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Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo A Pseudo-Galenic Treatise on Regimen: The Hebrew and Latin Translations from

H ̣ unayn Ibn Isḥ ā q’s Arabic Version Sefer ha-Hanhagah is a fragmentary text that contains only the introduction to an originally larger work on the different kinds of food, their properties, names, and suitability for different human bodies. This larger work survives only in a Latin translation by Accursius de Pistoia (fl. 1200), entitled De dissolutione continua. Sefer ha-Hanhagah lacks unity and covers a wide variety of subjects, including: the necessity of consuming food; the suitability of different kinds of food for human bodies; exercise and sleep; appetite; coarse foods; habit. It concludes that proper diet requires detailed knowledge about the properties of the different kinds of food and the different natures of human bodies. Sefer ha-Hanhagah is not identical with any extant treatises composed by Galen on the preservation of health or on diet. Given its pseudoGalenic character, it is possible that Sefer ha-Hanhagah is a summary of original Galenic material. A possible source of this work is the summary of Galen’s De alimentorum facultatibus reportedly produced by H ̣ unayn Ibn Isḥ ā q. H ̣ unayn claims that he drew on the Greek original of this work and on a number of other works containing much of what the ancients said about the subject of nutrition to prepare a summary in Syriac. This work he subsequently divided into three parts and translated into Arabic as the K. al-aghdhiya (Book on foodstuffs). H ̣ unayn’s statement that he consulted a number of works tallies with our impression that Sefer ha-Hanhagah is a composite work. Still, we cannot be certain that Sefer ha- Hanhagah indeed goes back to H ̣ unayn, for it is possible that Zeraḥ yah H ̣ en’s belief that the text he translated goes back to H ̣ unayn was erroneous.

Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo

A Pseudo-Galenic Treatise on Regimen: The Hebrew and Latin Translations from H ̣ unayn Ibn Isḥ ā q’s Arabic Version
1. Introduction
When, as part of the project to edit Maimonides’ medical works, I was working on the Hebrew translations of Maimonides’ On the Regimen of Health, I encountered a text entitled “Sefer ha-Hanhagah le-Galienus. Haʿataqat Zeraḥ yah ben Isaac mi-haʿataqat H ̣ unayn” (The Book of the Regimen [composed] by Galen, translated by Zeraḥ yah ben Isaac, from the translation by H ̣ unayn; hereafter Sefer ha-Hanhagah). The text survives in a single manuscript: Paris Bibliothèque nationale de France (BNF), MS héb. 1175, ff. 60a–62b, which was copied in the sixteenth century in Italian script. The manuscript also contains: Maimonides’ On Asthma in the Hebrew translation by Samuel Benveniste (ff. 1a–44b)1; Maimonides’ On the

We would like to thank Prof. Vivian Nutton and the anonymous referees for Aleph for their comments and corrections to an earlier draft of this introduction. Ivan Garofalo is responsible for the Latin text and Gerrit Bos for the other parts of this article.


Aleph 7 (2007) pp. 43-95


Regimen of Health, in the Hebrew translation by Moses Ibn Tibbon (ff. 47b–60a); and H ̣ unayn Ibn Isḥ ā q’s “Introduction to the Medical Art” in an anonymous Hebrew translation from the Latin version (ff. 63r–70v). Sefer ha-Hanhagah has remained unknown to scholarship: it is not mentioned in the BNF’s catalogue of Hebrew manuscripts, which reports that Maimonides’ On the Regimen of Health runs from f. 47v to f. 63.2 Nor is it mentioned in the card catalogue of the Institute for Microfilmed Hebrew Manuscripts.3

2. Sefer ha-Hanhagah: Text and Author
The text as we have it is fragmentary—no more than the introduction to an originally longer work dealing with the different kinds of food, their properties, names, and suitability for human beings. The full work, which survives only in a Latin version by Accursius de Pistoia (fl. 1200), is known as De dissolutione continua.4 Sefer ha-Hanhagah (i.e., the introduction to De dissolutione continua) covers the following topics: the necessity of consuming food (§1)5; the suitability of different kinds of food for human bodies with their different constitutions in health and illness (§§ 2–5); exercise before a meal and sleep after it (§6); the suitability of food (§7a); the quantity of food (§7b); the order of consumption of different kinds of food (§7c); the appropriate time for the consumption of food (§7d); exercise before and after the consumption of food, depending on whether or not the stomach is empty (§8); wine and the consumption of food (§9); appetite and the season of the year and their impact on eating (§10); coarse foods are healthy for someone with a hot temperament (§11); habit (§12); appetite and digestion of food (§13); conclusion: for a proper diet, one needs detailed knowledge about the properties of the different kinds of food in relation to the different natures of human bodies; this will be the subject of the next part6 (§14).

Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo

Sefer ha-Hanhagah seems to lack unity. It gives the impression of a heterogeneous work, as noted by Ackermann in the introduction to Kühn’s edition of Galen’s works: “Ex Galeno compositus est ut videtur ab Arabista.”7 Ackermann’s assertion that the Latin text goes back to a lost Arabic version is confirmed by the Hebrew text, which ascribes the Arabic version to H ̣ unayn. Like the Hebrew text, the manuscripts of the Latin text ascribe the work to Galen.8 Nevertheless it has been considered to be spurious, at least since the 1565 Juntina edition of Galen’s works, and consequently does not appear in bibliographies of the Galenic corpus. Sefer haHanhagah is indeed not identical with any extant treatise composed by Galen and dealing with diet and the preservation of health. It is not
1 2 3 4

Forthcoming edition by Gerrit Bos, in Maimonides, On Asthma, vol. 2. H. Zotenberg, ed., Catalogues des Manuscrits hébreux et samaritains de la Bibliothèque Impériale (Paris, 1866), 216. Personal communication, Dr. Benjamin Richler of the Institute for Microfilmed Hebrew Manuscripts. G. Fichtner, Corpus Galenicum. Verzeichnis der galenischen und pseudogalenischen Schriften (Tübingen: Institut für Geschichte der Medizin, 1989), p. 80, No. 182, mentions as other titles: “De alimentorum facultatibus, De virtutibus cibariorum, Liber regiminis.” For the identification of the Hebrew text with the Latin one I am grateful to Ivan Garofalo, the editor of the Latin text included in the present publication. The division of the text into different sections is the editor’s. Missing in the Hebrew translation. C. G. Kühn, Claudii Galeni Opera Omnia, 20 vols. (Leipzig 1821–1833, repr. Hildesheim 1967), 1: CLXII. See R. J. Durling, “A Chronological Census of Renaissance Editions and Translations of Galen,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 24 (1961): 230–305, No. 45.

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identical with the introduction to his De sanitate tuenda,9 or with any other part of it, although it shares some major topics with it.10 Nor do we know of any Hebrew translation of Galen’s De sanitate tuenda; the only translation that survives is part of the so-called Qibbuṣ ei Galenos (Galenic summaries), a translation of the so-called Jawā miʿ alIskandarā niyın ̄ or Summaria Alexandrinorum, a collection of epitomes of Galen’s works completed by Simson ben Solomon in 1322.11 Nor is Sefer ha-Hanhagah identical with the introductory section to Galen’s De alimentorum facultatibus,12 which was translated by H ̣ ubaysh.13 It is also not derived from Galen’s In Hippocratis librum de acutorum victu commentarii IV,14 which was translated into Arabic by ʿĪsā ibn Yaḥ yā ,15 and was not translated into Hebrew, as far as we know. Given the pseudo-Galenic character of Sefer ha-Hanhagah, we may consider the possibility that it is some sort of summary of original Galenic material, as stated above. A possible source of this work is a summary of Galen’s De alimentorum facultatibus reportedly produced by H ̣ unayn Ibn Isḥ ā q. H ̣ unayn claims that he drew on the Greek original of this work and on a number of other works containing much of what the ancients said about the subject of nutrition and that from all of these works he prepared a summary in Syriac (akhrajtu jumalahu bil-suryā niya). This work he subsequently divided into three parts and translated it into Arabic, under the title K. al-aghdhiya (Book on Foodstuffs).16 H ̣ unayn’s statement that he consulted a number of works by other ancient physicians tallies well with our impression that Sefer ha-Hanhagah is a composite work. H ̣ unayn seems to have had a particular interest in Galenic material on foods and diet; he also summarized Galen’s On the Thinning Diet, if we may believe a note of the scribe of H ̣ unayn’s Risā la.17 Still, we cannot be certain that Sefer ha-Hanhagah indeed goes back to H ̣ unayn; it is not impossible that Zeraḥ yah H ̣ en, the translator of Sefer ha-Hanhagah, wrongly believed that the text he translated derived from H ̣ unayn, either because this is

Cf. Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums. 48. Geschichte 430 H. Ullmann. 1970). Bergsträsser. 67: E.1) (Leipzig and Berlin. repr. Cologne. Fichtner. Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums. M. 51. 75. Vol. Lieber. Corpus Galenicum. G. with an introduction by H. 84. No. H ̣ unayn Ibn Isḥ ā q. K. Ullmann. p. Corpus Galenicum. ed.9. Ed. E.” in Symposium Syriacum 1976 (Rome. 47. p. 1923).2) (Leipzig and Berlin. No. 1923). 168. which survives both in Syriac (to a 17 large extent) and in Arabic (p. Neue Materialien zu H ̣ unayn Ibn Isḥ ā q’s Galen-Bibliographie (Leipzig. Die hebräischen Übersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden als Dolmetscher (Berlin. H ̣ unayn Ibn Isḥ ā q. 123. 1932). 1925). Die Medizin im Islam. Fichtner. 117. Bergsträsser. 11 14 15 16 47 . Cf. Graz. 74. 44. G. Bergsträsser. No. Die Medizin im Islam. 75. p. No. p. E. 69. p. Ed. 61. No.4. Degen. p. English translation: R. and only later by H ̣ unayn Ibn Isḥ ā q under the title K. No. Cf. Sezgin. No. Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums. 1951). No.4. 74. Isḥ ā q. No. Die Medizin im Islam. No. M. No. Cf. IL. 1978). Indeed. 60. Sezgin.” in Galen: Problems and Prospects. Koch (CMGV. Ullmann. A Translation of Galen’s Hygiene. Fichtner.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo 9 Greek text: ed. H ̣ unayn Ibn Isḥ ā q. Die Medizin im Islam (Leiden and 10 des arabischen Schrifttums. Sigerist (Springfield. A few passages from this work in Syriac and Arabic translation were published by R. 45. “Galen in Hebrew. p. No. M. No. Helmreich (CMGV. 1893. Sezgin. Bergsträsser. al-H ̄ a li-ḥ ifz al-siḥ ḥ a. 63–71. Sezgin. 38. 1956). 117. Helmreich (CMGV.2) (Leipzig and Berlin. H ̣ unayn Ibn Isḥ ā q. In the same article Degen announces an edition of this text. 60. No. p. 92. 37. 46. Vivian 12 13 Nutton (London: 1981). tadbır ̣ ıl ̄ al-asiḥ ḥ ā or K. 3: Medizin-Pharmazie-Zoologie-Tierheilkunde bis ca. Green. see also idem. No. Cf. 91. but by H ̣ ubaysh. Bergsträsser. 122. 1970). Galen’s De Sanitate tuenda was not translated into Arabic by H ̣ unayn Ibn Isḥ ā q (as was the Vorlage of Sefer ha-Hanhagah). 71). Steinschneider. 117–366. F. 30. H ̣ unayn Ibn Isḥ ā q über die syrischen und arabischen Galen-Übersetzungen (Leipzig. p. 655. (Leiden. 1914). “The Oldest Known Syriac Manuscript of H ̣ unayn b. Ullmann. Corpus Galenicum. Cf.

both in the form of monographs and as part of the medical encyclopedias.26 His translations of Hippocrates’ De superfoetatione27 and of Maimonides’ On Hemorrhoids.what his Arabic manuscript stated or because he knew that H ̣ unayn had produced a work on the subject. ‫ = וויסקוסו‬viscous) and making the verb agree with the preceding word or phrase rather than with the subject (e.31 But it was 48 .24 On Coitus.19 He also translated a number of medical works: Galen’s Katagenos20 and De symptomatum causis. 3.28 previously unknown. including Aristotle’s De anima. have been identified recently.g. but also for curing diseases..g.29 4. Sefer ha-Hanhagah and the Literary Genre of Regimen The subject of Sefer ha-Hanhagah was very popular in medieval medical literature.30 Thus it features commonly in the Arabic medical tradition. The Hebrew Translator of Sefer ha-Hanhagah Zeraḥ yah ben Isaac ben Sheʾaltiel H ̣ en (Grazian) is known for his translation activity in Rome between 1277 and 1291.18 He translated some philosophical works from Arabic into Hebrew. ‫ = בדברים מרבים השתן ומוציא‬by diuretics).25 and On Poisons.21 Avicenna’s Canon (unfinished).23 Commentary on Hippocrates’ Aphorisms.22 and several of Maimonides’ medical treatises. One of the main reasons for its popularity was that a healthy regimen was generally considered to be the means par excellence not only for the preservation of health. namely Medical Aphorisms. such as the use of Italian terms (e. A linguistic analysis shows clearly that the ascription of the Hebrew version of Sefer ha-Hanhagah to Zeraḥ yah is correct: the text displays some of the characteristics of his translation technique.

