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___________________________________________________________________________ 2012/SCSC/WKSP/007 Risk Assessment in the IECEE CB Scheme Submitted by: IEC Workshop on Devel oping

___________________________________________________________________________

2012/SCSC/WKSP/007

Risk Assessment in the IECEE CB Scheme

Submitted by: IEC

___________________________________________________________________________ 2012/SCSC/WKSP/007 Risk Assessment in the IECEE CB Scheme Submitted by: IEC Workshop on Devel oping

Workshop on Developing a Harmonised Electrical Equipment Regulatory Risk Assessment Tool Singapore 15-16 May 2012

Risk Assessment in the IECEE CB Scheme Develo in p g a Harmonised Electrical Equipment Regulatory
Risk Assessment in the IECEE CB Scheme Develo in p g a Harmonised Electrical Equipment Regulatory
Risk Assessment in the
IECEE CB Scheme
Develo in
p
g
a Harmonised
Electrical Equipment
Regulatory Risk Assessment
Tool –
Dennis CHEW
Regional Director
IEC-APRC Singapore
May 15 - 16 2012, Singapore
APEC EE JRAC Workshop -
  • IEC Structure

IEC COUNCIL Full Member National Committees Mana ement g COUNCIL BOARD CENTRAL OFFICE Advisory (The Executive)
IEC COUNCIL
Full Member National Committees
Mana ement
g
COUNCIL BOARD
CENTRAL OFFICE
Advisory
(The Executive)
Committees
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
(IEC Officers)

APEC EE JRAC Workshop – May 15 - 16 2012, Singapore

STANDARDIZATION

 

MANAGEMENT

BOARD (SMB)

Management of

consensus International

Standards work

 
 

Technical Committees

 
 

Technical Advisory Committees

 
 

Industry Sector Boards

CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT BOARD (CAB) Management of Conformity Assessment operations and s stems y IECEE IECEx IECQ
CONFORMITY
ASSESSMENT
BOARD (CAB)
Management of Conformity
Assessment operations
and s stems
y
IECEE
IECEx
IECQ

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Technology watch / market priorities BOARD (MSB) STRATEGY MARKET
Technology watch /
market priorities
BOARD (MSB)
STRATEGY
MARKET

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  • The CAB & Conformity Assessment Systems

CAB - Conformity Assessment Board IECQ System for Certification to Standards Relating to Equipment for use
CAB - Conformity Assessment Board
IECQ
System for Certification to
Standards Relating to
Equipment for use in
Explosive Atmospheres
IECEx
System for Conformity
Testing and Certification of
Electrotechnical Equipment
and Components
IECEE
CB-FCS
Avionics
Processes
components
Active &Passive
HSPM
Quality Assessment System
for Electronic Components
APEC EE JRAC Workshop – May 15 - 16 2012, Singapore
CB Scheme
Ex Equipment
Scheme
Ex Services
Ex Personnel
PV Programme
E3 Energy
Efficiency
Hazardous
Substances
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What is the IEC?

What is the IEC?

Founded in 1906 the INTERNATIONAL

 

ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as “electrotechnology”.

The IEC also operates Conformity Assessment Systems that provide third party testing and certification to products and systems against its International Standards.

 

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What is the IECEE System?

What is the IECEE System?

  • Fully integrated in the IEC, based in Geneva

 
  • Founded in 1985

  • Based on the principle of Multi Lateral Agreement

  • Operates third party C.A. Schemes and Programmes

  • Facilitate trade and provides easy access to the Global Market

  • Promotes harmonization but takes into account National Differences

 

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IECEE Member Bodies by Economies

IECEE Member Bodies by Economies

 

Argentina

Finland

Malaysia

 

Slovakia

 

Australia

France

Mexico

Slovenia

Austria

Germany

Netherlands

 

South Africa

 

Bahrain

Greece

New Zealand

Spain

Belarus

Hungary

Norway

Sweden

 

Belgium

India

Pakistan

 

Switzerland

 

Brazil

Indonesia

Poland

Thailand

 

Bulgaria

Ireland

Portugal

Turkey

Canada

China

Israel

Italy

R

Romania

i

F

uss an

e

d

i

erat on

Ukraine

i

d A

Un te

ra

b E

i

m rates

Colombia

Japan

Saudi Arabia

United Kingdom

Croatia

Kenya

Serbia

United States

Czech Rep.

