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Swing & Jump

Blues Guitar By Matthieu Brandt

© 2000 Matthieu Brandt

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Introduction Swing Blues Scales /Chords Scales Chords

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The Essence of Blues Move with the Chords Inner Logic of the Blues Mark the Tonic Swing Timing Bass Lines Intervals Tritone Thirds Sixths Intervals based on 1st Blues Position Accompaniment Riffs Chord Riffs / Horn Lines Inner Logic with Chord Riffs Full Chords Full Chords with Bass Lines Accompaniment or Solo? Moving from Chord to Chord Special chorus Solos Turnarounds Tips on soloing Suggested listening Overview Chords Overview Blues Positions

Introduction Before you is version 1.1 of "Swing & Jump Blues", my humble take on what this music is about. I have collected this material over the last three or four years and it attempts to define the different ways of accompanying and soloing in a swing setting. It got to see the light because I got tired. Tired of looking for a good book that would accurately describe this music. Tired of listening to hundreds of "guitar players" I've heard at sessions or had the dubious pleasure of playing with mindlessly race up and down the minor pentatonic scale. Tired of saying: "Don't you HEAR the major third: is there a reason why you don’t PLAY it?" And it was born out of love for this music. A type of music that does not need to be studied like jazz, has the power of the blues and brings a positive, upbeat feel to it. I'm sure a lot in this book/cd/website needs to be refined, adjusted, thrown out, added, etc. I hope you will be kind and look at this material as an honest attempt to open up Swing & Jump to a larger audience of guitar players. Not out of a religious "this is the only way to play it" but out of "I love this music, take what you like, it's yours, too". Matthieu Brandt December 1997 / November 2000


he really tried) NGSW Berklee School of Music Acoustic Guitar Workshop 4 . Thanx! Bas Flesseman Ray Nijenhuis Frits Verheij Enrico Crivellaro Volker Klenner David Hamburger Jack Starkey Rick Holmstrom Jaap Abrahams Richard van Bergen My Teachers: Ronnie Earl Bruce Katz Rod Carey Per Hanson Duke Robillard Robben Ford Jimmy Rogers Roy Bookbinder Kelly Joe Phelps Steve James Paul Rishell Harry Jacobson Kenny Neal Gary Lucas Laurence Jubert Bob Brozman Dave Hamburger Adam Larrabee Matt Smith Kirby Kelly Martin Hutchinson Martin Simpson Ton van Bergeijk Bernard Reinke Rudolf Eeken Harry de Groot (drums) Leata van Amesfoort (piano) George Whitmore (saxofoon) Freddie Cavalli (himself) Theo Lissenberg (banjo) Heleen Karsdorp (vocals) Brent Barlow (vocals) Dave Massey (harp.I owe a lot to the following guitarists and music lovers for their comments on the 1st version of this book/website. Without them this project would’ve been senseless and a lot less fun.

Lonnie Johnson often played in smaller settings or even solo. Duke Robillard. The first guitar players who recorded swing style music were Lonnie Johnson. combined with country influences later that decade. King cites Lonnie Johnson as his main influence. and others are among the bands that play swing blues and jump. Louis Armstrong with his Hot Five were among the first to put together all the different elements that make up the style we now know as 'swing'. that's fine. Ronnie Earl. which have been a major influence on swing. with his feet firmly planted in country blues. It does not require the amount of study jazz and bebop demand.B. Sections of this book describe the styles these bands play. It is written in a way you can easily digest by building on material you already know: the blues. led to the birth of Rock & Roll and Rockabilly. Even B. Burell likes to use relatively simple blues progressions to solo on and he's brought all the harmonic possibilities of jazz and bebop to swing blues. And it could be used as an easy way into playing swing in a jazz setting. 5 . Elvis' guitar player Scotty Moore was an excellent country blues player who showed off these chops on top of a swinging rhythm section playing 'four to the floor'. each with his own very personal approach. along with Chicago blues elements. while listening to each other’s records and playing together. borrowing licks and chord tricks. A featured soloist of Goodman's Big Band. In the meantime all these players were influencing each other. too. This broad spectrum of music we call 'swing' is what this book is all about. But if you want to stick to the blues. This music is still popular and being played. It will open up new harmonic possibilities in soloing and playing backup. he defined swing for generations to come. These players laid the foundation for bands like Louis Jordans' one of the most popular swing dance big bands in the 40's to mid 50's. The electrified version of country blues was going through its own growth in places like Chicago and Detroit. James Harman. that has elements of blues and was to be the stomping ground for Jazz & Bebop.Swing Blues The earliest versions of Swing music have been around since the 1920's. but also worked with chord progressions taken from the blues. Eddie Durham and Charlie Christian. trading songs. In the late 40's and early 50's the jazz version of swing was further developed by players like Kenny Burell and Barney Kessel. Jordan took his material from old musical tunes. Roomful of Blues. Rod Piazza & the Mighty Flyers. It's a music you can dance to. Charlie Christian was Benny Goodman's guitar player and one of the first electric players. This swing blues. Jazz players owe a lot to the hornlike phrasing he developed and his soloing through chord changes was bebop before its birth in the 40's. Eddie Lang.

Now. This chapter contains the theory to learn how to do this. but bear with me on it. You can always come back to it after you've played some of the examples. Our goal is to expand your options for soloing and accompanying in blues. Instead of chopping bar chords. Blues in G 1 Blues Position in G st 6 . Even if you don't see the big picture in one glance: there is logic to it. Let's limit our scope to the things you probably already know. let's bring in the brain. we'd like to be more subtle. Instead of racing up and down the blues scale we want to add other notes that sound good. A 12-bar progression blues.Scales / Chords This chapter may seem pretty technical to you. with three chords and a minor pentatonic scale. too.

But the feel of the scale remains the same no matter what pitch you start on. This 'third' is the interval (meaning distance) between the tonic and the third note of the scale. again relative to the tonic. this blues is being played in a few thousand clubs all over the globe. To find the tonic of a scale.2.2. its centre point.1) of frets between notes is a major scale. a scale is nothing more than a bunch of notes lined up with a certain formula of intervals. in this case a G and a B. Sometimes melodies use more than one scale.1.Chances are that on any given night. upbeat songs) Do 1 Re 2 Mi 3 Fa 4 Sol 5 La 6 Ti 7 Do 8 In the key of G. Every scale can start on a different pitch. G Major Scale 7 . The tonic is often the last note of a song. you're using a bunch of different notes. try to 'feel' where your melody ends. The tonic is number one. but let's stick to simple melodies. the major scale would contain these notes: G 1 No. Every scale that has this formula (2. To keep things clear. of frets up: 2 A 2 2 B 3 1 C 4 2 D 5 2 E 6 2 F# 7 1 G 8 It's called a major scale because it contains a major third. sing a song or whip out a solo. If you line these notes up in pitch order (low to high) you've got a scale. This interval is 4 frets and sounds upbeat. Major Scale Most scales contain seven notes. Each of these scales has a different feel to it.2. As you can see. Ray a drop of golden Sun" and other horrible.2. A lot of players stick to this framework and will probably do this for the rest of their natural lives. So the melodies stay the same but are relative to the tonic. we give each note a number. But what if you want more? Roughly said: if you play a melody. You already know at least one: the major scale ("Do a Deer a Female Deer. And be very happy. Each scale has a TONIC.

G-A G-B G-C G-D G-E G . of frets up: 2 A 2 1 Bb 3 2 C 4 2 D 5 1 Eb 6 2 F 7 2 G 8 14 frets 17 frets 21 frets (Major) Ninth Eleventh (Major) Thirteenth As the name suggests.2.Each interval has a name. you'll encounter these intervals: G-A G-C G-E Minor Scale Because we're not going to use this scale much in this book. we're ALWAYS referring to the THIRD of the chord or scale! If we call an interval "flat".F# G-G (Major) Second Major Third (Perfect) Fourth (Perfect) Fifth (Major) Sixth (Major) Seventh Octave 2 frets 4 frets 5 frets 7 frets 9 frets 11 frets 12 frets If you continue to play the scale up from the octave. They fall outside of the scope of this book. As the names G aeolian or natural minor suggest.2.2 frets up). it has a minor ring to it. we'll race through the minor scale. but can be used to jazz-up your solo. This is because of the minor third interval (3 frets). 8 . there are other minor scales. The Gminor scale (or sometimes G aeolian or natural) contains these notes: G 1 No.1. It also contains a minor sixth (G to Eb: 8 frets) and a flat seventh (G to F: 10 frets) Every scale with this formula of intervals (frets up) is an aeolian minor scale (2. This is sometimes confused with the word 'minor'.2. it sounds sad. the distance from the tonic G to the third note of the scale (Bb). Minor Scale Note: If we call a chord or a scale 'minor'. it means it's 1 fret back from the major version.1.

