graph of f(x) = x2 + b resulting from different values of b. In particular, how does the choice of b change the range? How does it impact the x – intercept(s)? ii. Compare the graphs of f(x) = ax2 for various values of a. In particular, compare the shapes of the graphs corresponding to a = 1, a = 2, and a = ½. Generalize the effect on the graph of f(x) = ax2 if the magnitude of a is greater than 1 or between 0 and 1. What is the effect if a is negative?

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Course Outline for Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core - Graph f(x) = a(x – c)2 (1 week) (F-IF.7, F-BF.3)

August 2012

This is possibly the  students’  first  exposure  to  a  horizontal  shift.    It is useful to make a table of values as above, comparing the results. Students should realize that if they multiply out the right hand expression they will get a cross-product term that is close to the general form of a quadratic. (This can be delayed until the following section.) Examples: i. Make a table of values for f(x) = x2 and g(x) = (x – 1)2. Explain how the two tables are similar. Compare tables for f(x) = x2 and g(x) = (x – 2)2. Explain how these two tables are similar. Generalize the effect that changing the value of c has on the graph of the resulting parabola. ii. Repeat the example above using negative values for c. iii. What is the impact on the graph of g(x) = (x – c)2 if we change the formula to a(x – c)2 for various values of a? iv. Graph f(x) = 2(x – 1)2. Make a table of values for g(x) = 2x2 – 4x + 2 and graph. How do the two graphs compare? Notice 2(x – 1)2 = 2(x – 1)(x – 1) = 2x2 – 4x + 2, which implies that the two functions f and g are equal even though their symbolic representation is different. Which form do you think is preferable in this case? - Graph f(x) = a(x – h)(x – k) (1 week) (F-IF.7 - .8, A-SSE.3, A-APR.2 - .3) A quadratic in linear factored form gives roots, the y-intercept is easily obtained as h*k, and the vertex can be easily found by computing the value for f at the point halfway  between  h  and  k.    This  realization  is  critical  to  the  students’  ability  to  later   relate solving quadratic equations to visualizing the graph. Include the case where h = k, which reduces to the previous section. Students will need to understand that if a and b are numbers such that a*b = 0, then either a = 0 or b = 0. Review on the distributive property, order of operations, and grouping like terms is in order. Examples: i. Make a table of values for f(x) = (x – 1)(x – 3) and graph. Make a table of values for g(x) = (x – 2)(x – 6) and graph. What is the relationship between the linear factors and the x-intercepts on the graphs? How do you find the y – intercept of each function from your tables? How would you find the y – intercept symbolically (i.e. without making a table of values)? ii. Find the x – intercepts on the graph of f(x) = (x – 2)(x – 4) symbolically by finding all x such that f(x) = 0. M. Anderson, D. Barrett, and R. Pelayo in Collaboration with D. Gottlieb Page 13

Course Outline for Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core

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iii. Find the x – intercepts on the graph of f(x) = (x + 2)(x – 4) symbolically by finding all x such that f(x) = 0. How did changing (x – 2) to (x + 2) impact the solution? Can you generalize this result for f(x) = (x – h)(x – k) for all values of h and k, including negative values? How about for f(x) = a(x – h)(x – k)? iv. Graph f(x) = 2(x – 1)(x – 5). What is the relationship between the location of the x – intercepts and the location of the vertex? - Build the symbolic representation of a quadratic function, given its parabolic graph [with real roots]. (2 weeks) (F-IF.4, F-BF.1, F-BF.3, A-SSE.3, A-APR.2) This is the dual to the previous section and is an important step towards increased critical thinking. This step feeds a similar concept related to graphing polynomials in Algebra II. It allows students to demonstrate a deeper understanding of the relationship between the symbolic and graphical representations, particularly as they relate to x-intercepts/roots. We include parabolas with a single repeated root at the vertex and parabolas with negative leading coefficients. Example: i. Given the following graph of a parabola (supplied by the instructor and including all intercepts and the vertex), find the corresponding symbolic representation in factored form. The x – intercepts correspond to the linear factors as before. Check to see if the vertex and y – intercept match. If not, how might we alter our formula so that the y – intercept matches, without changing the x – intercepts? Now that the y – intercept matches, re-check the vertex. Include examples that open downward. ii. Repeat the example above for a parabola with vertex on the x – axis. Include examples that open downward. - Graph f(x) = ax2 + bx + c for expressions that factor. (2 weeks) (F-IF.4, F-IF.7 .8, A-APR.2 - .3, A-CED.1, A-REI.4, - .11, A-SSE.3) By this time students should realize that knowing the roots of the quadratic enable graphing it, and hence they need to identify those x values where f(x) = 0. If the expression factors into two linear factors the problem reduces to previous cases above. The majority of the work here will be learning how to factor quadratics. Begin with leading coefficient 1 and proceed with increased difficulty, continually returning to the relationship between the factors and the roots of the parabola, and between the roots and the vertex.

