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Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes

28.9.2012

Composting of Biowastes by Open Windrow Systems

Institute of Waste Management Marion Huber-Humer Gudrun Obersteiner Peter Beigl Erwin Binner Katharina Böhm Robert Glanz Marlies Hrad Günther Kraus Sandra Lebersorger Peter Lechner Sabine Lenz Roland Linzner Peter Mostbauer Florian Part Andreas Pertl Stefan Salhofer Silvia Scherhaufer Elisabeth Schmied Felicitas Schneider Thomas Ebner Reinhold Ottner Julia Nowotny Iris Krenn-Strizsik Zorica Stamenkovic

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Erwin Binner MSc. BOKU-University / Vienna © Erwin Binner Institute of Waste Management

Martin Siklar Margarethe Staudner David Wiederschwinger Julia Zeilinger

La Molina 2012

Outlook  Fundamentals of Composting  Components of a Composting Plant
• • • • • Delivery of Feedstock Pretreatment (Grinding, Water Addition, Mixing) Composting Techniques Processing / Turning Final Treatment (Screening)
La Molina 2012

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© Erwin Binner

ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner

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2.Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes

28.9.2012

Composting of Bio Wastes

Fundamental Perspectives of Composting
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© Erwin Binner La Molina 2012

Composting Fundamental Perspectives composting is an aerobic process
organic matter is used by microbes as source of energy and nutrient; therefore microbes need: • oxygen • balanced nutrient content (C/N) • water (oxygen + nutrients available only solved )

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© Erwin Binner

La Molina 2012

ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner

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O + N. P. Ca. Mg. La Cu. Zn + N. Mg. S. H. ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 3 . S. Fe. Ca.2012 Composting Fundamental Perspectives aerobic degradation happens everywhere in nature carbon dioxide metabolic byby-products oxygen supply by diffusion + 6 O2 organic substances 6 CO2 energy heat (60%) 2.880 kJ/Mol C6H12O6 e. Zn 6 © Erwin Binner 6 H2O water Molina 2012 K. Cu. glucose 6 H2O water 5 © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 Composting Fundamental Perspectives aerobic degradation happens everywhere in nature carbon dioxide metabolic byby-products oxygen supply by diffusion + 6 O2 organic substances 6 CO2 energy heat (60%) 2.Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28.g.9. P.2. Fe. K.880 kJ/Mol C.

9.2012 Fundamental Perspectives Natural Aeration good structure of material oxygen supply by diffusion oxygen supply by convection and diffusion self heating good structure of material supply with fresh air 7 © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 Fundamental Perspectives Natural Aeration poor structure of material oxygen supply oxygen supply by exclusivelyand by convection diffusion compaction by weight anaerobic air supply wet feet water / rain 8 © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 4 .Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28.2.

Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28. N...65 % WM C/N ~ 20 – 30 (40) FAS ~ 50 Vol% (uptake of nutrients and oxygen just when solved in water) • Oxygen supply • temperature self heating free airspace (pore volume – structure) all temperature ranges 30 °C to (>) 65 °C La Molina 2012 10 © Erwin Binner ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 5 . P.) (pretreatment – homogenisation) WG ~ 50 . .2.2012 Fundamental Perspectives Characteristic of the Rotting Process no clear separation possible! phases turn into one-another intensive phase % % // °C 100 90 80 70 60 curing phase maturity phase start phase: mesophhilic and thermophilic fungi > 65 °C: predominantly thermophylic bacteria < 65 °C: mixed population from bacteria and fungi depending on substrate carbon degradation ammonia nitrogen temperature pH-value pH NH4-N 50 mg/kg DM 40 8 7 30 500 20 10 6 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 duration of treatment (weeks) 9 © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 Fundamental Perspectives Characteristic of the Rotting Process requirements for aerobic degradation: • humidity • nutrients (C..9.

2.2012 Fundamental Perspectives Pretreatment of Feedstock 11 © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 Fundamental Perspectives Biology of Rotting Process characteristics of the process: release of CO2 self-heating development and release of metabolic products • fatty acids (carbon acids) • ammonia/ammoniac odour emissions increase of humic substances 12 © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 6 .9.Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28.

2012 Composting of Bio Wastes Components of a Composting Plant 13 © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 Composting Systems / Components Delivery © Erwin Binner 14 Styria. 1999 La Molina 2012 ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 7 . 1994 Vienna.2.Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28. 1992 Linz.9.

2012 Composting Systems / Components Delivery © Erwin Binner 15 Klosterneuburg (LA).Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28.2. La Molina 2012 Composting Systems / Components Delivery © Erwin Binner 16 Gstöttenbauer (UA).9. 2012 La Molina 2012 ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 8 .

mobile machines (used also for building piles) .g.2.: screw (auger) mill.stationary machines (surfaced area)  large plants .: hammer mill .2012 Composting Systems / Components Pretreatment size reduction  to produce large surface (fraying not cutting)  enough free airspace (FAS)  small plants . cutting/shaving machines 17 © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 Composting – Pretreatment Grinding Equipment Jenz 18 © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 9 .fast rotating machines (demands): e.Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28.slow rotating machines (much better): e.g.9.