The added note to make up a blues scale can be found 6 frets up from the tonic (or one string down. This minor third can be found three frets up from the tonic (a Bb in a G blues). play this formula of frets up (3. If you're looking for that bluesy feel. meaning it contains a minor third in the scale. This scale has seven notes and looks like this: G mixolydian scale 1st Position It contains these notes: G 1 No. "Penta" is Latin for "five". of frets up: 3 Bb b3 2 C 4 1 (Db) (b5) 1 D 5 3 F b7 2 G 8 Every scale that has this 'formula' of frets between the notes is a blues scale. a scale containing five notes.2. in this case. play this scale: G 1 No.1.1. They are derived from a mixolydian scale. This flat 5 in the scale should be used with taste. The chords we used in our first example G blues are "dominant seventh" chords.2) and you'll be playing the blues scale. Just find the tonic. It's minor.3. of frets up: 2 A 2 2 B 3 1 C 4 2 D 5 2 E 6 1 F b7 2 G 8 9 . one fret up). 'Minor Pentatonic' means exactly what it says. 5 notes from the minor pentatonic scale (here we go) plus one that sounds really whiny when overused. Minor Pentatonic with added 'blue notes' Mixolydian Scale Every chord we use in blues or any other type of music is derived from a scale.Blues Scale A blues scale only has 6 notes.

now did it? Positions Blues scales can be played in 5 different positions (or patters) across the neck (see Overview Blues Scale Positions). This is the case with every mixolydian scale. This scale and the chords that can be formed with it are your way out of the blues box. it looks a lot like a regular major scale. without being confined by the blues scale. If you find a scale that has these intervals. We'll learn a Standard Riff to help us find the mixolydian scale positions quickly. find the tonic on the first string and play the pattern in the diagram above. you'll open up a whole new world of colours. which fret) you can figure out which position you can play.As you can see. With the mixolydian scale it's exactly the same. a flat seventh up from the tonic. A mixolydian scale sounds a certain way because of the intervals (number of frets) between the notes. only you've got seven different positions. the good stuff is in the Solos chapter. it's a mixolydian scale and it'll sound this way. That didn't hurt. If you're the classic overachiever you can look at the diagrams in the back of this book and practice them till your fingers bleed. By adding notes of this scale to your playing. The only note that's different is the F. The mixolydian scale is where it all starts. If you want to play a C or D mixolydian scale. jump. If you know where the tonic is (which string. rock & roll and boogie with the best of them. You'll get to know them all by playing the examples and solos in this book. based on where the tonic is. You WILL SOUND WAY COOL. 10 . You can sound jazzy. But if you want to shoot first and ask questions later. play swing blues.

) or C. B. You can determine the notes of a chord by looking at the name. G7 chord G7 contains the notes G. E=10. etc. Do we detect a system here? You bet. In most chords.Chords Chords are made up of a minimum of three tones. The notes in these chords come from the mixolydian scale. D=9.G. F=11. On a guitar. 7 and 9 (just keep counting C=8. D7. etc. C 1 D 2 E 3 F 4 G 5 A 6 Bb 7 C 8 C9 contains 1. a regular G major chord uses note numbers 1. 3. 5 and 7. If you look at an open G major chord. so we'll take six as a maximum. G chord. two B's and one D. D and F. 1. some of the notes are doubled or even tripled. C7.E. C9 chord A C9 chord comes from C mixolydian. you're a real cool dude if you can figure out a way to play chords with more than six notes. it contains three G's. Those notes are derived from the G major scale G 1 A 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 E 6 F# 7 G 8 As you can see. Most of the chords we're using in swing and jump blues are (dominant) seven chords: G7.Bb and D 11 . 3 and 5. G mixolydian G 1 A 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 E 6 F 7 G 8 A G7 chord uses notes nrs. 3. finding out which scale the chord comes from and by doing some simple counting. 5.

E and G notes.2. 5 and 7 of the scale and you have your chord.2. Am7 can be derived from A aeolian minor: A 1 No.2. Take Nos. If you don't need it. G. The reason is convenience plus the chord is getting pretty thick with six notes in it. of frets up: 2 B 2 1 C 3 2 D 4 2 E 5 1 F 6 2 G 7 2 A 8 As we've already seen. D and A. 1. 3.1. Bb. Leaving the fifth out (in this case the G) doesn't make that much difference to our ear. Minor chords are formed exactly the same way as major chords.1. th As you can see we're missing the G in this chord. C.C13 chord This C13 is played at the 8 fret and contains C. dump it or let someone else play it. Some of them are also doubled.2. the formula for the minor scale is 2. Minor chords can be derived from their minor scales. Our last chord example is a minor chord. 12 . Am7 chord Am7 has an A. E.

Blues is about feeling and emotion. The quicker you learn this stuff. riffs. first and foremost. A blues scale can be used to solo over all three chords. Conclusion: Scales and Chords Music is nothing like math or geography. we're playing a BLUES SCALE on top of it. All these elements have found their way into the music. Once you start playing. It is not and will never be part of any SAT test. chords. and pick up what you like.The essence of Blues But how to use all this stuff? Let's get back to what blues is. The fact that the blues scale only uses five notes (plus the flat 5) gives it a sharp edge. the faster you'll forget it. Using the mixolydian scale will give you some more note options and make the sound a little milder and smoother. this gives you the best of both worlds. You might have noticed that although we are playing major chords (meaning G7 and not Gm7). one man singin' about his suffering and people dancin' to it. By bending these notes you can produce even more tension. These scales contain seven notes. check your brain at the door and try to get into the feel. This is because the space between some of the notes in the scale is bigger than in a regular minor or major scale. Especially the major third of the chord G7 against a minor third in a melody sounds blue. Blues is tension and release. Try all of the examples. call and response. a minor scale! This contradiction is exactly what blues is all about. 13 . etc. horn lines. It's a story to listen to. The tension that is created by playing major chords with a minor scale makes for the 'blue' sound. All this theory takes time to sink in. Only if you get to the point of asking. If you mix it up with the blues scale. Don't try to grab this all at once. to react to. "but why does it work this way?" should you come back to this chapter and then you'll find some answers.

the third of the G scale is the only note that needs to be lowered to a Bb to get a C mixolydian scale. a couple of extra notes. The same also works in a V to I chord progression. We can make use of this inner logic in soloing and in playing chords. yes and no. You have got to move with the chords. In some cases. in this case the B becomes a Bb and the F# an F. And the coach? He'll be serving you a pink slip after the game. Change only one note to play the same riff over the IV chord. If you use it on the other chords and stick to that mixolydian scale. you often only have to move a pattern one fret down or up to get the corresponding pattern on another chord. 14 . you've gotta change to those specific mixolydian scales! So in a G7 blues with C7 and D7 you play: G mixolydian on G7 C mixolydian on C7 D mixolydian on D7 These scales look a lot alike: G mix: C mix: D mix: G C D A D E B E F# C F G D G A E A B F Bb C G C D Or written differently G mix: C mix: D mix: G G G A A A B Bb B C C C D D D E E E F F F# G G G As you can see. right? Well. And the flat seventh of the I chord wants to resolve to the third of the IV chord. no big deal. IV and V. Because the differences in the scales is so small. Move the F up one fret to an F# to get a D mixolydian scale. your fellow players will frown. things gets a bit more complex with two notes that change.Move with the chords Now what's all the fuss about this mixolydian scale? One extra scale. If you use this scale on the I chord. the audience will think you've gone berserk. When you move from a V to a IV chord. The big difference between playing a regular blues scale through a blues chord progression and using a mixolydian scale is that you can't stick to one scale. use only notes that those three scales have in common. Once you've moved to the IV and the V chord. play exactly the same riff over I. you'll sound just fine. you'll be hitting a homerun from the bullpen. We'll call this the inner logic of the mixolydian scales. The third of the I chord wants to 'resolve' to the flat seventh of the IV chord. You'll think you did great.