Korea Rep. of

Singapore

 

Denmark

Libya

53 Participating Economies

 

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IECEE Membership

IECEE Membership

  • IECEE is a voluntary C.A. System of National Member Bodies that fully represent electrotechnical interests in their economies

 

Government, industry, testing laboratories, academia, retailers, consumer groups…

  • Membership – one Member Body per economy - MB

 
  • Unlimited number of Certification Bodies - NCBs

  • Unlimited number of Testing Laboratories – CBTLs

  • Unlimited number of Manufacturer’s Testing Laboratories - MTLs

 
 

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Members of the IECEE System

Members of the IECEE System

The Members of the IECEE System are:

 
  • 53 Member Bodies - 1 per Economy

  • 75 Certification Bodies - 1 or more per Economy

  • 359 Testing Laboratories - 1 or more per Economy

  • 47 ACTLs

  • 2219 Manufacturer’s Testing Laboratories

 
 

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The IECEE CB Scheme and FCS Scheme

The IECEE CB Scheme and FCS Scheme

 

In recognition of the need to facilitate international trade in

 

electrotechnical equipment, and components primarily

intended for use in homes offices worksho s healthcare facilities

 

,

,

p

and similar locations, for benefit of consumers, industries,

 

authorities etc, and to provide convenience for

 

manufacturers and other users of the services provided by

 

various National Certification Bodies (NCBs), two international

Schemes are operated by the IECEE, known as the:

  • CB Scheme

 CB Scheme
  • CB-FCS Full Certification Scheme

 CB-FCS Full Certification Scheme
 
 

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IECEE Conformity Assessment Schemes

IECEE Conformity Assessment Schemes

 
IECEE Conformity Assessment Schemes  The IECEE Schemes are based on the principle of mutual recognition
IECEE Conformity Assessment Schemes  The IECEE Schemes are based on the principle of mutual recognition
  • The IECEE Schemes are based on the principle of mutual recognition (reciprocal acceptance) by its worldwide members of test results for obtaining certification or approval at national level.

 
  • The IECEE Schemes in the last decade have naturally evolved and become « de facto » the most accepted proof of compliance by many Economies’ Authorities and Regulators as the passport to entry their markets without further testing.

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IECEE facilitates International Trade

IECEE facilitates International Trade

 
IECEE facilitates International Trade The IECEE Schemes are intended to reduce obstacles to international trade which
IECEE facilitates International Trade The IECEE Schemes are intended to reduce obstacles to international trade which
 

The IECEE Schemes are intended to reduce obstacles to international trade which arise from having to meet different national certi ication or approval criteria.

 

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IECEE facilitates National Differences International Trade

IECEE facilitates

National

Differences

International Trade

 

Where national standards are not

et

y completely based on IEC standards, declared national differences are taken into account. However, successful operation of the Scheme presupposes that national standards are reasonably harmonized with the corresponding IEC standards.

 
 

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The scope of the CB Scheme Scope of the IECEE System 13/69 APEC EE JRAC Workshop
The scope of the CB Scheme
Scope of the IECEE System
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APEC EE JRAC Workshop – May 15 - 16 2012, Singapore
Household Appliances

Household Appliances

Household Appliances APEC EE JRAC Workshop – May 15 - 16 2012, Singapore 14/69
Household Appliances APEC EE JRAC Workshop – May 15 - 16 2012, Singapore 14/69
Household Appliances APEC EE JRAC Workshop – May 15 - 16 2012, Singapore 14/69
APEC EE JRAC Workshop – May 15 - 16 2012, Singapore
APEC EE JRAC Workshop – May 15 - 16 2012, Singapore

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Safety-Performance-Environmental Safety Energy efficiency Environmental Protection IEC Standards for electrical safety IEC Standards for energy efficiency
Safety-Performance-Environmental
Safety
Energy efficiency
Environmental
Protection
IEC Standards for
electrical safety
IEC Standards for energy
efficiency
IECEE Hazardous
Substances Program
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APEC EE JRAC Workshop – May 15 - 16 2012, Singapore
The CB Scheme and CB-FCS Processes

The CB Scheme and CB-FCS Processes

 

CB-FCS

Sample request

Sample

request

Testing

Inspection

Evaluation

Decision

CB-FCS Sample request Sample Testing Inspection Evaluation Decision
CB-FCS Sample request Sample Testing Inspection Evaluation Decision
CB-FCS Sample request Sample Testing Inspection Evaluation Decision
CB-FCS Sample request Sample Testing Inspection Evaluation Decision
CB-FCS Sample request Sample Testing Inspection Evaluation Decision

