CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION
1.1 1.2 Information and Communication Data Communications and Networking for Today’s Enterprise Trends Business Drivers Convergence and Unified Communications Convergence Unified Communications The Nature of Business Information Requirements Distributed Data Processing The Internet and Distributed Applications The Internet TCP/IP Distributed Applications Client/Server Architectures and Intranets Networks Wide Area Networks Local Area Networks Wireless Networks Metropolitan Area Networks An Example Configuration The Transmission of Information Transmission and Transmission Media Communication Techniques Transmission Efficiency Managements Issues Network Security Network Management 1.3

1.4 1.5 1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

1.10 Standards 1.11 Recommended Reading and Web Sites 1.12 Key Terms and Review Questions
ISBN 0-558-69515-9

APPENDIX 1A

Prefixes for Numerical Units

6
Business Data Communications, Sixth Edition, by William Stallings. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.

1.1 / INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION

7

Chapter Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to ♦ Understand the basic requirements for data communications and networking to support business information needs. ♦ See the “big picture” of the major topics discussed in the book. ♦ Appreciate the importance of the Internet and wireless communications in business planning. ♦ Understand the central role of standards in data communications and networking.

This introductory chapter begins with an overview of the role of data communications and networking in the enterprise.Then a brief discussion introduces each of the parts of this book.

1.1 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION
A confluence of computers, communication technologies, and demographics is transforming the way any enterprise conducts itself and carries out its organizational mandate. And it’s happening fast. A business that ignores these changes will fall hopelessly to the rear in the global race for the competitive edge. At the heart of the transformation is information. No longer a byproduct and no longer, in many cases, a cost center, the generation, storage, and movement of information have been made profitable by companies that have taken up the technological challenge posed by the myriad machines that automate so much of our lives. We are unquestionably dependent on computers and the communication devices and services that connect them. The number of computers and terminals at work in the world today is in the billions. The overwhelming need of organizations and their workers now is for connectivity, for integration, for ease of access to information. So fundamental is information communication technology to business success that it is emerging as the foundation of a strategy taking shape in American businesses: using management structures to gain a competitive advantage. As businesses are challenged by such forces as global competition, mergers, and acquisitions, time-tested management structures are putting a strain on corporate bottom lines. In response, companies are breaking down divisional walls and flattening top-heavy management pyramids to create new corporate structures that help them to compete more effectively. The technology that is making much of this possible is networking. Communication technology helps companies overcome three kinds of basic organizational difficulties: Good networks make geographically dispersed companies more manageable; they help top-heavy companies trim down middle management; and they help companies break down barriers between divisions. As we examine the technology and applications throughout this book, we will see the ways in which information communication technology solves these and other vital business problems.

ISBN 0-558-69515-9

Business Data Communications, Sixth Edition, by William Stallings. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.

and advances in technology. and other productivity measures means that this trend is likely to continue. The increasing emphasis on office automation. managers are constantly struggling to maximize capacity and minimize transmission costs. Next we introduce the concept of business drivers that will guide the enterprise in developing an overall data communications and networking plan. trends in technology enable the provision of increasing traffic capacity and the support of a wide range of services. this means more powerful computers and clusters of computers capable of supporting more demanding applications. Business Data Communications. we first look at trends that are increasing the challenge for the business manager in planning and managing such facilities. As businesses rely more and more on information technology. the need for the next-generation 100-Gpbs is pressing.2 DATA COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING FOR TODAY’S ENTERPRISE Effective and efficient data communication and networking facilities are vital to any enterprise. For local area networks (LANs). Finally. remote access.1 Further. Thus. In turn. online transactions. Sixth Edition. This increases the demand for high-capacity networking and transmission facilities. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. For example. both local (within a building or building complex) and long distance. both in computing and communications. has been growing at a high and steady rate for decades. for long-distance telecommunication and data network links. the continuing growth in high-speed network offerings with the continuing drop in prices encourages the expansion of services.8 CHAPTER 1 / INTRODUCTION 1. by William Stallings. . growth in services and growth in traffic capacity go hand in hand. In this section. Published by Prentice Hall. Figure 1. such as tera and giga. Figure 1.2. ISBN 0-558-69515-9 1 See Appendix 1A for an explanation of numerical prefixes. Communication traffic. the increasing use of optical fiber and high-speed wireless has brought transmission prices down and greatly increased capacity. such as multimedia applications. In terms of computing. continues. Trends Three different forces have consistently driven the architecture and evolution of data communications and networking facilities: traffic growth. In terms of communications. Inc. the range of services expands.1 gives some examples of information-based services and the data rates needed to support them [ELSA02]. based on [MELL07]. both voice and data. Four technology trends are particularly notable and need to be understood by the manager responsible for information technology: 1. recent offerings of dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) enable capacities of many terabits per second. indicates the Ethernet demand trend. The trend toward faster and cheaper. development of new services. many enterprises now have Gigabit Ethernet or 10-Gbps Ethernet backbone networks. Thus. and products at this data rate should appear in the near future.

2 / DATA COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING FOR TODAY’S ENTERPRISE Speed (kbps) Transaction processing Messaging/text apps Voice Location services Still image transfers Internet/VPN access Database access Enhanced Web surfing Low-quality video High-end audio Large file transfer Moderate video Interactive entertainment High-quality video Performance: Poor Adequate Good 9.2 Past and Projected Growth in Ethernet Bandwidth Compared to Existing Ethernet Data Rates Business Data Communications. by William Stallings. Published by Prentice Hall. Inc. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education.4 28 64 144 384 2000 9 VPN: virtual private network Figure 1.1. .6 14. Sixth Edition.1 Services versus Throughput Rates 1 Tbps Ethernet data rate standard Service provider/WAN Enterprise/server/LAN 100 Gbps 10 Gbps 1 Gbps ISBN 0-558-69515-9 100 Mbps 1995 2000 2005 2010 Figure 1.