In each of those positions. Note: more inner logic This theory also works with the fifth and the ninth of a chord in these progressions. Based on that tonic. Be sure to play them on the right chords. which is also the flat seventh of the D7 chord. If you're playing Am7 to D7 in a minor blues.Note: other chords Inner logic also works with minor chords. you can use this theory. The fifth of the I chord will want to resolve to the ninth of the IV chord and the ninth will want to resolve to the fifth. you're going to learn solos to get familiar with playing mixolydian riffs within those positions. Always keep your eye on where the tonic of the chord you're soloing on is. tonic of IV when you're on the IV and tonic of V when you're on the V. In some cases. the third doesn't have to resolve at all. These are the five positions on the neck you probably already know. you can find at least one tonic for every chord. sometimes they are the same. Every time you play a I . 15 .IV chord progression (or a V -I). because it's already part of the chord you're resolving to. And move with the chords. the third of the Am7 is a C. we'll play solos that move from box to box. Mark the tonic To be able to do this quickly. All the solos in this book refer to a certain blues position. play the tonic of I when you're on the I chord. you've first got to find the tonic of each chord. In most blues progressions there are three chords. After you can wail in those blues boxes. In your 1st Blues Position this is where the tonics are: As an exercise. And again. you could play along with any three chord blues and try to only play the tonics.

This is where you have to tap your foot. After you've done that try to go back to playing right after the original click. The drummer will keep the beat going by playing swing eights on his ride and using his hi-hat on the two and four. Exercise 4: Play a simple solo on a blues chord progression tapping your foot on the 2 and 4. The bass player can be right on top of the beat or slightly late. Then try to vary the place of your note by being later and later. After that try to play it earlier and make it feel like straight eights. In swing blues the two and four is where a drummer will play his snare.M. Listening to others who play in this style will teach you the right timing. Jump or Rock & Roll band the drummer sets the timing.Swing timing Swing timing is based on a triplet feel. You can count them as 1 And A 2 And A 3 And A 4 And A 1 In swing you leave out all the "And's" but keep the same timing. This is the so-called "shuffle" feel. Every beat is divided into three equal parts. Timing late will make your rhythm and solo sound lazy and relaxed. until you've almost reached the next click. The exact timing of the A's can vary. Feeling where the 'after beat' is crucial to making your music swing. the tighter it sounds. Guitar players like Duke Robillard. You can play them closer to the next beat (and play them like you would in a funky feel) or play them earlier. Try to imitate that timing. especially at higher tempos. Try to vary the place of the A's by playing it closer to the next click. Your note should be right after the click of the metronome. and play one note every beat. This is where the swing is. Variations in timing will give your music extra tension. you have to be in the groove or set your own groove. First try to be exactly on the beat and after you feel where the pulse is. Then switch back to the triplets. Exercise 2: Play swing eights (see above) with alternate picking (up-down-up-down) and keep the first note right on the beat. which will feel like a 16th or funky feel. In a Swing. The A's are closer to the next beat that you would play/sing in a straight feel. This 'laid back' timing can really make the music swing. Listen to horn players and their laid back timing and slurring of notes. Kenny Burell and Barney Kessel are masters of this way of phrasing. The closer you time to the beat. Exercise 3: Play one of the scales you know in a triplet feel and switch to swing eights somewhere in the middle. try to be just a little late. 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 A 1 Note that this is not an even division of the beat. In jazz type swing there will not be a clear 'after beat'.P. 16 . But the key to swing timing is in your ears. As a guitar player. Exercise 1: Set a metronome at 60 B. The combination bass drum and hi-hat tells you where the beat is.

B.B. Here is a simple major pentatonic one. There are a thousand different ways of playing up and down this scale. Depending on the type of feel. King's backup guitarist might use something like this on "Caledonia". listen to the bass player before you get in his way. If you want to avoid a beating with the neck of the bass. The feel can be altered by playing each note staccato (damp the note quickly after it's been played) or legato (glue the notes together by keeping the time between notes as short as possible). This 'walking bass' can be used in Chicago blues and swing blues. Bass line Ex 1 – CD 1 17 .Bass Lines A vastly underestimated way of accompanying is a very simple and effective one: play what the bass player plays! This is especially powerful at the beginning of a song and leaves enough space for a singer's first chorus or a soloist's opening riff. you could use one of these examples.

Bass line Ex 2 – CD 2 Example 2 uses the technique of doubling the bass notes. 3. Instead of using just the major pentatonic scale. G major pentatonics over G7. D major pentatonic over D7. you can add the minor third to the bass line. This becomes a guiding tone to the major third of the scale and sounds great in blues. 5 and 11 add the Bb to the G7 bass line and in bar 5 the Eb is added to the C7 bass line. Instead of using just the major pentatonic scale. you'll often use this in a straight time feel.e.In bars 5 and 6 you'll see that the bass line starts with the root of the IV chord C and that it uses the notes of a C major pentatonic scale! Whenever you use major pentatonics you've got to follow the chords. i. In Swing you'll play this accompaniment in a shuffle feel (see Timing). You can do this even when your bass player plays only one note per beat. a feature used a lot by bass players. 18 . Notice how bars 4 and 5 glide into each other chromatically. you walk through the changes and hit the root of the V chord D at the beginning of bar 12. In Rock & Roll and Jump music. etc. every note gets an equal amount of time. This way of playing chromatically through the chord is also being used in bars 11 and 12. Bars 1.

too! To play these riffs. Bass line Ex 4 – CD 4 A syncopated bass line: you play the tonic on the off-beat. The II chord is actually a minor chord (see Chords/Scales). In other cases. Bass line Ex 3 – CD 3 This is a one-bar pattern that also works when there's a second guitarist playing fills or chords. Fasten your seat belt at high speeds! Intervals Making your presence clear without being in everybody's face all the time.Note: Alternate progression In this example. Using two notes (of a chord) is a good way to do this. you can add two other notes to the bass line. Here you play a so-called II-V-I progression instead. You can combine them with chords. Sometimes the riff starts on the tonic. the bass line in bars 9-11 uses a different chord progression that often substitutes for the V-IV-I progression. a guiding chord from below. bass Lines and fills. It works as a guiding chord to the V. you need to "calculate" the starting point of the riff: one fret back. Find the tonic and you'll know where to start the riff. that's what playing backup is all about. you first need to know where the tonic is. 19 . same string. no problemo. You add the third and seventh of the chord to the tonic and form a full dominant seventh chord. Experiment with different rhythms. When you get to the V. In this case you precede the D7 with a C#7. Find out what works for you. The next examples are cliché accompaniments in the swing blues style. In bar 12 you approach the D7 from above with an Eb7. one string down or two frets up.

Moving them up one fret gets you to the V chord. When you move this "tritone" interval down 1 fret from the tonic position you're playing a tritone on the IV chord: the 3rd and 7th. Combined with a bass line it could sound like this: In the next example very bass line pattern comes in blocks of two bars. Bars 9 and 10 are tricky. They are the two most important notes of a dominant 7th chord: the third and the flat seventh. Play beat three of bar 11 with your middle finger and slide into the D#7-E7 progression.Tritone Intervals Tritone Ex 1 – CD 5 The two notes you're playing here sound nasty when played without a bass note or full chord. we approach it from a fret below to create tension (and release). The 3rd of the I chord (a C# in A7) leads into the 7th of the IV chord (a C in D7). 20 . The last two bars are a standard bass run to the V chord and back. This inner logic of a blues chord progression can also be used in your solos. The same logic can be applied to the V-I chord progression. Note: Inner Logic The 7th of the I chord (in this case the G in an A7 chord) leads to the 3rd of the IV chord (the F# in D7). play the first note of each bar with your ring finger. Each time we play the tritone interval.

Find the tonic first and then play the riff. All these riffs are played relative to the tonic. 21 . They are derived from the mixolydian scale. Move them up to the IV and V position to get the riff for the C7 and D7 groove. both major and minor.Intervals Tritone Ex 2 – CD 6 Thirds Intervals Thirds Ex 1 – CD 7 This example uses sets of third intervals. The tonic for this riff (a G) is the last note you play.

By changing only one note of the first G7 riff. 22 . there is a good chance you can play the same riff on the IV and V chord. Bingo! Move the riff up two frets from there to get the V chord version. like this: Intervals Thirds Ex 3 – CD 9 Move this riff up 5 frets to get the C7 variation and another 2 frets to get the D7 pattern. Move this one up two frets and you're set for D7. you can use it on a C7 chord. Intervals Thirds Ex 4 – CD 10 Another groovy one that is similar to Hollywood Fats' riff in "She's Dynamite". Thirds are all over the neck.You can also play them like this: Intervals Thirds Ex 2 – CD 8 Again: the tonic of this riff is the last note you play. The first pattern on G7 uses notes from G mixolydian. Note: Inner Logic As with tritone intervals. you've got to change scales. move that note down one fret. On C7 you use notes from C mixolydian. there is an inner logic to playing third intervals over these chords. These scales look a lot alike (see Scales / Chords). Whenever you play a riff with intervals or broken chords. If it contains the third of the I chord (B in G7). First listen to Example 5. Move this pattern two frets up to get the D7 chord variation. You can form a third interval on any two adjacent strings. What's goin' on? Whenever you use a riff with notes from the mixolydian scale and you change chords (for instance from G7 to C7).