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Course Outline for Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core Graph non-factorable quadratic functions (3 weeks)

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Now that students understand the relationship between finding the roots of a parabola and solving quadratic equations, the primary difficulty is solving non-factorable quadratic equations. This is accomplished primarily through skill-based techniques, using the quadratic formula and completing the square. Careful instruction should continue to reinforce the connection between solutions and the graph. - Graph f(x) = ax2 + bx + c using the quadratic formula. (real roots) (2 weeks) (FIF.7, A-REI.4, A-SSE.3) This is primarily skill-based. Students will need to work with fractions and roots in this section, and the need for a dedicated review on both is expected. Students should conceptualize the symmetric form of the quadratic formula and consequently that the two resultants are evenly spaced about -b/2a. This intuitively implies that the vertex is located at x = -b/2a. The quadratic formula is something that must be memorized, and it should probably be memorized and used in the form opposed to the form as

. This both emphasizes the symmetry of the solutions

about the first term, and makes calculations involving simplifying the radical and canceling with its denominator easier and less prone to common algebra errors. Finally, the role of a as determining the direction of the parabola and of c as the yintercept should be greatly emphasized as providing a great deal of information with no effort. Note: this is an ideal time to introduce technology to find roots as well, and to compare results with those obtained from the quadratic formula. A discussion should occur  about  the  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  writing  answers  in  “exact”  form  or   as decimal approximations. It is anticipated that a brief introduction to square roots is in order here. A more thorough discussion of square roots is provided as a major topic below. Examples: i. Find the x – intercepts for the function defined by f(x) = x2 – x – 1. Try locating the x – intercepts on the graph without the use of a calculator (you will need to approximate the square root). Next, use your calculator to check your locations. Find the x value for the vertex and use it to find the y value. Plot the vertex. Find the y – intercept symbolically and complete the graph. ii. Use graph paper to plot on the same set of axes the graphs of f(x) = x 2 – x – 1 and g(x) = 3x. (Recall that g(x) = 3x is a line, not a parabola.) Approximate M. Anderson, D. Barrett, and R. Pelayo in Collaboration with D. Gottlieb Page 15

Course Outline for Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core

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from your graphs the x – coordinates of the points where f and g intersect. Now compute these same x – coordinates symbolically by setting f(x) = g(x) and solving for x. Compare your results (this emphasizes the need to simplify radicals since students will need to approximate a square root). Use a calculator to confirm your solution. - Graph f(x) = ax2 + bx + c for non-real roots (1 week) (F-IF.7, A-REI.4, A-SSE.3, N-CN.1 - .2, N-CN.7, N-CN.9) There are two primary techniques for the case the roots are not real. First, the existence of complex roots implies the parabola does not cross the x-axis. The discriminant plays a useful role here in determining the nature of the solutions. The location of the vertex along with the y-intercept determines the general location of the parabola. The easiest way to locate the vertex is to use the fact that the symmetry of the quadratic formula that was utilized before to identify the vertex at x = -b/2a still holds true. The y-coordinate of the vertex is then found by evaluating f at x = -b/2a. Students can also check the consistency of their results by considering the location of the vertex together with the   sign   of   “a”, which combined determine whether or not the parabola crosses the x – axis and hence whether or not the quadratic equation has real solutions. It is also sometimes useful to consider together the sign of a and the value of c, which in the case they are of opposite signs reveal the existence of real roots; they are indeterminate in the case they are of the same sign. The second choice for graphing quadratics with complex roots is to complete the square, which is perhaps somewhat tedious and not as useful in future studies but does directly provide the vertex and direction. Completing the square also leads to a proof of the quadratic formula, and perhaps more importantly it provides a proof that all functions of the form f(x) = ax2 + bx + c coincide with parabolas, as the completed square form is represented as simple translations of f(x) = x2. A short introduction to Complex numbers is warranted at this time and will be reviewed again in Algebra II. Complex numbers do not play a significant role in first year Calculus and as such it is not imperative that students understand all the algebra of Complex numbers at this point. It suffices that they understand that we denote the square root of -1 as i and that if we extend the real numbers to a number system that includes i we end up with all Complex numbers of the form a + bi where a and b are real numbers. From a pragmatic perspective students primarily need to know how to simplify square roots with negative arguments resulting from the application of the quadratic formula. Students may also benefit from the fact that even in the case of complex roots we still have the result that roots yield factors. In order to check this fact students are introduced to complex addition, subtraction, and multiplication.