suppliers. today’s networks can offer differing levels of quality of service (QoS). With the increasing capacity and functionality of enterprise networks. and application attributes. which further enhances the ability to use enterprise information resources and services anywhere. are more “intelligent” than ever. Published by Prentice Hall. [MILO00] lists four main application areas that will serve as the drivers in determining the design and makeup of the enterprise network. Inc. and available across all business applications. . such as names. e-mail. The nature of the enterprise networking and communications facility depends on the business applications it must support. and mobile workers to access the company’s private data and applications. pagers.We are now seeing the growth of high-speed wireless access. 2 Business Data Communications. 4.10 CHAPTER 1 / INTRODUCTION 2. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. opening up many opportunities and challenges for managers. 1. fax.3 lists these areas. which the enterprise itself runs. mailboxes. cell phones and cellular networks. and so on. enterprises have formed intranets and extranets2 to isolate their proprietary information free from unwanted access. end-user groupings. remote data access. There has been a trend toward ever-increasing mobility for decades. security capabilities. today’s networks provide a variety of customizable services in the areas of network management and security. Network management and operation depend on some key enterprise-specific information. and partners. Second. Figure 1. the Web. along with their business motivators and the expected benefits. and Internet portals. which include specifications for maximum delay. The result is the ability of employees to take their business context with them as they move about.3 CONVERGENCE AND UNIFIED COMMUNICATIONS This section introduces two related concepts that are important determinants of requirements for business data communications and networking facilities: convergence and unified communications. 3. liberating workers from the confines of the physical enterprise. suppliers. The Internet. such as the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Two areas of intelligence are noteworthy. consistent. an intranet uses Internet and Web technology in an isolated facility internal to an enterprise. and associated applications have emerged as dominant features of both the business and personal world. Both voice-oriented telecommunications networks. cordless phones. this information can be unified with the enterprise information base so that the information is correct. including the Internet. ISBN 0-558-69515-9 Briefly. Business Drivers The trends discussed in the preceding subsection are enabling the development of enterprise network and communications facilities that are increasingly better integrated with the information base. In addition to exploiting the Internet and the Web to reach customers. minimum throughput. network addresses. by William Stallings. and data networks. Sixth Edition. priority designations. First. Innovations include voice mail. See Chapter 6 for a discussion. an extranet extends a company’s intranet out onto the Internet to allow selected customers.

1. and video in a seamless. • Enterprise services: At this level. ISBN 0-558-69515-9 Business Data Communications. We can think of this convergence in terms of a three-layer model of enterprise communications: • Applications: These are seen by the end users of a business. such as voice calling (telephone). Inc. customer relationship management. groups. and instant messaging. network managers deal with the enterprise network as a function-providing system. Published by Prentice Hall. Sixth Edition. LANs. and value-added manner. beeper. and support services related to the deployment of convergence-based facilities. maintenance. With convergence. such as workgroup collaboration. Convergence integrates communications applications. • Infrastructure: The infrastructure consists of the communication links. and QoS provision. WANs. and applications. and Internet connections available to the enterprise. The network manager needs design.3 / CONVERGENCE AND UNIFIED COMMUNICATIONS IP Telephony • International and long-distance savings • Economics of converged networks • Productivity through application integration Benefits • Revenue generation • Expense reduction • Customer acquisition • Customer satisfaction and retention • Increased productivity e-Business • Workflow integration • Productivity improvements • New applications tied to business needs • Better management of suppliers/partners Customer relationship management • New customer acquisition • Increased satisfaction for existing customers • Reduced operating expenses • Productivity via workflow management Multimedia messaging • Increased productivity • Reduced network expense • Integration into business workflow 11 IP ϭ Internet Protocol e-Business ϭ Enterprise activities based on mobile.3 Applications Driving Enterprise Networks Convergence Convergence refers to the merger of previously distinct telephony and information technologies and markets. the manager deals with the information network in terms of the services it supplies to support applications. with business applications. organized. e-mail. . and fax).. The key aspect of convergence at this level is the ability to carry voice and video over data networks. data. and other back-office functions. Such management services may include setting up authentication schemes. by William Stallings. global access to enterprise networks Figure 1. which enables a user to employ a single interface to access messages from a variety of sources (e. voice mail. office voice mail. applications provide features that incorporate voice. One example is multimedia messaging. capacity management for various users. office e-mail. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education.g. such as the Internet. Also at this level.

and improved execution in business planning and operations. Published by Prentice Hall. better use of and reduction in existing resources. illustrates the three layers and their associated convergence attributes. and outsourcing services Privacy Authentication Location Storage Provides common transport for data. • Transformation: Convergence also enables the enterprise-wide adoption of global standards and associated service levels. voice. thus providing better data. Sixth Edition. In simple terms. Inc. support. enhanced real-time global decision-making processes. convergence involves moving voice into a data infrastructure. a converged network infrastructure makes it easier to add applications that combine video. by William Stallings. and policy management. data. and then extending that into the wireless arena. image. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. integration. This leads to greater agility for the enterprise in providing new services to its customers and employees. Business Data Communications. integrating all the voice and data networks inside a user organization into a single data network infrastructure. increased efficiency. and greater flexibility at the application level. Such a company-wide environment provides for rapid standardized service deployment and enhanced remote connectivity and mobility. Convergence brings many benefits. The foundation of this convergence is packet-based transmission using the Internet Protocol (IP).12 CHAPTER 1 / INTRODUCTION Driven by business requirements Converged Drives underlying layers Integrated contact centers Unified messaging Converged multimedia services Provides end-to-end design. Convergence increases the function and scope of both the infrastructure and the application base.4 Figure 1. management. For example. [POL07] lists the following three key benefits of convergence: • Efficiency: Provides a double-digit percent reduction in operating costs through the convergence of legacy networks onto a single global IP network. • Effectiveness: The converged environment has the potential to provide users with great flexibility. and voice. asset management. video Network-based IP VPNs using MPLS IPv6 Wired and wireless LANs Public wireless networks Public Internet Figure 1. Applic atoins rise Enterp s Service r Infrast ucture Business-Driven Congergence ISBN 0-558-69515-9 .4. including simplified network management. irrespective of where they are. based on [MILL05]. installation. and implementation of centralized capacity planning.