CB requests sample(s) and sets the testing

programme

CBTL’s Staff performs the measuring and

testing programme

CB’s Staff performs the Factory Inspection

CB’s Staff evaluates the Test Report

CB’s officer takes the Certification decision

Licence

Licence

CB issues the CB Test Certificate and Test Report

 

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IECEE System in action Conformity Type test Assessment Type test NCB- Certification Test Laboratory program program
IECEE System in action
Conformity
Type test
Assessment
Type test
NCB- Certification
Test
Laboratory
program program
Certificate
Report
Body A
Conformity
Assessment
National
National
issuing
National
differences
Report
differences
Factory
differences
(if applicable)
(if applicable)
Factory
Inspection
(if applicable)
Audit Re ort
p
National
Testing…
differences
Analyzing…
(if applicable)
Conformity
Assessment
Factory
Certificate
Audit Report
Conformity
Application
Assessment
documents
APPLICANT
Report
Auditing…
Factory
Factory
Audit Report
National
differences
(if applicable)
NCB Economy B1
15 working days
Market
Regulators
Recognizing
NCB Economy B2
Recognizing
Retailers/Vendors
Buyers
NCB Economy B3
Recognizing
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APEC EE JRAC Workshop – May 15 - 16 2012, Singapore
IECEE Membership 400 350 300 250 Countries 200 Certification Bodies 150 Testing Laboratories 100 50 0
IECEE Membership
400
350
300
250
Countries
200
Certification Bodies
150
Testing Laboratories
100
50
0
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IECEE CB Scheme…a success story 70'000 60'000 50'000 40'000 30'000 20'000 10'000 '0 2000 2001 2002
IECEE CB Scheme…a success story
70'000
60'000
50'000
40'000
30'000
20'000
10'000
'0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Certificates re-issued over the publication of new editions of standards
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APEC EE JRAC Workshop – May 15 - 16 2012, Singapore
 Energy Consumption  Energy Performance  Noise Level APEC EE JRAC Workshop – May 15
 Energy Consumption  Energy Performance  Noise Level APEC EE JRAC Workshop – May 15
 Energy Consumption
 Energy Performance
 Noise Level
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The use of the IECEE System…
The use of the IECEE System…
  • Ensures that the

product are safe

  • Prevents redundant

testing

  • Facilitate trade

  • Support regulatory

policies

The use of the IECEE System…  Ensures that the product are safe  Prevents redundant

…provides a competitive edge!

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Way forward in 2012

Way forward in 2012

  • More Affiliate Plus economies

 
  • Expand mentoring programme

  • Cooperation with regional bodies

  • Reach out to Pacific Islands and West

Africa

  • Training on regional basis /Virtual training

  • Adoption event with ISO

 
  • New benefits in conformity assessment

 

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History of the Affiliate Programme

History of the Affiliate Programme

  • In 2001 IEC had stable membership (since

1906!), but membership requirements were

deterring developing economies

 
  • World Trade Organization was looking for

ways “to ensure effective participation of

 

Members, and particularly of developing

economy Members in [international

standardization organizations] activities.”

  • The IEC found a unique approach to

 

ensuring that participation.

 

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IECEE AFFILIATE ECONOMIES

IECEE AFFILIATE ECONOMIES

Removing trade barriers

 

Through its global reach, the IEC Affiliate

Economy Programme results in increased

awareness, use and adoption of IEC International

Standards in developing and newly industrialized

economies. It also helps develop trade with these

new markets, as participants adopt IEC

 

International Standards and use the IEC

Conformity Assessment Systems, in particular

IECEE, the IEC System of Conformity Assessment

Schemes for Electrotechnical Equipment and

Components

 

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IECEE AFFILIATE ECONOMIES

IECEE AFFILIATE ECONOMIES

Benefits

This is of particular interest to industry, which can export to and import from these areas with the assurance that their products and services will operate safely and efficiently.

 

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IECEE AFFILIATE ECONOMIES

IECEE AFFILIATE ECONOMIES

Benefits

This is also of particular interest to Affiliate Economies, which can set the basis in their own economies to build the necessary Conformity Assessment structures to ensure that importing electrical goods are compliant with IEC International Standards in terms of safety and efficiency.