These kinds of riffs are used a lot by experienced players.Intervals Thirds Ex 5 – CD 11 If the riff contains the seventh of the I chord (F in G7).. Look at bar 9 of example 5. On beat two you're playing an F# on the B string. 23 ..) in the first row the eye. not an F! On the C7 the F sounds hunky dory because it's part of the C mixolydian scale. Instead of moving all over the neck to play these riffs. they change one note and look way cool while giving the girls (or boys . you've also got to change the riff when you land on the V chord.

Intervals Sixths Ex 1 – CD 12 The tonic of the chord is the first note you play. Look at these examples to help you out. Intervals Sixths Ex 3 – CD 14 Move these riffs up 5 and 7 frets to get the IV and V version. Focus your riffs on these positions and vary them to your liking.Sixths A more open way of playing intervals is by using sixths. Eb-C. The Bb mixolydian scale has these notes: Bb 1 C 2 D 3 Eb 4 F 5 G 6 Ab 7 Bb 8 When you add a sixth. you get these intervals: Bb-G. Or play the IV chord riff like this: Intervals Sixths Ex 2 – CD 13 Move the same riff up two frets for the V version. G-Eb & Ab-F. Move them up 5 frets to get the Eb riff (the IV chord) and another 2 to get the F riff (V chord). The mixolydian scale is harmonized by adding a second note that is a sixth higher then the original note. C-Ab. Hey. F-D. 24 . you'll never remember this if you're life depended on it. D-Bb.

all through the chord changes. By now you've figured out that there are at least two positions for playing sixths: tonic on the E string and tonic on the A string. Position all other notes on the IV riff based on that note. It leads you smoothly from the I to the IV chord (inner logic again). Note the progression in bar 4. The IV and V position that we've used up the neck can also be found a lot closer.Intervals Sixths Ex 4 – CD 15 We've added a little bass line to the riff and expanded it with a new position. Do the same thing with bar 9 and the V chord. 25 . you'll get a new position for riffs on the I chord. All riffs are played relative to that tonic. In the last bar. This means that if you move the IV position riff from the last example up 7 frets (or 5 frets up from the V riff). The pattern of the riff is continued through bars 9 and 10. It sounds more like an accompaniment in this position and stays out of the way of the soloist or vocalist. The tonic Bb can be found on the 13th fret of the A string. The first note in bar 5 is the tonic of the IV chord. we're using a chromatic walk up to the V chord.

Stay with it and you'll get the jist.Note: inner logic with sixths riffs As with thirds. Because you're using notes from the mixolydian scale. always look for the tonic of the chord. First. you've got to change scales when you move from chord to chord. In the beginning it's pretty hard to immediately see which sixth form to use. all the notes you'll want to use are relative to that note! Intervals Sixths Ex 5 – CD 16 26 . Listen to Example 5 to see what you can do with it. there is an inner logic to playing sixths over a blues chord progression.

Overview of usable sixths Intervals based on 1 Position Blues These next examples are a mixed bag. Move them up 5 frets and 7 frets to get the corresponding IV and V chord riffs. Intervals 1 Blues Pos Ex 2 – CD 18 st This one uses the flat 7 and the 6th of the scale. They use different intervals taken from the blues scale (first position) and mix them up with intervals taken from the mixolydian scale. This is the blues. Intervals 1 Blues Pos Ex 3 – CD 19 st One with a particularly mean interval at the beginning. To add tension. the second time it's a tritone. The first time you use it with a major third interval. give it a twist by pushing both fingers up a bit. Intervals 1 Blues Pos Ex 1 – CD 17 st st The sliding up to and hammering on to the major third of the scale (6th fret of the 3rd string) makes it sound very bluesy. 27 .

who recorded with Sonny Boy Williamson. Accompaniment Riff 2 – CD 21 Just move this riff up the neck two frets and you'll have the V chord riff. Here it becomes so thick it can easily be "mistaken" as a solo. These examples use intervals combined with melody / bass Lines.Robert Junior Lockwood One of the pioneers of Chicago blues accompaniment is Robert Junior Lockwood.J. Play this riff slow at first. the guy deserves a statue himself. If you're playing through a blues progression. You can also play each note separately in triplets. just follow the chords and move the pattern up the neck to the IV and V chord. As you can see in the next examples. 28 . Use the tonic on the D string as a marker. Lockwood built his career on uses notes from the mixolydian scale and harmonizes them (2 or more notes played at the same time). The right hand technique can be pretty tricky. Keep your middle finger on the sixth fret (the major third of the scale). Muddy Waters and a bunch of other Chicago greats. Accompaniment Riff 3 – CD 22 Note the little alteration in beats 2 and 6 of the riff. The flatted third is used as a guiding tone to the major third. Keep a good eye on where the tonic of the chord is and you'll know where to start the riff. so if you're using it. Little Walter. Accompaniment Riff 1 – CD 20 The riff that R. meaning soft. play behind the singer or soloist. This way of accompanying is pretty thick. Use alternating picking where possible. This creates tension and releases it. The riff on the IV and V chord can also be played at the same position as the I chord riff.

But you do want to make the harmony clear! Chord Riffs Ex 1 – CD 24 In this example. When you're moving to the IV and the V chord. 29 . The last accompaniment examples were all quite intense. Chord riffs and Horn lines In a band setting. Always use the beginning of the riff that goes with the chord you're leading into. sliding them up two frets and sliding back.mixolydian scale that goes with the chord you're playing on. etc. just move the whole thing up to the D and E positions (5 or 7 frets). This way of anticipating a chord in a progression is used a lot in Swing. So skip the triplet on the last beat and start playing the next riff. Examples 1-3 can all be played in this position. These can also form a very exciting part of playing swing and jump blues when mixed in with chord riffs and solo breaks. The tonic you're using as a marker is on the A string and is one string up and one fret up from the note you're sliding into. riffs. Be sure to use the right riff there or you'll send your fellow musicians up a creek. you're defining the whole harmony. Lockwood position is introduced. every musician has a distinctive place. Leaving space is important. Accompaniment riff 4 – CD 23 In example 4 another R. Hammering away bar chords on every beat is a no-no. All the notes you're playing come from the mixolydian scale and by playing these broken up chords. Because of their nature. It creates tension that is then released when you get to the actual chord. you're playing the top three notes of a ninth chord. Note: all these riffs lead INTO a chord. Within a song this place can change: backup to solo. full chords.J. The rhythm leaves enough space for a vocalist or soloist. You will find more of these examples in the CHORD chapters. you can use them as part of your solo or as a "special chorus". especially when playing accompaniment.

At high speeds it can be a challenge! Notice how you continue the pattern on the V-IV-I-V (bars 9-12) progression while changing the chords. 30 . You can experiment by adding different bass Lines or changing the rhythm. Make sure it keeps swinging and that your backup stays away from the soloist (turn down the volume. I know. Play the D7 and E7 forms by barring your index finger across the top three strings. I know. Chord Riffs Ex 3 – CD 26 Example 3 combines a short bass line with a chord pattern that's a bit thicker. it's a cruel world).Chord Riffs Ex 2 – CD 25 You can play the same notes/chords a lot closer together by using the chord forms in example 2.

You can wrap your thumb around the neck to get some extra support. The pattern you find in bars 1-4 can easily be moved up to the 7th and 9th fret when you move to the IV chord C and to the V chord D. Lockwood who used it on the I chord. When you play this way. moved it up to the IV and the V chord and then played exactly the same riff. 4th fret) down one step to get the 7th of the IV chord. Chord Riffs Ex 4 – CD 27 The next example deals with this inner logic. the notes you can use in solos and accompaniment move with the chords. Chords are made from scales and when you move from chord to chord. The same trick used in example 4 can be used here. when you could stroll around the corner? By changing just 1 note. Chord Riffs Ex 6 – CD 28 Play those three notes of the C9 chord with your index finger and use your ring finger for the alternating chord at the 5th fret. except when playing triplets. This way of playing backup was refined by R. the groove sounds fresh and upbeat. Use up and down strokes when the tempo is too fast or when you're playing those triplets. Chord Riffs Ex 5 – CD 28 Example 5 looks a lot like Ex 4 above.J. If you use this riff in a medium tempo song. the same riff can be applied to the IV chord. play only downstrokes. you can use the inner logic of the mixolydian scales when you're using chord riffs. but uses different strings. Move this IV chord pattern up 2 frets and you've got your V chord riff. 31 . But why walk a marathon. Move the major third of the I chord (B on the 3rd string. Move the whole pattern up 2 frets to get the V chord version.Inner logic with chord riffs As with intervals and single line solo playing.