Although Web 2. wikis. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. distance learning. Two prominent aspects of Web 2. RTC dashboards blend instant messaging.0 services and features are primarily associated with public Web use by the general population. including blogs. based on [LAZA07]. • Real-time communications (RTC) dashboard: May consist of both desktop and mobile software clients.0 Industry-specific (imaging. shows the typical components of a UC architecture and how the relate to one another. e-mail. UC merges real-time communications services with non-real-time collaboration and business process applications. and (2) the user interface is rich. video.5 Elements of Unified Communications Architecture Business Data Communications. Whereas convergence focuses on the merger of fundamental voice. Inc. 2. images. Published by Prentice Hall. The term Enterprise 2. and data communications facilities and the resulting ability to support multimedia applications.1. Web 2. easy to use. audio-and videoconferencing.3 / CONVERGENCE AND UNIFIED COMMUNICATIONS 13 Unified Communications A concept related to that of convergence is unified communications (UC). though often with differing levels of functionality. UC focuses on the user perspective to the broad spectrum of business applications. . and provides a desktop-like experience.0: Refers to a second generation of Web capability.0. UC is based on an integrated set of user interfaces and backend connectivity for all communications services. documents. Figure 1. by William Stallings.0/Enterprise 2.0 technologies to workers using network software within an organization or business [MCAF06]. Sixth Edition. and video clips. location tracking. physical security) Web conferencing Audio conferencing Unified messaging Instant messaging Video conferencing Presence IP enabling contact centers IP/mobility Converged IP/wireless infrastructure Network optimization.0 has become a significant element of corporate strategy [MURU07].5. The key elements of this architecture are as follows: • Web 2. refers to the application of Web 2. Key elements of UC include the following include the following: 1.0 are as follows: (1) Much of the content is user generated. management. Web 2. security Real-time communications dashboard ISBN 0-558-69515-9 Figure 1. which is also becoming common.

video conferencing. using an IP network infrastructure. In a typical enterprise. mobile phone. where someone is. Presence has been broadened to encompass a user’s status on phones. An RTC dashboard enables a user to locate other users and invoke collaborative applications with those other uses. or at a computer equipped with microphone and speaker. [GITT06] points out that the RTC dashboard has moved from the “nice to have” to “need to have” category for many businesses. Computer users can select and play voice-mail recordings that appear in their inboxes. • IP/mobility: Refers to the delivery of information to and collection of information from enterprise personnel who are usually mobile. Additionally. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. upward of 30% of employees use some form of remote access technology in the performance of their jobs. from [SENS02]. filed. Presence was once considered simply an underlying technology to instant messaging. Figure 1. voice mail. • Presence: The ability to determine. • Web conferencing: Refers to live meetings or presentations in which participants access the meeting or presentation via the Web. and audio. • Desktop video: Videoconferencing to the desktop. so that call center personnel need not be located at a particular office or remain in a particular place. how he or she prefers to be reached. sorted and forwarded. Telephone users can both retrieve voice mail and hear text-to-voice translations of e-mail messages. Business Data Communications. and even what he or she is doing. • IP enabling contact centers: Refers to the use of IP-based unified communications to enhance customer contact center functionality and performance. data. and faxes via a common interface either on their computer or on their telephone. • Instant messaging: Real-time messaging. . Published by Prentice Hall. and file sharing into a unified view. ISBN 0-558-69515-9 • Converged IP/wireless infrastructure: A unified networking and communications base that relies on IP packet transfer to support voice. image. in real time. wireless devices. refers to a live meeting in which participants are linked together for audio transmission and reception. the unified communications infrastructure enables the call center employee to quickly access other employees and information assets. Messages of any type can be saved. this technology supports mobility. A participant may be on a landline. Finally. answered. • Unified messaging: Allows users to have access to e-mail. Inc. Sixth Edition. by William Stallings. and other collaborative tools. • Audio conferencing: Also called conference calling. illustrates the typical breakdown of usage profiles for mobile employees. and video transmission and that is extended to include local and wide area wireless communications.6.14 CHAPTER 1 / INTRODUCTION whiteboarding. video. either over the Internet or a corporate intranet. including data. The unified communications infrastructure makes use of presence technology to enable customers and internal enterprise employees to be quickly connected to the required expert or support person.

together with a converged network approach. Inc.4 / THE NATURE OF BUSINESS INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS Employee Profiles Desk soldier Accountant On-site rover Assistant Home worker Tele-agent Road warrior Salesperson Off-site rover Consultant Global hopper Corporate executive marketing. Sixth Edition. accessible. within the enterprise and with key constituents. presence information. by William Stallings. In Part One. data. [ELLI08] notes three functional levels of this integration: • Personal unified communications: Intended to enhance individual productivity.6 Three Main Profiles for Mobile Employees The importance of unified communications is not only that it integrates communication channels. and regulators. we consider information in four forms (voice. customers.4 THE NATURE OF BUSINESS INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS A business survives and thrives on information: information within the organization and information exchanged with suppliers. Moreover.1. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. • Enterprise unified communications: Integrates communications with enterprisewide and departmental-level applications. Examples include the use of presence to speed identification of an available individual with the right skills to address a problem and automated business rules to route or escalate communications. will drive requirements for business data communications from the fundamental transmission and networking level up though the applications and services upon which the enterprise depends. Chapters 2 and 3. personal digital assistants (PDAs). Published by Prentice Hall. This area includes smart phones. The unified communications architecture. image. and video) and the implications of distributed data processing. In this book. 1. and at the right location. Enterprises are increasingly migrating to some form and level of commitment to unified communications. but also that it offers a way to integrate communication functions directly into business applications. pre-sales At desk 90% 70% 100% (Home) 10% 30% 25% 25% 10% 80% 70% 50% Somewhere on site 10% 30% On the move 15 Figure 1. the information needs to be consistent. business processes. . By far the most common form of communication in any ISBN 0-558-69515-9 Business Data Communications. the term voice communications primarily refers to telephonerelated communications. • Workgroup unified communications: Supports collaborative and team efforts to improve performance. and workflows. and other personal devices that provide access to voice. instant messaging (IM). and business applications.