Šeʾaltiel H ̣ en. For a description and analysis of his translation technique. traité populaire néoplatonisant faussement attribué à Al-Fârâbî: Traduction annotée et commentée. 69–75. See Steinschneider. Die hebräischen Übersetzungen. “A Hebrew Translation. “La tradizione ebraica del commento medio di Averroè alla Metafisica di Aristotele. for a complete list of his translations of philosophical works. 109. 681. “Manuscripts of Avicenna’s Kanon in Hebrew translation. See Bos. for the manuscript see ibid.. Geschichte der Juden in Rom (Berlin.” Aleph 3 (2003): 97–143. a Revised and Up-to-date List. Bos. Zonta. see ibid. Cf. by G. Richler 1531. Hebrew Manuscripts in the Biblioteca Palatina in Parma (Jerusalem. Translated into Hebrew by Zeraḥ yah ben Isaac ben Sheʾaltiel H ̣ en (Leiden. 1994). Vogelstein and P.” 111 n. xxviii–xxix and 79–88. ff. Aristotle’s De Anima. Richler. De Rossi 354. 2–3. Identified and edited by Zonta.” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 13 (2003): 173–237. See the forthcoming edition of the Arabic text and Hebrew translations. by G. G. see H.” Koroth 8 (1982): 145–68. 2001). 1977. Zonta. G. Aristotle’s De Anima.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo 18 On Zeraḥ yah. M. n. Zonta. A. on p. Maimonides. 1: 271–75.” 111 n. M. 143–44. 20a–25b (see B. Università di Torino.. The introduction to the translation was edited by M. Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Bos. Ibid. Medical Aphorisms. 409–18. “A Hebrew Translation of Hippocrates’ De superfoetatione: Historical Introduction and Critical Introduction. G. Rieger. Isaac b. Bos. 38. Zonta. Bos. “A Hebrew Translation. Treatises 1–5 (Provo UT. 652. B. “Mišnato šel R. 40.. “La Quiddité de l’âme.” doctoral dissertation. This translation will be part of my forthcoming edition of the Arabic text and the other Hebrew translations. Zeraḥ yah b. 25–29. The translation is extant in MS Parma 2642. Cf. 1878). Steinschneider. pp. Freudenthal. Aristotle’s De 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 49 . 1995. Richler. 2004). Die hebräischen Übersetzungen. 766. see Bos. “A Hebrew Translation. See the forthcoming edition of the Arabic text and Hebrew translations. Ravitzky. Steinschneider in Catalog der hebräischen Handschriften in der Stadtbibliothek zu Hamburg und der sich anschliessenden in anderen Sprachen (Hamburg. 1895–96).” doctoral dissertation.” Identified by G. 179–99. Bos. 34. 1–4.

little-known monograph on the theme of the preservation of health was written by the otherwise unknown Spanish-Jewish author Judah ben Jacob: Hanhagat ha-beriʾut.a subject of interest in Jewish circles as well. food and drink. The idea that the proper regimen concerns not only the human body but external “nonnatural” elements as well was expressed in the Corpus Hippocraticum in this classic scheme. For his exposition of his subject Judah ben Jacob often relies on Hippocrates and Galen. sleep and waking. written at the request of the sultan al-Malik al-Afḍ al.32 it also survives in an anonymous translation extant in one manuscript copied at the end of the thirteenth century. In Latin Europe. most of them copied between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries. Maimonides’ famous On the Regimen of Health. produced in Rome in the late thirteenth century. was translated by Moses Ibn Tibbon in 1244. and climate). which became a current motif in all the later treatises dealing with hygiene. This translation survives in fourteen manuscripts. affections of the soul.34 In this treatise (which survives in nine manuscripts). geographical location. Regimen sanitatis Salernitanum. The reason it survives in only one manuscript is probably that Jewish readers found Zeraḥ yah’s translations extremely difficult to understand. ventilation. who are quoted extensively and explicitly. the treatise on regimen composed at the medical school of Salerno. because of his peculiar translation technique and the many foreign (mainly Italian) technical terms he employed. natural excretion and retention (including bathing and coitus). was famous and very influential. the author deals with the preservation of health in relation to the so-called “sex res non naturales”: air (including water supply.33 Another. reflects the great interest Jewish circles took in health and its preservation. 50 . work and rest.35 Zeraḥ yah’s translation of Sefer ha-Hanhagah.

1175. Beit-Arié.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. “Maimonides on the Preservation of Health. “La 30 31 32 33 tradizione ebraica. Moses Maimonides on the 34 Causes of Symptoms (Berkeley and Los Angeles. Arabische Medizin im lateinischen Mittelalter (Berlin. Series 3. BNF héb. “A Palaeographic Description of the Jerusalem Manuscript. Zeraḥ yah’s Hebrew text was left unaltered and the error is noted in the English translation.” in J. and New York. namely Paris.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo 5. if possible on the basis of the Latin. O. H. Schipperges. ch. 4. 757. Zonta. Part 2 (1994): 213–35. See M. Cf. A critical edition and study of this text is being prepared by Mrs. 7 (pp. 51 . Bos. Cf. 34–38. on 216–17.. In the second case. 52–62.” 72–81. The Latin text can be used to check the Hebrew. Die Medizin im Islam. idem. Cf. although the context clearly shows this to be the wrong option.” Kirjath Sefer 38 (1963): 567–72. the Hebrew text has been emended.g. In the latter. Leibowitz and Shlomo Marcus. Steinschneider.” 104–107. 190–93. 1974). The first sort is due to the translator’s misunderstanding the text: e. rendering the Arabic sharā b (wine or drink) by Hebrew yayin (wine). I have also referred to parallel material in Galen’s writings Anima. Sefer ha-Hanhagah: The Present Edition and Translation My edition of Sefer ha-Hanhagah is based on the only known manuscript. My procedure was as follows: In the first case. Die hebräischen Übersetzungen. on 568. The second category consists of errors due to the copyist(s). 23–43). That text suffers from two sorts of mistakes and/or corruptions. Vol. 1976). Heidelberg. Recha Allgaier as part of her doctoral 35 dissertation at the University of Cologne. Ullmann. All significant variants between the Latin translation and the Hebrew have been noted in the critical apparatus to the Hebrew text and in the notes to the English translation. Bos. G. “A Hebrew Translation. Forthcoming edition and translation by G. Cf. Zonta. “Targumim bilti yeduʿim šel sifrei refuʾah la-Rambam.

above all his De sanitate tuenda..on the regimen of health. Garofalo {. = added by om.] = emendation. Sigla and abbreviations: L = Latin text. addition based on the Latin text [. = omitted by 52 .} = emendation.. addition based on conjecture <…>: hiatus in the Hebrew text add... ed. and in Maimonides’ On the Regimen of Health.

as the property which 2 53 . trans. however.2. ll. we replace whatever solid substance has escaped. Therefore. and exchanged for something that is like it. Galen. and the faculty of appetite was placed in them so as to know the [right] time to eat and the [right] quantity to take and the kind [of food] they need. … By food. 19–27.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo The Book of the Regimen [composed] by Galen. ed. Since. the whole body will be thus destroyed and dispersed. The same occurs with all the [other] parts of the body and with all4 the places where the food goes. it was necessary that nature changes the foods and beverages to replace that which is dissolved. Therefore. therefore. it was necessary that nature change the foods and drinks into that which suits the body and is close to it”. Koch. a part of them goes to the liver and another part leaves the body. translated by Zeraḥ yah ben Isaac from the translation by H ̣ unayn 1. 5. Green.2 But not all things which are eaten and drunk suit the body. they need to replace that which is dissolved from them. no food or drink is found which is the same as that which is dissolved from the body. 7–8: “For since the substances of all animals are in perpetual flux. Wherefore I think that from the very beginning Nature has given. pp. For [in the case of] food and wine.3 when they descend into the stomach and the stomach acts upon them.” “therefore. thus restoring both to their original proportion. Galen says: Inasmuch as the bodies of human beings are always subject to dissolution. therefore. not only to animals but also to plants. unless other similar substances be supplied to replace what has flowed away. cf. innate appetites for what is always escaping. it was necessary that nature change the foods and beverages into that which suits the body and is close to it.1 Now. bodies need to eat and to drink. and by drink we replenish the liquid. L: Therefore. some foods and beverages undoubtedly leave residues in the body. that which is dissolved can only be replaced with. namely because they have innate heat and owing to the warmth of the air which surrounds them. which must be cleansed and expelled from it. De sanitate tuenda I. p. 1 Cf.

their nature being dominated by pure. one’s food should be moderate in quantity and in nature. This being so. the natures of the foods vary:8 Some are balanced. When phlegm dominates [the body]. expel] from the body the residues of the food that are formed in it. someone who wishes to preserve his health should pay attention to two things: first. one should feed oneself with hot and moist foods. clean blood. that the food which he ingests be suitable to replace what was dissolved from his [body]. that he cleanse [i. Some are thin and quickly dissolve. some are dry12 and thick [and] do not dissolve quickly. When pure blood dominates the body. dominated by phlegm or by one of the two biles. [whereas] some are imbalanced.2. he should feed himself with small [amounts] of subtle and moist food. But if when one’s body is thin and quick to dissolve. and. In fact. [for if] a person feeds himself with that which increases the heat he will eliminate the moisture [from the body]. Some are healthy for all bodily parts. [superfluous] yellow bile. If one’s [body] dissolves with difficulty. some are thin. There are also some that are balanced. [whereas] some are unhealthy for some bodily parts. When yellow bile dominates [the body]. some are imbalanced. second. clean blood is formed. some11 are particularly beneficial or harmful for particular organs or bodies. one should feed oneself on with that which removes the heat and increases moisture. dry and 54 . such as those from which [superfluous] blood. from some a viscous10 humor originates. coarse winds and flatulence are formed. When black bile dominates [the body]. such as those from which pure. some are thick. the food should be heating and drying. superfluous black bile.e. superfluous9 phlegm. and from some a humor that is not viscous [but] harmful.13 3. for only a little is dissolved from his body.5 You should [therefore] have knowledge of the different natures of the foods and of the different natures of the bodies and6 their [other] characteristics so that you may know the suitability of every kind of food for7 each kind of human being.14 then he should nourish himself with much thick.

and on this account the surplus of it remains as something deleterious. “viscous” (WWYSQWSY).e. 6.” Zeraḥ yah has clearly misunderstood the Arabic sharā b. “all”: om.” “superfluous”: om.54 (ed. a Romance term typical for Zeraḥ yah’s medical vocabulary. trans. ed. p.” but in this context clearly means the former. 4 5 55 .Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo viscous food. L: “potuum. ed. Cf. “dry and”: om. “some are particularly beneficial or harmful for particular organs or bodies. i. Koch. trans. one the 6 7 8 replacement of wastes. 15–21. 168. as I said. Bos). changes and alters the foods and beverages in the human body only changes and alters 3 that which suits the body and is close to it [in its quality]. p. Green. “but not for other [parts]”: add. And since there is great difference in the nature of bodies. 19–21. De sanitate tuenda I. ll. 235: “And since. L. for much is dissolved from his body. Green. and since the substance of foods is not all nutritious. There are also some that are balanced”: “Some are particularly beneficial for the nature of some 12 13 14 organs but not for others. parts of the body are provided by Nature for its separation and evacuation. L. “for”: “and” L. L. cf.” “Wine”. Koch. De sanitate tuenda VI. Galen. Cf.1. and trans. it is reasonable that there should also be a 9 10 11 separate hygienic care appropriate to each. This regimen should be followed by anyone who does not suffer from illness or ailment in some a part of the body. L.” “and their [other] characteristics”: “and their harm” L. There are also some bodies that are balanced” L. “and quick to dissolve”: om. p. the other the elimination of excrements. ll. drink. his translation of Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms 23. 9: “Now. it is necessary that every created animal should be nourished.3. cf. which they properly call excrement. which can mean both “drink” and “wine. our discussion has shown these two objectives of wholesome living. p. Galen. L.