City" by the Manhattan Transfer and "Learn to Treat Me Right" by The Fabulous Thunderbirds. Make it sound like you're always a bit too late. Try to feel where the beat is and experiment with your timing. Every chord on the one is preceded by a guiding chord 1 fret below. Why bother? If your hands are big enough. Use your palm to stop the strings from ringing right after you play a stroke. Note: This laid back timing can be practised by making big circles parallel to the strings. lazy even. These chords might be of different shapes than you're used to. Play the Am triad with your pinkie and try to hear the whole groove as a D chord groove. Just use the D form as a starting point. The 9 chords in the last bar can also be played in a form that doesn't have the tonic on the bottom. Once you get into the feel you can make the circles smaller. but the fifth of the chord (see Full Chords Ex 4). Damping is an important part of playing rhythm in swing. with a swing feel. Varying these damping patterns will give you different grooves. you can try to play the tonic of the Bb9 chord with your thumb. A fun groove which you can move with the chords. the more you're in their way. The thicker you play. down strokes on the beat and up strokes in between.Y. This is done because bar chords sound thick and cover a range that is being used by the bass and possibly other chord instruments. Sometimes we'll have to dampen with the right hand. 32 . we can't dampen by just lifting our left hand. Because we don't usually play full bar chords. In Swing and Jump music we avoid bar chords unless they serve a very specific function. Full Chords Ex 1 – CD 30 Use a steady motion of down and up strokes. since you already have a bass player who's playing the tonics. Some swing players prefer these forms.Chord Riffs Ex 7 – CD 29 Something similar was used in "Boy from N. Hit the strings near the neck of the guitar with down strokes and play near the bridge when you play up strokes. Make it sound relaxed. Full Chords These next examples deal with accompanying in full chords. With some chords we'll dampen the open strings with the side of our fingers. your tonic is on the 2nd string.

Full Chords Ex 4 – CD 33 The same type of accompaniment can be played in the 1st Blues position. In fact you're alternating continuously between the I chord and the IV chord. Ab. The best of both worlds. Wrap your hand around the neck and use your thumb to play the tonic. Keep your hand wrapped around the neck and play this IV chord with your ring finger. try to hear them as extensions of the I chord . Note: the IV chord we're using as an alternate to the I chord is not a IV7 chord. In this groove you're actually playing two chords where you'd normally play only the tonic. G. Beat 1 incorporates a feature that is used a lot in blues. F and Ab. 33 . Again we're using the inner logic of the mixolydian scales. This 7th (a Db on the IV chord Eb) is from the Eb mixolydian scale and would suggest a different harmony. You do NOT move to another mixolydian scale. C. Bb. The next example is a follow-up to example 2. The Bb mixolydian scale contains Bb. D. Eb and Ab for the V minor 7. they sound the best and give you a change from the sound you get in example 3. As you see: these are all notes from the mixolydian scale of Bb. You play the minor third of the chord first and then immediately hammer on the major third with your middle finger. Move this pattern up 5 and 7 frets to get the corresponding riffs on the IV and the V chord. Eb. Eb.because they are. That minor third creates a bluesy sound. Full Chords Ex 3 – CD 32 The Bb7 chord contains Bb. because it is a part of the blues scale. Move this grip 5 and 7 frets up to get the IV and the V chord. You are NOT changing chords in that sense. F. Move this pattern up 2 frets to get the corresponding groove on the V. The chord is a major chord. D. Keep your thumb wrapped around the neck with these examples. Although you could argue that you are playing a full IV chord and a V minor 7 chord. G for the IV chord and C. Instead of alternating I and IV in a pattern you add sort of a V minor 7 chord.Full Chords Ex 2 – CD 31 A variation of the R. The notes you've added with these "IV and Vm7" chords are (check the TAB) Bb. Sounds like blasphemy? Well it works. because all the notes you're playing in this riff are part of the mixolydian scale of the I chord.J. Lockwood groove. Try to play only the top three strings in example IV.

The sophisticated 11 sound is achieved by keeping the tonic on top and hiding the sus4-tomajor-3rd-movement (D# to D) in the insides of the chord. isn't she? Very light and open.CD 35 Magic Sam would use a very open sounding voicing for these chords. Have fun and keep the groove goin'. The groove on the I chord is minor. The next type of chord is called an organ chord because Hammond organ players love this voicing. It's actually a stack of tritone intervals. Dazzle your competitors when you play this one! Full Chords Ex 6 – CD 35 One of the very few "minor" grooves we find in the Chicago blues style. It's basically the same tension and resolution you create by playing a campfire D chord and adding your pinkie on the 3rd fret of the high E string. Full Chords Ex 5 – CD 34 A beauty. The Bb11 holds a "sus 4" like tension. Also play around with "scratching" the up strokes. Move this chord back 1 fret to get the corresponding IV chord and move it up 1 fret to get the V. They don't have a third! Approach them as major chords and. Magic Sam was the one who played these types of grooves.Experiment with hammering on the added "chords". which is resolved in the next bar. although officially you can't call them major or minor. Try. Mark your tonic accurately. they are written as major chords. but what's happening with the IV and V? Full Chords Ex 7 . Stay away from it in the lighter grooves. 34 . this one's pretty intense. your grip on the neck is pretty tight and you only have to add your middle and ring fingers. it'll sound spooky if you're off. meaning keep your left hand on the strings and damp them while you play an up stroke. to hammer on that V minor 7. Full Chords Ex 8 – CD 8 Leave the tonic to the bass. for instance.

. 35 . Then again. you could start growing dreadlocks. add a few chords. Full Chords Ex 9 – CD 9 Full Chords Ex 10 – CD 37 The rhythm in Example 11 is a great one for playing way in the background.Add a bass line No bass player around to jam? No problem! Look at these next full-chord accompaniments with an added bass line. kids. And to make it really fancy. intervals and stir. Experiment with different bass Lines and see what works for you.. Full Chords Ex 11 – CD 38 It's hard to play 'cause you tend to speed up. but think about the advantages: one less musician to pay. Moving from a chord to a single note bass can be challenging. If you're playing with a second guitar player. And it's a good idea to play the "one" now and then to give your rhythm some basis. Don't try this at home without parental guidance. Dampen the strings with your right hand right after you hit them. one less opinion. try to pull this one off.

To make each chord change more powerful. we're approaching each chord with a chord 1 fret higher (or lower).Bb7. 36 . In this key that would come down to: Bb7 .Full Chords Ex 12 – CD 39 The last two bars seem more difficult than they are. more like chocolate chip cookie dough.going to a different key). This "chromatic" way of playing is often used by bass players. Use only as an arrangement and if there is a bass player around.Cm7 . a turnaround with full chords. The chord progression you're playing is a I-VI-II-V-I. On top of that. No marshmallow fluff.F7 . we're replacing every minor chord with its dominant version (you could call it a very short modulation .Gm7 . talk to him first.

Call and response. The next example deals with a moving chord. It moves up and down the A blues scale. it works. Use them as part of a solo. This form can be moved around using the blues scale as a marker. so just play it. They can also be played in the background. Accompaniment or Solo Ex 3 – CD 42 37 . If you use this blues concept in your accompaniment you might end up playing something like this. as a climax at the very end. Turn your amp down and/or turn the treble on your guitar down. Accompaniment or Solo Ex 2 – CD 41 The top note is the tonic of the chord. Which isn't bad if you intend it that way.Accompaniment or Solo? The more movement you have within chord grooves and the thicker the chords are. the more you're gonna be in everybody's face. Explaining this would take a rocket scientist a few hours. keeping the form of the chord the same. It also helps to not really dig into the strings but gently stroke them. Stay out of the way of the soloist. Look at these next grooves. for instance. Sounds weird? Watch it. It uses the I chord in different forms and places on the neck. Accompaniment or Solo Ex 1 – CD 40 This one is played on the first four bars of a blues progression. a 6th. It is a walk up from an A9 via an A11 and A9#11 to another form of A9. but be careful.