Later in this chapter we briefly outline the changes in technology in transmission. presentation material. Inc. and lodging make videoconferencing a powerful tool for increasing efficiency and productivity. can be moved quickly around the office and displayed on user workstations. including in-house digital private branch exchanges (PBX) and Centrex systems provided by the local telephone company. Video communications is also becoming important in the office environment. It provides savings on answering machines and services. and so on. More recently. Image communications is now an important component of the office environment. Newer machines can transmit these documents over telephone networks in seconds. has resulted in PBX and IP Centrex offerings that provide full Internet support. and it has become a cost-efficient tool even for many small and midsize organizations. and communications software that present the manager with new and powerful business tools but also the necessity of making choices among complex alternatives. and low-cost hardware. With fax. Advances have also been made in computerized telephone exchange systems. Traditionally. Telephone communication has been enhanced by a variety of computer-based services. Voice mail provides the ability to send. and even photographs. These new systems provide a host of features. camp-on call waiting. and reply to voice messages nonsimultaneously. ISBN 0-558-69515-9 Business Data Communications. Sixth Edition. Published by Prentice Hall. memos. including personal computer attachments. and other documents) and numerical data (such as accounting files). Videoconferencing allows the linkup of two or more remotely located conference rooms to conduct such meetings as planning sessions. signatures. based on the voice over IP (VoIP) protocol. most notably videoconferencing. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. based on the same technology as that of the familiar compact disc of the music industry. all sorts of images. this technology has been used as a one-way delivery system of entertainment programs. contract negotiations.This new technology for storing and transmitting images creates a demand for high-capacity networks and is one of the driving forces in the development of networking technology.The arrival of the optical disc. Now. including voice mail and computerized telephone exchange systems. The best-known example of this technology is facsimile (fax). The time and money saved on travel. Thus. and a variety of accounting and auditing features.16 CHAPTER 1 / INTRODUCTION organization and for most personnel is direct telephone conversation. graphics. It is sometimes convenient to limit this term to information in the form of text (such as reports. graphs.). as well as a more responsive service to customers and suppliers. facsimile machines have caught up with higher-tech alternatives and have achieved status over the past few years as the preferred method of sending documents over a long distance. and project reviews. The telephone has been a basic business tool for decades. Like the tortoise who surpasses the hare. including engineering and design specifications. The term data communications is sometimes used to refer to virtually any form of information transfer other than voice. etc. networks. it has an increasing business application. by William Stallings. with the availability of high-capacity transmission links and networks. the document can have any content. the merger of voice and Internet technologies. The rapid changes in technology have created fresh challenges for management in making effective use of data communications. image communications is starting to play an important role within the office. including call forwarding. In addition. is now available. . signatures. including text. mixed documents (text. least-cost routing of longdistance calls. forward. food. allows massive amounts of information to be stored inexpensively.

a message sent by e-mail can be far more effective than hit-or-miss attempts to reach the person by telephone. but it is bad business for ISBN 0-558-69515-9 Business Data Communications.A detailed e-mail message can be left in the recipient’s “electronic mailbox. Today. 1. Inc. it is much more common to find a distributed data processing configuration. Chapter 3 examines the motivation for distributed data processing and discusses the various forms that it takes. however. For example.1. the use of a database that is distributed among a number of computers. can be provided by applications software that is geared for the networked environment. . Such an approach may be good business for the vendor. However. and the ability to access many different computers from a single terminal. SNA worked only with IBM equipment. when most employees in an organization have access to a terminal or a personal computer (PC). With the introduction of the Systems Network Architecture (SNA) by IBM in the 1970s. Chapter 2 examines the business uses of these four classes of information and the communications requirements that they generate. the data processing function was centrally organized around a mainframe computer. Traditionally. such as the exchange of documents. coupled with an increase in the capability of such equipment. The key to the success of these applications is that all the terminals and computers in the community “speak” the same language.5 DISTRIBUTED DATA PROCESSING The steady drop over many years in the cost of data processing equipment.6 / THE INTERNET AND DISTRIBUTED APPLICATIONS 17 All these forms of information communications play a key role in today’s businesses. and the underlying interconnection software that allows these terminals and computers to work together cooperatively. one of the most effective means of communication within the organization is electronic mail (e-mail). This software must ensure that all the devices transmit messages in such a way that they can be understood by the other computers and terminals in the community. Published by Prentice Hall. Soon other vendors followed with their own proprietary communication architectures to tie together their equipment.The manager responsible for them must understand the technology sufficiently to deal effectively with vendors of communications products and services and to make cost-effective choices among the growing array of options. This is the role of the underlying interconnection software. this concept became a reality. has led to the introduction of many small. Other applications. If one employee needs to communicate with another. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. The mere existence of a large population of computers and terminals creates the demand that these devices work together. one that consists of a number of computers and terminals linked together by networks. Sixth Edition.and medium-size computers into the business environment.” to be read and answered when the recipient returns to the office. by William Stallings.6 THE INTERNET AND DISTRIBUTED APPLICATIONS A business needs to be concerned with two dimensions of computer communications software: the application software that is provided for a community of terminals and computers. 1.

and secure data communications. that situation has changed radically with the adoption of standards for interconnection software. Chapter 5 discusses the use of standardized communications protocols to integrate diverse equipment. powerful graphical interfaces and much of the application computing. requires sophisticated. local to the user. tailored installation.18 CHAPTER 1 / INTRODUCTION the customer. suppliers. Inc. The Web provides a way to communicate with consumers and to publicize the company and can form the base for a number of e-commerce applications. TCP/IP One of the most difficult problems that has traditionally faced computer users is that different vendors have used different and incompatible architectures. Happily. Chapter 4 provides important background on the Internet. but its inherent flexibility and responsiveness make it an essential tool in the businessperson’s information systems repertoire. and partners. Published by Prentice Hall. Most applications have evolved away from large. such as printing. The large mainframe. Modern data communications and microelectronics are radically changing the architecture of modern information systems. . or supporting database activities. Instead of dumb terminals enslaved to mainframes. The Internet Virtually no business. storing files. Internet technology. by William Stallings. called client/server architecture. The focus is on the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) protocol suite. The number of PCs and workstations is growing at a much greater rate than that of mainframes and ISBN 0-558-69515-9 Business Data Communications. This approach. and certainly no medium or large enterprise. Sixth Edition. The manager needs to understand the scope and status of these standards to exploit them in building a multiple-vendor. The local workstations and PCs are supported by specialized servers specifically designed for a single function. reliable. Client/Server Architectures and Intranets A remarkable transformation is taking place in the architecture of today’s commercial computers. The workstations and PCs are often connected to the servers by high-speed LANs. has been replaced or supplemented in many applications by networked PCs and workstations. enables secure communication both within an enterprise and with customers. can compete without exploiting the Internet and the Web. as is illustrated by the increased manufacture of computers of different types. general-purpose mainframe computers to distributed computing. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. which is now universally used for the communications software function across multiple-vendor equipment and is the basis for the operation of the Internet. in the form of intranets and extranets. high-performance workstations and PCs provide. although still important. Part Two looks at a number of topics that deal with the infrastructure for supporting distributed applications. Chapter 5 also briefly reviews the Open System Interconnection (OSI) architecture developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