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Course Outline for Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core Examples: i. Write in standard complex number form (a + bi).

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ii. Graph f(x) = x2 –x +1 without making a table of values. (Hint: locate the vertex and the y – intercept.) iii. Suppose f(x) = ax2 + bx + c, where both a and c are negative. Is it possible that the graph of f crosses the x axis at two points? Is it possible that the graph of f does not cross the x axis? Is it possible that the graph of f touches the x – axis at only one point? What determines each case? iv. Use the method of completing the square to identify the vertex for the quadratic defined by f(x) = x2 – 3x + 2, and graph f. Next, factor f into two linear factors and graph f. Compare your results. In this problem you have used three different symbolic forms for f, the one that was given, the one in completed square form, and the one in factored form. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each symbolic form in terms of trying to graph f?

Model Quadratic Functions (1.5 weeks) (F-IF.4, F-IF.7, F-IF.6, F-IF.8, F-BF.1, F-BF.3, A-SSE.1, A-SSE.3, A-CED.1, A-REI.4) Here we arrive full circle to where we started in Algebra I, using graphs to answer modeling questions. It is assumed that by this time students will intuitively move back and forth between the symbolic and graphical representations of functions. In fact, the falling object model should be included in the very first part of Algebra I, with or without units but definitely without the symbolic form, and should be repeated here based on the symbolic representation. Again students should be able to explain key points on parabolas, such as the intercepts and the vertex in context, as well as be able to solve quadratic equations and inequalities symbolically where appropriate and in all cases graphically. Examples: i. A ball is thrown straight up into the air from a bridge that spans a river. The height of the ball (in feet) t seconds after the ball is released is given by the following function: h(t) = -16t + 48t +96. Graph h versus t. How high is the bridge? How long did the ball travel upwards before falling back down? What was the largest height the ball attained? When did the ball hit the river? What was   the   ball’s   average   rate   of   change   from   the   time   it   reached   its   maximum   height until it hit the ground? What was its average rate of change over the last second, ½ second, .01 second, .001 second, etc.?

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Course Outline for Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core

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ii. Using a motion sensor, drop a bouncing ball from directly under the sensor onto the floor and track its movement (the graph will look like a number of upside down parabolas that repeat themselves at ever decreasing heights). Find an equation for one of the parabolas (hint: use the completed square form a(x-h)2+k and   try   different   values   for   “a”   until   your   formula   matches   the   parabola).     Is   there any significance to the value of the leading coefficient? Next, instead of using the completed square form, build your symbolic representation by writing out the linear factors based on the x-intercepts of the parabola. Then use the same  value  for  “a”  as  before  to  see  if  the vertex will then match. iii. Suppose a small company manufactures computer monitors and that the profit they make selling x monitors is approximately P(x) = -x2 +40x - 300, where the units for x are 100 and the units for P are $1000 (i.e. P(1) represents how many thousands of dollars the company loses or gains by selling 100 monitors). Notice that if the company produces 0 monitors it must still pay for its rent, insurance,  etc.,  which  is  referred  to  in  business  as  “overhead”  costs.    What  is  the   company’s  overhead?    How  many  monitors  must  the  company  sell  so  that  it  no   longer loses money? What is the maximum profit the company can make? How many monitors must it sell to earn the maximum profit? What are all the possible numbers of monitors the company can sell and still make a positive profit? Identify quadratic inverses and solve equations involving square roots (1.5 weeks) (F-IF.7, F-BF.4, A-REI.2, A-REI.4, N-RN.1 - .3) The goals here are to introduce the square root function as a primary example of an inverse function, to use the inverse of x2 (square root) to solve quadratic equations, and to use the inverse of the square root (x2) to solve equations involving radicals. The square root function should be introduced conceptually from the graph of y = x2, showing the graphical symmetry with the positive portion of the square function across the line y = x, and also from the perspective of denoting the positive x value corresponding to a specific y value on the graph. Simple quadratic equations of the form x2 = c can be extended to the general quadratic by utilizing the method of completing the square, but this is not a mainstream skill. Note: the general concept of inverse is dealt with in more detail in Algebra II. This is also an appropriate section to include representing radicals in terms of rational exponents, with justification, rewriting expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents, and investigating the results of adding and multiplying combinations of rational and irrational numbers. Examples: i. Plot the graph of f(x) = x2. Locate the point corresponding to y = 9. Draw a line from this point down to the x-axis. What is the value for x where this line M. Anderson, D. Barrett, and R. Pelayo in Collaboration with D. Gottlieb Page 18