(See also accompaniment Solo 12). Moving from chord to chord Watch how you move from the I to the IV chord in the next example. More of a jazzy way of playing accompaniment though. Tough not to notice it.You might follow it up with this for the IV chord. Play the same forms on the IV and the V chord using their mixolydian scales. Accompaniment or Solo Ex 4 – CD 43 You could play a different chord on every beat. Listen to someone like Freddy Green from the Count Basie Band pull this off. It can be used in bar 4 and 5 of a blues progression. This particular IV chord has the 5th in the bass. Move from Chord to Chord Ex 1 – CD 45 Slide your pinkie one fret back to get the A7b13 chord that connects the I with the IV chord. 38 . so be careful using it as an accompaniment. harmonizing it in three note chords. Accompaniment or Solo Ex 5 – CD 44 Moving up and down the mixolydian scale.

Use it in bar 6 of a blues.CD 49 Going from I to IV through the D13 and Ab9. it gets stale pretty quick. Move from Chord to Chord Ex 5 . 39 . so there's enough space to precede it with a (chord) lick. you can also use a diminished chord to connect them. A whole set of chords are being used in the next connection. Move from Chord to Chord Ex 4 – CD 48 Note that this is a step down from the one used in example 3. Don't overuse this one. Spectacular finesse. Move from Chord to Chord Ex 6 – CD 50 This one works great after examples 1 and 2 of "Accompaniment or Solo?".Move from Chord to Chord Ex 2 – CD 46 Same as the last example. Move from Chord to Chord Ex 3 – CD 47 You're using a diminished chord as the connecting chord here. Try it! On your way back from the IV chord to the I chord. It only uses bar 4 of the I chord. with the tonic on top. You can also use them both in bar 4.

40 . Don't push all the notes up a whole fret (good luck to you). This Special Chorus is similar to one used in Ronnie Earl's "Kathy's theme". It uses three note chords in the key of G and has a bluesy feel. Make the audience feel the last accent. just a little tension will give you the blues. Instead of sticking with the blues form you can add a couple of bars. Special Chorus Ex 1 – CD 51 Play this one with power. Play the riff in the first two bars of example 2 three times. Every chorus is right on the money. It is a very powerful effect to use. Continue with bar 5 of a regular blues (the IV chord). You need to push up the three note chord you're playing in the beginning of bar 1. For a great Special Chorus listen to "The Hustle is On" and "Strolling with Bones" by T-Bone Walker. Special Chorus Ex 2 – CD 52 A Special Chorus is played loud and in your face. where everybody plays a specific rhythm or solo riff. Synchronize a rhythm pattern with them through a certain chain of chords or melody lines and dazzle the girls. Even if it's just you. you can also change the chord progression. "Okie Dokie Stomp" by Clarence "Gatemouth" Brown is another good example as is "Lowdown Dog" by Rod Piazza & The Mighty Flyers. If your band has horns. Work with offbeat accents and make it sound tight. great! Let them answer the chord groove you play. This is a part of a song that is composed.Special Chorus All the examples from the "Accompaniment or Solo?" and "Move from Chord to Chord" can be used in a so-called "Special Chorus". a drummer and a bass player you can pull this off. To give it even more attention. end with the chord in bar 3 and play a fill in the rest of bars 3 and 4.

up and down the neck. Great for effects. This special chorus ends on a G9 chord and keeps 1/2 bars of the 4 bar phrase open for an answer solo riff.Special Chorus Ex 3 – CD 53 A "dimchord" is a chord that consists of four equally spaced b3 intervals. 41 . You can do this again and again. Moving up 3 frets gives you the exact same chord with the notes in a different order.

R. On a blues in A. On a blues in A you move the lick up 5 frets to play the IV chord D7 version and 7 frets to play on the V chord E7.Solos In the following chapters.R. S. To make this a little easier. but every chord has its own mixolydian scale. you've heard it. you'll get a dozen or so examples of cliché solos with standard swing accompaniments. One thing to remember in all these solos is that you have to move with the chords.B. They are organized around blues position. This riff can be played on every chord in every position. begins and ends on the tonic of the scale and the chord. King and from Charlie Christian to Hollywood Fats. too! Adding the notes of this scale will spice up your solos and give you all the nice lines. in 1st Blues Pos – CD 54 Look at the 1st Blues Position and you can see that this S. we're going to introduce a Standard Riff. it can be used on the I chord. This Standard Riff (S. 42 . jump or rock & roll.) is the mother of all clichés and if you ever listened to any swing. The blues scale can be played on all the chords in a standard blues progression. Playing through a blues progression and using this riff.R. The licks and riffs you'll hear are the ones played by all the big guys on the classic albums. you've got to move with the chords. from T-Bone Walker to B. It'll give you a simple but effective tool to learn all the scale positions and connect them to the blues scales you already know. But instead of just having the blues scale as a starting point we now have the mixolydian scale to deal with.

Note: anticipating The Standard Riff for each chord starts in the bar BEFORE that chord! It anticipates the NEXT chord. You can not play a D blues scale when you're playing a D chord in a blues in A! Try it and you'll hear why. 43 . Easy to see where to start when you focus on the tonic of the I chord. There are several ways of fingering it. Most are easy to play and you don't have to move around a lot.Solo Standard Riff Ex 1. The Standard Riff uses notes of the mixolydian scale and adds the minor third of the blues scale.R. each with its own sound. 3rd fret of the 1st and 6th string or 5th fret of the 4th string. on D7 in the 4th bar. Standard Riff in the 3rd Blues Position The Standard Riff can be played all over the neck of the guitar. – CD 55 Use your index finger to play the minor third of the scale and hammer on with your middle finger. Some are awkward and you'll never use them. The minor third of the D blues scale is a no-no in a blues in A. you start the S. At that time the A7 is still being played and the tension this creates is a big part of blues. The Standard Riff fits nicely in the 1st Blues Position.

S. Standard Riff 2 starts with your pinkie on the tonic on the second string. in the 3rd Blues Position . 2 . To find the IV chord version of this riff move 7 frets back to find your tonic D and 5 frets back to find the V chord E7.CD 56 The Standard Riff can also be found with the tonic on the 2nd string. Play the hammer-on from the minor to the major third with your ring finger.CD 57 44 . It fits exactly in the 3rd Blues Position. 3rd Blues Position (key of A) Solo Standard Riff Ex.R.

We're moving with the chords and playing exactly the same lick on each of the tonics. on any chord! Try to move around as little as possible. which is also often used in swing.R. Instead we're ending it on the b7 of the chord. The riffs fit nicely into the first blues position and offer us a bunch of extra notes on top of the blues scale. th 4 Blues Position (key of G) 45 . Say we wanted to play the Standard Riff in the 4th Blues Position. Use your ring finger for the hammer-on from b3 to the #3 on the chord. Solo 1 – CD 58 In bars 4 and 5 we're introducing the next Standard Riff.If you combine the IV and V chord versions of this Standard Riff with the one we already know. Combining the Standard Riffs in the two positions we know covers a large part of the fretboard in one haul. It would look like this: Standard Riff in 4th Blues Position (end on b7) This lick does not end on the tonic. start the lick with your ring finger on the tonic and keep every finger in one fret position. You can do this with any S. you'll end up with Solo Standard Riff Example 2.

Jump & Rock & Roll are full of this "playing with the third". Play the 6th fret of the 5th string with your index finger and slide back. 5th fret). Swing. Play the b3 to #3 of the V chord in bar 9 with your index finger.Standard Riff on IV in the 1st Blues Position (Key of C) – CD 59 The version we're using in Solo 1 is played on the IV chord and has the tonic C (3rd string. If you use the #3 of the chord around the beginning of the bar it shows that you know what you're talking about. In bar 2 you see the same kind of approach to the #3 of the I chord we've seen in solo 1. Accompaniment: Bass Lines Example 1 Solo 2 – CD 60 Solo 2 is in the key of Bb. 46 . Using the #3 of the next chord as a marker for a chord change is a good way to signal this change. Play this one with your pinkie. a key favoured by horn players. play it with confidence. Note the chromatic walk-up in Solo 1 to the #3 of the I chord in bar 7. Note the mix of b3 and #3 in bar 3.

because it really stands out (it's the 5 of the V chord). The bends in bars 8 and 9 are 1/4 note bends and actually approach the #3 of the V chord. try to let all notes ring. On the V chord this note is often played with a lot of emphasis. The slides in the beginning of bar 9 are very cliché. This time the action's on the first string.Bar 5 uses a rollover with your ring finger. Accompaniment: Accompaniment riffs 1 and 2 47 . Bars 5 to 7 feature the #3 and b7 of the IV chord and are followed by the #3 and b7 of the I chord: what a great sound! You're sliding into the I chord with a major third interval as you enter bar 12 (see Intervals). Play the first two pairs of note in bar 1 with your ring finger and pinkie and come back into position right after that. The lick in bar 12 plays around with the whole F7 chord.CD 61 More playing around in the 1st Blues Position with the b3 and #3 of the I chord. Accompaniment: Chord Riffs and Horn lines example 1 & 2 Solo 3.