the LAN is to be found in virtually all medium. and easy-to-implement approach to many business applications. Distributed Applications Distributed information processing is essential in virtually all businesses. Sixth Edition. image. intranets.This demand for connectivity is manifested in two specific requirements: the need for communications software. and even video. . presentation graphics. Even more recently. and provide other specialized functions on a shared basis for many users (clients). Inc. are accessed over LANs and other communications networks. and video are equally important to business. Beyond the confines of a single office building. and terminals. Moreover. There is a growing use of applications that are designed to work among a distributed set of computers for both intracompany and intercompany information exchange. image. there are rapid changes. An intranet provides the same sorts of applications and interfaces as found on the Internet. Separate computers (servers) support database functions. Advances in technology have led to greatly increased capacity and the concept of integration. Chapter 6 looks at client/server computing.and large-size office buildings. Published by Prentice Hall. the expanding memory and processing power of these computers means that users can put the machines to work on new kinds of applications and functions. Indeed. too. computation is provided by the client/server model. perform printing services. Here. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. with the attendant problems of interconnecting and managing a diverse collection of networks. It is changing the way vendors think and the way all automation products and services are sold.7 NETWORKS The number of computers in use worldwide is in the billions. with the result that computing is being more widely distributed. Accordingly. computers. Furthermore. and extranets. and the need for networks. Increasingly. data. data. 1. networks for voice.1. Although standards have been developed that reduce somewhat the number of types of LANs. with no access to outsiders. a memo or report can be accompanied by voice commentary. One type of network that has become increasingly common is the local area network (LAN). a new approach has gained widespread support within organizations: the intranet. The intranet is a flexible. many offices need more than one such network. the pressure from the users of these systems for ways to communicate among all these machines is irresistible. Thus.7 / NETWORKS 19 midrange computers. which can offer enhanced performance and cost savings through specialization. there are still half a dozen general types of local area networks to choose from. These servers. Chapter 7 examines some of the key applications that are likely to be the most important to a business. especially the World Wide Web. The difference is that an intranet is confined to use within the organization. As the number and power of computing devices have grown. by William Stallings. which is previewed in the next section. store files. and perhaps ISBN 0-558-69515-9 Business Data Communications. easy-to-use. Integration means that the customer equipment and networks can deal simultaneously with voice. so have the number and capacity of LANs to be found in an office.

a WAN consists of a number of interconnected switching nodes. Sixth Edition. and rely at least in part on circuits provided by a common carrier. At each node. data are sent out in a sequence of small chunks. require the crossing of public right-of-ways. On the other hand.20 CHAPTER 1 / INTRODUCTION even a short video introduction or summary. On each link. However. we provide a brief overview of various networks. Inc. Moreover. The most common example of circuit switching is the telephone network. developing switching systems with the capacity and rapid response to support these increased requirements is a challenge not yet conquered. rather. A transmission from any attached device is routed through these internal nodes to the specified destination device. These nodes (including the boundary nodes) are not concerned with the content of the data. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. the enormous and ever-increasing capacity of fiber optic and wireless transmission provides ample resources to meet these demands. CIRCUIT SWITCHING In a circuit-switching network. as LANs become ubiquitous and as their transmission rates increase. . Traditionally. Published by Prentice Hall. Each packet is passed through the network from node to node along some path leading from source to destination. called packets. Typically. Packet-switching networks are commonly used for terminal-to-computer and computer-to-computer communications. a logical channel is dedicated to the connection. and then transmitted to the next node. Data generated by the source station are transmitted along the dedicated path as rapidly as possible. Wide Area Networks Wide area networks generally cover a large geographical area. Parts Three and Four cover these topics in depth. That path is a connected sequence of physical links between nodes. a dedicated communication path is established between two stations through the nodes of the network. At each node. In the remainder of this section. Image and video services impose large demands on wide area network transmission. PACKET SWITCHING A different approach is used in a packet-switching network. In this case. FRAME RELAY Packet switching was developed at a time when digital long-distance transmission facilities exhibited a relatively high error rate compared to today’s ISBN 0-558-69515-9 Business Data Communications. their purpose is to provide a switching facility that will move the data from node to node until they reach their destination. stored briefly. it is not necessary to dedicate transmission capacity along a path through the network. by William Stallings. The manager who understands the technology and can deal effectively with vendors of service and equipment is able to enhance a company’s competitive position. Rather. the entire packet is received. WANs have been implemented using one of two technologies: circuit switching and packet switching. Chapter 13 looks at frame relay and ATM. incoming data are routed or switched to the appropriate outgoing channel without delay. More recently. The opportunities for using networks as an aggressive competitive tool and as a means of enhancing productivity and slashing costs are great. frame relay and ATM networks have assumed major roles. fortunately. the demands on the wide area networks to support LAN interconnection have increased the demands on wide area network capacity and switching.

Inc. With modern high-speed telecommunications systems. For WANs. As a result. a LAN is a communications network that interconnects a variety of devices and provides a means for information exchange among those devices. Whereas the original packet-switching networks were designed with a data rate to the end user of about 64 kbps. ATM can also be viewed as an evolution from circuit switching. this overhead is unnecessary and counterproductive. ATM allows the definition of multiple virtual channels with data rates that are dynamically defined at the time the virtual channel is created. is a culmination of developments in circuit switching and packet switching. With circuit switching. frame relay networks are designed to operate efficiently at user data rates of up to 2 Mbps. depending on the inherent reliability of the transmission system and on higher layers of logic in the end systems to catch and correct errors. By using a fixed packet length. ATM provides little overhead for error control. 2. Thus. The scope of the LAN is small. ATM is so efficient that it can offer a constant-data-rate channel even though it is using a packet-switching technique. First. because there may be a substantial capital investment (compared to dial-up or leased charges for WANs) for both purchase ISBN 0-558-69515-9 Business Data Communications. fixed-size cells. only fixed-data-rate circuits are available to the end system. by William Stallings. and in the Gbps range. there is a considerable amount of overhead built into packetswitching schemes to compensate for errors. care must be taken in the choice of LAN.1. and ATM uses fixed-length packets. this is less often the case. Frame relay was developed to take advantage of these high data rates and low error rates. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. The most obvious difference between frame relay and ATM is that frame relay uses variable-length packets. It is unnecessary because the rate of errors has been dramatically lowered and any remaining errors can easily be caught in the end systems by logic that operates above the level of the packet-switching logic. . called cells. It is counterproductive because the overhead involved soaks up a significant fraction of the high capacity provided by the network. There are several key distinctions between LANs and WANs: 1. ATM extends circuit switching to allow multiple channels with the data rate on each channel dynamically set on demand. ATM Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). The result is that ATM is designed to work in the range of 10s and 100s of Mbps. ATM can be viewed as an evolution from frame relay.7 / NETWORKS 21 facilities. called frames. typically a single building or a cluster of buildings. It is usually the case that the LAN is owned by the same organization that owns the attached devices. The overhead includes additional bits added to each packet to introduce redundancy and additional processing at the end stations and the intermediate switching nodes to detect and recover from errors. As with frame relay. By using small. the processing overhead is reduced even further for ATM compared to frame relay. The key to achieving these high data rates is to strip out most of the overhead involved with error control. Published by Prentice Hall. This difference in geographic scope leads to different technical solutions. sometimes referred to as cell relay. Sixth Edition. or at least a significant fraction of the network assets are not owned.This has two implications. as we shall see. Local Area Networks As with WANs.