 

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The IECEE CB Scheme….m…
The IECEE CB Scheme….m…
  • Ensures that the products are safe and efficient

  • Minimizes the risk to property and persons

  • Contributes to the environmental aspects & public health

  • Supports regulatory policies

The IECEE CB Scheme….m…  Ensures that the products are safe and efficient  Minimizes the
The IECEE CB Scheme….m…  Ensures that the products are safe and efficient  Minimizes the

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THANK YOU! Any question? www.iecee.org

THANK YOU!

Any question?

www.iecee.org
www.iecee.org

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Technical Committee 61 SAFETY OF HOUSEHOLD AND SIMILAR ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

Technical Committee 61

Technical Committee 61 SAFETY OF HOUSEHOLD AND SIMILAR ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

SAFETY OF HOUSEHOLD AND SIMILAR ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

Technical Committee 61 SAFETY OF HOUSEHOLD AND SIMILAR ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES
IEC approach to Risk Assessment Standards Methodology Singapore - 2012-05-15 Derek Johns Chairman IEC/TC 61

IEC approach to Risk Assessment

Standards Methodology

Singapore - 2012-05-15

Derek Johns Chairman IEC/TC 61
Derek Johns
Chairman
IEC/TC 61

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Contents

Contents

 
  • Aim

  • Guides

 
  • Types of Standards

  • Fire Hazard Risk Reduction

  • Accessible Surface Temperature Risk

 

Reduction

  • Conclusions

 
 

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Contents

Contents

 
  • Aim

  • Guides

 
  • Types of Standards

  • Fire Hazard Risk Reduction

  • Accessible Surface Temperature Risk

 

Reduction

  • Conclusions

 
 

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Aim of Risk Assessment at the micro-

Aim of Risk Assessment at the micro-

level

  • To achieve a level of tolerable risk

 
  • Balance between absolute safety and demanded

 

performance of the appliance

  • Suitability of purpose

 
  • Benefit to the user

  • Cost effective

  • Conventions of society concerned

 

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Methodology

Methodology

  • Identify the hazard usually via risk analysis

 
  • Electric shock

 
  • Mechanical

  • Explosion

  • Ionising and Non-ionising radiation

 
  • Fire

 
  • Temperature

  • Biological and Chemical

 
  • Unattended operation

  • Electricity supply system faults

  • Other

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Risk analysis

Risk analysis

Using risk analysis – a lack of incident

history does not equate to low risk

 
 
Risk analysis Using risk analysis – a lack of incident history does not equate to low

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Solutions

Solutions

  • Assess the level of harm caused by the hazard

 
  • Slight (reversible short term)

  • High (reversible long term)

  • Serious (irreversible – possibly death)

  • Apply a risk reduction solution to the design

  • Inherently safe design measures

  • Safeguarding

  • Information for use to cover residual risk

Training

Clear instructions

Use of protective equipment

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Contents

Contents

 
  • Aim

  • Guides

 
  • Types of Standards

  • Fire Hazard Risk Reduction

  • Accessible Surface Temperature Risk

 

Reduction

  • Conclusions

 
 

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Guides

Guides

  • IEC Guide 116 - Guidelines for safety related risk assessment and risk reduction for low voltage equipment

  • ISO/IEC Guide 50 - Safety aspects — Guidelines for child safety

  • ISO/IEC Guide 51 - Safety aspects — Guidelines for their inclusion in standards

  • ISO/IEC Guide 71 - Guidelines for standards developers to address the needs of older persons and persons with disabilities

  • IEC Guide 117 - Electrotechnical equipment – Temperatures of touchable hot surfaces

 

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Contents

Contents

  • Aim

 
  • Guides

  • Types of Standards

 
  • Fire Hazard Risk Reduction

  • Accessible Surface Temperature Risk

 

Reduction

  • Conclusions

 
 

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Types of Standards

Types of Standards

Basic safety publications - publication on a specific safety-

related matter, applicable to many electrotechnical products

 
  • IEC 60695 series, IEC 60664 series, IEC 61508 series

Group safety publications - publication covering all safety

aspects of a specific group of products within the scope of two or more

product TCs

  • IEC 61010 series, IEC 60825, IEC 61558 series

 

Horizontal standards - standard on fundamental principles,

concepts, terminology or technical characteristics, relevant to a number of

technical committees and of crucial importance to ensure the coherence of

the corpus of standardization documents

 
  • IEC 60050 series (IEV), IEC 60417 database

 

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Types of standards

Types of standards

Product safety publications - publication

covering all safety aspects of one or more products within the scope of a single product TC