[in which case it] needs foodstuffs that strengthen it.16 so that the coarse foods do not cause an obstruction in the liver.22 For if a person does much exercise before a meal.19 But sometimes one does not need all this. It is also possible that the stomach is weak. For instance. or phlegm may be produced. we need something that evacuates them and softens the stool. although the rest of the body does not need these things that weaken [the body] and cause emaciation. Or [it is possible] that the food remains in the stomach and floats on its cardia.4. when the liver is cold and has narrow passages. we should abandon [the intake] of hot {dry}21 foods. If the head is hot and receives vapors.15 even though it is contrary to that which the rest of the body needs. 6. one has to take delicate foods and avoid coarse foods. leanness. and one has to administer something to make this food heavy. because they easily change into yellow bile.20 and when the food leaves the stomach before it is digested. 5. and thinness. the liver may be hot and one should beware of sweet foods. although the rest of the body needs them. and it then it needs something which cleanses and purges it. Sometimes yellow bile is produced17 in it and it then needs something to remove that yellow bile18 and that which produces it. For at times we have to do something which is beneficial for the ailing organ. although the body needs them. we need something which is astringent and retaining. One should not be satisfied with what we have said without considering the measure of exercise before the meal intake of food and of sleep after it. one should consider which foods are suitable for the ailing organ.] when the food residues are slow to leave the stomach and intestines. Or. [By contrast. and prescribe some exercise after the meal so that the food descend from the cardia of the stomach. But if there is illness or pain in any organ [of the body]. we should give him much food which tends slightly to be dry23 56 . so that it sinks to the bottom of the stomach.

p. and stays there until it is digested. De bonis malisque sucis III. unless [digestion] is facilitated by the purgation of the residues produced in the body. 27) = Galen. viscous and tends to be dry” L. possibly. 20 21 22 23 24 25 57 . Cf. Bos. L. p. But if there is no exercise before a meal.” “and it then needs something to remove that yellow bile”: “many things are appropriate to extinguish the sharpness of the bile” L. 15 16 17 18 19 “For at times we have to do something which is beneficial for the ailing organ”: om.” “is produced”: Cf. “bathing”: om. ll. 4 (KXV. or only a little.” Cf. And one should not tell him to be careful [about the quantity he eats]. as this is unnecessary.8: “Amongst Galen’s general statements concerning the regimen of health is the following: Just as movement before the meal is completely good. cf.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo and which dissolves slowly. through the ingestion24 of laxatives.” “all this”: “what we mentioned about food and exercise” L. leanness and thinness. “We should give him much food which slightly tends slightly to be dry”: “feed him well [but] not with a large quantity of food that is coarse. idem. Maimonides. “of the residues produced in the body through the ingestion”: om.25 and. Maimonides. Cf. Added following L. 397. so movement after the meal is completely bad”. Commentary on Hippocrates’ De alimento I. Bos [forthcoming]): “But one should move a little after the meal from one side of the room to the other to the extent that the food settles in the bottom of the stomach. L. p. On the Regimen of Health 1. L: “because of a greater thinness and fineness.5 (ed. L. On the Regimen of Health 1. Helmreich. one should not avoid observing [a regimen] of a small quantity of subtle food. through bathing. 3–4 (ed.8 (ed. L: “is quickly produced. “that weaken [the body] and cause emaciation. and trans. On Asthma 5. 19–20). 239). and trans.

c.38 And if he first eats the constipating [food] and then the laxative food.27 we administer food that is of moderate subtleness and coarseness. And if one also sleeps much after the meal. I say that concerning food four things should be determined (considered): a.e.36 bad nutrition is produced. Now if he eats the laxative food first and then the other food.35 but mix it and eat it together with suitable food. as already mentioned. by which he amends the harm which he fears the bad food which he also eats might cause him. the constipating food] will not be excreted and 58 . For when heat dominates the body. one should feed oneself30 as in the summer. it needs balanced food in terms of suitability. And when cold dominates it. And when [the body] is balanced.28 Therefore. But when one’s sleep is short and light and superficial. [it will ease the absorption of] the [food] that is digested slowly. The suitability of the food for the body that is nourished by it32 at the time at which it is nourished. The quantity of the food. because of the shortness of the nights [then] {and the shortness of the sleep}.through diuretics. it needs cold foods. and eat later that which should be eaten later. if the power of digestion is too weak in comparison to its quantity or quality. in the cold season bodies need a large quantity of coarse food29 owing to the length of the nights and the length of sleep. it needs hot food. he should not eat only it. i. That one eat first that which should be eaten first.26 If the exercise is sufficient.e. we have to administer a large quantity of coarse foods. b.33 But if someone eats food34 that is unsuitable and inappropriate for him. that it is be according to the measure of the power of digestion. it [i.31 7.37 For example. a person can combine in one meal laxative and constipating food. For even when the food is wholesome and suitable to the body.

as we see them do it with most foods. “[it will ease the absorption of] the [food] that is digested slowly”: “they will be evacuated easily. And first of all one should take those which are excreted quickly and which corrupt if they stay any longer in the stomach.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo both [foods] will be corrupted. especially for someone who is used to sleep during the day.” But in De bonis malisque sucis XIII (ed. “and light and superficial.” “Therefore.8: “Sleeps helps the digestion. Maimonides. Cf. one should feed oneself with light [foodstuff]” L. {and the shortness of the sleep}: added following L.4 (ed. so 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 “diuretics”: “and bleeding” add. Bos. because39 the constipating food will prevent the laxative food from being excreted. L. Maimonides. On Asthma 5. after its [i. L. “or quality”: omitted by L. It seems to me that people are not totally unaware of the fact that a certain order has to be preserved when taking foods. 283): “Those foods should be taken first which stimulate excretion and then those which are excreted slowly. “But if someone eats food”: “But if any food” L. according to the opinion of all [physicians]. in the cold season bodies need a large quantity of coarse food”: “and it is appropriate to do so in winter” L. p. 11 (ed. 427) he says that if someone takes foodstuff with bad chymes he should take foodstuff with good chymes thereafter. p. “that is nourished by it”: om. one should feed oneself”: “and superficial. Cf. 26): “Galen thinks that the food which is finer should be [eaten] first. On the Regimen of Health 1. “he should not eat only it”: “it should not be only it” L. 38 59 . and trans. one should first [eat] that which has a diluting effect and then [eat] that which is astringent. “in terms of suitability”: similar L. Helmreich p.” Galen remarks in De alimentorum facultatibus II. “If the exercise is sufficient”: “If it is appropriate” L. Helmreich.e. and then that which is coarser. Similarly. the laxative food’s] digestion” L.

that it will remain in the stomach after being digested and will be corrupted. the innate heat will go into [the body’s] interior and. For if someone eats for a second time after the earlier [food] was excreted. and through its corruption it will corrupt the other food [i. But if the laxative food is eaten40 before the constipating food. and had already done sufficient exercise and then slept sufficiently. then the food will find the innate heat and extinguish it51 [so that it will be] like a fire hidden beneath ashes. the laxative food will be excreted after it has been digested and will prepare the way for the constipating food41 [i. If someone exerts himself and does exercise after 60 . and eats it on an empty stomach and in accordance with the body’s needs.49 the food taken at the second time will corrupt because of the first [food] that remains [in the stomach].48 But if someone takes food [for a second time] while a considerable amount of the first food remains undigested in the stomach or intestines. if a person combines at the same time42 food that is digested quickly {and food that is digested slowly he must first take the food that is digested slowly43} in the bottom of the stomach. If someone takes food after sufficient exercise.e. the food will find the innate heat to be like a blazing fire [i. it will gather (concentrate) there. and will digest his food. If someone sleeps after the meal. it will be digested rapidly].e.e. for the bottom of the stomach is hotter and stronger in digestion because it has many fleshy parts. Similarly.47 he will digest it.50 But if someone eats food without exercise and not on an empty stomach and not in accordance with his body’s needs. will ease the excretion of the constipating food]. d. That one take food at the proper time. 8. the constipating food].46 it is not being digested. Therefore. when the food floats at the top of the stomach.44 while the top of the stomach has many nerves and is cold45 and weak in digestion.

This is the time that nourishment is beneficial”. “well”: add. The Hebrew text reads “hot. “eaten”: om. “while a considerable amount of the first food remains undigested in the stomach or intestines”: while a considerable amount of the first food remains in the stomach or intestines. Instead.9: “One of the rules in the regimen of health is that one should not consume meal after meal. “the many fleshy parts”: “the tight structure of the many fleshy parts” L. L. as if it is an obligatory prayer. before taking a second dish] done sufficient exercise and then and then slept sufficiently”: “and then got sufficient sleep” L. and that one should not eat except after true hunger when the stomach is empty and the saliva is being drawn to the mouth and the hunger is real. …” 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 61 . On Asthma 6. Cf. and trans. because of the digestion” L. who fix a certain invariable time of the day to have their meal. “at the same time”: “in one meal” L. and in other 39 “because the constipating food will prevent the laxative food from being excreted”: “because the supervening laxative [food] is isolated between the stomach and the descending [constipating food]” L. one should let it depend on the emptiness of the stomach. {and food that is digested slowly he must first take food that is digested slowly}: added following L.” “at the top of the stomach”: “in the stomach” L. and the essential point—whatever the context—is that one should not consume one meal after the other and that one should eat only when the stomach is empty and not as the fools do. Maimonides. “cold”: Emended following L. idem.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo the meal.e.3 (ed. “but had beforehand [i. pp. Bos. the kidneys.. his food will descend from the stomach undigested52 and will cause obstructions and ailments in the liver. On the Regimen of Health 1. 29–30): “Says the author: This subject is repeated many times in [Galen’s] books. L. “and will prepare the way for the constipating food”: “and the constipating food will be excreted easily through the passages” L.

10.organs. Possibly [someone’s] stomach is weak. so that it is lacking inside the body: the [innate] heat [remaining] inside the body becomes too weak to digest [the food]. when they arrive in the stomach.63 But in the hot periods one should not take food. For at that time59 the {wine}60 will help the food descend and will refine it. One should not drink a lot of wine at the beginning of the meal. he should [drink] some wine with it [but only] to quench his most urgent thirst. he should drink a small amount of some wine53 so that [the food] descend somewhat in the stomach until it reaches the bottom of the stomach. Therefore. the stomach will attract the residues of the body. because the heat of the air attracts the innate heat to the surface of the body. For if it is whetted and one does not hurry to take food. For [the wine] separates between the coats55 of the stomach and the food. and if the food does not come into contact with the stomach. as I mentioned [before]. The best time to take food is the cold periods.57 and then he should wait58 until the food has been digested. if someone takes food. It is also proper to take food when the appetite is whetted. because [then] the [innate]62 heat is assembled (concentrated) in the interior of the body.56 so that [the foodstuff] remains in it undigested. 9. will spoil the appetite and corrupt the food that comes [into the stomach]. otherwise. and thereafter drink of the wine as much as he needs to.61 when they become mixed with it. and the food will float in it: [in this case] you should tell him not to sleep until the food descends in the stomach. so that it can pass through the narrow passages. it is not transformed appropriately by the stomach and does not become similar [to the body]. Sometimes54 we should order him to do a little bit of exercise.64 because the [innate] heat concentrates inside the body 62 . For this reason the ancients used to eat most of their food in the evening. and these. the food will descend together with the wine and [thereby] will be prevented from being digested.

When one is awake the opposite occurs. “it is not transformed appropriately by the stomach and does not become similar [to the body]” [i. 24). For during sleep the [vital] heat enters into the body.. “{wine}”: cf. Bos [forthcoming]): “And as the weather becomes colder. cf. “[innate]”. it cannot be assimilated by the body]: “it is not transformed into a similarity fitting the body” [i. “and will enter the vessels undigested” add. On the Regimen of Health 1.1 (ed.” Cf. “wine”: L adds: “immediately. Bos.. L.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo then. and trans.4 (ed. see also On Asthma 5. 51 52 53 54 55 56 “and extinguish it”: “submerged” L. “in terms of their food and nourishment”: om. [to quench his most urgent thirst]: “just to quench his thirst” L. he should increase the amount [of food] because the digestions are strong in the winter because of the increase of the innate heat inside the body. and trans. and satiation will not be attained”. due to the constriction of the pores. “used to eat most of their food in the evening”: “preferred dinner above midday lunch and ordered to eat more at dinner” L. “at that time”: om.e. Maimonides. vinum). for the [innate] heat spreads and is expelled from the body. owing to the chilliness of the night and the long65 sleep. L. Translated following L: extrinsecus. L. L: ipsum (i. L: “naturalis. “coats”: substance” L. [so that] the interior is warm while the {outside}66 cools off. L. and [so] becomes weak inside it. L. p. “that comes [into the stomach]”: om.e. 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 63 .e.” “sometimes”: “before [that]” L. “long”: om. “then he should wait”: et abstineant se cum quantitate qua possint et quiescat B (and they should abstain to the degree that they can and rest). so that it can be assimilated by the body] L.

it is better to choose the food to which one is inclined. whose temperament68 is dominated by heat and whose stomach.11. Amongst the things that it is are necessary [to consider] concerning people in terms of their food and nourishment67 is [the following]: Someone. For [this food] is more suitable to one’s nature and easier for him to digest. the harm will become evident to him. he should pursue his earlier habit and continue it. easily produces yellow bile. we should choose 64 .] if someone is used to eating at a certain time and [then] switches to another time. For the yellow bile overpowers the light food and corrupts it. 12. For if someone is used to eating [in the morning]. [Even] if someone [intends to] change the time of his meals from a bad time to a good one. one of which is worse than the other. but do not digest chicken and similar light foods. but while it does not have the power to corrupt coarse [food]. Appetite also plays an important role in the digestion of the food. [For] he will digest these [foodstuffs]. For habit is a second nature.] in the case of two [kinds of] food which are similar in nature. because of the heat. [Even] if there are two [kinds of] food. Therefore.72 but gives up [this habit] and limits himself to eating only in the evening. and the appetite for the needed food tends towards the worse [kind of food]. even though it is not appropriate.70 should nourish himself with coarse foods which are slow71 to be digested. [Generally. [although] he does not digest light and subtle and easily digestible foods.74 the best thing [to do] is to give it up little by little. unless something happens which forces him to give it up.75 13.77 if the appetite for the needed food tends towards one of them.73 Unless something occurs that forces someone to give up [his habit]. as Hippocrates said. Habit plays an important role in this. one finds people who digest beef. because it indicates the suitability76 [of the foodstuffs] [Thus. he causes himself severe harm.69 [so that] abundant yellow bile is produced in the stomach or flows into it quickly.

ed. even if the thing one is accustomed to is contrary to the medical rules. easily produces yellow bile”: “and whose stomach quickly becomes hot because of the production of yellow bile” L.78 14. No one should give up his healthy habits all at once. pp. Leipzig and 74 75 Berlin. sexual intercourse. “and whose stomach. al-ʿā dā t. with a German translation of H ̣ unayn’s Arabic version by F. Jones [LCL. L. Bos. On the Regimen of Health 4. “suitability”: “and goodness”: add. “because the stomach receives it with pleasure”: “because the stomach receives it well and digests it very well” L.” (cf. or exercise. Maimonides. “to eating [in the morning]”: cf. 1941). 1923. 85–95). L. pp.25: “Habit is fundamental for the preservation of health and the cure of diseases. [his habit]: “per force”: add. Galen. 76 77 78 65 . One should not abandon it for what is required by [these] rules except gradually and over a long time. and his monograph devoted to habit. which was translated into Arabic as: “ K. From what I have mentioned it is has become clear that one has to 68 69 70 71 72 73 “temperament”: om. 549–572). so that one does not notice the change”. Schmutte. L. Cf. either in eating. De consuetudinibus. 19–32 (KXV.” This statement could not be located. J. 1981]. going to the bathhouse. pp. Cambridge MA. In Hippocratis librum de acutorum victu commentarius II. In all these [activities] one should observe one’s habits. repr. “quickly”: om. “nature”: “goodness” L. “slow”: “difficult” L. Pfaff [CMG III]. because of the heat. L. see also Galen. Hippocrates discusses the issue of habit in the context of the consumption of food extensively in his Regimen in Acute Diseases 27– 38 (trans.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo the latter over the better one: we must not fear that it will do him more harm than good. L: “prandere. and trans. because the stomach receives it with pleasure. see also On Asthma 10. drinking. entitled Perˆ ™qîn. 51–52).1 (ed.