Figure 1. Two other prominent examples are ATM LANs. Published by Prentice Hall. The most common are switched LANs and wireless LANs. Wireless LANs use a variety of wireless transmission technologies and organizations. or a number of interconnected switches. Inc. and the internal structure of the subscriber network. A number of approaches have been implemented. there is a requirement now for both private and public networks that provide high capacity at low costs over a large area. which provides a high-speed link over telephone lines and requires a special DSL modem. Metropolitan Area Networks As the name suggests. Interest in MANs has come about as a result of a recognition that the traditional point-to-point and switched network techniques used in WANs may be inadequate for the growing needs of organizations. ISBN 0-558-69515-9 Business Data Communications. . Sixth Edition. Chapter 14 covers wireless WANs. a metropolitan area network (MAN) occupies a middle ground between LANs and WANs. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. While frame relay and ATM promise to meet a wide range of high-speed needs. A MAN is intended to provide the required capacity at lower cost and greater efficiency than obtaining an equivalent service from the local telephone company. In each case.. Wireless networks provide advantages in the areas of mobility and ease of installation and configuration. The most common switched LAN is a switched Ethernet LAN. An Example Configuration To give some feel for the scope of concerns of Parts Two through Four. there are separate issues concerning signal encoding. Part Three covers LANs. Common examples of such a connection are the public switched telephone network. Wireless technology is also common for both wide area voice and data networks.7 illustrates some of the typical communications and network elements in use today. Wireless Networks As was just mentioned. a 56-kbps modem). which consists of a single switch with a number of attached devices. including wireless networks and metropolitan extensions to Ethernet. which requires a cable modem. the network management responsibility for a LAN falls solely on the owner. by William Stallings. The primary market for MANs is the customer that has high capacity needs in a metropolitan area. which simply use an ATM network in a local area. 3. and a cable TV facility.g. for which the user requires a dial-up modem (e. In the upper left-hand portion of the Figure 1. a digital subscriber line (DSL). error control. wireless LANs are common and are being widely used in business environments. LANs come in a number of different configurations.22 CHAPTER 1 / INTRODUCTION and maintenance.7. and Fibre Channel. Second. we see an individual residential user connected to an Internet service provider (ISP) through some sort of subscriber connection. The internal data rates of LANs are typically much greater than those of WANs.

described in Chapter 17. by William Stallings. These routers forward packets of data from source to destination through the Internet.7 Networking Configuration Information server LAN PCs and workstations ISBN 0-558-69515-9 Typically. SONET) Router Internet ATM switch Firewall host High-speed link ATM Network Router Ethernet switch Private WAN Figure 1. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. Sixth Edition.7 / NETWORKS 23 Subscriber connection Residential user Internet service provider (ISP) High-speed link (e. Published by Prentice Hall.g.1. . Inc. Business Data Communications. an ISP will consist of a number of interconnected servers (only a single server is shown) connected to the Internet through a high-speed link. The Internet consists of a number of interconnected routers that span the globe.. One example of such a link is a SONET (synchronous optical network) line.

In this example the firewall connects to the Internet through an ATM network. satellite and radio). The manager is concerned with whether the particular facility provides the required capacity. . at minimum cost. Ethernet) raises additional issues. However. The internal structure of the various networks (telephone.8 THE TRANSMISSION OF INFORMATION The basic building block of any communications facility is the transmission line. During the past 10 years. over a ISBN 0-558-69515-9 Business Data Communications.g.. The ever-increasing capacity of fiber optic channels is making channel capacity a virtually free resource. highly parallel processing in switches. This is a common configuration at small businesses and other small organizations. Sixth Edition. For use within the business premises. Inc. is a result of the trend toward universal personal telecommunications and universal access to communications. The second medium.24 CHAPTER 1 / INTRODUCTION The lower portion of Figure 1. Long-distance telephone communications trunks within the United States will soon consist almost completely of fiber optic cable..7. For long-distance communications. A variety of design issues. We will be occupied in Parts Two through Four with the design features suggested by Figure 1. switching is now becoming the bottleneck. Examples are links between routers on the Internet.7 shows a LAN implemented using a single Ethernet switch. The growth of the market for optical fiber transmission systems since the beginning of the 1980s is without precedent. ATM. such as signal encoding and error control. The LAN is connected to the Internet through a firewall host that provides security services. which might be a private ATM or frame relay network. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. including asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switching. Published by Prentice Hall. Because of its high capacity and its security characteristics (fiber is difficult to tap). the choice is generally but not always made by the long-distance carrier. the cost of fiber optic transmission has dropped by more than an order of magnitude. relate to the links between adjacent elements. and integrated network management schemes. In either case. Of particular note are fiber optic transmission and wireless transmission (e. between switches in the ATM network. This problem is causing radical changes in communication architecture. One of the basic choices facing a business user is the transmission medium. 1. by William Stallings. this choice is generally completely up to the business. and between a subscriber and an ISP. there are certain aspects of transmission technology that a manager must understand to ask the right questions and make informed decisions. with acceptable reliability. globally.g. There is also a router off of the LAN hooked into a private WAN. wireless transmission. it is becoming increasingly used within office buildings to carry the growing load of business information. The first concept refers to the ability of a person to identify himself or herself easily and to use conveniently any communication system in a large area (e. Much of the technical detail of how information is encoded and transmitted across a line is of no real interest to the business manager. changes in technology are rapidly changing the mix of media used. and the capacity of such systems has grown at almost as rapid a rate. These two media are now driving the evolution of data communications transmission. However.