3rd Blues Position (key of G) Start the solo with your pinkie on the tonic and notice that it goes "over" the octave in bar 2.Solo 4 – CD 62 This one starts off in the 3rd Blues Position and uses the Standard Riff in bar 1 in a different timing. 48 .

The Standard Riff on the IV chord is slightly altered. Accompaniment: Intervals sixths example 1 and 2 Solo 5 – CD 63 The Standard Riff is great for sliding up and down the neck. starting with your index finger on the tonic. This way of sliding up to play the rest of the Standard Riff can be used on all strings. With the Sliding Standard Riff on the I chord. This time the tonic of the V chord D7 is played on the third string. It is a great way to move up and down the neck and connects all the Blues Positions. on the V chord in bars 8 and 9.The lick from bar 2 to 3 is a typical Charlie Christian lick.R. Look at how we slide into our S. Notice how easily you can change from the 3rd Blues Position to playing the Standard Riff on the IV chord. It starts with your index finger on the tonic of the chord on the 2nd string. emphasising the 6th of the chord. 49 . you've connected the 1st. Move it up two frets and you're on the V. You slide up to the rest of the lick. In bar 7 we introduce another position to play the Standard Riff in. 2nd and 3rd Blues Positions. Starting on the tonic with your index finger you can slide up from the I chord (bars 1 and 7) from the IV chord (bars 5 and 10) and from the V chord (bar 9).

Parts of this solo are similar to Rickie Lee Jones' "Chuck E's in Love"." Holmstrom's "Guitar Boogie Shuffle Twist" and Gene Vincent's "We-Baba-Loo-La". Look at your fellow musicians (esp. These sliding riffs really stand out if you mix them up with licks from the blues scale. 5th and 1st Blues Positions: 4th. Try it.A. 2nd & 3rd Blues Positions – CD 64 With a little imagination you can go a long way. 2nd and 3rd Blues Positions in F Sliding Standard Riffs in 1st.1st. Notice the playing around with the 3rd in bars 2 and 3 and the way we end this solo. it's tasty. Accompaniment: play the rhythm from Full Chords Example 1 Solo 6 We can play the Sliding Standard Riff in one other position. which is often used. is to play a sliding lick on every I chord and licks from the blues scale on every IV and V chord. Rick "L. 5th and 1st Blues Positions (key of F) Sliding Standard Riffs in 4th. the drummer) to make sure everybody bangs the last note at the same time. One technique. 5th and 1st Blues positions – CD 65 Using these connecting riffs gives us something like Solo 6 50 . connecting the 4th. it's often slowed down. When this ending is used.

wrap around R.Solo 6 – CD 66 We're playing the Sliding S. We've made the connections between these positions by playing this riff on the I chord. you can connect all the Blues Positions through the Sliding Standard Riff. Accompaniment: full chords Example 2. These riffs are as good to glue the Blues Positions together. Lockwood groove.J. starting with our index finger. Just move with the chords. 51 .R. By now. But the IV and the V chord also have Sliding Riffs. on the tonic C.

Albert King used these positions to bend the notes even further.B King's favourites. We've got blues and mixolydian right under our fingertips! The type of lick we play in bars 5 and 6 is a Texas/Chicago style blues lick that has found its way into swing. By bending that last note half a tone up you get the b3. a whole tone gives you a #3. He likes it because you can play around with the 2. Put your index finger on the G on the 2nd string and you ring finger two frets up.J. b3 and #3 of the scale real easily. The 6th of the scale is easily accessible too. one fret and one string up from where your index finger is. play the tonic with your ring finger on the second fret and slide to the major 3rd with your index finger. Jimmy Rogers and swing players like Duke Robillard. playing a 4 and sometimes even a flat 5 in the scale. Lockwood Chord Riffs Example 5 52 . You'll find it on albums of Stevie Ray Vaughan. Bars 8 & 9 give us a new Standard Riff Position.Solo 7 – CD 67 The 3rd Blues Position is one of B. Accompaniment: R.

53 . till you know where your fingers need to go. Then glue them together. Slight variations in the bends lead to a voice-like character in the solo. The timing in parts of this solo can be pretty tricky. The B. You can find the tonic of the V chord F also on the 13th fret with your pinkie. Our Standard Riff can be played here and tied to the riff from example 4 (bars 8 and 9).B. listen to his "Sweet Little Angel" and "How Blue Can You Get" for inspiration on mixolydian scales mixed with the blues. Use these contrasts in your solo. King position is featured here once again. We are playing part of the Standard Riff here and using bends to reach some of the notes. followed by a "down home" blues lick on the IV chord in bar 5. The solo on the I chord has a nice "major" feel to it. Practice each part slowly.Solo 8 – CD 68 A nice change of pace with this 12/8 feel. play it with your index finger and not like in solo 7 with your middle finger (see that it's the same note?). The tonic of the V chord is the centre of attention in bars 8 and 9.

5th Blues Position Standard Riff in 5th Blues Position .CD 71 Accompaniment: Chord Riffs and Horn Lines Example 1 and 2 with added bass line. 54 . find the tonic and you're all set.CD 69 Standard Riff 5th to 1st Blues Position – CD 70 Standard Riff in 5th Blues Position .Standard Riffs galore.

Solo 9 – CD 72 And now for some real power swing with all the ingredients. The big jump in bar 6 from the 8th back to the 3rd fret looks trickier then it is. The next lick is one long "sentence" ending on the second beat of bar 8. Bars 10 and 11 take us from the 3rd to the 1st Blues Position again. a great technique to use in swing: repeating yourself. It starts off in the 3rd Blues Position. The sixth interval lick in bar 4 is often used to signal a I to IV progression. This one flies from one position to the next. but lands in the 2nd Blues Position in bars 2 and 3. the next note with your index and you're in the 2nd Blues Position. the first note of bar 2 is played with the middle finger. Watch the fingering there. Hollywood Fats could play this lick on "Rock This House". The V riff plays around the 2nd Blues Position II and the 1/4 bend pushes the b3 of the scale to the #3 of the V. Accompaniment: Full chords Example 5 55 . The second riff is an almost exact copy of the first. not something for the weak of stomach. This sentence takes you from the 3rd to the 1st Blues Position.

because it deals with the 2nd Blues Position in the key of G. 2nd Blues Position 56 .Solo 10 – CD 73 Not an easy one.

more power to you. Those are the notes to aim for when you're following the chords.S. It's not possible to play any of the riffs without going out of position. swing feel. It's often more relaxed than a guitar player's approach. Gluing the notes together like this gives it the phrasing a saxophone player would use. Find where the tonics of IV and V are and also try to locate their respective major thirds. Solo 10 starts off with a lick in the style of the second chorus of Freddie King's "Sen-Sa-Shun". R. Try to play laid back for a relaxed. on IV in 2nd Blues Position – CD 74 S. When you use this position. Note: There are a few other ways to play the Standard Riff. R. R. followed by a sharp turn on the C7. 57 . In this solo we're using slides. focus on the tonic on the 4th string and play around in that position for a while. The lick on the V chord is a real Charlie Christian one. Locate the tonic and start the riff with your middle finger and you'll see what I mean. on I in 2nd Blues Position – CD 74 S. on V in 2nd Blues Position – CD 74 This is the last and most awkward of the Standard Riff positions. Listen to horn players and try to imitate their phrasing. hammer-ons and pull offs. All of them have the same awkward fingering you'll find in Solo 10. The 4th Blues Position has a few and the first also has one. If you can come up with licks in these positions. you've got to stretch for certain notes and go out of position. They'll give you a great basis. try to stick to the positions we've discussed. practice them slowly. The 6th and the b3 above the tonic give the lick a nice edge. The rollovers in bar 10 are difficult. Accompaniment: Full chords Example 11. If you've just started experimenting with these sounds.

Solo 11 – CD 75

A real mix of blues and the Standard Riff. A "T-Bone"-esque solo that mixes the best of both worlds. He almost never left the 1st Blues Position, but made the most of all the notes there. The first two bars are very bluesy, followed by parts of our Standard Riff in bars 3 and 4. Incorporating chord fragments in your solo can be very powerful (bar 3). It shows you know where you are and it's a great "filler" for when you don't have a chord instrument to back you up. The double time feel in bars 7 and 8 are a classic T-Bone Walker trademark. Try mixing up the timing in your solos, using blocks in regular feel and then doubling the number of notes in the same space. It'll send your solo sky-high. The bending of the 6th of the G mixolydian scale in bar 2 up to the b7 - or there abouts, hey, it is blues - is another T-Bone-ism. Push it even higher on the V chord but don't emphasise it on the IV. You'll hear why. In bar 10 you hear another "forward whip": play the note, slide it forward with great speed and never mind the ending note. Return quickly to b3 of the scale and bend it a little. Yahoo...! Accompaniment: Bass line example 2.