Course Outline for Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core

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crosses the axis? What is the x – coordinate of the point where y = 9? Now repeat this process for y = 8, y = 4, and y = 10. In the case where the value for x along the x-axis is not an integer, approximate its value as close as you can. How  do  we  write  the  “exact”  answer?    Use  your  calculator  to  find  the  value  for   the  “exact”  answer.  Is  this  calculator  answer  exact? ii. Solve for b such that the point (5, b) is on the graph of f(x) = x2. Solve for a such that the point (a, 5) is on the graph of f(x) = x2 (solve graphically and symbolically). Which is easier to determine, a or b? iii. Solve for x such that 2(x – 1)2 = 6. iv. Make a table of values for f(x) = and plot its graph. Plot the graph of g(x) = x – 10 on the same axes. Approximate the point of intersection from the graph. Verify your answer symbolically by solving for x such that f(x) = g(x). Now repeat the problem, setting g(x) = x – 9. Solve equations and inequalities in two variables (2 weeks) Skills Graph linear functions and find points of intersection graphically and algebraically Concepts Solve systems of equations graphically and algebraically (A-REI.5 - .7) This is a fairly traditional area of study. Systems of equations should be limited to two equations in two unknowns. The graphical method to find intersections was covered before and is repeated herein, and the method of elimination is included for systems of linear equations. Systems with one linear equation and one quadratic should be included. - Prove that for a system of two equations in two variables replacing one equation by the sum of that equation and a multiple of the other produces a system with the same solution. (A-REI.5) - Solve systems of linear equations exactly and approximately (e.g. with graphs) (AREI.6) - Solve a simple system consisting of a linear equation and a quadratic equation algebraically and graphically. (A-REI.7) Solve linear inequalities in two variables (skill and conceptual) (A-REI.12) This is also a traditional topic. Students should understand that the set of points (x, y) that satisfy y = mx + b represent a line. For all other points (x, y) the y coordinate is either less than mx + b or greater than mx + b and the solution to y < mx + b is a half plane determined by y = mx + b. Include problems with <, <, >, and >. Ideally students arrive at the pragmatic state of graphing the equality in all cases, choosing a point in M. Anderson, D. Barrett, and R. Pelayo in Collaboration with D. Gottlieb Page 19

Course Outline for Algebra I – Transitioning to the Common Core

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either resulting half-plane, checking that point to see if it satisfies the inequality, and demonstrate their answer using shaded regions and dotted or solid lines. - Graph the solutions to a linear inequality as a half-plane (excluding the boundary in the case of a strict inequality), and graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities as the intersection of the corresponding half-planes. (A-REI.12) Examples: i. Our objective for this problem is to locate all points (x, y) such that y > x + 1. We begin by plotting the line . Next, locate the point on the line with x-value 2. Now locate the point exactly one unit directly above this point, which of course is (2, 4). Draw the line parallel to your first line passing through the new point (2, 4). Find the equation for this line. All points on this line have the property that their y-coordinate is equal to their xcoordinate plus 2, while all of the points on the first line have the property that their y – coordinate is equal to their x – coordinate plus 1. Explain why this implies that every point above the first line is a solution to our problem (hint: there was nothing special about choosing x = 2, nor was there anything special about requiring our second point to be exactly one unit above the first point). ii. A furniture manufacturer makes tables and chairs. Each table requires 8 board feet of oak and 4 board feet of maple wood. (FYI, one board foot of wood is equivalent  in  volume  to  a  piece  12”  by  12”  by  1”  thick.)    Each  chair  requires  2   board feet of oak and 4 board feet of maple. If the manufacturer only has 1000 board feet of oak and 600 board feet of oak, what combination of tables and chairs can they produce? This problem can be broken down into a number of steps and questions: Letting t = # tables produced and c = # chairs produced, find the inequality that describes the oak constraint and graph the half-plane solution to this inequality in two variables. Be sure to include both intercepts. (Note: since it is nonsensical to build a negative number of tables, we are only interested in the portion of the half-plane that lies in the first quadrant, where both t and c are non-negative.) Repeat this step for the oak constraint. Find the intersection of the boundaries of the two half planes. What is the maximum number of tables the manufacturer can make? What is the maximum number of chairs the manufacturer can make? Bonus: if each table sells for $75 and each chair for $50, which combination of tables and chairs will result in the highest revenue (i.e. which will bring in the most money)?

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