8 / THE TRANSMISSION OF INFORMATION 25 continent. Chapters 9. These latter functions may be performed by a data link control protocol. optical fiber cable. to have a portable terminal that will work in the office. Some means of controlling the flow of information and recovering from its loss or corruption must be used. in Part Five. ISBN 0-558-69515-9 Transmission Efficiency A major cost in any computer/communications facility is transmission cost. by William Stallings. and 14 discuss the various transmission media. Compression. and on airplanes equally well). The interface between a device and the transmission medium must be agreed on. The two major approaches to greater efficiency are multiplexing and compression. If each device needs the facility only a fraction of the time. Communication Techniques The transmission of information across a transmission medium involves more than simply inserting a signal on the medium. . Published by Prentice Hall. as the name indicates. The technique used to encode the information into an electromagnetic signal must be determined. These two techniques show up separately and in combination in a number of types of communications equipment. Chapters 15 and 16. There are various ways in which the encoding can be done. coaxial cable. Transmission and Transmission Media Information can be communicated by converting it into an electromagnetic signal and transmitting that signal over some medium. transmission services remain the most costly component of a communications budget for most businesses. the successful transmission of information involves a high degree of cooperation. and terrestrial and satellite microwave. The manager needs to understand these technologies to assess the appropriateness and cost-effectiveness of the various products on the market. Because of this. it is important to maximize the amount of information that can be carried over a given resource or. alternatively. Thus. 11.1. Furthermore. on the street. then a sharing arrangement allows the cost of the facility to be spread over many users.g. The most commonly used transmission media are twisted-pair lines. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. Inc. Chapter 15 examines the significant properties of electromagnetic signals. This revolution in personal computing obviously involves wireless communication in a fundamental way. The data rates that can be achieved and the rate at which errors can occur depend on the nature of the signal and the type of medium. All these issues are examined in Chapters 16 and 17. and the choice affects performance and reliability. the manager needs to be aware of techniques that increase the efficiency of the use of these facilities. The second refers to the capability of using one’s terminal in a wide variety of environments to connect to information services (e. examine the key issues and technologies in the area of information transmission. such as a twisted-pair telephone line. to minimize the transmission capacity needed Business Data Communications. Multiplexing refers to the ability of a number of devices to share a transmission facility. Sixth Edition. or in an entire country) in terms of a single account.. involves squeezing the data down so that a lower-capacity. cheaper transmission facility can be used to meet a given demand. Despite the growth in the capacity and the drop in the cost of transmission facilities.

Techniques of centralized. are climbing. The standard technique for achieving this objective is multiplexing.e. • In many business sectors. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. Many of the management functions required are common to other aspects of business management. the key focus was the functionality and performance of the technology. 1. and there is a shortage of skilled personnel to staff network command centers and to handle network management. . retailing. That is. but the following requirements are special to information technology: • Networks have evolved from an easily controlled client/server (i. remote monitoring and control provide rapid ISBN 0-558-69515-9 Business Data Communications. Network management must provide global visibility on corporate information flow. in the 1970s. managers discovered that the operation of their businesses had become dependent on their information systems and that the economic performance of their firms depended on the costeffective use of the technology. Network Security As companies rely increasingly on networks and as access by outsiders via the Internet and other links grows. • Peer-to-peer networks have grown larger and larger—some have tens or hundreds of thousands of attached devices—so that managing. What could the technology do? How fast? For how many transactions? As electronic information systems became part of the basic fabric of many businesses. mainframe/dumb terminal) approach into peer-to-peer interconnections among highly distributed systems. Inc. For example. and maintaining them has become very complex. meanwhile. Published by Prentice Hall. the vexing question of security becomes ever more important.9 MANAGEMENT ISSUES Part Six concludes the book by examining key management issues related to business data communications. and other service industries. such as banking. managers of data communications are often most concerned today about network reliability. Sixth Edition. like any resource. monitoring. and synchronous time division. The key questions were.26 CHAPTER 1 / INTRODUCTION to satisfy a given information communications requirement. Chapter 17 examines both multiplexing frequency division. Companies are at risk for the disclosure of confidential information and for the unauthorized altering of corporate data. Network Management In the early years of data communications. information technology had to be managed. networks of computing devices constitute a critical strategic resource that cannot be allowed to fail. by William Stallings. Chapters 18 and 19 look at the basic tools for achieving network security and discusses how they can be adapted to meet a company’s needs. • Communications costs..

. and economic activity. but a word. particularly in a multivendor environment. Throughout this book. These organizations develop Internet standards and related specifications. The manager must understand the requirements for network management and the tools and technologies available to plan effectively for an automated network management strategy. Virtually all vendors of products and services are committed to supporting international standards. Inc. Published by Prentice Hall. ITU-T standards are referred to as Recommendations. Network management is a complex discipline. ISO is a nongovernmental organization that promotes the development of standardization and related activities with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services. It provides leadership in addressing issues that confront the future of the Internet and is the organization home for the groups responsible for Internet infrastructure standards. scientific. all of which are published as Requests for Comments (RFCs). Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. 1. • ITU-T: The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is an international organization within the United Nations System in which governments and the private sector coordinate global telecom networks and services The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) is one of the three sectors of the ITU. by William Stallings. ISO’s work results in international agreements that are published as International Standards.1. Various organizations have been involved in the development or promotion of these standards. The most widely used standards are for ISBN 0-558-69515-9 ISO is not an acronym (in which case it would be IOS). meaning equal.10 / STANDARDS 27 notification of failures and automatic invocation of recovery measures. technological. The most important (in the current context) of these organizations are as follows: • Internet Society: ISOC is a professional membership society with worldwide organizational and individual membership. we describe the most important standards in use or being developed for various aspects of data communications and networking. including the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Architecture Board (IAB). Chapters 20 and 21 focus on network management. and to developing cooperation in the spheres of intellectual. On-the-fly analysis of network performance and dynamic adjustment of network parameters provide adaptation to varying cycles of business activity. derived from the Greek. one from each country. • ISO: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO)3 is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from more than 140 countries. • IEEE 802: The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee develops local area network standards and metropolitan area network standards. ITU-T’s mission is the production of standards covering all fields of telecommunications. 3 Business Data Communications. Sixth Edition.10 STANDARDS Standards have come to play a dominant role in the information communications marketplace.