Who is exalted. the [individual foodstuffs] belonging to each kind.. see above.know the effects of the foodstuffs. 66 . Praise be to Him. [In what follows] I will mention the [different] kinds of foodstuffs.80 and the different powers of the foodstuffs. L. forever and ever”: om. forever and ever. Who is exalted. “characteristics”: “actions” L. “characteristics”: “actions” L.79 the different natures of the bodies and their [other] characteristics. It has also been made clear that [concerning] the different natures of the bodies and their [other] characteristics81 [one has to know about] the kinds of foodstuff and wines82 that are suitable for every one [of them]. Along with every kind [of food] I will mention the characteristics relating to the bodies and which [kind of food] is suitable for them. drinks: cf. Praise be to Him. “with the help of God. “wines”: i.83 79 80 81 82 83 “the effects of the foodstuffs”: “about the administration of good and choice foods” L. and the names of each kind. with the help of God.e. L: “potuum”.

” in M. Gadaldini. not from Greek. 1995). 45. Karl Sudhoff. by Diomede Bonardo.2 It is obviously a translation from Arabic.3 It was accepted as genuine in the editio princeps of Galen’s Opera. in the Giunta edition of 1565.” Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften 16 (1917): 24–27. is only one of the many medieval Latin works on the Regimen of Health. These improvements are probably conjectural. 1 2 As far as I know. R. D. 67 . Antiquité et Moyen Age (Paris. and printed thereafter in all Opera omnia. De virtutibus cibariorum. known also as De cibis. Histoire de la pensée médicale en Occident. Pincium.4 I offer here the Latin text based on the Bonardo edition of 1490. also using the Giunta edition of 1565. Durling. The translation dates from the year 1200. apud P. P. Venise 1490. p. “Der Pistoiese Accorso (Accursius) und die Übersetzung des pseudo-galenischen ‘Liber regiminis vel de virtutibus cibariorum. Gadaldini. the first to assign the opuscule to the Spuria was A. Merton College 218 ascribes it to “magister Acursius 3 4 grateful to Stefania Fortuna for communicating it to me). “Les régimes de santé. The Latin text was first studied by K. I am The colophon to Oxford. although it is possible that the editors of the several Giunta editions had access to manuscripts different from that or those consulted for Bonardo’s edition.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo Latin Text Introduction The pseudo-Galenic1 opuscule De dissolutione continua. “A Chronological Census of Renaissance Editions and Translations of Galen.. and Liber regiminis. Durling.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 24 (1961): 230–315: No. 257–81. I. Anno Mo cco” (R. ed. which provides a text somewhere better than Bonardo’s. Gil-Sotres. I propose here some emendations suggested by the English translation from the Hebrew. All later editors have followed him. as K. unpublished study.’ auch ‘De dissolutione continua’ genannte. Pystoyensis apud Bononias. edited by A. Grmek. 285. Sudhoff thought.

with the maximum of caveats. since I did not collate any manuscripts. cites several manuscripts. Cf. so is a commentary on the text.5 A critical edition is a philological desideratum. idem. repr. 1970). R. No. Leipzig. 1905–1907. 76–77. But neither is planned at the moment. Diels. Die Handschriften der antiken Ärzte (Berlin.” Traditio 23 (1967): 461–76. 465). 13a (p. “Corrigenda and Addenda to Diels’ Galenica. Durling. 45 (p. 5 The list in H. 68 . 464) and No.” Traditio 37 (1981): 373–81. No. 45 (p. 375). “Corrigenda and Addenda to Diels’ Galenica II.

145vB Iuntina 1565 vol.3 operatusque fuerit in eis stomacus suas operationes eorum pars transit ad epar et residuum fit egestio mundificanda de corpore.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo Galeni opera. Ideoque fuerunt necessarii cibi et potus. Bon. nec inuenitur in cibo et potu aliquod simile ei quod dissoluitur de corpore. D. 69 . Venetiis 1490. facere om. ideo fuit necessarium naturam mutare cibum et potum ut stet loco eius quod dissolutum est et ingrediatur in locum eius. quarum una est ad corpus. ideo non est dubium quod remaneat ex cibis et potibus superfluitas in corpore quod de corpore mundificare oportet et ab eo eijcere. similiter fa. et ad hoc Bon. Nam sicut ciborum et potuum cum intrauerit stomachum. Bon. post stomachum add. et fuit infusa in ipsis uirtus appetitus ad cognoscendum horam necessitatis eorum et quantitatem assumendam de eis et speciem comuenientem eis.[146rA] ciunt organa corporis et loca ad que peruenit nutrimentum ad4 hoc facta. Et quoniam non totum quod comeditur et bibitur assimilatur corpori. d. I f. Oportet penitus eum qui uult custodire sanitatem ad duas res intentionem suam dirigere. IX 71r Incipit liber de dissolutione continua Quia corpora hominum sunt in continua dissolutione et propter calorem naturalem qui est in ipsis et propter calorem1 aeris circumdantis ea extrinsecus fuit necessarium restaurare in eis quod dissolutum est de ipsis. cum cibo 1 2 3 4 naturalem qui est in ipsis et propter calorem om. Bonardus. neque potest uirtus que mutat et conuertit cibum et potum in corpore hominis facere2 quod mutetur et conuertatur nisi quod est simile corpori et proprium. 2. apud Pincium vol. uerum quia non restauratur id quod dissoluitur nec stat loco eius nisi sit sibi simile. et Bon.

Et cum corpus est spissum et tarde dissolutionis oportet quod nutriatur cibis paucis et subtilibus et14 humidis. et quando est flegma dominans oportet quod sint cibi calefacientes et exiccantes. et quedam sunt non temperata et dominatur ei[u]s9 flegma aut unum ex coleribus. et quedam eorum sunt rara uelocis dissolutionis. et in quantitate temperati in naturis suis. et quidam ex quibus generatur humor uiscosus. et eorum qui iuuant proprie naturis6 alicuius membro [71v] rum et non aliis7. et eorum quidam sunt crossi et quidam subtiles. aut uentositas crossa et inflatiua. Et quando corpus fuerit rarum oportet quod nutriatur cibis multis crossis siccis et uiscosis propter multitudinem eius quod dissoluitur de corpore et hoc 70 . Nam eorum quidam sunt temperati. et nutriatur cum his que addunt in caliditate et consumant humiditatem. Et corporum8 quedam sunt temperata etiam quibus dominatur naturalis sanguis purus et mundus. et quando ei nigra colera dominatur oportet quod nutriatur cibis calidis et humidis. propterea quod nature ciborum sunt diuerse.conueniente loco eius quod dissolutum est de ipso.11 Et quando ei fuerit dominans colera oportet quod nutriatur cum cibis qui extinguunt calorem12 et addunt in humiditate[m]13. et quedam sunt spissa. et quedam sunt que sunt lesa in aliquo membrorum et non in aliis. Itaque oportet quando dominans est secundum corpus sanguis mundus quod ministrentur cibi equales. [siue unum duorum colerum]10. quia paucum est quod dissoluitur de corpore. sicut ex quibus generatur sanguis purus et mundus. Verum oportet te scire diuersitates naturarum ciborum et diuersitates naturarum corporum et nocumenta eorum ut scias conuenientiam cuiuslibet specierum cibi et cuiuslibet differentiarum hominis. et quedam que in omnibus membris sunt sana. et tarde dissolutionis. 3. et quidam eorum sunt non temperati. sicut ex quibus generatur sanguis cum colera aut flegmate aut colera nigra superflue. et eorum ex quibus generatur humor sine uiscositate nocitiuus5. Alia est mundificatio ab ipso eius quod generatum est de superfluitatibus ciborum.

Garofalo collato hebraico. propter uelocitatem conuersionis eorum in coleram rubram. et quando est quod in ipso generatur flegma. 5. nisi sit in aliquo membrorum corporis lesio aut dolor. 71 .Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo regimen est conueniens de necessitate. prohibebis cibaria dulcia. Et si est aliquando cibus remanens natans in17 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 nocuus 1565 naturas 1565 alias 1565 corpori Bon. quia cum15 fuerit lesio aut dolor in aliquo membrorum oportet quod fiat consideratio de cibis conuenientibus membro dolenti. et om. Et si sit residuum corporis preter necessitatem eorum propter maiorem tenuitatem et raritatem ut non faciant cibaria crossa opilationem in epate aut si est aliquando epar calidum. Et quando stomacus est debilis. et si fuerit diuersum a necessitate residui corporis sicut quando epar est frigidum [et stomacus]16 et in uiis sunt opilationes. oportet ipsum lauare et abstergere. calorem Bos: coleram lat. eis Garofalo: eius ed. in humiditate Garofalo: in humiditatem ed. et si ipsi corpori conueniant. et stomacus secl. 4. quando Gad. siue unum duorum colerum seclusit Garofalo. humiditate Bon. et quando est quod in eo colera generatur uelociter multa conueniunt que extinguunt acuitatem colere aut quod pretermittantur res generantes ipsam. oportet confortare ipsum nutrientibus. oportet quod ministrentur cibi subtiles et dimittat cibos crossos. Bon.

Et quando somnus est paucus leuis subtilibus nutriatur sicut in estate propter breuitatem noctis et paucitatem somni.orificio stomaci ministrentur cibi crossi ponderosi ut ponderositate sua descendant in fundum stomaci. et quando 72 . Nam quando est motus ante cibum multus. et quando est21 somnus post cibum multus oportet quod donemus cibos multos crossos. et quandoque cum prouocatione urine et [146rB] cum minutione sanguinis. 7. et quando caput est calidum suscipiens uapores pretermittamus cibaria calida et sicca. Primus est quod nutriatur corpus bonis cibariis hora qua nutritur sicut ante memorauimus. Et dicamus quod oportet quod mensuremus in cibis quattuor modos. 6. et quando non est ante cibum motus uel est paucus oportet quod non sit contentus dieta cum . et [quia]18 quando hoc non fecerit non est necesse quod memorauimus de cibo et motu. quando est conueniens dabimus cibos temperatos in subtilitate et crossitie. uel cum balneo illud quod generatur in corpore de superfluitatibus. Et quando est descensus cibi de stomaco ante digestionem suam indigemus19 his que stringunt et retinent.s. quia parum conuenit ei. paucis cibis et subtilibus sine adiutorio in purgando cum medicina laxatiua. et precipias ei quod paulatim moueatur post cibum ut declinet cibus de ore stomaci. ciba bene non cibis multis crossis uiscosis ad siccitatem declinantibus qui sint difficilis dissolutionis neque iniungas20 ei dietam. et hoc conuenit fieri in hyeme propter longitudinem noctis et multitudinem somni. quantitatis motus ante cibum et somnum post. quia quando est dominans secundum corpus caliditas indigemus cibis frigidis. et quando est superfluitas cibi difficilis descensus de stomaco et intestinis indigemus his que descendere faciant et uentrem mollificant.i. Et oportet quod non sis contentus his que memorauimus sine consideratione . licet conueniant in reliquo corpore.