Solo 12 Count Basie's guitar player Freddie Green was an expert at chopping away 4 chords per measure in a swing progression. This is not an easy style to play, especially if you want to play four different chords per bar. The accompaniment we're using in this swing blues uses inversions of dominant seven chords and passing chords. With these chords and passing chords like the ones we used in Chord riffs (example 2), we can play this accompaniment. Accompaniment Freddie Green style – CD 76

An inversion of a chord does not have any extra notes; they're just stacked in different ways. A root position chord will always have the tonic on the bottom and the rest of the notes (in any kind of order) stacked on top of that. A dominant seventh chord (e.g. Bb7) has four notes: Bb (tonic), D (major third), F (fifth) and Ab (flat seventh). The first inversion of a chord will have the third of the chord (D) on the bottom. The second inversion has the fifth (F) on the bottom and the third inversion has the seventh (Ab) on the bottom.


For Bb7 the three note inversions are:

The minor chords and the diminished chords function as passing chords. The minor chords are harmonised bass notes derived from the mixolydian scales. Use the same formula explained in Scales/Chords to harmonise all the notes from the scale. You end up with a minor seven chord on the second scale tone. The diminished chords also function as passing chords. We've seen an example of that in "Moving from Chord to Chord", example 3 and 4. The I-VI-II-V-I progression is used in a slow form (bars 7-10) and a quick one (bars 11-12). Dominant chords of half a tone higher or lower are used as approach chords. Solo 12 - CD 76


In bar 10 we spell out an F13 chord note-by-note and let every note ring. Look at the use of the I chord in the beginning and the two passing chords in bar 4. Turnaround 2 – CD 78 Play this one real slow till you get the timing right. in bar 7 the Bb7 chord is spelled out (an arpeggio).sometimes even more clearly than the tonic . but you might want to try playing the Standard Riff (bar 8 on the G7 chord). A turnaround in Ronnie Earl's handwriting. The intervals in bar 2 are part of the Eb-mixolydian scale and bar 5 just spells out an Eb9 chord with approach intervals. To approach a chord note from above also works. Intervals and chords work great as solo material. Look your buddies straight in the eye. Another fun way to solo is to use chromatics. each note preceded by a note 1 fret below. take another round or finish off. Find the tonic of each of the chords (NOT including the approach chords) and play the riff. A turnaround lick can take 1 to 4 bars and follows the chord progression.where you are. 61 .In your solo you also have to move with the chords. Keep your eyes closed and head towards the sky. it helps to be clear at that point about what you're going to do. Turnaround 1 – CD 77 In these turnarounds the #3 of a chord is used as a marker for that chord. It signals the end of a chorus and the beginning of the next. This first one is a real T-Bone Walker turnaround. It shows . mouth preferably open and tongue out when you're not done. Another way of showing you know where you are is playing cliché turnarounds. Players like T-Bone Walker got away with just playing the blues scale on those progressions (bars 11 and 12). Turnarounds The end of a blues progression is called a "turnaround". nod your head to signal the change. When you solo.

To make really clear that you know where you are. Altered chords or the use of altered scales on a chord makes you want to move forward to the next chord.Turnaround 3 – CD 79 This jazzy turnaround makes use of an altered scale on the F7 and implies an F7b9 or F7#9 chord. The use of these altered scales will make you sound more jazzy. There are a mountain of possibilities here and with them come restrictions on where you can use them and when they sound good. Turnaround 4 – CD 80 This time on the F7 we're using notes of the mixolydian scale. Whatever you do with this one. If you're really interested in these sounds. Note: the more tension in (or on) a chord. the more it wants to resolve. be prepared to invest some major time. play the three note chords at the end. This is exactly what we do in a turnaround: we move from chord to chord pretty quickly. Unfortunately. that's not the aim of this book. do not play an F9. 62 .

Try it. 1st string). it's a great effect. 63 . This forward whip was also played by Albert Collins who would end the "whip" with a minor third and then bend it like crazy. up to the 12th fret or higher. He will sometimes slide further then the #3 of the Bb7 (10th fret. Turnaround 6 . This is done with great speed because you've got to be back for the next note.Turnaround 5 – CD 81 A lot of difficult two and three note roll-overs.CD 82 This one is on Clarence "Gatemouth" Brown. This type is in the style of Duke Robillard. the master of turnarounds.

diminish your volume and pace your notes. Build your solos. Playing laid back is a feel. Repeating yourself gives the other guys and gals something to react to and build a solo on. In your practising. listen to horn players. When playing rhythm. because YOU have to breathe. Nothing like a monotonous. Sometimes a little delay is nice. it just doesn't cut it. In Swing & Jump you need a guitar. repeat that process for each pair of bars in a blues. know when your turn comes and be a good accompanist till then. Listen to what the other musicians do and complement that. Repeat yourself for climaxing purposes only.. you'll know what I mean. the bar or their gun. There are not a lot of wrong notes in blues. but if you walk into the Monday Night Blues Session at the corner cafe. some say tremolo was invented on the Eighth Day and you really need some reverb. Play a riff that fits over all chords using notes that the respective mixolydian scales have in common. Their phrasing is often more natural than a guitar player's because they have to breathe. start off at medium volume and medium speed. You can also do this with a one-bar and a four-bar version. clear melody parts or chord rhythms with accents. The B. Tap the rhythm with your foot or have a metronome going. Use clear rhythms in your accompanying. If you turn red while soloing. A great way to learn phrasing is to play solo and accompany yourself. Use hooks in a solo. Start your solo with an obvious sentence. Leave em beggin' for more. End with a clear statement and a nod to the next soloist or singer. repeat it. Use you ears. People will think it's intentional. Seems like an open door. 4 or 12 bars. patterns of 1. 64 . You can practice this laid back feel by using a metronome and timing your notes a little behind the beat. Play a simple chord rhythm of half a bar or so and then solo till the end of bar two. play slow. if you can at the same pitch. At high speeds. It makes your solo breathe. Listen to the pros. Swing timing is difficult to "study". If you play a wrong note. though don't overuse it. Sing with your solo. "borrow" their licks and acknowledge them when you're playing their stuff. Keep the pulse going: flurries of notes are okay but too many flurries will sound like diarrhoea of the guitar. Less is more. People will think you're really into it. Why use 20 notes if a single convincing one will tell the story? This is the toughest of all tips and a lifelong battle for many fine guitarists. something like "once upon a time"..Tips on Soloing Listen to the music you want to play day in and day out. The Standard Riff could be a good opener. A better way is to play along with records in swing feel. But give away those ugly coloured stomp boxes to your kid brother. it'll turn into a deafening Dixieland. Remember. loud avalanche of notes to chase the audience away. Nobody will want to be on the receiving end. an amp and to look good. not a science. If you don't. we're trying to communicate and blabbing or running your mouth will make the audience run for the door. you're doing something wrong. Only one person at a time can have the solo slot. Don't play swing style with distortion. Turn down when you're playing rhythm. At the end you can crank it and give it all you've got. You'll do yourself a favour. Sell your pedals. Don't give away all your licks in one song.B. You've got to take the listener by the hand and lead them through your story. 2. King position (3rd Blues Position) is made for this. you can stimulate this feel by making the round circles described in the "Full Chords" chapter.

B.Suggested listening Freddie King: Hideaway Sen-Sa-Shun The Stumble Hucklebuck Rock this House Bluebird Blues Doodlin' North Carolina Lookout Caledonia The Hustle is On Tell Me What's the Reason Get These Blues of Me High Society Midnight Blue Swing Duke's Blues Jumpin' Blues Westside Soul Floyd's Guitar Blues Honky Tonk Flying Home I Can't Give You Anything Honeysuckle Rose Saturday Night Fish Fry Boogie Real Slow Glide On Hollywood Fats: Dave Specter & Barkin' Bill Smith: Robben Ford Rick "L.A. 65 . Duke Ellington and Benny Goodman (Charlie Christian)." Holmstrom B. King T-Bone Walker Kenny Burell Duke Robillard (By Jay McShann) Magic Sam Billy Butler (with Bill Doggett) Charlie Christian Bill Jennings (with Louis Jordan) Barney Kessel For more jazz-oriented swing. listen to Count Basie's Big Band.

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