White Paper. KERR06 Kerravala. TARL07 Tarleja.S. “UC: Adding to the Bottom and Top Lines Today. [TARL07] makes the business case for unified communications. wireless LAN. TURE04 Turek. standards. and [MILO00]. HETT03 Hettick. LAZA07 Laxar.” Business Communications Review. G.” Business Communications Review. M.” Business Communications Review. “A Roadmap to Convergence. MILO00 Milonas.” IT Pro. [KERR06] compares the Microsoft and Cisco approaches to unified communications. bridging. January–March 2000. May/ June 2005. June 2003. [TURE04] provides a detailed discussion of presence. S. The Impact of Microsoft’s Unified Communications Launch.A. B. Levine. Yankee Group.28 CHAPTER 1 / INTRODUCTION the Ethernet family. Published by Prentice Hall. May 2004. Despite its national scope. October 2004. 2007. An individual working group provides the focus for each area. federal agency that deals with measurement science. MILL05 Miller. including case studies. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. from a Cisco perspective. S. tutorials. “Architectures for Convergence.11 RECOMMENDED READING AND WEB SITES Good overview articles on convergence include [AUDI04a]. Z. AUDI04a Audin. A more detailed discussion of these organizations is contained in Appendix B. G.. and technology related to U. 1. “Welcome to Convergence. [MILL05] and [AUDI04b] look at the business implications of evolving toward a convergence architecture. Why.” Bell Labs Technical Journal. August 2006. government use and to the promotion of U.S. NIST Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) and Special Publications (SP) have a worldwide impact. and Tantzen. Chandra.” Business Communications Review. private-sector innovation. Business Data Communications. H. M. news. “Unified Communications: What. Inc. October 2004. by William Stallings. H. and How?” Issue Paper. L.. I.. and links to standards organizations.. AUDI04b Audin. . Sixth Edition.“Enterprise Networking for the New Millennium. [HETT03]. “Building Blocks for Converged Applications. • National Institute of Standards and Technology: NIST is a U. and virtual bridged LANs. “The Future of Presence. [LAZA07] is a good overview of unified communications. ISBN 0-558-69515-9 Recommended Web sites: • IEEE Standards in Education: A wealth of information on standards.S.” Business Communications Review. Nemertes Research. and Bates. November 2007.

It represents the outcome of one choice: 1 or 0. Contrast the function of application software with that of interconnection software. . 110. How has the technology of the compact disc used in the music industry been used in image communications? Why are the burdens on the manager greater today than in previous years when it comes to using new technology efficiently? Why has optical fiber transmission become popular in the past few years? What types of communications can be carried by satellite transmission? Name two approaches that can be used for increasing the efficiency of transmission services. 100.2 1. 8 b = 1 B). and cases studies.5 1. 01. Three bits represent eight outcomes: 000. Sixth Edition.6 1. Two bits can represent four outcomes: 00. on or off.1 1. 10.9 What three kinds of basic organizational difficulties can communications technology help companies overcome? Name four types of information that are found on networks. this site integrates data and voice communications topics well. 101. usually abbreviated as B) is the name given to 8 bits (e. 1. for example.7 1. A byte (or octet. convergence. the numbers of outcomes double (Table 1. and IP communications. One bit represents two potential outcomes. 11.8 1. • ZDNet: A rich collection of material on business and information technology. yes or no. Bits are traditionally used in describing communications rates..3 1.g. ISBN 0-558-69515-9 Business Data Communications. 011. blogs.12 KEY TERMS AND REVIEW QUESTIONS Key Terms asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) circuit switching client/server convergence data communications distributed applications frame relay image communications Internet local area network (LAN) metropolitan area network (MAN) packet switching TCP/IP unified communications video communications voice communications wide area network (WAN) wireless network Review Questions 1. The site focuses on unified communications. by William Stallings. computer magazine articles.The number of potential outcomes a byte represents is 2 ϫ 2 ϫ 2 ϫ 2 × 2 ϫ 2 ϫ 2 ϫ 2 ϭ 28 ϭ 256. Bytes are usually used in representing quantities of storage in computers.1). 111. Inc. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education. one bit can represent the on/off state of a switch. Briefly define convergence and unified communications. 010. APPENDIX 1A PREFIXES FOR NUMERICAL UNITS The bit (b) is the fundamental unit of discrete information. 001. Each time another bit is added. Published by Prentice Hall. news. So. including white papers.APPENDIX 1A PREFIXES FOR NUMERICAL UNITS 29 • No Jitter: Oriented toward the business user.4 1.

and so forth are often used on numerical units. Because memory is indicated by binary addresses.2 Numerical Prefixes Factor Prefix Name tera giga mega kilo milli micro nano Prefix Symbol T G M k m μ n SI 1012 109 106 103 10–3 10–6 10–9 Computer Storage 240 230 ϭ 1. For example. the size of memory is expressed as powers of 2. the prefixes used are those defined for the International System of Units (SI). by William Stallings.192 65. .3 + 109 1.536 1. the prefixes kilo. or a message that is transmitted is typically measured in bytes.30 CHAPTER 1 / INTRODUCTION Table 1.048. Table 1. one kilobyte (1 kB) ϭ 210 bytes ϭ 1024 bytes. one kilobit per second (1 kbps) ϭ 103 bps ϭ 1000 bps.1 Bits and Outcomes Number of Bits (x) 1 4 7 8 10 13 16 20 23 32 64 Number of Outcomes (2x) 2 16 128 256 1.073. prefixes are used as a shorthand method of expressing powers of 10. For example. in a file. Sixth Edition.024 8. Inc.608 4. the international standard. In this scheme.84 + 1019 Typical Use Basic unit of information Hexadecimal digit IRA (International Reference Alphabet) character without parity bit Byte.2): • Data transmission: For data transmission.741.824 220 ϭ 1. The same prefixes are used in a way that approximates their use in the SI scheme.048.576 8. These have two different interpretations (Table 1. • Computer storage: The amount of data in computer memory. Published by Prentice Hall.576 210 ϭ 1024 ISBN 0-558-69515-9 Business Data Communications. mega. character with parity bit Number of bytes in a kilobyte of storage Number of bits in a kilobyte of storage Address size in older computers Number of bytes in a megabyte of storage Number of bits in a megabyte of storage Common memory address size Memory address size on newer computers In the computer science literature. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education.388.

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