Et modus tertius est pre[ter]mittere22 ex cibariis que oportet pre[ter]mittere et postponere que oportet postponere. separat Gad.: iungas Bon. et quando est temperatum conueniunt ei cibi temperati similes. quia om. leniens descendit post digestionem suam et stipticum leuiter per uias descendit.: indigestus Bon. Similiter et modus secundus est mensura etiam ciborum ita ut sint in mensura uirtutis digestiue. seclusit Garofalo. : et Bon. Gad. indigemus Gad.: separat(ur) Bon. b. uerbi gratia: quia aliquando aggregat homo cibos lenientes corpus in una comestione et cibos stipticantes ipsum quod si premisit lenitiuum et secuti sunt ei alii leuiter descendunt cibi post digestionem suam. Sed quando est cibus leniens ante stipticum. et hoc ideo quia lenitiuus separat23 inter stomacum et inter descensum cibi stiptici et remanet in stomaco post digestionem suam et corrumpitur et corrumpit corruptione sua cibum alium. Bon.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo dominatur ei frigiditas indigemus cibis calidis. immo admisceas ei alios et comedas cum eo cibos conuenientes ut rectificentur cum eo quod timetur de nocumento cibi mali quibus utitur cum eo. premittere Garofalo collato hebraico: pretermittere ed. sed quando premisit stipticum et secutus est leniens non descendunt sed corrumpitur totum. 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 in Gad. et quando est aliquis ciborum preter bonitatem nec est ei conueniens. oportet ne sit simplex. est om. quia et si est cibus in se ipso bonus et est corpori conueniens et est uirtutem digestiuam debilitans quantitate sua generatur ex ipso nutrimentum malum. iniungas Gad. 73 . c.

d. et qui sumpsit cibum preter motum et accipit preter mundificationem et preter necessitatem corporis inuenit cibus27 calorem naturalem submersum sicut ignis cum28 operitur cinere. et ideo qui accipit ci[72]bum secundum post descensionem primi. et aliquando est membrum debile ut stomacus et natat in ipso cibus. Et in quo somnus sequitur cibum reuocatur calor naturalis in ipso et aggregatur in interioribus corporis et digerit cibum. Et qui comedit cibum post motum sufficientem et accipit super mundificationem et super necessitatem corporis inuenit cibus calorem naturalem sicut ignis cum26 ardet. ne descendat cibus cum uino et prohibeat29 digestionem. 74 . 8. et qui accipit cibum et remanserunt in stomaco aut intestinis reliquie in quantitate ex priori cibo preter25 digestionem corrumpitur cibus secundus cum reliquiis primi. et in quo motus sequitur cibum descendit cibus de stomaco preter digestionem suam et intrat uenas sine mutatione et adducit in epate opilationem et renibus et reliquis membris et morbum. Et modus quartus est assumptio ciborum in hora sua. et non iniungas somnum donec non descenderit cibus de stomaco et sumant immediate aliquid de uino ut descendat cibus de stomaco aliquo descensu. Nec oportet unquam quod accipiat ex uino multum in principio acceptionis cibi. et ante precipias eum mouere parum sicut memorauimus iam.24 et secutus fuit somnus sufficiens fit bona digestio.Et ideo si aggregat aliquis in comestione una cibos uelocis digestionis et alios dure et tarde digestionis preponat cibos dure digestionis in fundum stomaci propterea quia fundus stomaci est calidior et potentior super digestionem propter multitudinem compactionis eius que est in eis de partibus carnis et superius stomaci est neruosum frigidum debilis digestionis et ideo quando natat cibus in stomaco non premisit motum sufficientem. donec deueniat in fundum stomaci. 9.

prohibeat Gad. Et melior horarum in accipiendo cibum est hora frigiditatis propter aggregationem caloris naturalis in interioribus corporis. que cum intrent stomacum destruunt appetitum et corrumpunt cibum quando admiscetur ei. cibus secundus Gad. 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 et premisit motum sufficientem om. postea sumant de uino prout optauerint. et somnum. Et propter hoc est quod antiqui preferebant cenam prandio precipientes quod sumeretur plus in cena propter aggregationem caloris in interiora corporis frigiditate noctis. : accipit Bon. proptera quod quando mouetur appetitus et non incipit accipere cibum [147rA] attrahit stomacus ex superfluitatibus corporis. preter Bos: propter lat. cum Bon. cum Bon. quia calor extenditur in exteriora corporis et debilitatur in interioribus. quia caliditas aeris attrahit calorem naturalem ad exteriora corporis et euacuatur ab interioribus et debilitatur calor in interioribus corporis ad indigestionem. nam ipsum adiuuat ad descensum cibi et subtiliat ut penetret et ut ingrediatur in uenas subtiles. Sed in hora caliditatis oportet quod dimittatur acceptio cibi. 10. Sed in uigilia accidit30 contrarium huiusmodi. : prohibet Bon.. : quando Gad. et quando non tangit stomacus cibum non mutat in similitudinem corporis conuenientem sed remanet in ipso indigestus. Et debet similiter esse acceptio cibi in hora motus appetitus. 75 . quia caliditas in somno reuocatur et calefacit interius corpus et infrigidat extrinsecus. accidit Gad. Bon.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo propterea quod separet inter substantiam stomaci et inter cibum. : quando Gad. Et debent isti qui accipiunt cibum cum ipso sumere de uino quod solum sedet sitim et abstineant se cum quantitate qua possint et quiescant donec digestio fiat.

et ideo inuenimus homines qui digerunt carnes bouinas et non digerunt carnes pullinas. et quando sunt cibi duo equales in bonitate et est necessitas appetitus de eis ad unum eorum declinans. et cui generatur in stomaco aut effunditur ei multa colera citrina. Et quando duo cibi sunt et unus eorum est melior altero et necessitas appetitus in eo est ad peiorem declinans eligimus eum super meliorem eorum dummodo non timeamus ex ipso nocumentum plurimum39. Quod si eueniat aliquid ui ducens quod mutetur ab ea conuenientior rerum est in eis quod mutetur ab ea paulatim. Et ideo necessarium est quod homo cui est dominium complexionis31 calide et cui32 stomacus est calefactionis uelocis33 propter generationem colere citrine. 14. quod eueniat ex ipso iuuamentum propter bonum sumere et melius stomacum digerere ipsum. et qui consueuit sumere cibum in aliqua hora determinata et mutatur ad aliam preter istam horam declarabitur sibi hec permutatio nociua. 12. ut explanauimus in eo quod rememorati sumus quia oportet studere ministrare cibos bonos et electos secundum cognitionem diuersarum 76 . sicut memorat sapiens hypocras.36 et si mutauerit37 cibum ex horis malis ad horas bonas. quia colera est potentior super leuibus cibis et corrumpit eos et non est potens corrumpere crossos. 13.11. et debet propterea imitari consuetudinem cum est antiquata38 et longa. Et appetitus etiam in opere digestionis cibi est maior pars quia significat super conuenientiam et bonitatem. quia conuenientior est nature sue et leuior ea in digestione. quoniam qui consueuit prandere et remouetur ab eo et est contentus cena magnificat nocumentum sibi. nutriatur cibis crossis dure digestionis et digeret34 eos. et non digerit35 cibos leues subtiles uelocis digestionis. et que similantur eis ex cibis leuibus. et si sit non bona quando non adducit aliquid necessitatis ad mutationem suam: nam consuetudo est natura secunda. Et consuetudo in eis addit magnam partem.

uelocis Gad. plurimum Bon. antiquata Gad.: coloris Bon. 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 complexionis Gad. et quod conuenit cuilibet uni eorum ex speciebus ciborum et potuum. et rememorabor in qualibet specie dispositionis corporis et conuenientium42 eorum. et ego nominabo species ciborum et rememorabor quod est in qualibet specie et nomina que sunt in qualibet specie ipsorum. digeret Gad.: uelociter Bon. mutauerit Gad.: mutauerunt Bon.: digeret Gad. cui Bon. nocua Gad. conuenientiam? 77 . naturae Gad. naturae Gad.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo naturarum40 corporum et operationum eorum et diuersitatem uirtutum ciborum.: cuius Gad. digerit Bon. Et declarauimus diuersitatem naturarum41 et operationes eorum.: multo maius Gad.: antiquota Bon.: digerat Bon.

‬ולא ימצא במאכלים ובמשקים דבר כאותו שהוא נתך מן‬ ‫הגוף‪ . ומהם מה שיש להם תועלת מיוחד‪ 14‬או‪ 15‬היזק מיוחד לקצת‪ 16‬איברים‪17‬‬ ‫והגופות‪ .‬וכשיתפרנס במה שיוסיף‬ ‫בחמימות יעביר הליחות‪ .‬ומהם שאינם‬ ‫ממוצעים‪ .‬ילך חלק אחד מהם אל הכבד וחלק‪6‬‬ ‫ממנו שיוצא חוץ לגוף וכן לכל הכלים אשר בגוף וכל‪ 7‬המקומות אשר ילך בהם המזון‪.‬ועל כן אין ספק כי מן‬ ‫המאכלים והמשקים ישאירו בגופות מותרות צריכות לנקות מן הגוף ולהוציאם ממנו‪ .‬והעניין השני‬ ‫שינקה מן הגוף מה שהוא מתיילד בו ממותרי המזון‪ .‬גם יש מהם ממוצעים‪ .‬ועל‬ ‫כן הוצרכו הגופות לאכול ולשתות‪ . ומהם שהם בלתי ממוצעים כאותם שיתיילד מהם הדם ועמו הליחה‬ ‫הלבנה הנוספת‪ 11‬והמרה האדומה והמרה השחורה הנוספת או רוחות גסות ונפיחה.‫ספר ההנהגה לגליאנוס העתקת זרחיה בן יצחק מהעתקת חנין‬ ‫‪ .‬כי כמו‬ ‫שהמזון והיין‪ 5‬כשירדו באסטומ‘ ופעלה בם פעולתה‪ .‬בעבור שהוא נתך מגופו דבר מועט‪ .‬ואם תהיה גוברת בו המרה השחורה הוא ראוי לפרנס‬ ‫עצמו עם מזונות החמות והלחות‪ .‬וכשיהיה קשה להיותו נתך הוא ראוי שיהיה נזון עם מזון‬ ‫מועט ודק ולח‪ .‬ועל כן הוצרכו המאכלים והמשקים שישנם }הטבע{‪ 3‬אל‪] 4‬מה[ שניאות לגוף וקרוב‬ ‫אליו‪ .3‬כשיהיה הגובר על הגוף הדם הנקי — שיהיה מזונו ממוצע‪ 21‬בשעורו ובטבעו‪ .‬ומהם שיתיילד מהם כימוס‪13‬‬ ‫בלתי דבק מזיק.‬ושעור‬ ‫מה שיקח ממנה‪ .‬‬ ‫ומהם שיש להם חולי בקצת איבריהם‪20.‬ומהם ממוצעים כאותם שיתיילד מהם‬ ‫הדם הטהור והנקי. ומהם רפים והם‪ 18‬נתכים‬ ‫מהרה ומהם יבישים‪ 19‬וקשים לא במהרה הם נתכים.‬והושמה בהם כח התאוה לדעת מה זמן‪ 1‬האכילה‪ . ומהם שיתיילד מהם כימוס‪ 12‬וויסקוסי‪ .1‬אמר גליאנוס‪ :‬מפני היות גופות בני אדם נתכים תמיד — בעבור שיש בהם מן החמימות‬ ‫היסודי ומפני חמימות האויר הסובב אותם סביב — הוצרכו להחליף מה שהותך מהם‪ .‬ומפני שלא יתחלף הדבר אשר הוא נתך ולא יעמוד‬ ‫במקומו אלא מה‪ 2‬שיהיה כמותו‪ . ומהם שהם בכל האיברים בריאים‪.‬והנה ראוי לך לדעת שנוי טבעי‬ ‫המזונות והתחלף טבעי הגופות וענייניהם‪ 9‬למען תדע ניאותות כל מין מהמזונות לכל‪10‬‬ ‫מין מבני אדם‪ .‬והמין הצריך להם‪ .2‬ואחר‪ 8‬היות העניין כן על כל פנים‪ .‬וכשתהיה‬ ‫הליחה הלבנה הגובר עליהם ראוי שיהיה מזונם מחמם ומייבש‪ .‬גובר עליהם הליחה הלבנה או אחת משתי המרות.‬מי שירצה שמירת הבריאות הוא צריך שיכוין לשני‬ ‫פנים‪ :‬האחד מהם שיכניס בגוף מזון ראוי להחליף תחת מה שהותך ממנו‪ .‬וכשיהיה הגוף רפה‪ 22‬ומהיר‪ 23‬ההתכה‬ ‫‪78‬‬ . ומהם‬ ‫עבות‪ .‬וזה כי טבעי המזונות מתחלפים‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ .‬ומהם דקות.‬וכשיהיה הגובר עליו המרה האדומה הוא ראוי לפרנס עצמו במה‬ ‫שיעביר החמימות ויוסיף הלחות‪ .‬ואין כל חלקי העניינים אשר הם נאכלים ושתוים נאותים לגוף‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ .‬שולט עליהם בטבעם הדם הטהור והנקי‪ .