  • IEC 60204 series (machines)

 
  • IEC 60335 series (appliances)

  • IEC 60598 series (luminaires)

  • IEC 60601 series (medical electrical equipment)

  • IEC 60745 series (hand-held tools)

 
  • IEC 60950 series (IT equipment)

 

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Contents

Contents

  • Aim

 
  • Guides

  • Types of Standards

 
  • Fire Hazard Risk Reduction

  • Accessible Surface Temperature Risk

 

Reduction

  • Conclusions

 
 

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Fire Hazard in Appliances - Example

Fire Hazard in Appliances - Example

  • Motor start capacitor in refrigerator

 
 
Fire Hazard in Appliances - Example Motor start capacitor in refrigerator APEC EE JRAC Workshop –

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Fire Hazard in Appliances - Example

Fire Hazard in Appliances - Example

  • Fan heater

 
Fire Hazard in Appliances - Example Motor start capacitor in refrigerator APEC EE JRAC Workshop –

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Fire Hazard Risk Reduction

Fire Hazard Risk Reduction

  • Selected parts of the IEC 60695 series of

basic safety standards are used

 
  • This allows for

  • An end-product test option

  • A material pre-selection test option

  • These options are alternatives to reduce

the fire hazard risk posed by appliances

they are not equivalents

 
 

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Which end-product test option

Which end-product test option

standard is used ?

Test standard used is:

 

IEC 60695-2-11 Fire Hazard Testing – Part 2-11: Glowing/hot wire based test methods – Glow-wire flammability test method for end products

 

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Risk Assessment

Risk Assessment

For appliances, the glow-wire test severity is

selected according to the risk presented by a

given type of appliance. The fire hazard risk

is assessed based on three criteria

 

Whether the appliance is attended or unattended during normal use;

The rms value of current passing through an electrical connection during normal use;

The proximity of non-metallic material to such connections .

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Selection of Test Severity

Selection of Test Severity

  • For all appliances and regardless of current a minimum severity of 550 °C is specified as being applicable to non- metallic material.

  • For attended appliances the break point current is 0,5 A for testing non-metallic material in proximity to a connection

Severity is 750 °C if the current > 0,5 A

Severity is 650 °C if the current 0,5 A

  • For unattended appliances the break point current is 0,2 A for testing non-metallic material in proximity to a connection

Severity is 850 °C and 750 °C if the current > 0,2 A Severity is 650 °C if the current 0,2 A

 
 

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Consequential Testing

Consequential Testing

If the test specimen emits flames during the application of the glow-wire, the consequential fire hazard created may necessitate further tests using other ignition sources such as a needle-flame applied to those parts which are reached by the emitted flames.

For unattended appliances, the reported

results of the 750 °C and 650 °C glow-wire

tests related to the test specimen are used

to decide whether further fire hazard tests

are necessary

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Material Pre-selection test option

Material Pre-selection test option

standards

IEC 60695-2-12, Glow-wire flammability index (severities selected from 550 °C, 650 °C, 750 °C or 850 °C depending on the glow-wire test severity specified in IEC 60335-1)

IEC 60695-2-13, Glow-wire ignition temperature (severities selected from 675 °C or 775 °C depending on the glow-wire test severity specified in IEC 60335-1 for the consequential test decision for unattended appliances

 

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Material Pre-selection test option for

Material Pre-selection test option for

the Needle Flame Test

  • IEC 60695-11-10, 50 W Flame Tests

 
  • HB40 classification required as a pre-

 

selection option for the 550 °C glow-wire

test

  • At least V-1 classification required for the

 

pre-selection option for the needle flame

test

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Which Option to Choose

Which Option to Choose

  • The choice of option (end product test or

material pre-selection) is not specified in

IEC 60335-1

 
  • The choice is strictly a commercial decision

to be made by the appliance manufacturer

 

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Options to Avoid the Consequential Test

Options to Avoid the Consequential Test

  • Use the glow-wire ignition temperature pre- selection option;

  • Use the 50 W flame test pre-selection option;

  • Use of V-1 rated flame barriers;

 
  • Appropriate placement of parts with respect to current carrying connections.