2. 2010 La Molina 2012 ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 10 .2012 Composting Pretreatment – Grinding Equipment © Erwin Binner 19 Upper Austria (Huemer).Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28. 2008 La Molina 2012 Composting Pretreatment – Grinding Equipment Allo © Erwin Binner 20 Helsinky.9.

manure spreader (also used to build windrows) .structure.moisture content . 2005 La Molina 2012 Composting Systems / Components Pretreatment mixing  homogenisation .nutrients  machines . porosity .Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28.mixing drum (stationary or rotating drum collection truck) .2012 Composting Pretreatment – Grinding Equipment © Erwin Binner 21 Peru (Casa Blanca).9.2.screw-mixer 22 © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 11 .front-end loader .

2012 Composting Systems / Components Pretreatment (Grinding-Mixing) 23 © Erwin Binner Vienna (Lobau).9. 1997 La Molina 2012 ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 12 . 1997 La Molina 2012 Composting Systems / Components Pretreatment (Grinding-Mixing) 24 © Erwin Binner Vienna (Lobau).2.Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28.

2. La Molina.Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28.low amounts of feedstock .large surface (cooling) turning of windrows market wastes + bulking agent compost La Molina 2012 26 © Erwin Binner ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 13 .9.2012 Composting Technique “Pit”-Composting – (District La Molina / Perú) !! natural aeration imposible !! © Erwin Binner 25 Golf Court.simple turning (shovel) . 2007 La Molina 2012 Composting Systems / Components Types of Piles  piles (conic windrows) .

2012 Composting Systems / Components Types of Piles types of piles  triangular or trapezoidal windrows .0 m 27 © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 Composting Systems / Components Types of Piles fleece (geo-textile) windrow old tires open trough 3-5% trough (drain into storage tanks) La Molina 2012 28 © Erwin Binner ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 14 .0 m to 5.2 to 2.height 1.turning by: shovel front-end loader pulled windrow turner self powered turning machine .2.9.Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28.5 m .width 2.natural aeration (convection) .

2012 Composting Systems / Components Delivery © Erwin Binner 29 Gstöttenbauer (UA).9.2. © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 15 .Commercial Composting 30 Upper Austria (Plant Huemer).Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28. 2012 La Molina 2012 Composting Technique Rotting Place .

Commercial Composting 31 © Erwin Binner Tyrol (Plant Höpperger). La Molina/Lima-Peru) 32 Universidad La Molina.Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28.2012 Composting Technique Rotting Place . 2010 La Molina 2012 Composting Technique Rotting Place (Univ. 2005 © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 16 .2.9.

Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28. 2007 La Molina 2012 ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 17 .2.9.2012 Composting Systems / Components Rotting Place (Casa Blanca/Peru) 33 © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 Composting Technique Rotting Place (District La Molina / Lima) 34 © Erwin Binner Lima.

2012 Composting Systems / Components Processing turning windrows  when? measurement of temperature or waste-air  inadequate temperatures  low oxygen concentration in the pores  low water content  high compaction  inhomogeneity  anaerobic areas  higher frequency: smaller particle size larger dimensions of pile higher moisture content young material 35 © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 Composting Technique Windrow Turning Machines 36 © Erwin Binner Vienna. 2005 La Molina 2012 ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 18 .9.2.Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28. (Lobau).

Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28.9.2. 2011 37 © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 Composting Systems / Components Windrow Turning Machines 38 © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 19 .2012 Composting Technique Windrow Turning Machines (Backhus) Salzburg (SAB).

density separator) –high moisture obstructs –oversize up to 60 vol.Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28. 2009 La Molina 2012 Composting Systems / Components Compost Finishing maturity (for better plant-germination)  after 8 to 20 weeks of composting  protection against rain fall  natural soil (soil organisms) compost finishing  pick out physical contaminants (sieve.% (bulking agents) compost storage  for production of 6 months  surfaced.2012 Composting Technique Windrow Turning Machines © Erwin Binner 39 Piura/Peru (Seminario). protection against rain fall 40 © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 20 .2.9.

2006 La Molina 2012 ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 21 .9.2012 Composting Systems / Components Compost Finishing 41 © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 Composting Systems / Components Compost Finishing © Erwin Binner 42 Lobau.Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28.2. Vienna.

at http://www.binner@boku.Congreso de Residuos Sólidos Composting of Biowastes 28.wau.ac.2012 e.9.2.boku.at Muchas Gracias por Su Atención 43 © Erwin Binner La Molina 2012 ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 22 .ac.