‫ראוי שיתמידנה כל מי שלא יהיה לו בקצת איברי הגוף חולי או מום‬ 1 2 3 4 ‫זמן האכילה‬: horam necessitatis eorum L ‫מה‬: om. L ‫איבריהם‬: et non in aliis add. L ‫לקצת איברים והגופות גם יש מהם ממוצעים‬: alicuius membrorum et non aliis.‫ לרבוי מה שנתך מגופו‬. L ‫ממוצע בשעורו ובטבעו‬: equales. et in quantitate temperati in naturis suis (= equale in quantitate et temperati in naturis suis) L ‫רפה‬: emendation editor ‫ יפה‬MS rarum L ‫ומהיר ההתכה‬: om. L ‫כימוס‬: emendation editor ‫ נימוס‬MS humor L ‫כימוס‬: emendation editor ‫ נימוס‬MS humor L ‫מיוחד‬: naturis add.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo ‫ וזאת ההנהגה‬. L ‫ואחר היות העניין כן‬: ad hoc facta L ‫וענייניהם‬: et nocumenta eorum L ‫לכל מין‬: et cuiuslibet differentiarum L ‫הנוספת‬: om. L {‫}הטבע‬: naturam L ‫אל‬: emendation editor ‫ אלא‬MS ‫אל ]מה[ שניאות לגוף וקרוב אליו‬: ut stet loco eius quod dissolutum est et ingrediatur in locum eius.‫אז ראוי שיהיה נזון עם מזון מרובה ועב ויבש ודבק‬ . L ‫והם נתכים מהרה‬: emendation editor ‫ מהרה והם נתכים‬MS uelocis dissolutionis L -‫יבישים ו‬: om. Et corporum quedam sunt temperata L ‫איברים‬: et non aliis add. L ‫או היזק מיוחד‬: om. L 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 79 . neque potest uirtus que mutat et conuertit cibum et potum in corpore hominis facere quod mutetur et conuertatur nisi quod est simile corpori et proprium L ‫והיין‬: potuum L ‫וחלק ממנו שיוצא חוץ לגוף‬: et residuum fit egestio mundificanda de corpore L ‫וכל‬: ‫ כל‬om.

ולפעמים יתיילד‪27‬‬ ‫בה המרה האדומה ויצטרך‪ 28‬אל מה שיעביר אותה המרה ולהרחיק העניינים המולידים‬ ‫אותה‪ .6‬וראוי שלא יקצר על מה שזכרנו בלתי עיון שעור תנועתו קודם המזון והשינה אחריו‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ .‬ולא תצוינו בשמירה למיעוט הצורך אליה‪ .‬ויצוה לעשות מעט תנועה אחר‬ ‫המזון להוריד המזון מפי האסטומ‘‪ .5‬ואיפשר שתהיה האסטומ‘ חלושה ותהיה צריכה אל דבר שיחזקנה מן המזונות.4‬וכשתהיה מחלה או כאב בשום אבר מאיבריו ראוי שיעשה העיון במזונות הניאותות‬ ‫לאבר החולה‪ .‬כי‪ 24‬אנו לפעמים נהיה מוכרחים לעשות מה שראוי לאבר הנחלה ואע“פ‬ ‫שזה יהיה הפך לצורך שאר הגוף‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ .32‬ואע"פ שיצטרך אליהם שאר הגוף‪.42‬‬ ‫‪ . ואיפשר‬ ‫שתתילד בה ליחה לבנה ותצטרך‪ 26‬אל דבר מנקה אותה ומטהר אותה.‬כי‬ ‫כשתהיה התנועה קודם המזון מרובה נפרנסנו‪ 33‬במזון מרובה וגם אל היובש נוטה מעט‬ ‫ומאוחרת ההתכה‪ .37‬וכשתהיה התנועה‪ 38‬מספקת‪39‬‬ ‫אז נעשה המזון הממוצע בדקותו ועביו‪ .‬וכשלא תהיה קודם המזון‬ ‫תנועה או תהיה מועטת אז ראוי שלא‪ 34‬נקצר בשמירה במיעוט המזון‪ 35‬ודקותו‪ .‬ולפעמ‘‪ 30‬אין צריך לכל‪ 31‬זה‪ .7‬ונאמר שראוי שישוער במזון ארבעה עניינים‪:‬‬ ‫הראשון‪ :‬ניאותות המזון לגוף הנזון‪ 43‬בו בעת אשר יפרנסנו כמו שזכרנו כבר‪ .‬וכשיהיה הראש‬ ‫חם מקבל לאדים נעזוב המזונות החמות‪ .‬ועל‪ 40‬כן הגופים צריכים בימי הקרירות אל מזון גס ורב מפני‬ ‫אורך הלילות ורבוי השינה‪ .‬וכשיהיה הגובר עליו קרירות יצטרך‬ ‫‪80‬‬ .‬למען הכביד אותו המזון עד תחתית האסטומ‘‪ .‬ואע“פ שיהיה שאר גופו בלתי צריך לאילו‬ ‫הדברים המחלישים‪ 25‬והעושים כחש ורזון ורפיון‪ .‬ואיפשר בדברים מרבים השתן ומוציא‪ .‫‪ .‬כמו שאילו היה הכבד קר וצר הדרכים הוא צריך לעשות‬ ‫המזונות הדקות ולעזוב הגסות מן המזונות‪ .‬בלתי‬ ‫היותו נעזר בנקיון מה שיתיילד בגוף מן המותרות בהשקאה‪ 36‬עם הרפואה המשלשלת‬ ‫ועם המרחץ‪ .‬וכשיהיה גם כן השינה אחר המזון מרובה נצטרך‬ ‫לעשות מזונות מרובות וגסות‪ .‬ויהיה נשמר מן המזונות המתוקות ואע“פ שצריך‬ ‫אליהם הגוף למהירות שנויים אל המרה האדומה‪.‬כדי שלא יחדשו המזונות הגסות בכבד‬ ‫סתימה‪ .‬או שיהיה המזון נשאר וצף על פי האסטומ‘ ויהיה צריך לעשות לזה המזון‪29‬‬ ‫השוקע‪ .‬או איפשר שיהיה הכבד חם‪ .‬וכשיהיה מותר המזון‬ ‫מאוחר לרדת מן האסטומ‘ והמעים נצטרך אל מה שיורידנו ויחליק הבטן‪ .‬וכשיהיה רדת המזון מן‬ ‫האסטומ‘ קודם היותו מעוכל נצטרך אל מה שיהיה קובץ ומחזיק‪ .‬וכשתהיה השינה קטנה מעוטה וקלה ודקה‪ 41‬יתפרנס כמו‬ ‫שהוא מתפרנס בקיץ מפני קוצר הלילה }ומעוט השינה{‪.‬כי כשיהיה‬ ‫הגובר על הגוף חמימות הוא צריך אל המזונות הקרות‪ .

‬אבל יערב עמו ויאכל‬ ‫עמו מזון ניאות‪ . L‬החמות‬ ‫‪: ciba bene non cibis multis crossis uiscosis ad‬נפרנסנו במזון מרובה וגם אל היובש נוטה מעט‬ ‫‪siccitatem declinantibus L‬‬ ‫أﻻ ﻧﻘﺼﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻠﺔ اﻟﻐﺬاء = שלא נקצר בשמירה ממיעוט המזון = ‪:‬שלא נקצר בשמירה במיעוט המזון‬ ‫‪ MS cibis L‬הזמן ‪: emendation editor‬המזון‬ ‫‪: et cum minutione sanguinis L‬ומוציא‬ ‫‪: om.‬‬ ‫‪24‬‬ ‫‪25‬‬ ‫‪26‬‬ ‫‪27‬‬ ‫‪28‬‬ ‫‪29‬‬ ‫‪30‬‬ ‫‪31‬‬ ‫‪32‬‬ ‫‪33‬‬ ‫‪34‬‬ ‫‪35‬‬ ‫‪36‬‬ ‫‪37‬‬ ‫‪38‬‬ ‫‪39‬‬ ‫‪40‬‬ ‫‪41‬‬ ‫‪42‬‬ ‫‪43‬‬ ‫‪44‬‬ ‫‪45‬‬ ‫‪46‬‬ ‫‪47‬‬ ‫‪48‬‬ ‫וכשיאכל‪46‬‬ ‫‪: om. L‬בהסקה ‪: emendation editor‬בהשקאה‬ ‫‪81‬‬ .‫‪Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo‬‬ ‫אל המזון החם‪ .44‬וכשיהיה ממוצע יצטרך אל המזון הממוצע אל‪ 45‬הניאות‪. L‬התנועה‬ ‫‪: conueniens L‬מספקת‬ ‫‪: et hoc conuenit fieri in hyeme L‬ועל כן הגופים צריכים בימי הקרירות אל מזון גס ורב‬ ‫‪: subtilibus L‬ודקה‬ ‫‪}: et paucitatem somni L‬ומעוט השינה{‬ ‫‪ om. L‬כי אנו לפעמים נהיה מוכרחים לעשות מה שראוי לאבר הנחלה‬ ‫‪: propter maiorem tenuitatem et raritatem L‬המחלישים והעושים כחש ורזון ורפיון‬ ‫‪ multa conueniunt que extinguunt acuitatem colere‬ותצטרך אל דבר מנקה אותה ומטהר אותה‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪ quod in eo colera generatur uelociter L‬יתיילד בה המרה האדומה‬ ‫‪: multa conueniunt que extinguunt acuitatem colere L‬ויצטרך אל מה שיעביר אותה המרה‬ ‫‪: cibi crossi ponderosi ut ponderositate sua descendant L‬המזון השוקע למען הכביד אותו המזון‬ ‫‪’: et quando hoc non fecerit L‬ולפעמ’‬ ‫‪: quod memorauimus de cibo et motu L‬לכל זה‬ ‫‪: et sicca add.‬יתקן בו מה שהוא מפחד ממנו מהזק המזון הרע אשר יאכלנו עמו‪.‬‬ ‫שום אדם מזון בלתי נאות ולא ראוי לו הוא ראוי שלא יאכלנו‪ 47‬לבדו‪ . L‬הנזון בו‬ ‫‪ MS‬החום ‪: emendation editor‬החם‬ ‫‪: similes L‬אל הניאות‬ ‫‪: et quando est aliquis ciborum L‬וכשיאכל שום אדם מזון‬ ‫‪: sit L‬יאכלנו‬ ‫‪: Similiter et modus secundus L‬והשיני‬ ‫‪ MS om.

‬‬ ‫ואחרי כן ישתה מן היין כל צרכו‪ .‬ויתקבץ שם‪ ..‬והוא שקדם‬ ‫התנועה המספיקה והוא יישן אחריו כראוי יעכלנו‪ .‬ועליון האסטומכא בעל עצבים וחם וחלוש‬ ‫העיכול‪ .‬ואחרי‪ 70‬כן ימתין ויעמוד עד שיתעכל המזון‪.‬יכנס החמימות הטבעי אל פנימה‪ .‬כמו האש הנחבא בתוך הדשן‪ .‬כי תחתית האסטומ‘ יותר חם ויותר‬ ‫חזק בעיכול מפני רבוי‪ 60‬חלקי הבשר שבו‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ .‬ירד מזונו מן האסטומכא בלתי מעוכל‪ .‬‬ ‫והרביעי‪ :‬שיקבל המזון בזמנו‪ ..‬כי באותה‪ 71‬שעה יעזור הצ>‪ 72<.‬ימצא המזון אל החום‬ ‫היסודי כמו האש היוקדת‪ .‬ולקחו על זולת נקיון ועל בלתי‬ ‫צורך הגוף‪ .‬ולפעמ‘‪ 66‬נצוונו במעט תנועה כמו שזכרנו‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .64‬ויחדש סתימות וחליים‬ ‫בכבד ובכליות ובשאר האיברים‪ .‬ועל כן ראוי למי שלקח‬ ‫המזון שיאכל עמו מן היין לפי‪ 69‬רוב צמאו‪ .‬ומי‬ ‫שיישן אחר מזונו‪ .‬ומי שאכל מזון בלא תנועה‪ .‬וישאר בה בלתי מעוכל‪ .‬ולאחר מה שראוי לאחר‪ .‬כי הוא מפריד בין כתלי‪ 67‬האסטומכא ובין המזון‪ .‬להוריד המזון וירקיקנו‬ ‫למען יעבירנו‪ 73‬בדרכים הצרים‪.‬ומי שיטרח‬ ‫והתנועע אחר האוכל‪ ..‬וכן אם קבץ שום אדם בזמן‪58‬‬ ‫אחד מזון ממהר להתעכל }‪ 59{.‫והשיני‪ :48‬שיעור המזון‪ .‬מפני‪ 53‬שהמזון העוצר‪54‬‬ ‫הוא מונע שלא ירד המזון המחליק‪ 55‬ויהיה נשאר באסטומכא אחר היותו מעוכל ויפסד‬ ‫ובהפסדו יפסיד המזון האחר‪ .‬‬ ‫והשלישי‪ :‬הקדמת מה שראוי להקדים מן המזון‪ .‬ואכלו על נקיון ועל צורך הגוף‪ .‬‬ ‫‪82‬‬ .‬וזה כי מי שלקח המזון השני אחר רדת הראשון‪ .‬ימצא המזון החום הטבעי וכבה‪ 63‬אותו‪ .‬כדי שלא ירד המזון עם היין וימנע‬ ‫מלהתעכל‪ .‬ויעכל מזונו‪ .62‬ומי שאכל מזונו ונשארה באסטומ‘‬ ‫או במיעיו השארות בעל שיעור מן המזון הראשון בלתי מעוכל יפסד המזון השיני במה‬ ‫שנשאר מן הראשון‪.‬המשל בזה‬ ‫איפשר שיקבץ אדם באכילה אחת מזון מחליק הבטן ומזון שיעצור אותו‪ . ואם יהיה‬ ‫מקדים העוצר ואכל אחריו המזון המחליק‪ ..8‬ומי שאכל אחר תנועה מספקת‪ .‬ואם לא יפגוש המזון‬ ‫לאסטומכא לא‪ 68‬יתירנו אל ניאות ודומהו‪ .‬לא ירד ושניהם יפסדו‪ .‬ואיפשר שתהיה האסטומ‘ חלושה ויצוף בה המזון‪ :‬ולא‬ ‫תצוונו לישן עד שירד המזון מן האסטומ‘. וישתה‪ 65‬מעט יין כדי שירד המזון מן האסטומ‘‬ ‫קצת עד שיגיע בתחתית האסטומ‘‪ .‬בתחתית האסטומכא‪ .9‬ואין ראוי לאדם שישתה יין הרבה בתחילת מאכלו‪ .‬ועל כן כשיצוף המזון בראש‪ 61‬האסטומ‘ אינו מתעכל‪.‬וזה שיהיה כשיעור כח העיכול‪ .‬וכשיהיה המזון המחליק נאכל‪ 56‬קודם המזון העוצר ירד‬ ‫המזון המחליק אחר היותו מעוכל ויזמן‪ 57‬הדרך למזון העוצר‪ .‬כי אם הקדים‬ ‫המזון המחליק ואכל‪ 51‬אחריו המזון האחר יהיה מקל‪ 52‬למתאחר ההתעכלות.‬כי אע"פ שיהיה המזון משובח‬ ‫ויהיה נאות לגוף ויהיה‪ 49‬כח העיכול חלוש מכמותו או‪ 50‬מאיכותו יתיילד מזון רע‪.