 

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Contents

Contents

 
  • Aim

  • Guides

 
  • Types of Standards

  • Fire Hazard Risk Reduction

  • Accessible Surface Temperature Risk

 

Reduction

  • Conclusions

 
 

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Temperature Hazard in Appliances -

Temperature Hazard in Appliances -

Example

  • Under bench glass oven door

 
 
Temperature Hazard in Appliances - Example Under bench glass oven door 11 Days after oven door
  • 11 Days after oven door contact

 
 

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Temperature Hazard in appliances - Example  Hair straightener 56/69 APEC EE JRAC Workshop – May
Temperature Hazard in appliances -
Example
Hair straightener
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Accessible Surface Temperature Risk

Accessible Surface Temperature Risk

Reduction

  • Selection of surface temperature rise limits

for non-functionally heated surfaces

 
  • Non-functionally heated surfaces are:

Non-functional surfaces that can be

touched when the equipment is operated

during normal use

 

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Which Document is Used ?

Which Document is Used ?

  • The document used for guidance on surface temperature rise selection is

  • IEC Guide 117: Electrotechnical equipment – Temperatures of touchable hot surfaces

  • The data in this Guide is based on

 
  • ISO 13732-1: Ergonomics of the thermal environment — Methods for the assessment of human responses to contact with surfaces — Part 1: Hot surfaces

 

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Risk Assessment

Risk Assessment

  • The temperature rise limits are selected based on:

  • Persons expected to touch the surface

 
  • Expected Touch time

  • Texture of surface (smooth or not smooth). For rough surfaces 2 °C is added to the smooth surface threshold upper limit

  • Thermal inertia of surface material, (product of density, thermal conductivity and specific thermal capacity)

  • Acceptable burn threshold

 
 

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Selection of temperature rise limits

Selection of temperature rise limits

 
  • Persons expected to touch the surface are selected from healthy adults, people with physical disabilities and children

 
  • Expected Touch times are generally selected from 0,5 s to 15 s depending on the persons expected to touch the surface

  • Burn thresholds for short contact periods (up to 10 s) are given as spreads because knowledge of the boundary between a non-burn and onset of a burn is incomplete

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Relationship between burn threshold and contact period Surface temperature spreads ‐ touch times for different materials
Relationship between burn threshold
and contact period
Surface temperature spreads ‐ touch times for
different materials
100
90
1
80
2
70
3
60
50
40
0.1
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
0.5
15
60
600
28800
Contact period (s)
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Surface temperature °C
Burn Threshold Spreads

Burn Threshold Spreads

  • The key to the data shown in the previous

 

slide is

  • 1 Plastics and wood

 
  • 2 Ceramics, glass and stone material

 
  • 3 Uncoated metal

 
  • The burn threshold for water is derived

 

from the lower limit of the burn threshold

spread established for uncoated

metal

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Selection of Limits Within a Spread

Selection of Limits Within a Spread

  • For healthy adults, elderly people and

 

people with physical disabilities, a figure in

the middle of the spread can be chosen

 
  • For children, a figure more towards the

lower end of the spread should be chosen.

For products specifically made for

 

children, the value on the lower end of the

spread is used.

 
 

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Probability and Consequences of

Probability and Consequences of

Touching

  • The higher the probability of touching a hot surface, the more should a figure towards the lower end of the spread be chosen

  • The lower the probability of touching a hot surface, the more can a figure towards the upper end of the spread be chosen

  • The more severe the consequences of touching a hot surface, the more essential that a figure towards the lower end of the spread shall be chosen

  • The less severe the consequences of touching a hot surface, the more a figure towards the upper end of the spread can be chosen

 

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Contents

Contents

 
  • Aim

  • Guides

 
  • Types of Standards

  • Fire Hazard Risk Reduction

  • Accessible Surface Temperature Risk

 

Reduction

  • Conclusions

 
 

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Conclusions

Conclusions

The micro-risk assessment applied to

specify safety requirements in

 

international standards

  • is robust

  • leads to prudent solutions to address

 

identified hazards

  • compliments the macro-risk assessment

 

for product selection requiring enhanced

regulatory intervention

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T-Factor Conclusions

T-Factor Conclusions

The two examples given show how some of the macro-risk assessment T factors are addressed

  • T-Factor: Product is likely to be used by unsupervised children

  • T-Factor: Product that has hot accessible non- working surfaces

  • T-Factor: Product is commonly used locally in an unattended mode but classified internationally as used attended

 

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P-Factor Conclusion

P-Factor Conclusion

  • P-Factor :The applicable international

standard is considered to be inadequate

  • Solution: Become involved with the

International standards process and

make the standards adequate

 
 

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Thank you for your attention.

Thank you for your attention.

Thank you for your attention.

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