MS ‫או מאיכותו‬: om.. L <. vinum) L ‫יעבירנו‬: ut penetret et ut ingrediatur L ‫הבא‬: om.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo ‫ כי כשתתעורר התאוה ולא יקדים‬.‫ וראוי גם כן שיקח מזונו בזמן התעורר אליו תאוותו‬.‫ והטוב שבעתים ליקח המזון הם העתים הקרים‬.. L ‫ויזמן הדרך למזון העוצר‬: et stipticum leuiter per uias descendit L ‫בזמן אחד‬: in comestione una L {.10 ‫ ויפסידו‬.‫ כשיתערבו עמו‬74‫המזון הבא‬ 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 ‫ויהיה‬: ‫ סובל‬add.> ‫הצ‬: (i.‫לקחת המזון‬ ‫ מפני התקבץ‬. L ‫ואכל אחריו המזון האחר‬: et secuti sunt ei alii L ‫מקל למתאחר ההתעכלות‬: emendation editor ‫ נקבל למתאחר ההתעכלות‬MS leuiter descendunt cibi post digestionem suam L ‫מפני שהמזון העוצר הוא מונע שלא ירד המזון המחליק‬: et hoc ideo quia lenitiuus separat inter stomacum et inter descensum cibi stiptici L ‫העוצר‬: emendation editor ‫ המחליק‬MS = lenitiuus L ‫המחליק‬: emendation editor ‫ העוצר‬MS = stiptici L ‫נאכל‬: om.e.} et alios dure et tarde digestionis preponat cibos dure digestionis L ‫רבוי‬: compactionis eius que est in eis add.‫ עד שבהגיעם לאסטומכא יבטלו התאוה‬.‫ תמשוך האסטומ‘ מותרי הגוף‬. L '‫בראש האסטומ‬: in stomaco L ‫יעכלנו‬: fit bona digestio L ‫וכבה אותו‬: submersum L ‫מעוכל‬: et intrat uenas sine mutatione L ‫וישתה‬: immediate L ‘‫ולפעמ‬: et ante L ‫כתלי‬: substantiam L ‫לא יתירנו אל ניאות ודומהו‬: non mutat in similitudinem corporis conuenientem L ‫לפי רוב צמאו‬: quod solum sedet sitim L ‫ואחרי כן ימתין ויעמוד‬: et abstineant se cum quantitate qua possint et quiescant L ‫באותה שעה‬: om... L 83 .

‬ולא תתחזק על הפסד הגס‪ .92‬כשלא נפחד ממה שהיה מקבל מזה הזק‪93‬‬ ‫יותר מתועלת‪ .‬כי הוא יותר נאות לטבעו ויותר נקל עליו לעכלו‪.‬והעתיקו אל זולתי זה העת‪ .‬ומתילד באסטומכא או יהיה‬ ‫מורק לה מהרה‪ 83‬מרה אדומה מרובה‪ .‬וזה מפני‪ 94‬שהאסטומ‘ מקבלת אותו ברצון‪.14‬הנה התבאר ממה שזכרנו שהוא צריך לדעת פעולת‪ 95‬המזונות‪ .‬כי אם נתחדש שום דבר שיביאינו‪ 87‬להעתיק עצמו ממנו‬ ‫טוב שבעניינים זה הוא שיהיה נעתק ממנו מעט מעט‪.78‬כי החמימות בעת השינה יהיה נכנס פנימה‪ ..‬ושם כל מין ומין מהם‪ .‬ומי שהיה מנהגו לקבוע מזונו בעת מן העתים‪ .‬‬ ‫‪84‬‬ .‬והתבאר חילוף טבעי הגופות וענייניהם‪.‬ויהיה‬ ‫מעכלם‪ ..‬יותר‪90‬‬ ‫טוב שיבחר לו המזון שדעתו נוטה אליו‪ .‬שיהיה נזון ממזונות גסות המאוחרות העיכול‪ .‬‬ ‫ותהיה‪ 82‬האסטומ‘ מפני חמימותו מוליד מהרה ליחה האדומה‪ .‬יתבאר לו‬ ‫הזק‪ 85‬זה‪ .‬ובעת היקיצה יקרה הפך‪ .‬ועל כן תמצא בני אדם‬ ‫שיעכלו בשר השור‪ .‬וזוכר מה שבכל‬ ‫מין מהם מן המינים‪ .88‬כי כשיהיו שתי‬ ‫מזונות משתוות בטבעם‪ 89‬ותהיה תאות >המזון< הצריך אליהם נוטה אל אחת מהם‪ .‫החמימות‪ 75‬בתוך הגוף‪ .‬אבל העתים החמים ראוי שיעזוב בהם ליקח המזון‪ .‬כי מי שהרגיל המזון‪ 84‬ועזבו‪ .‬יזיק לו‬ ‫מאד‪ .11‬וממה שהוא צריך אל בני אדם במזונם‪ 81‬ומאכלם הוא שהגובר על מזגו חמימות‪.‬כי החמימות מתפשט ונגלה‪ 80‬מן הגוף ויחלש בפנימו‪.97‬וחילוף כוחות המזונות‪ .‬ולא יעכלו בשר התרנגולת ומה שדומה להם מן המזונות הקלות‪.‬האחד מהם יותר רע מן האחר‪ .‬ואני מספר מיני המזונות‪ .‬בעזרת‪ 99‬האל יתעלה ויתברך לעלמי עלמין‪.‬ולא יהיה מעכל המזונות הקלות והדקות והממהרות להתעכל‪ .‬‬ ‫ועל כן הקדמונים היו‪ 77‬אוכלים רוב מאכלם בערב‪ .79<.‬כי המרה האדומה‬ ‫תתחזק על הקל שבמזון ויפסידנו‪ .‬כי הוא מורה על הניאותות‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ .‬ויהיהנעדרמתוכו‪.‬ויתחמם תוכו‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .‬ואע"פ שאינו דבר נכון‪ .‬וידיעת‪ 96‬טבעי הגופות‬ ‫וחלופם וענייניהם‪ .‬‬ ‫ויתקרר >‪ .‬ויחלשהחמימותמתוךהגוףבעניין‪ 76‬העכול‪.‬וקצר על אכילת הלילה‪ .12‬להרגל בזה חלק גדול‪ .‬כי חום האויר מושך‬ ‫החמימותהיסודיאלשטחהגוף‪.‬ואזכור עם כל מין ומין עניין עניין הגופות‬ ‫והניאות להם‪ .‬אם לא יתחדש דבר שיכריחנו לעזבו‪ .‬‬ ‫וכשיהיו שתי מזונות‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ .‬כי המנהג‬ ‫טבע שיני‪ .‬ותהיה תאות המזון הצריך אליו נוטה‬ ‫אל היותר רע מהם נבחרנו על‪ 91‬היותר טוב‪ .‬מפני התקבץ החמימות בתוך הגוף בעבור‬ ‫קרירות הלילה והשינה המרובה‪ .13‬ולתאוה גם כן בעכול המזון חלק גדול‪ .98‬‬ ‫ומה שניאות לכל אחד ממיני המזונות והיינות‪ .‬כמו שאמ‘ אפוקרט‪ .‬ואם העתיק מזונותיו שיאכל מעת רע לעת טוב‪ 86‬ראוי שירדוף המנהג כשיהיה‬ ‫מקדימו ומאריך בו‪ .

L ‫המזון‬: prandere L ‫הזק זה‬: hec permutatio nociua L ‫טוב‬: et add. L ‫בעניין העכול‬: ad indigestionem L ‫היו אוכלים רוב מאכלם בערב‬: preferebant cenam prandio precipientes quod sumeretur plus in cena L ‫המרובה‬: om.>: extrinsecus L ‫ונגלה מן הגוף‬: in exteriora corporis L ‫במזונם ומאכלם הוא‬: om. quod eueniat ex ipso iuuamentum L ‫מפני שהאסטומ‘ מקבלת אותו ברצון‬: propter bonum sumere et melius stomacum digerere ipsum L ‫פעולת המזונות‬: ministrare cibos bonos et electos L ‫וידיעת‬: secundum cognitionem L ‫וענייניהם‬: et operationum eorum L ‫וענייניהם‬: et operationes eorum L ‫בעזרת האל יתעלה ויתברך לעלמי עלמין‬: om. L ‫ותהיה האסטומ‘ מפני חמימותו מוליד מהרה ליחה האדומה‬: et cui stomacus est calefactionis uelocis propter generationem colere citrine L ‫מהרה‬: om. L ‫בטבעם‬: in bonitate L ‫יותר טוב שיבחר לו המזון שדעתו נוטה אליו‬: consentiemus dare rem appetitiuam pre alia L ‫על‬: emendation editor ‫ ?אל‬MS ‫טוב‬: eorum add. L ‫הזק יותר מתועלת‬: nocumentum plurimum. L 85 . L ‫שיביאינו‬: ui add...Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 ‫החמימות‬: naturalis add. L ‫הניאותות‬: et bonitatem add. L <.

to take food.8 ‫איברים‬ 5 ‫ אדים‬:‫אד‬ 1.7.11 ‫ בני אדם‬:‫בן‬ 2 ‫בריא‬ .part vapors air quality to eat.7 ‫נאכל‬ 8 ‫ֹכל‬ ֶ‫א‬ 7 ‫אכילה‬ 12 ‫אכילת הלילה‬ 1. bodily parts. to drink? to be eaten meal meal to eat in the evening stomach stomach length fire a blazing fire to spoil stools human being(s). people healthy 86 liber de dissolutione in aliquo membrorum membrum dolens membra uapores Aer cibi/comedere/uti/ sumere comedi cibus comestio cena stomacus stomacus longitudo ignis ignis cum ardet destruere uenter homo sanus ‫ספר ההנהגה‬ 4 ‫ בשום אבר מאיבריו‬:‫אבר‬ 4 ‫האבר החולה‬ 4 ‫האבר הנחלה‬ 2.8.12 ‫אכל‬ 1.11 ‘‫אסטומ‬ ‫← פה‬ 7-11 ‫אסטומכא‬ 6 ‫ אורך‬:‫ֹרך‬ ֶ‫א‬ 8 ‫אש‬ 8 ‫האש היוקדת‬ 10 ‫ ביטל‬:‫בטל‬ ‫ ← מחליק‬5 ‫בטן‬ ‫ ← גופות‬ ‫אויר‬ 7 ‫ איכות‬:‫אכות‬ ‫אכילה ← זמן‬ 1.Glossary The Book of the Regimen in any organ the ailing organ the ailing organ organs.

subtle.13 ‫ היזק‬:‫הזק‬ 3 ‫הנהגה‬ 7 ‫הפסד‬ 12 ‫הרגל‬ 6 ‫השקאה‬ 87 .14 ‫גופות‬ 1 ‫ בני אדם‬6 ‫גופים‬ 2.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo fleshy beef chicken body body.4.6.6. bodies the bodies of human beings bodies coarse viscous these things that weaken and that cause emaciation.2. harmful regimen corruption habit ingestion caro carnes bouine carnes pulline corpus corpus/corpora corpora hominum crossus uiscosus propter maiorem tenuitatem et raritatem prouocatio urine sanguis subtilis subtilis/subtilitas uenas subtiles cinis nocumentum/ permutatio nociua regimen corruptio consuetudo - ‫בריאות ← שמירה‬ 7 ‫בשר‬ 11 ‫ השור‬11 ‫ התרנגולת‬‫ ← חלק‬1-8. subtleness narrow passages ashes harm.12.11 ‫גס‬ ‫ ← כימוס‬3 ‫דבק‬ ‫ הדברים המחלישים‬:‫דבר‬ ‫והעושים כחש ורזון ורפיון‬ 4 ‫דברים מרבים השתן‬ 6 ‫ומוציא‬ 2. leanness and thinness diuretics blood thin.10 ‫גוף‬ 1. superficial subtle.3 ‫דם‬ 2-4.11 ‫דק‬ 6 ‫דקות‬ ‫ ← צר‬9 ‫ דרכים הצרים‬:‫דרך‬ 8 ‫דשן‬ 2.

to vary. to nourish oneself.7.6 ‫התכה‬ 7 ‫התעכלות‬ ‫וויסקוסו ← כימוס‬ the [right] time to eat at the same time to feed oneself. to be nourished to strengthen strong to retain different weak be dissolved.7. difference to soften laxative laxative role. to be different.8 ‫חלוש‬ 2. to dissolve to digest? dissolutio digestio 3.12.13 ‫חלק‬ .2 ‫התחלף‬ diuersitates/diversus esse mollificare leniens corpus lenitiuus pars 5 ‫ החליק‬:‫חלק‬ 7 ‫מחליק הבטן‬ 7 ‫מחליק‬ 1.11 ‫ נזון‬:‫זן‬ confortare potens retinere diuersus/diuersitas debilis lesus/lesio morbus restaurare conueniens loco eius /restaurari ‫חולה ← אבר‬ 5 ‫ חיזק‬:‫חזק‬ ‫ָק‬ ‫חז‬ ָ 5 ‫החזיק‬ ‫ נחלה ← אבר‬:‫חלה‬ 14 ‫חלוף‬ 5.3 ‫ חולי‬:‫חלי‬ 8 ‫חליים‬ 1 ‫ החליף‬:‫חלף‬ 2 ‫ ראוי להחליף תחת מה‬:1. illness ailments to replace suitable to replace that to be replaced. part 88 hora necessitatis eorum in una comestione nutriri 1 ‫ זמן האכילה‬:‫זמן‬ 7 ‫ בזמן אחד‬:3.

11 ‫חמימות‬ 8 ‫החמימות הטבעי‬ 1. warmth innate heat innate heat to heat to be warm nature natures pure to purge he exerts himself and does exercise to dry dry dryness drink.3.14 ‫טבעים‬ ‫טבעי ← חמימות‬ 2 ‫טהור‬ 5 ‫ טיהר‬:‫טהר‬ 8 ‫ טרח והתנועע‬:‫טרח‬ 3 ‫ ייבש‬:‫יבש‬ 3 ‫יבש‬ 6 ‫ יובש‬:‫ֹבש‬ ֶ‫י‬ 1.10 ‫חם‬ ‫טבע‬ 2.12. bonitas nature purus abstergere motus exiccare siccus siccitas potus. wine drinks et residuum fit egestio mundificanda de corpore partes debilitare/debilitari caliditas calor naturalis calefaciens/calidus calor/caliditas calor naturalis [calor] intrinsecus / calor naturalis calefacere calefacere naturalis/natura.10 ‫החמימות היסודי‬ 3 ‫ חימם‬:‫חמם‬ 10 ‫התחמם‬ 2.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo another part leaves the body parts to be weak heat innate heat innate heat hot heat.9 ‫יין‬ 14 ‫יינות‬ 89 .8.10 ‫חלש‬ ‫החליש ← דבר‬ 10 ‫ חום‬:‫חֹם‬ 8 ‫החום הטבעי‬ 8 ‫החום היסודי‬ 3-5.7.3. uinum potus ‫וחלק ממנו שיוצא חוץ‬ 1 ‫לגוף‬ 7 ‫חלקים‬ 7.

7-9 ‫ירד‬ 5. to be excreted to descend.‫יסודי ← חֹם‬ 1 ‫ הוציא‬:‫יצא‬ ‫יקד ← אש‬ 10 ‫יקיצה‬ 1.11 ‫הוליד‬ 6 ‫ ימי הקרירות‬:‫ימים‬ ‫ חמימות‬.8 ‫ישן‬ be formed. to be excreted pain liver to make heavy to extinguish the power of digestion the faculty of appetite powers viscous humor a humor that is not viscous parts kidneys 90 generari generare/generatio hyems ejicere uigilia intrare/descendere/ deuenire declinare/facere descendere/ descensus somnus descensus/descensio dolor epar ponderositas submersus uirtus digestiua uirtus appetitus uirtutes humor uiscosus humor sine uiscositate organa renes 2.4.5-7.7 ‫רדת‬ 4 ‫כאב‬ 1. to evacuate to sleep to be evacuated.11 ‫ התיילד‬:‫ילד‬ 5.8 ‫כבד‬ 5 ‫ הכביד‬:‫כבד‬ 8 ‫ כיבה‬:‫כבה‬ 7 ‫ כח העיכול‬:‫כח‬ 1 ‫ התאוה‬14 ‫כוחות‬ ‫כחש ← דבר‬ 2 ‫ כימוס וויסקוסו‬:‫כימוס‬ 2 ‫ בלתי דבק‬1 ‫ כלים‬:‫כלי‬ 8 ‫ כליות‬:‫כליה‬ .9 ‫הוריד‬ 7. to be produced to produce the cold season to be expelled to be awake to descend.

Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo quantity to ingest coats moist yellow bile phlegm phlegm moisture night.6. balanced quantitas ? substantia humidus colera citrina flegma flegma humiditas nox nox acceptio cibi.14 ‫מין‬ 14 ‫מינים‬ 2. nourishment food(s) ailment residues residues residues temperament food.6 ‫מותרות‬ 2. food. nutrition.5-13 ‫מזון‬ 2-7.7 ‫ ממוצע‬:‫צע‬ ָּ ‫מ‬ ֻ‫מ‬ ְ 91 .10 ‫לילה‬ 6 ‫לילות‬ 9-11 ‫מאכל‬ 1 ‫מאכלים‬ 3 ‫מום‬ 5 ‫מותר‬ 1. to be eaten food/foods. to eat.3 ‫הליחה הלבנה‬ 5 ‫ליחה לבנה‬ 3 ‫לחות‬/‫ ליחות‬:‫לחות‬ 6. meal.2. foodstuff foodstuffs. cena cibus/cibi dolor superfluitas superfluitas superfluitas/ superfluitates cibi/nutrimentum/ cibus/prandere cibi/cibus/nutrientia nocitiuus lesio species/differentia species temperatus 7 ‫כמות‬ 2 ‫ יכניס בגוף‬:‫כנס‬ 9 ‫ כתלים‬:‫כתל‬ 3 ‫לח‬ 11 ‫ ליחה האדומה‬:‫לחה‬ 2. meals harmful illness kind kinds moderate. intake of food. nights nights meal.10 ‫מותרים‬ 11 ‫מזג‬ 1-3.3.11-14 ‫מזונות‬ 2 ‫מזיק‬ 4 ‫מחלה‬ 1.

an empty stomach to be dissolved to be dissolved. indigestus loca colera colera nigra/nigra colera colere balneum bonus attrahere potus dulcis superfluus magnificat nocumentum sibi inflatiua mundificare/ mundificatio/lauare mundus purgare/ mundificatio dissolutus esse dissolui/dissolutio 12 ‫מנהג‬ 5.11 2.3 ‫נקי‬ 6.‫ המרה האדומה‬:‫מרה‬ 5.7-9 ‫ֻכל‬ ָּ ‫מע‬ ְ 7-9 ‫בלתי מעוכל‬ 1 ‫ מקומות‬:‫מקום‬ be used to sth.7 ‫ מעים‬:‫מעי‬ 5.8 ‫נקיון‬ 1. to be cleansed clean. to dissolve 92 consuescere/ consuetudo intestini digestio preter digestionem.2 ‫ הותך‬:‫נתך‬ 1-3 ‫ניתך‬ .3 ‫המרה השחורה‬ 2 ‫מרות‬ 6 ‫מרחץ‬ 7 ‫ משובח‬:‫בח‬ ָּ ‫ש‬ ֻ‫מ‬ ְ 10 ‫משך‬ ‫משלשל ← רפואה‬ 1 ‫ משקים‬:‫משקה‬ 4 ‫מתוק‬ 2 ‫נוסף‬ 12 ‫ יזיק לו מאד‬:‫נזק‬ ‫ התנועע ← טרח‬:‫נע‬ 2 ‫נפיחה‬ 1. habit intestines to be digested undigested places yellow bile black bile biles bathing wholesome to attract beverages sweet superfluous he causes himself severe harm flatulence to cleanse.5 ‫ ניקה‬:‫נקה‬ 2. pure purgation. to be digested to digest to be digested to have many nerves constipating to mix to be mixed the cardia of the stomach.9.11 ‫ התעכל‬:‫עכל‬ 7 ‫ בעל עצבים‬:‫עצב‬ 7 ‫עוצר‬ 7 ‫ עירב‬:‫ערב‬ 10 ‫התערב‬ 5 ’‫ פי האסטומ‬:‫פה‬ 7 ‫פסד‬ 7.3 ‫עב‬ 6 ‫עבי‬ 10 ‫ נעדר‬:‫עדר‬ ‫ ← כח‬7.13 ‫ עיכל‬:‫עכל‬ 7.13 ‫כוּל‬ ּ‫ע‬ ִ 7.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo subject to dissolution to be transformed to surround obstruction obstructions thick coarseness to be lacking digestion.11 ‫הפסיד‬ 1 ‫ פעל פעולתה‬:‫פעל‬ 14 ‫ פעולה‬:‫ֻלה‬ ָּ ‫פע‬ ְּ 93 . the top of the stomach to be corrupted. to corrupt to corrupt to act actions in dissolutione mutare opilatio opilatio crossus crossities euacuari digestio/digeri fit bona digestio. digerere digestio neruosus stipticus admiscere admisceri os stomaci corrumpi corrumpere operari suas operationes ministrare 1 ‫נתכים‬ 9 ‫ התיר‬:‫נתר‬ 1 ‫ סובב‬:‫סבב‬ 4 ‫סתימה‬ 8 ‫סתימות‬ 2.

11 ‫קל‬ 6. top to be used to winds to flow thin nutrire/cibare nutriri extendi natare et in uiis sunt opilationes stringere aggregari/aggregatio antiqui estas leuis esse contentus breuitas frigidus/frigiditas frigiditas infrigidare caput consuescere uentositas effundi rarus 3. to be gathered.8 ‫ צף‬:‫צוף‬ ‫ דרך‬4 ← ‫ צר הדרכים‬:‫צר‬ 5 ‫קבץ‬ 10 .to feed. to be nourished to feed oneself to spread to float narrow passages to be astringent to be assembled.7.6.6 ‫התפרנס‬ 10 ‫ התפשט‬:‫פשט‬ 5.12 -‫ב‬/‫ קצר על‬:‫קצר‬ 6 ‫ קוצר‬:‫ֹצר‬ ֶ‫ק‬ 4.3 ‫רפה‬ 94 .7. to limit oneself to sth shortness cold cold to cool head.7 ‫ראש‬ 12 ‫ הרגיל‬:‫רגל‬ 2 ‫ רוחות‬:‫רוח‬ ‫רזון ← דבר‬ 11 ‫ הורק‬:‫ריק‬ 2.7 ‫פרנס‬ 3.10 ← ‫קרירות‬ 10 ‫ התקרר‬:‫קרר‬ 5. to administer (food).10 ‫קר‬ ‫ ימים‬7.8 ‫התקבץ‬ 10 ‫ קדמונים‬:‫קדמון‬ 6 ‫קיץ‬ 6. to concentrate the ancients summer light to be satisfied with.

4 ‫שנוי‬ 1. change quantity. ‫תועלת‬ 5.6.Gerrit Bos and Ivan Garofalo laxatives to refine surface to be careful.8.7 ‫שיעור‬/‫שעור‬ 7 ‫ שיער‬:‫שער‬ 5 ‫שקע‬ 1. to observe a regimen to preserve one’s health to beware of to change sleep different.13 ← ‫תאוה‬ 132.8 ‫תחתית‬ 5-8 ‫תנועה‬ 7 ‫ תיקן‬:‫תקן‬ ‫תרנגולת ← בשר‬ 95 .7. amount to determine to sink to drink to be drunk appetite to be beneficial bottom exercise to amend medicina laxatiua subtiliare exteriora dieta custodire sanitatem prohibere mutare somnus diuersitates/ conuersio quantitas.9 ‫שתה‬ 1 ‫שתוי‬ ‫שתן ← דברים‬ ‫ כח‬10.3. measure. mensura mensurare descendere potus/sumere/ accipere bibi appetitus iuuare fundus moueri/motus rectificare ‫ הרפואה‬:‫רפואה‬ 6 ‫המשלשלת‬ ‫רפיון ← דבר‬ 9 ‫ הרקיק‬:‫רק‬ ‫שור ← בשר‬ 10 ‫שטח‬ 6 ‫שמירה‬ 2 ‫שמירת הבריאות‬ 4 ‫ נשמר מן‬:‫שמר‬ 1 ‫ שינה‬:‫שנה‬ 6.10 ‫ שינה‬:‫ָה‬ ‫שנ‬ ֵ 2.